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An Extended And Customised Technology Acceptance Model Business Essay

Mobile payment system is a system utilizing nomadic devices in doing minutess like paying measures and transporting out banking minutess Gerpott Kornmeier, 2009. The interesting facet of nomadic payment is that payment for services may good be provided by nomadic operators and non by Bankss. This implies that nomadic payment system provides the Mobile operators an chance to widen their concern operation to the fiscal service country ( Viehland & A ; Leong, 2007 ) . The nomadic operators are now come ining the retail payment service market hold oning some portions of the market which could otherwise stay with the banking establishments. A important market portion can be acquired by Mobile operators in the retail payment market through a significant figure of nomadic endorsers that use nomadic payment service ( Ho, Fong, & A ; Yan, 2008 ) . A big client base, first-class charge system and experient proficient staff is being controlled by the nomadic operators and this can be utilized to do the retail payment concern operation a success.

Consumer apathy is the greatest barrier, and consumer credence happened to be a decisive factor ( Dahlberg, Mallet, Ondrus, & A ; Zmijewska, 2008 ) . Consumers are non comfy with the thought of nomadic payment, that is, “ the fright of an unknown medium ” , and they are non even willing to seek paying with their nomadic device. There are besides frights of security breaches and individuality larceny even though there is a widespread of hope and avidity about nomadic payment service.

As an alternate to hard currency, cheque, or recognition card payment, consumers can pay for a broad scope of services utilizing their nomadic phones. Gartner Research Firm ( 2009 ) forecasted that the nomadic payment service market will turn significantly over 2010 – 2012, and more than 3 % predicted figure of all nomadic device users will be doing nomadic payments such that the tendency will hold reached mainstream in 2013.

Mobile Payment Service from origin has experienced concern growing exponentially with the debut of nomadic commercialism engineering and its alone selling concern program, coupled with the successful enlisting of a group of an enterprising and strong selling force ( Chen, 2008 ) . With the rapid development of nomadic engineering, and an increasing figure of nomadic phone users, nomadic payment service has been recognised as holding growing potency in the nomadic commercialism industry ( Au & A ; Kauffman, 2007 ) .

Surveies in the yesteryear in the field of nomadic payment shows that, consumer credence have focused on security ( Dewan & A ; Chen, 2005 ; Viehland & A ; Leong, 2007 ) , convenience ( Dewan & A ; Chen, 2005 ; Teo, Fraunholz & A ; Unnithan, 2005 ) , cost ( van der Kar & A ; van der Duin, 2004 ; Zmijewska, 2005 ) , and perceived easiness of usage and utility ( Dewan & A ; Chen, 2005 ; Teo et al. , 2005 ; Zmijewska, 2005 )

Sum uping the findings of nomadic payment surveies, they must be secure, convenient, easy to utilize, and offered a small or no extra cost to the consumer, for success to be achieved.

Scope of Survey:

Geographical Scope – The survey will be limited to Lagos Nigeria as a representative of a underdeveloped state context

Intellectual Scope – The survey will be limited to placing factors which affect the usage of nomadic payment. Identifying new factors/constructs and besides modifying some concepts of the original UTAUT theoretical account

Significance of the Study and Contribution:

The significance of the proposed survey is in mensurating behavioral purpose and use of nomadic payment services utilizing UTAUT theoretical account as its conceptual foundation, and the survey aims to lend to the design of a movable theoretical account of consumer credence and usage of nomadic payment service

Definition of Mobile Payment:

Mobile payment ( besides known as nomadic money, nomadic money transportation, and nomadic billfold by and large ) is a payment service carried out under fiscal ordinances, and done from or via a nomadic device ( e.g. nomadic phones, PDA, Tablet PC ) . Consumers can utilize nomadic devices to do payment for a broad scope of goods and services as against utilizing hard currency, cheque, or recognition cards.

Research Questions:

In what manner Technology Acceptance Theories can be modified in order to turn to the alterations that mobile payment systems convey?

What are the chief concepts that affect the consumer credence of nomadic payment?

How can mobile payment acceptableness rates be predicted?

What are the recommendations to better and heighten consumers ‘ credence of nomadic payment in order to switch them from traditional payment to electronic payment?

Research Aim and Aims:

The chief purpose of this research survey is to look into the acceptance and credence of nomadic payment and develop a theoretical account of the most indispensable factors that affect consumers ‘ credence. In carry throughing this purpose, four aims were formulated by the research worker, which includes:

To carry on a critical reappraisal of relevant literature related to nomadic payment and its credence.

The research worker will critically reexamine literature on the acceptance and credence of nomadic payment in Nigeria.

To place the chief concepts that influence consumers ‘ credence and use of nomadic payment.

This aim will place the most indispensable factors that affect ( positively or negatively ) consumers ‘ behavioral purposes towards credence and usage of nomadic payment in Nigeria. This will be achieved by carry oning in-depth structured interviews with possible nomadic payment consumers.

To through empirical observation formalize the research theoretical account against the credence and usage of nomadic payment services in Nigeria.

This aim will be aided by the theoretical account developed from the literature reappraisal and by the fieldwork used on the credence of nomadic payment in Nigeria.

To develop a set of recommendations on how best to promote the acceptance and credence of nomadic payment services.

