1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:
The MBA plan is designed to concentrate on theoretical and professional development of people unfastened to take up concern as a profession every bit good every bit service as a calling. The class is designed with an first-class combination of theoretical and practical facets. This assignment provides us to associate up their theoretical cognition into practical Fieldss. In this connexion, I was assigned to AGORA Super shop Ltd. , section for my practical orientation.
Students are required to fix an assignment under the counsel of oversing instructors on a selected capable affair to foregrounding his experience and to carry on an in deepness analysis on the capable affair. I have tried my degree best to show my experience of the practical orientation in this assignment.
1.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE ASSIGNMENT
To show an overview of Agora Super shop.
To measure the Agora Super shop Inventions and how store attempt to set with the Inventions.
To place jobs store faces before the invention.
To propose suggestions for the development of Shop after the invention.
1.2 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
The range of this assignment is limited to the overall description of the company, its services, and its place in the industry and its selling schemes. The range of the survey is limited to organisational apparatus, maps, and public presentations.
( II ) PRIMARY DATA WERE COLLECTED
The primary informations had been collected in assorted ways. The different beginnings were:
Company ‘s Website.
By the company ‘s HR division.
Detecting assorted organisational processs.
( III ) SECONDARY DATA WERE COLLECTED
From anterior research study from the organisation
From different books and periodicals related to the shop.
From Newspapers and Internet.
Large-scale research was non possible due to clip restraints.
Relevant informations and papers aggregation were hard due to the organisation confidentiality.
Non-availability of informations in a systematic manner.
This whole study is a elaborate survey on a Super Store and how this shop adopt with the engineering, where Bangladeshi Super shop called Agora has been chosen as a capable affair. However, this study merely concentrates on the Bangladeshi subdivisions. This study will be divided into a few parts and commences with an debut. An debut of the Store and the organisation will give a brief image of the analysis. The following portion will be of import work on academic literature which will assist in better apprehension of the whole rhythm which includes triggers of Innovation, pull offing alteration, impact on organisation, opposition of Innovations, how to get the better of to resistance Innovation and direction procedure.
The following chapter will be on organisational analysis where all the information in academic literature will be related to the organisation. There will be a thorough treatment on Technology introduced, stairss taken by the direction to cover with the opposition to Technology, rating of the Technology implemented every bit good as benefits and losingss of the Technology.
Further surveies show the methods used ( such as feedback signifiers for clients ) to garner information to back up the analysis in different ways. At the terminal of this assignment, there will be decisions and recommendations for Agora superstore which can be done to better the organisation in regard to the current Innovation procedure.
The engineering that was selected by the concerned organisation has led to invention. Technology is the application of cognition to the practical purposes of human life or to the changing and pull stringsing the human environment. On the other manus, “ Invention is a breakthrough attack or thought that can be wholly new or thought that can be wholly new or an sweetening to something that already exists, it is a reviewing position that will dispute many who merely can non see beyond what their ain experience is stating them to believe or do. ‘ ( Stephen w. brian, GPE, IBM, Asia Pacific, Elearn ( 2005, pp.2-3 ) refers to Innovation Management as periods of turbulence when extremist action is required if the organisation is to last and thrive. As with any signifiers of Innovations, it is about traveling from the current province to some desired future province.
One of the premier alteration in our life-time is the consistent and progressively application of information & A ; pull offing engineering. Managing engineering is the uninterrupted procedure which deals with engineering & A ; replacing traditional private offices with the assistance of engineering. ( Henry, J. , Matle, D, 2003, p-266 )
Pull offing invention is a measure by measure attack which deals with Innovation both from organisation point of position and the persons who are traveling to be affected by Innovation. Innovation is an of import procedure for endurance in this universe. Before conveying any Innovations, it is of import to cognize the causes of Innovations, reactions to Inventions and hazards due to Innovations. “ The formal quantitative research procedure should non get down until the job has been clearly defined. ” ( Zikmund, 2000, p.115 ) .
The Super Store in the Bangladesh has been turning vastly twelvemonth by twelvemonth. Goods in Product vary from Store and country wise. However, many Shops had to be closed down due to the economic downswing that hit the universe late. There are many regulations and ordinance presents set by the authorities in Bangladesh to go the Superstore proprietor more responsible.
The Largest Bangladeshi Superstore was founded by Mr. M. Hasan Ali. Agora is a Multi Super shop that serves every necessary merchandise for the people in Central metropolis in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The first subdivision was opened a twosome of old ages ago in cardinal City Of Dhaka but now their subdivision is expanded the other full tube metropolis in Bangladesh. The chief aim of the Super shop is to supply high quality of merchandises at a comparative monetary value to the client.
The cardinal success of the organisation is that the direction proctors the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours operation which helps Agora to make up one’s mind what, when and how Inventions can be introduced in order to supply better quality in all countries from clip to clip. Agora has crossed mileposts, set records and redefined the dine-in experience of all time since it started.
Types of Invention:
Merchandises and services – invention applied to merchandises or services or market related activities. Operational- Invention that improves the effectivity and efficiency of nucleus procedures and maps.
Business model- invention that basically.
Business model- Innovation that basically transforms the manner a concern works or drives gross.
How to be an Advanced Organization:
Make a Strategic Vision.
Establish invention as a precedence.
Create organisational constructions that promote coaction
Establish procedures to change over thoughts to Inventions
Allocate the resources
Train work force on Creativity Tools
Measure and Communicate consequences
Recognize Creative behaviour
Reward Innovative consequences.
“ In Today ‘s universe to be a leader in industry you have to be advanced. Companies must be able to look frontward at the scheme and cognize how to convey merchandises to market faster than their rivals. Invention is the key. It ‘s non merely for the engineering, it ‘s for the concern schemes as good ” ( Handy, 1999, p.181 ) so, the manner things are carried out and coordinated is indispensable to find the success and failure of an organisation. When organisations do non look to be profitable, Inventions are introduced in order to hold better results. These Inventions might hold been triggered from the exterior or within the organisation.
Tidd et. Al ( 2005, p.205 ) mentioned that external factors whether menaces or chances have to be communicated to organisations in order to be advanced and have length of service. Customers seem to hold greater consequence on concerns as they are the 1s who have the buying power. Requirements and gustatory sensations in clients ‘ choices Innovation from clip to clip in which organisations have to accommodate to maintain bing in the market.
Rivals could be another factor which triggers Innovations. In Retail industry particularly, clients have assorted choices of merchandise and failure to follow their outlooks will do the organisations lose out to other rivals. Puting up a concern means it has to vie with bing rivals every bit good as possible rivals. Rivals are normally hungry for invention and different schemes are used in order to be the market leader.
Meanwhile, engineering is another thrust for Innovation that most organisations are now seeking to accommodate since it is the key to the new concern epoch. Though engineering tends to be disused really rapidly, it is the cardinal factor of every concern today. Technology could rush up procedures and work can be done more expeditiously.
However there are some factors to see which makes a organisation to engineering oriented. The factor are given discussed holla.
Determined to new ways of operation: It ‘s a hard passage for the organisation to replace the traditional working activities to engineering concerned. So at that place should hold some accommodations in footings of organisational civilizations, the ways in which employees are working, public presentation measuring and wagess.
Is the organisation informational instead than industrial: This differentiation refers to a direction doctrine and manner instead than to an economic sector or client base. Here industrial context means the organisational construction and direction procedures are done through face-to-face inducements and employees remain specific workplaces. On the other manus informational means the activities are done through voice and communications.
Open Culture and Proactive Directors: In this instance the organisations have to be dynamic hierarchal, technologically advanced instead than a extremely structured, bid driven.. Besides the directors have to be multifunctional, advancing and back uping a virtual-office enterprise right from the start.
Clear links between staffs, maps and clip: Technology related organisations besides do non depend on the specific locations or types of installations. Here the construct of the parametric quantities of the are of import, such as whether the work executed over the phone, in individual, via computing machine, or all of the above. How much clip does the employee demand to pass in direct contact with other employees, clients and concern contacts? If a critical mass of corporate maps can non work in an alternate work environment, the possible benefits may be excessively fringy relation to the needed investing and attempt.