This aim will be achieved by supplying recommendations for all stakeholders involved in nomadic payment. These recommendations will be gathered from the positions and sentiments of the stakeholders ( Bankss, nomadic operators ) and consumers.

Research Hypotheses:

The Research Model to be through empirical observation tested in this survey will be constructed to reply the research inquiries raised earlier which was derived from the theories of engineering credence.

In this survey, the research worker purpose to mensurate behavioral purpose to utilize nomadic payment alternatively of existent usage of nomadic payment. Actual behavior and purpose have been found to be extremely correlated ( Davis, 1985 ; Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980 ) .

Harmonizing to the UTAUT, four factors influence usage of nomadic payment: public presentation expectance ( PE ) , attempt expectance ( EE ) , societal influence ( SI ) and facilitating conditions ( FC ) . Therefore, harmonizing to Venkatesh et. al. , ( 2003 ) , the undermentioned hypotheses were postulated:

H1: Performance anticipation ( PE ) has a important influence on behavioral purpose ( BI )

H2: Attempt anticipation ( EE ) has a important influence on behavioral purpose ( BI )

H3: Social influence ( SI ) has a important influence on behavioral purpose ( BI )

H4, H5, and H6: Attitude towards utilizing engineering ( ATUT ) , Self-efficacy, and Anxiety will non hold an influence on behavioral purpose ( BI )

H7: Facilitating conditions ( FC ) have a important influence on usage behavior

H8: Behavioral purpose ( BI ) will hold a important positive influence on system usage.

Conceptual foundations:

Mobile payments services are a alone signifier of electronic payment. Several conceptualisations lay accent on the nomadic device as the characteristic distinguishing nomadic payment from other signifiers of payment. Some writers focus on cell phones ( e.g. , Henkel 2002 ) , while others include all nomadic communicating devices ( e.g. , Zmijewska and Lawrence 2006 ) . Taking a expression at the map of nomadic payments, all definitions refer to the transportation of pecuniary value. Differences can be found when it comes to the phases of the payment procedure that are considered to be portion of the nomadic payment. In the current survey, the research worker propose to follow a broad position of nomadic payment services and analyze all payment for goods, services, and measures authorized, initiated, or realized with a nomadic device. However, since credence drivers in a B2B context may differ from consumer credence, focal point is based on consumers as the users of nomadic payment services.

The 2nd of import term to be used in this research is consumer credence, which is defined as the comparatively abiding cognitive and affectional perceptual orientation of an person.



In this chapter, the research worker critically reviews and evaluates literatures related to the credence of new engineering, concentrating specifically on the of import factors that affect consumers ‘ behavioral purposes for the credence and usage of nomadic payment. The chapter begins with an overview of the different engineering credence theoretical accounts to place the assorted factors that affect the credence of new engineering.

An overview of Technology Acceptance Models:

Information systems provide engineering to heighten organisational and single public presentation ( Cameron and Webster, 2005 ) . However, new engineerings can non be effectual unless they are accepted and used. To foretell and explicate the credence and usage of a engineering, it is necessary to understand why people use or do non utilize it. Acceptance and usage of new engineerings has attracted important sum of research ( Hu et. Al. 1999 ) , chiefly in the developed universe, and has provided research workers with assorted engineering credence theories and theoretical accounts that predict and explicate the power of single behavioral purposes to the credence and usage of new engineering ( Taylor and Todd, 1995a ; Venkatesh and Davis, 2000 ; Chau and Hu, 2001 ; Venkatesh et al. , 2003 ; Tetard and Collan, 2009 ; Lin and Chang, 2011 ) .

This research will take into consideration more widely-used engineering credence theoretical accounts which have been improved later and developed on each other. The theoretical accounts and theories are: theory of reasoned action ( TRA ) by Fishbein & A ; Ajzen, ( 1975 ) , engineering credence theoretical account ( TAM ) by Davis, Bagozzi & A ; Warshaw, ( 1989 ) , motivational theoretical account ( MM ) by Davis et Al. ( 1992 ) , theory of planned behavior ( TPB ) by Ajzen, ( 1991 ) , combined engineering credence theoretical account and theory of planned behavior ( C-TAM-TPB ) , theoretical account of Personal computer use ( MPCU ) by Triandis ‘ ( 1977 ) , innovation diffusion theory ( IDT ) by Rogers ( 1995 ) , societal cognitive theory ( SCT ) by Bandura ( 1986 ) , incorporate theory of credence and usage of engineering ( UTAUT ) by Venkatesh et al. , ( 2003 ) , engineering undertaking tantrum ( TTF ) by Goodhue & A ; Thompson, ( 1995 ) , and lazy user theory ( LUT ) by Collan & A ; Tetard, ( 2007 ) .

Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology ( UTAUT ) Model: Venkatesh et al. , ( 2003 ) developed the engineering credence theoretical account by uniting eight different theories into one incorporate theoretical account of credence theory concentrating on purposes and users ‘ behaviors. The theoretical account contained four constructs/variables ( public presentation anticipation ( PE ) , attempt anticipation ( EE ) , societal influence ( SI ) and facilitating conditions ( FC ) ) that influence persons ‘ behavioral purposes towards credence and usage of new engineering, and four moderators ( gender, age, experience and voluntariness of usage ) .

It may be argued that the given theoretical accounts are widely used in engineering credence. However, it is evident that about all of the theoretical accounts are based on the TRA theoretical account developed by Ajzen and Fishbein in 1980. For illustration, the TAM was based on TRA, in add-on to TPB and C-TAM-TPB, plus IDT. However, Venkatesh et al. , ( 2003 ) incorporated the assorted engineering credence theoretical accounts and their extensions in a comprehensive theoretical account called the UTAUT, which depends chiefly on eight different theories that have been developed based on the TRA.

Justification of the ( UTAUT ) Model:

This theoretical account has demonstrated up to 70 % truth in foretelling user credence of the new information engineering ( Venkatesh et al. , 2003 ) . By bring forthing a significantly high per centum of engineering invention credence success, the theoretical account is seen as one of the best so far developed in the field ( Anderson & A ; Schwager, 2004 ; Moran, 2006 ; Marchewka & A ; Kostiwa 2007 )

As suggested by Venkatesh et al. , ( 2003 ) , there was demand to heighten our apprehension of credence and usage of new applications ‘ service ( the nomadic payment services ) , which could account for extra discrepancy in behavioral purposes.

The UTAUT theoretical account is proposed for this survey because of its advantages. TAM ‘s capableness is 30 % engineering acceptance success anticipation, and TAM2 ( TAM extension ) can foretell 40 % . UTAUT has condensed the 32 variables found in the bing eight theoretical accounts ( TRA, TPB, TAM, MM, C-TPB-TAM, MPCU, IDT, and SCT ) into four chief consequence and four moderating factors. The combinations of the independent variables and moderators have raised the prognostic efficiency to 70 % , a great betterment over old TAM theoretical account rates.

Having reviewed several engineering credence theories, the UTAUT theoretical account seems to be the most appropriate conceptual model for this research. It is defined from eight credence theories together with their extensions and takes history of the most of import factors that impact engineering credence.

The UTAUT theory takes into consideration the concepts that affect the credence of new engineering with peculiar mention to whether this credence is voluntary or compulsory ( Yeow et al. , 2008 ) . In other to promote users to accept and utilize new engineering, a assortment of methods can be used. These methods may be classified as optional and compulsory. The UTAUT enable the measuring of whether the users ‘ credence and use of nomadic payment is voluntary or compulsory

UTAUT takes into acknowledgment concepts which differ between developing and developed states. The credence of new engineering is normally influenced by a scope of factors which may change from one community to another. In this research, the concepts that affect the credence of nomadic payment in developed states are non needfully the same concepts that influence the usage of nomadic payment in developing states. When comparing the theoretical account with other engineering credence theoretical accounts, the UTAUT covers 70 per cent ( 70 % ) of the discrepancy that affect the credence of new engineering in different societies ( Bandyopadhyay and Francastoro, 2007 ) .

The UTAUT has been implemented in different scientific discipline Fieldss ( Hennington and Janz ( 2007 ) . Therefore, UTAUT theory is non entirely focused on a peculiar sector and it can be used in the telecom and banking sectors in order to place the chief factors that affect consumers ‘ behavioral purposes towards the credence and usage of nomadic payment.

This theoretical account has been recognised as a powerful theoretical account for the rating of engineering credence. Hennington and Janz ( 2007 ) emphasised that the UTAUT theoretical account is soon one of the most comprehensive, inclusive and powerful engineering credence theoretical accounts. Bandyopadhyay and Francastoro, ( 2007 ) argued that the UTAUT theoretical account has been applied in more participative organisational civilizations where people can do their ain determinations in relation to engineering credence, as this peculiar theory was created in a developed state context ( USA ) . Besides, Lin and Anol ( 2008 ) and Yeow et al. , ( 2008 ) emphasised that UTAUT is an inclusive theoretical account that can be used to research the credence of new engineering in different Fieldss.

However, the UTAUT theoretical account was implemented in several surveies to research credence and usage determinations of engineering in developing states. In this respect, Bandyopadhyay and Francastoro ( 2007 ) studied the civilization on user credence of information engineering in India utilizing the UTAUT theoretical account. The findings indicated that public presentation anticipation ( PE ) , attempt anticipation ( EE ) and societal influence ( SI ) were important concepts that influenced prepayment metering system. Lin and Anol ( 2008 ) applied the UTAUT theoretical account to the phenomenon of larning on-line societal support in Taiwan. The findings showed that all theoretical account concepts are important except the facilitating status concept which was insignificant.

Loke ( 2008 ) studied the personal and perceptual experiences of merchandisers towards the recognition card payments in Malaysia. The findings demonstrated that the most concepts that played a important function in a merchandisers ‘ determination were public presentation anticipation and societal influence concepts of the UTAUT theoretical account. Abdul-Rahman et al. , ( 2011 ) demonstrated the influencing concepts for generic information system utilizing tablet personal computing machine and nomadic communicating in Malaysia based on a modified UTAUT theoretical account. The findings indicated that public presentation anticipation, attempt anticipation and information quality were important, while service quality was undistinguished related to users behavioral purposes towards the credence and usage of engineering. In decision, UTAUT theoretical account is a usefulness engineering credence theoretical account that can utilize the credence and use of engineerings in different developing states Fieldss.