Proper tools, preparation, and techniques: To better the technological orientated organisation, all who are involved must be armed with a full set of tools, relevant preparation and appropriate, flexible administrative support. ( Henry, J. , Matle, D, 2003, p-268-270 )
Government plays an of import function in conveying approximately Innovations every bit good. Different states have different regulations and ordinances that companies need to stay to. Business policies are introduced by the authorities as to protect consumers and the state excessively.
However, these triggers are besides accompanied by internal factors which have made organisations Innovation their ways in carry oning concern. Employees are the drivers of houses who will run the concern. Employers have to do certain they are motivated and maintain bettering themselves for better productiveness. When quality and criterion of public presentation are degrading, direction demands to happen out the cause of it.
Pull offing Change: Managing alteration refers to uninterrupted betterments ( CIPs ) and creativeness to better both merchandises and procedures. The purpose is exactly to plan and implement a system whose natural equilibrium is changeless and alteration. ( Henry, J. , Matle, D, 2003, p-230 )
Competitiveness and pull offing alteration: A clear presentation pf how one understands the relationship between competition and strategic alteration, becomes imperative when the literature on direction is considered. Any survey of the nature of the nature of competition and pull offing strategic alteration is obliged hence to make two things at the beginning: first lay out the major attacks to these issues, and 2nd brand clear understanding competition and alteration. ( Pettigrew, A. , Whipp, R. , 1993 )
Administrations need to look into from clip to clip if they are in line with their aims. Once visions and aims have been developed, direction squad will be able to take actions to travel towards them.
These can be answered by traveling through Innovation direction. Ettlie ( 2006, p.97 ) refers to scheme devising as the procedure of fiting an administration ‘s internal resources with environmental chances and hazards to carry through ends.
Strategic direction has three chief phases ; strategic analysis, strategic pick and strategic execution ( Johnson et al. , 2008, p.12 ) . Directors have to manage schemes in assorted state of affairss as to run into corporate aims. Strategic analysis could affect SWOT analysis and PEST analysis to measure the options for Innovation.
( Beginning: Johnson el.al. )
Figure 1: Strategic value
Lynch ( 2006, p.450 ) describes SWOT Analysis as the analysis of the strengths and failings present internally in an administration coupled with the chances and menaces faced by the administration externally.
Once the internal and external audits have been analysed, the following measure will be strategic pick to place the assorted options, measure them and choosing the best that fits with their coveted end.
The best option will be implemented and a proper Innovation execution needs to be planned for. Harmonizing to Cook et Al. ( 2004, p.58 ) , pull offing Invention can be described as dwelling of four phases ; set up, kick off, bringing and reappraisal.
The phases come consecutive. First, it is the set up, which entails allowing people know about the Inventions that will be made and actuate them, looking out for the unexpected and measuring the province of the administration in regard to their preparedness to Innovation. Then, the boot off is the concluding readying by seting everything in topographic point which might necessitate a undertaking director and good channels of communicating. The bringing involves guaranting people responsible to transport out undertakings. The concluding phase is the reappraisal by look intoing the feedback on how Innovation is impacting all parties involved and if it is giving the coveted consequences.
Harmonizing to Elearn ( p.95 ) , for Innovation direction to be successful, direction can carry on assorted schemes such as democratic, coaction, engagement, way and coercion.
Focus On Peoples: Traits of an advanced Leader:
Create an external focal point: -define success in market points
Be a clear mind: simplify the scheme into specific actions, make determinations and communicate precedences.
Have imaginativeness and bravery: takes hazard on people and thoughts
Energize squads through inclusiveness: Connect with people, construct both trueness and committedness.
Develop expertness in a map or sphere: usage deepness as a beginning of confident to drive alteration.