It is expected that the engineering credence theoretical account will necessitate some alterations to suit the demands of this survey and the nature of the research population. Such alteration may name for adding or canceling peculiar factors so it can be used in the context of a underdeveloped state like Nigeria.

Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology ( UTAUT ) :

UTAUT theoretical account combines eight different theories ( TRA, TAM, MM, TPB, C – TAM – TPB, MPCU, IDT and SCT ) into a incorporate theoretical account concentrating on users ‘ behavioral purposes to accept and utilize new engineering, as indicated antecedently. Venkatesh et al. , ( 2003 ) explained that after the eight different theoretical accounts were reviewed and consolidated, seven elements were found that impact behavioral purpose and use, and these includes:

Performance anticipation

Effort anticipation

Social influence

Facilitating status

Attitude toward utilizing engineering



Furthermore, four moderators ( age, gender, experience and voluntariness of usage ) were identified, that impact major effects ( Venkatesh et al. , 2003 ; Hennington and Janz, 2007 )

Ventakesh et al. , ( 2003 ) examined the theoretical account and discovered that there were factors ( public presentation anticipation, attempt anticipation, and societal influence ) that had a important influence on use behavior through the behavioral purpose. Facilitating conditions contributed straight to usage behavior. Nevertheless, the staying three elements ( attitude towards utilizing engineering, self-efficacy and anxiousness ) did non hold any major consequence on behavioral purpose or usage behavior ( Venkatesh et al. , 2003 ; Mazman and Usluel, 2009 ) . Venkatesh et al. , ( 2003 ) justified their findings that attitude towards utilizing engineering was of import merely in relation to specific knowledges related to public presentation and attempt anticipations. Consequently, attitude toward utilizing engineering impacts on purpose and usage behavior through public presentation and attempt anticipations. Alternatively, self-efficacy and anxiousness have no direct determiners as they are conceptual from attempt anticipation as a sensed easiness of usage. Therefore, Venkatesh et al. , ( 2003 ) presented ( UTAUT ) ( see Figure 1 )

Figure 1:

Beginning: Venkatesh, V. , Morris, M.G. , Davis, F.D. , and Davis, G.B. “ User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View, ” MIS Quarterly, 27, 2003, 425-478

For a clearer apprehension of the contents and characteristics of the UTAUT theoretical account, the theoretical account ‘s concepts and moderators will be defined as follows:

Performance Anticipation: This is the degree to which an person believes that utilizing new engineering will help them to make a high-level of occupation public presentation ( Venkatesh and Davis, 2000 ; Venkatesh et al. , 2003 ) . Furthermore, Pikkarainen et al. , ( 2004 ) and Yeow et al. , ( 2008 ) clarified that persons accept and use engineering ( nomadic payment services ) when they understand its utility and comparative advantage.

Effort Anticipation: This is the easiness of usage for the terminal users of new engineering ( Plouffe et al. , 2001 ; Venkatesh et al. , 2003 ; Kolondisky et al. , 2004 ) .

Social Influence: This is the degree to which an person perceives others ‘ perspectives/views sing the new engineering and its suitableness for usage. That is, how much persons interact with their societal webs and environment to accept and utilize new engineering systems ( Venkatesh et al. , 2003 ) .

Facilitating Condition: is the degree to which persons consider that organisational and proficient substructures are applicable to back up users of the new engineering ( Venkatesh et al. , 2003 )

Behavioral Purpose: before make up one’s minding on the credence and usage engineering systems, persons need to hold a positive purpose towards new system ( Venkatesh et al. , 2003 ) .

Model Moderators: Venkatesh et al. , ( 2003 ) identified four moderators that affect the relationship between the theoretical account concepts and users ‘ behavioral purposes. These moderators include gender, age, experience and voluntariness of usage.

Alteration of the UTAUT theoretical account:

The UTAUT theoretical account was developed in the USA, a developed state, as one of the most comprehensive, inclusive and powerful engineering credence theoretical accounts that can be implemented in different scientific discipline Fieldss ( Hennington and Janz, 2007 ) . To implement this theoretical account in a underdeveloped state, such as Nigeria, some alteration is likely. This subdivision reviews the UTAUT factors and considers the possibility of adding or canceling factors to construct an incorporate conceptual model that identifies the major factors impacting nomadic payment credence in Nigeria.

The UTAUT Moderators:

Having reviewed the four moderators, the experience moderator was removed from the theoretical account as this moderator was used in other contexts as a placeholder for users ‘ experience of engineering. However, this does non suit Nigeria context. There has been a growing in calculating accomplishments and in the usage of cyberspace with improved IT substructure and a wider handiness of computing machines and engineering in Nigeria. If the experience moderator were used, it would non stand for a true contemplation of the users ‘ experience as their experience is influenced by the state ‘s educational degree and IT substructure. Furthermore, if the experience moderator were used, there would be two distinguishable groups which would be those before the educational system was changed and the IT substructure was improved, and those after those alterations were implemented. Therefore, if the degree of instruction were used as a moderator, the recent alterations in instruction and IT substructure would be better reflected in attendant theoretical account.

However, Nambisan and Wang ( 2000 ) , and Nafziger ( 2006 ) explained that degrees of instruction have a major impact on engineering credence, as highly-educated persons are more likely to accept and utilize new engineerings than less knowing persons. Furthermore, it seems that gender, age and educational degree moderators belong to the single user, therefore, these three moderators are combined under one general moderator called the single moderator.