3.2 Impacts of Inventions
“ It is important to cognize how they handle failure ” ( Coburn, 2006, p.179 )
Organizational Inventions are non easy to implement. Management needs to anticipate results of Innovations. Assessment needs to be done in order to happen out whether the whole aim has been achieved and how Inventions affect the value concatenation of an organisation. The activities within and around the organisation are known as the value concatenation procedure. ( Porter, 1995 )
( Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.learnmarketing.net/valuechain.htm )
Figure 2: Value Chain of an Organization
Hayes ( 2002, p.148 ) mentioned that people go through personal passage when Inventions are brought into organisations as Inventions are the beginning of something else. Chemical reactions received from employees and clients might change greatly. In short, everyone involved in the Innovation procedure is affected by the Inventions made by organisations.
When one option is given up for another valuable option, it is called chance cost ( Dibb et.al, 2006, p.395 ) . The value of benefits offered is measured in pecuniary and non pecuniary signifier. Early judgement is made by direction to take the best option.
However, Inventions were ne’er made if they were non for organisations ‘ better hereafter. When a merchandise or service meets clients ‘ demands, it happens to be a quality one. A quality merchandise relates with employees good public presentation and betterment in repute which will ensue in increased net incomes ( Heizer and Render, 2004, p.190 ) . These could merely be achieved if direction has a scheme in pull offing Innovations. Customers ‘ and employees feedbacks can be taken as a portion of rating procedure.
Whether it is good or otherwise, direction has to look at the bigger image to find the success or failure of Inventions imposed. Tidd et.al ( 2005, p.96 ) stated that a failed Innovation procedure could be a utile information for the following Innovation being enforced.
Resistance to Inventions
Human usually resist Inventions merely because they see it as a menace to their normal or familiar system of work, fiscal place, forms of position and equity of their security. Generally, the chief grounds for opposition are as follows: –
Peoples are ever concerned with any Inventions made by direction because it could impact their income and their occupation security. But most significantly, they fear that either straight or indirectly, Innovation may impact their wage or wagess or they may set about more duty for the same wage. For illustration, new displacement system introduced by direction may necessitate employees to work excess hours without any payment accommodation.
Inconvenience or Loss of Freedom
Harmonizing to Mullins ( 2002, p.823 ) , “ if the Innovation is seen as a likely to turn out inconvenient, make life more hard, cut down freedom of action or consequence in increased control, these will be resistance people normally see Innovation, that it, would do life really hard ” .
Peoples are non certain as to whether Innovation will be in their favour and most likely see it as holding a negative impact. On publicity for case, people may defy the uncertainness that whether such Innovation or publicity may demand more duty, which may impact their societal life.
If an organisation has been adapted to their environment in which they operate, the whole value concatenation is already familiar to the organisation ‘s construction and policies. The organisation as a whole can defy any Innovation which might impact the organisation civilization which the company has developed.
Get the better ofing Resistance to Inventions
Though, it is hard to get the better of opposition to Innovations, it is important to analyse the possible impacts on those whose occupations are affected. It is besides of import to affect those concerned in the Innovation procedure, so that they can lend and do suggestions. This will ensue in cut downing employees ‘ current fright. There must be a clear communicating between employers and employees about Innovations implemented, either through written paperss or a face-to-face communicating with the workers.
Harmonizing to Pettinger ( 1996, p.502 ) , opposition to Innovation can be lessened if:
one participants see Inventions as cut downing instead than increasing their work load.
two new rewards of working accrued with predominating attitudes values and beliefs.
three new ways of working are seen as benefits and non menaces.
AGORA nevertheless has been sing a few Inventions throughout their concern old ages which are caused by several different factors, internally and externally. Their major trigger of Innovations introduced was because of the hapless public presentation of gross revenues made by AGORA late. This has lead to bad repute and image of the Store amongst its clients every bit good as possible clients. AGORA besides wants to keep the quality of Fresh Department that they provide so that they meet clients ‘ outlooks. However, care costs are rather high as all ingredients and sauces are brought all the manner from different country in Bangladesh to keep its quality.
Workers in AGORA seemed to be de-motivated and disinterested in making their occupations. Ailments had been received from clients for these workers were really slow in taking orders and even to function Customer. As most of the employee are part- clip, they lack of culinary accomplishments and experience in functioning clients. There was a hapless coordination between communicating Skills and Customer service experience.