The research worker proposes to modify the original UTAUT theoretical account by replacing the independent variable “ Effort Expectancy ” with “ Relevance ” . Harmonizing to Thong et al. , ( 2004 ) , Relevance is “ the grade to which something is closely connected with the topic of concern or the state of affairs one is believing approximately. ” In this instance, it refers to ‘the grade to which one believes that the introduced engineering services are necessary in the public presentation of nomadic payment services ‘ Studies which support the importance of this concept in other contexts include Saracevic ( 2004 ) ; Nicholson ( 2004 ) ; Kwak et al. , ( 2002 ) among others.

Social Influence:

By measuring the societal influence concept, it seems that it is a portion of civilization influence. Therefore, to analyze this concept more profoundly, the societal influence concept will be replaced by the civilization concept in order to make a comprehensive conceptual model of nomadic payment credence in Nigeria. In this respect, several research workers demonstrated that civilization has a important impact on the credence and usage of advanced engineerings ( e.g. Slowikowski and Jaratt, 1997 ; Png et al. , 2001 ; Twati and Gammack, 2006 ; Levy, 2007 ) .

Venkatesh et al. , ( 2003 ) found that four key moderators ( age, gender, experience and voluntariness of usage ) moderated the relationship between societal influence ( which has been replaced by civilization ) and behavioral purpose. It was found that older and females were usually more cognizant of the sentiments of others. Along with the gender and age moderators, Chanasuc and Praneetopolgrang ( 2008 ) clarified that the educational degree moderated the relationship between civilization and behavioral purpose, on the footing that civilization impacts straight on those who are considered as less-educated people. Finally, civilization constructs become non-significant in voluntary contexts ( Venkatesh et al. , 2003 ) .

Facilitating Conditionss:

The facilitating conditions in the UTAUT theoretical account can be considered as the lone concept in the theoretical account that contributes straight to the usage behavior alternatively of behavioral purposes. Venkatesh et al. , ( 2003 ) clarified that there was no direct influence between easing conditions and behavioral purposes. Furthermore, easing conditions become non-significant in foretelling behavioral purposes when both public presentation anticipation and attempt anticipation concepts are present. Liu et al. , ( 2005 ) and Friertag and Berg ( 2008 ) argued that easing conditions influenced behavioral purposes towards the credence and usage of new engineering, even with the presence of public presentation anticipation and attempt anticipation.

Ventakesh ( 1999 ) observed that easing conditions and external control are ground tackles employed by end-users in informing sensed easiness of usage about information engineering. Support as a facilitating status and external control were strong determiners of sensed easiness of usage. From recent surveies, Ngai et al. , ( 2007 ) made an extension of the engineering credence theoretical account by adding proficient support as an independent variable in explicating WebCT. To this terminal, the research worker modifies easing status and replaced it with proficient support.

Adopted Unified Theory of Acceptance & A ; Use of Technology ( UTAUT ) Model

To place the different concepts that affect engineering credence and to understand what affects the credence and usage of nomadic payment, some little change on the original UTAUT theoretical account is necessary. Bandyopadhyay and Fraccastoro ( 2007 ) showed that societal influence can be considered as portion of the civilization. Therefore, societal influence as the UTAUT theoretical account will be replaced by the civilization concept, by mensurating the influence of the theoretical account moderators ( gender, age, instruction degree, and voluntariness of usage ) on the relationship between the civilization and consumers ‘ behavioral purposes.

Furthermore, the facilitating conditions concept influences the behavioral purpose straight. Finally, a little alteration has been undertaken with the theoretical account moderators, where the experience moderator will be replaced with educational degree moderator. Furthermore, the first three moderators ( gender, age and instruction degree ) will be grouped into one moderator named the single moderator. The 4th moderator variable ( voluntariness of usage ) will be replaced with consciousness in the modified UTAUT theoretical account. Voluntariness has been reported as a non-predictor of future acceptance.

Awareness is “ the grade to which an person knows about the being of something, in this instance a new engineering or service offered utilizing such a engineering. ” Some people may non cognize that such a engineering exists, for if they knew they would do up their heads either to utilize it or non to utilize it. Studies, Fortine ( 2005 ) ; Heinrichs et al. , ( 2007 ) ; Nicholson ( 2004 ) ; Kwak et al. , ( 2002 ) , have shown that consciousness is an of import determiner of credence and usage. As a consequence, this variable will be considered appropriate for inclusion in the theoretical account.

Reviewing the UTAUT in-direct concepts:

Harmonizing to Venkatesh et al. , ( 2003 ) , the attitude towards the usage of engineering ( ATUT ) , self-efficacy ( SE ) and anxiousness ( A ) were removed from the original UTAUT theoretical account as they do non hold a important influence on behavioral purpose and usage behavior. Martinsons et al. , ( 2009 ) explained that the concepts which may non be considered as important in some societies may be in others. Therefore, the three concepts will be added to the research theoretical account, and their impact on consumers behavioral purpose towards the credence and usage of nomadic payment will be examined.

The three old concepts ( attitude towards utilizing engineering, self-efficacy and anxiousness ) have a common factor, since all of them are related to computing machine usage. Furthermore, the credence and usage of nomadic payment requires good computing machine cognition as a requirement. These three concepts will be grouped into one major concept named “ consumers attitude towards computing machines ”

Extra Concept for the UTAUT theoretical account:

Another of import concept ( an independent variable ) in the context of this survey needs to be added to the original UTAUT theoretical account, i.e. trust.


Trust in general is the person ‘s beliefs about a individual or organisation ‘s dependability, ability, truth and strength ( Eisenstadt, 1995 ; Castelfranchi and Falcone, 2000 ) . Gefen ( 2004 ) classified it as specific beliefs which deal with the ability, unity, and benevolence of the legal guardian and general beliefs, the general thoughts about the legal guardian that can be trusted, and specific and general beliefs. Humphries and Wilding ( 2004 ) explained that trust is the indispensable ingredient that maintains long term relationships between persons and concern. Furthermore, Kivijarvi et al. , ( 2007 ) and Al-Sajjan and Dennis ( 2010 ) clarified that deficiency of trust is a important barrier to consumer credence of nomadic payment services, as consumers want to guarantee that they use a secure system, Furthermore, consumer trust is a major concept that impacts on consumer attitudes and behavioral purpose to utilizing electronic services. ( Cai et al. , 2008 ) .

Trust is considered a major challenge in nomadic payment as it has a strong and important impact on consumer behavioral purposes towards the credence and usage of nomadic payment ( Mukherjee and Nath, 2003 ; Nor and Pearson, 2007 ) . Lee et al. , ( 2007 ) suggested that trust is a critical issue for nomadic payment minutess. Consumers identified internet privateness and security as two concepts related to swear ( Yousafzai et al. , 2003 ; Kim and Prabhakar, 2004 ) . However, privateness and security are cardinal factors that affect trust in the cyberspace and all cyberspace concern services. However, to implement privateness and security in nomadic payment, Bankss and nomadic telecoms operators need to supply their clients with confidences that no 3rd party can entree their history information without mandate ( Sohail and Shanmugham, 2003 ) .

A high degree of internet security is of import so that consumers can swear nomadic payment engineering as this will ease them to finish their minutess through secure channels which provide them with the necessary degree of privateness and confidentiality.

Yousafzai et al. , ( 2009 ) identified that trust is one of the cardinal concepts that impacts the credence and usage of nomadic payment. It may be perceived that the chief ground for failure in the credence of any new engineering accrues to a disregard of trust. In this survey, nomadic payment is non a new information system that consumers have to cover with, but it is besides a new selling channel provided by Bankss and nomadic operators for their clients. Therefore, trust which must be granted by clients is non merely trust in the new system ( nomadic payment ) but besides towards the new selling channel. However, the term trust has been widely studied in different countries of research such as sociology, direction, banking and selling, as it is an of import factor that assorted concern minutess need for successful concern consequences ( Lee, 1998 ; Yousafzai et al. , 2009 ; Dimitriadis et al. , 2011 ) .

Corritore et al. , ( 2003 ) noted that when users deal with online services, their educational degree moderates the relationship between trust and behavioral purpose. In add-on, Kolsaker and Payne ( 2002 ) every bit good as Siegrist et al. , ( 2005 ) explained that gender and age play an of import function in engineering trust and credence. Therefore, the research worker proposes to mensurate the impact of the three single moderators ( gender, age and educational degree ) on the relationship between trust and behavioral purpose towards the credence and usage of nomadic payment.

It is clear that trust has a important influence on behavioral purpose towards usage behavior. Therefore, to get a valid and exact research conceptual model, trust will be added to the research theoretical account, and the influence of trust towards behavioral purpose will be measured by taking into consideration the influence of single moderators ( gender, age, and educational degree ) .

The research worker propose to present an extra concept ( a dependant variable ) called “ Expected Benefits ” to the theoretical account.

Expected Benefits is a phrase synonymous with sensed usefulness found in Davis et al. , ( 1989, p. 985 ) , and it is “ the grade to which a individual believes that utilizing a peculiar system would heighten his/her occupation public presentation ” . This variable is an extra forecaster of future use of nomadic payment services. The principle for this is that in the theoretical account by Davis et al. , ( 1989 ) , the concept of expected benefits was one of the cardinal identified factors. This concept will be introduced in the research theoretical account as a dependant variable utilizing synonymous words of those used in TAM for ‘perceived utility ‘ .

To carry through the purpose of this survey, some changes to the UTAUT theoretical account were necessary, as the research will concentrate on the credence of nomadic payment in a underdeveloped state like Nigeria. Figure 2 outlines the alteration on the original UTAUT theoretical account.

Performance Anticipation


Expected Benefits

Behavioral Purpose

Use Behaviour


Technical Support

Consumers ‘ attitude towards engineering


Individual Moderators






Figure 2: The modified UTAUT theoretical account which represents the Tentative Research Model proposed to be used for this survey

Research Conceptual Framework:

It is argued that the UTAUT is more prognostic than any other single theoretical accounts ( Yeow et al. , 2008 ) . This is because the theoretical account synthesises eight different theories and their extensions into one incorporate theory. Furthermore, the UTAUT theory includes most of the factors that influence information engineering purpose and usage behavior ( Hennington and Janz, 2007 ) . The theoretical account was developed within the context of a developed state and does non see the kineticss within developing states, such as Africa.