However, the major external trigger of Innovations was the clients of AGORA. The figure of international clients was turning significantly. Numerous feedbacks have been received from clients who chiefly complained about the service provided by AGORA ‘s workers. They took ages to function the clients. The hapless public presentation of employees has irritated many clients who so preferred to travel to AGORA ‘s rivals. The bing competition has made AGORA to present Inventions to get by with the market.
There was a room for technological promotion as AGORA faced a job with clip. Introducing new engineering could increase the Customer orders truth and cut down client ailments. AGORA had wanted to make a competitory advantage from the technological facet.
There was besides a force per unit area from authorities in footings of regulations and ordinances of holding parttime workers. Since workers of AGORA are all place and largely pupil, they need to stay by jurisprudence enforced. School go forthing have been a existent concern of the concern because of the tougher ordinances in topographic point.
AGORA has developed aims, which is an indispensable measure for the organisation about where the direction squad wants to be in the hereafter. AGORA wants to increase clients and employees satisfaction, have a quality and productive work force, better operational efficiency, maximise the usage of engineering every bit good as have a fiscal success.
AGORA had to analyse its internal and external environment, by utilizing PEST and SWOT analysis. They had to get down their analysis from within which began with their staff. Problems were identified after an analysis has been which were mentioned earlier in the ‘Triggers of Innovations ‘ chapter.
AGORA is non the lone Central City in Bangladesh its expand their concern all over the Bangladesh that ‘s why many rivals are in the market. Competitors grow like Family demands and on top of all that ; AGORA has to vie with other types of superstore. Therefore, AGORA had to supply clients with merchandises or services that are perceived higher value or quality than those offered by challengers.
In order to increase clients ‘ satisfaction, AGORA had asked for clients ‘ feedback as to better their public presentation. Since most of them were non satisfied with the service offered and the diminishing quality of the merchandise offered, AGORA found a few options to better their public presentation. They could develop their staff to execute better, conveying more professional Staff from other departmental Shop.
Technology was an thought, introduced to the organisation as a portion of bettering public presentation. Since there were ever miscommunications between clients and employees every bit good as amongst employees themselves, a new engineering called Palmtop seemed to be a good investing. It is a little machine which will go through orders keyed in by client on online and direct it to the client service section every bit shortly as possible. This nevertheless, requires knowledge in managing this Technology.
When it came to managing employees, directors of AGORA had to brainstorm on effectual agencies of bettering workers ‘ public presentation. Some directors from different states were brought to the Bangladesh as to assist out the direction. Options such as preparation and development, cognition direction and wage increased were considered. AGORA wanted to enroll an IT expert who can manage all sort of IT issues and gives developing sing technology..
Since the Bangladesh authorities has tightened its regulations in using Student workers, AGORA had to cover with this professionally. AGORA could either develop Full clip employees to function the client and managing the other related service. The procedure of geting foreign director seemed easy but care cost would be high. The latter would be clip devouring, but provide better quality.
Strategic Implementation and Innovations Adopted
After measuring strategic options, the direction of AGORA had decided to do Inventions in their bing operational system. Management had a meeting with employees and informed them the Inventions that were traveling to be adopted. Though the company is acute in cost film editing, it does non desire to compromise in footings of quality.
Operating costs were besides cut by cut downing the break clip of workers which would take to cut downing of rewards. Meanwhile, the Innovation leading squad had made a study with IT houses. After carry oning a cost benefit analysis, AGORA had agreed with an IT house to get the new engineering by purchasing Palmtops and pressmans.
Staff had been trained to better client service and criterion. A preparation manual has been given to each employee. Employees were besides trained on how to utilize those Palmtops confidently. The Innovation squad had decided to internally actuate the staff alternatively of enrolling new staff.
AGORA besides started to cover with the authorities decently by traveling through a complete procedure of geting full clip workers for the different places.