Harmonizing to the literature and for the intent of this survey, it is recognised that there are some important elements that are non covered in the original UTAUT theoretical account ( or the other theoretical accounts on which it is built ) , which may impact nomadic payment credence in developing states such as Nigeria. Consequently, these elements ( civilization, trust, and attitude towards computing machine, consciousness, relevancy, instruction, and proficient support ) may be of limited impact in developed states, but have major impact in developing states, such as Nigeria.

Chapter 3: Research Approach

This chapter presents a elaborate justification of the research attack to be used to reply the research inquiries and achieve the purpose and aims outlined in chapter one. The chapter propose to get down with an overview of societal research design which includes treatment of the research paradigm as the theoretical research attack, treatment of the research methodological analysis and treatment of the methods adopted in this research for informations aggregation. The chapter propose to sketch the sampling techniques and analysis techniques, and besides illustrate the research cogency, dependability, ethical consideration and generalizability of the survey.

Research Design:

Research is defined as an in-depth survey of a peculiar issue or phenomenon which the research worker investigates to work out jobs related to that issue/phenomenon Marshall, 1997 ; Brewerton and Millward, 2001 ; Wilkinson and Birmingham, 2003 ; Creswell, 2007 ; Bryman and Bell, 2007 ) . In the societal scientific disciplines, assorted research workers present the research overview – the theoretical and practical attacks in different ways. The differences in presentation can be clearly identified between the theoretical accounts of Sarantakos ( 1998 ) ; Crotty ( 2005 ) and Saunders et al. , ( 2007 ) . These writers agree that societal research can be thought of in footings of the theoretical and practical attacks. However, the nomenclature adopted varies between. For case, they use different nomenclature which can be confounding for other research workers.

The Research Methodology:

Crotty ( 2005: 3 ) identified the research methodological analysis research procedure as:

the scheme, program of action, procedure or design lying behind the pick and usage of peculiar methods and associating the pick and usage of methods to the desired results.

Furthermore, Crotty ( 2005 ) made a elucidation of research methodological analysis as a scheme built on it, the informations aggregation methods, and associating between the usage of research methods and research results. In add-on, Crotty ( 2005 ) explained that there are different sorts of research methodological analysis, and research workers should choose the most suited for their research subject.

The research methods for this survey:

From research on engineering credence position, engineering credence has a dominant theoretical impulse which is rationalist in nature. The current research purpose is to plan a prognostic feasible theoretical account of behaviour purposes of users of engineering services ( in this instance – nomadic payment ) . This nonsubjective requires the agencies of a structured, chiseled model, and definite measurings that could set up relationships between variables, such that illations could be made from the research survey sample to a larger population. Most of these qualities can be addressed by quantitative research methods ( Johnson et al. , 2007 ) .

The stimulation of this survey is to prove hypotheses which relates to the proposed conceptual model theoretical account every bit good as different hypothesized relationships antecedently accepted in engineering credence context. The conceptual thrust of this research is deductive in nature. The research proposes to follow a confirmatory scheme of research that needs empirical analysis ( a manner of turn outing or confuting antecedently assumed hypotheses related to nomadic payment credence ) .

Figure 3 shows the 11 chief stairss in a quantitative research procedure. To reply the research inquiry, this survey purpose to follow the way in the order in which they appear as shown below. However, the stairss at times might overlap during the class of the research.

2. Hypothesis

3. Research Design

1. Theory

4. Devise Measures of Concepts

5. Select Research Site/s

6. Select Research Subjects

11. Write up Findings & A ; Decisions

7. Administer Questionnaires – Collect Data

8. Procedure Datas

9. Analyse Data

10. Findings & A ; Decisions

Figure 3: Procedure of Quantitative Research as outlined by Bryman & A ; Bell ( 2007 ) .

Research Designs:

The major ground of this research is in proving the hypotheses which could explicate the discrepancy in the dependent variables. Such analyses fit a correlativity survey design as described herein.

Correlation Designs:

Correlational design measures two or more variables with the contingency of mensurating the dependent variables. It does non pull strings one or more independent variables.

The major premiss of this research was that if a statistical important relationship was in being between the independent and the dependent variables, there would be the possibility of foretelling the dependant variable utilizing information available in the other variable. Within quantitative methods, the probe used correlativity research design ( see Figure 4 ) to find if there was an being of some relationship between independent concepts and the dependent concepts of behaviour purpose to utilize nomadic payment.

Study Designs





Longitudinal Surveies

*Cross-Section Survey

Case Control Surveys

Figure 4: Illustration of the Research Designs harmonizing to Mugenda ( 2008, p. 65 )

In this sort of scenario, the research survey propose to use dependability coefficients, multiple correlativity coefficients, generalized additive arrested development theoretical account coefficients ; and path theoretical account coefficients for different survey appraisals of the collected information.

Sample Participants:

The research worker proposes to utilize college pupils ( state n=350 ) who use nomadic phones in Lagos, Nigeria as participants in the current survey. In multivariate research, the sample size should be several times ( sooner 10 times or more ) every bit big as the figure of variables in the survey ( Hair et al. 2006 ) . Sample sizes larger than 30 & A ; less than 500 are appropriate for most research ( Hair et al. 2006 ) . The mark group will be selected by purposive sampling. In this method, sample elements are selected because they are believed to be representatives of the population of involvement and are expected to function the research intent of this survey ( Churchill, 1991 ) . The research worker aims to take those pupils that are utilizing nomadic phones on a regular basis. The questionnaire to be used for informations aggregation will incorporate graduated tables to mensurate the assorted concepts depicted in the research theoretical account.