Once AGORA had adopted the Innovations, inquiries of uninterrupted patterned advance were raised by direction. Management wanted to keep the benefit of Innovations in an equilibrium place. Monthly meetings with employees were arranged and twice a twelvemonth, AGORA would carry on a large meeting with directors.
Resistance to Innovations and Overcoming Them
Through a thorough probe the direction found a few drawbacks faced by AGORA. Merchandise of AGORA opposed the thought of other shop because now AGORA is seeking to bring forth their ain merchandise as of their ain trade name name which will be the different than the other rivals in the market. Existing employee felt unbarred about their occupation since the debut of new engineering. They thought direction would cut down the figure of workers because of the Palmtop skill. Meanwhile, some others were afraid of being replaced for non cognizing how to manage the machine. Management made a important move by giving equal preparation in engineering to all staff and bringing was monitored for every client.
The ambitious portion of the Innovation was to develop the part-timers. They did non believe it as good to them since the preparation did non guarantee an addition in salary and they did non program to remain longer in the field. AGORA directors so decided to give certifications for the preparation plan and it really attracted more pupils to fall in the organisation.
BENEFITS TO THE ORGANIZATIONS
There were a few chance costs involved as AGORA was seeking to cut down the care and operating costs. However, this is to supply higher net incomes for AGORA in the hereafter. It is apparent that gross revenues curve has been traveling upwards since these Inventions were adopted. Fiscal public presentation has shown an addition for both subdivisions of AGORA.
Although there were negative feedbacks from employees, their criterion in functioning clients were besides bettering by stat mis. The length of clip from telling to functioning nutrients was cut by half of clip because of the new engineering employed. Employees were seen more serious and motivated in making their work excessively.
Since clients are the greatest assets of AGORA, they are the 1s who get the most benefits. They receive better service, higher quality of nutrient, and unforgettable experience from AGORA. Despite the lower operating costs, quality of nutrient seems to be bettering. Customers believe that AGORA has truly improved its operation. AGORA now has more clients than it did months ago. Financially, AGORA has going more profitable and an gratifying topographic point to eat at.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
It is no secret that AGORA has seen great betterment after Inventions have been introduced. It has been a long procedure since the realisation for Innovation occurred until now, when some of the Inventions have been implemented. Today some of the Inventions have been adopted, and the jobs and battles seen when Technology was brought approximately have been perceived.
Obviously, AGORA has experienced major benefits from Technology that was implemented. It has been noticed by direction and staff at AGORA that Technology is necessary, and even though it presents troubles, and involves people to acquire out of the comfort zone, in the terminal if managed suitably, Innovation brings positive results.
However, Innovation should be an on-going procedure in any organisation, and it should be like that for AGORA every bit good. Even when some of the Inventions are to the full implemented and adopted, direction of the organisation needs to stay focussed on invariably happening new triggers for Innovation so that the organisation remains in changeless development. Therefore, below are recommendations made for AGORA:
A timeline should be set until all identified Inventions are adopted. It is of import to recognize that non all the Inventions have the same precedence, and non all of the Innovations demand to be implemented at the same clip. The timeline should be wide and good planned and Inventions are prioritized.
A really thorough cost analysis should be done on new Inventions that are to be implemented. AGORA should be really careful non to hold higher chance costs than the benefits that any Innovation may convey. Whenever there are options, the possible benefits of an option should be quantified, and so compared against the execution costs. If the execution costs are higher than the benefits, such option should non be considered.
AGORA should take advantage of the Bangladeshi just trade as for the ingredients needed. This would stem the tide of AGORA ‘s disbursement and cut down operational costs.
AGORA should besides get down a deliberate policy of preparation and re-training their human resource forces.
AGORA should actuate their staff through better wage and emoluments ; this is to do them give their best to AGORA.
The usage of engineering should be perfected to assist the operation of AGORA from the servers to the chefs in the kitchen. There should be a synergism between them.
Finally, communicating demands to stay an of import trigger for Innovation. It is at the centre of development in any organisation, as this is what helps place countries of failing or countries where Inventions may be implemented. In add-on, Inventions can be adopted in a smoother manner when communicating is thorough and effectual.