Data Collection Method:

Quantitative method – Cross-sectional study & A ; structured observations to garner informations

Cross-sectional study:

The survey proposes to utilize a study attack to roll up informations that could be a representative of the existent phenomena in the population from which the survey sample will be drawn. The survey will concentrate on the nexus between end-users ‘ behavior purposes to utilize nomadic payment services. In IS/IT rating surveies, cross-sectional study methods are non new because they have been used by several writers, Gefen et al. , ( 2002 ) , Chau and Hu ( 2001 ) , Venkatesh and Davis ( 2000 ) and Venkatesh and Morris ( 2000 ) .

A cross-sectional study design will be utilized to garner quantitative informations to measure the relationships between the survey variables. A cross-sectional study/research involves informations aggregation that covers a one-off clip period. Data aggregation of single observations can happen at one point in clip or may be over a period of yearss, hebdomads or months. In the instance of the current survey, the informations aggregation purpose to be for a period of three months. Harmonizing to Mugenda ( 2008 ) , Mugenda and Mugenda ( 2003 ) , this kind of study helps to set up whether important associations among variables exist. The extra value of this type of study is that one can bring forth testable hypotheses, which the current survey purposes to make.

Cross-sectional designs have three typical characteristics: there is no clip dimension, merely differences between groups are measured instead than alterations over clip ; there is trust on bing differences instead than alter following any intercession and there is no allowance for differences to emerge over clip ; and grouping persons in the sample is based on bing differences or harmonizing to a class or the independent variable to which they happened to belong instead than random allotment. The research worker was cognizant of the restrictions of this type of probe, but the research timeframe might non allow the usage of a longitudinal survey. When information is collected at more than one point in clip and so subsequently on, the survey is considered longitudinal ( Crestwell, 2003 ) . Longitudinal surveies are executable when there is demand to depict the form and way of alteration and stableness ( De Vaus, 2001 ) .

Datas Analysis:

Correlation designs will be used to place associations between variables.

PLS analysis will be performed with PLS graph package to bring forth factor lading and co-variance matrix based on Structural Equation Modeling ( SEM ) ( Al-Ghatani, 2001 ; Hu, 2005 ; Venkatesh et al. , 2003 )

Stata programme will be used to find the internal reliability/consistency of the concepts ( i.e Cronbach ‘s Alpha ) , to execute univariate analysis on demographic informations & A ; to obtain the statistical reliability/consistency of the concept indexs.

SPSS will be used to bring forth hierarchal arrested development theoretical account consequences, a technique which is appropriate for patterning the dependance of a uninterrupted variable on fixed factors and covariates together with interactions as earlier used by Venkatesh et al. , ( 2003 ) . The research worker will utilize arrested development analysis to look into the influence of the independent variables on the dependant variable.

To prove the research hypotheses, the research worker propose to run a way analysis based on a series of arrested developments utilizing SPSS package

Proposed Time table

Phases of the Research Procedure


Phase 1


Meeting MPhil research supervisor and Director of Studies, specifying the research subject and saying the research inquiries ( 3-4 hebdomads ) .

Outline of purposes and aims trusting on the relevant literature ( 3-4 hebdomads )

Transporting out literature reappraisal ( 8-12 hebdomads )

Data aggregation and analysis ( 8-10weeks )

Draft of Ph.D. proposal completed ( 4-8 hebdomads )

Concluding alteration and entry of Ph.D. proposal ( 2-4 hebdomads )

1st twelvemonth

Phase 2


Meeting Ph.D. supervisor ( if different from MPhil supervisor )

2nd twelvemonth

Planing methodological analysis model ( farther development and enlargement )

2nd twelvemonth

Data aggregation and informations analysis ( farther development and enlargement )

2nd twelvemonth

Improvement and extension of literature reappraisal

2nd twelvemonth

The analysis continued

3rd twelvemonth

Draft of the Ph.D. research completed, systemisation of mentions for concluding Ph.D. research

3rd twelvemonth

Concluding alteration of bill of exchange of Ph.D. research work

3rd twelvemonth

Submission of Ph.D. research work

3rd twelvemonth

While it seems obvious that there is a well laid down stairss of finishing this research work, the execution of this program will be based on the blessing of the research supervisor. Besides, because these events are non reciprocally sole or mutualist, two activities can take topographic point at the same clip.


This Ph.D. research proposal is a first phase in the journey taking to a full-fledge survey on “ Consumer credence and acceptance of nomadic payment services in Nigeria: An drawn-out and customised Technology Acceptance Model ” . It is admitted by the research worker that this Ph.D. research proposal can non be compared with the chief Ph.D. research work in the facets of deepness, length and quality, and it is capable to farther restructuring as deemed necessary by the research supervisor, but the research worker feels really confident that the concluding result of this research will run into and transcend the needed criterion and contribute significantly to the organic structure of cognition in this field and most significantly help the research worker to develop his calling in direction research and derive more penetration into his planned country of confer withing profession – as a direction adviser.

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