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Antenna in wireless communication system

Introduction

Background

An aerial is a device used to radiate electromagnetic moving ridges between sender and receiving system in wireless communicating system. Antenna is an of import constituent in wireless communicating systems. Now yearss the aerial with high bandwidth and compact design are of great importance for the efficient working of broadband radio communicating systems.

At the present microstrip aerials are going more popular because of their attention-getting characteristics of low profile, light weight, easy fiction. Microstrip aerial with slotted spot non merely makes the spot resonate at a much lower frequence ( as compared with a conventional rectangular spot of the same size ) , but besides increases the effectual electrical length of the spot. Such antennas work for WiMAX, Wi-Fi, BLUETOOTH, and CDMA 2000 criterions.

Aim

The aim of this study is to show a survey on Microstrip spot aerial with abbreviated borders and V shaped slot entrenched in the spot. With the aid of return loss and radiation form secret plans, antenna design and public presentation will be examined. We will besides concentrate on the parametric quantities which improves the antenna public presentation.

Scope

The range of this undertaking is to plan, simulate, fabricate and detect the behaviour of our proposed aerial design for WiMAX set.

Methodology

To imitate the aerial, Ansoft HFSS ( High Frequency Structure Simulator ) is used.

Fundamentalss Of Antenna

Radiation Form

The radiation forms are 3 dimensional measures affecting the fluctuation of field or power ( P ? E2 ) as a map of spherical co-ordinates, and.

Following information is required to wholly stipulate a radiation form

a ) The constituent of electric field as a map of angles and.

B ) The constituent of electric field as a map of angles and.

degree Celsius ) The stages of these Fieldss and as a map of angles and.

Radiation Pattern Lobes

Radiation form lobes are assorted parts of radiation form. The lobes are categorized into four types i.e. chief, minor, side and back lobes.

Main Lobe

A lobe incorporating maximal radiation is chief lobe. This lobe is directed at =0.

Minor Lobe

A minor lobe is any lobe apart from the major lobe.

Side Lobe

Side lobe is a lobe incorporating less radiation than the major lobe.

Back Lobe

A lobe doing an angle of 180° with the major lobe is called back lobe.

Beamwidth

Bandwidth is defined as “the angular separation between two indistinguishable points on opposite side of pattern maximum” . The point, at which the field strength reduces 0.707 of the maximal value, is known as half power beamwidth ( HPBW ) . The beamwidth between the first nothings is known as First-Null Beamwidth ( FNBW ) .

Directivity

The ratio of maximal power denseness to average power denseness is known as ‘Directivity ‘ .

Mathematically:

D = P ( , ) soap / P ( , ) avg

Addition

Addition can be measured by comparing the maximal power of the denseness of the aerial under trial ( AUT ) with a mention aerial of known addition, such as short dipole.

Mathematically:

Addition, G= Pmax ( AUT ) /Pmax ( Ref.antenna ) x G ( Ref.antenna )

Or

G = Pr /Pt

Polarization

The orientation of electromagnetic moving ridges in free infinite is known as Polarization. Polarization describes the time-varying way and comparative magnitude of the electric field vector. Vertically polarized aerials operate on low frequences, whereas horizontally polarized antennas operate on high frequences.

Polarization is classified into three types:

  1. Linear Polarization
  2. Round Polarization
  3. Egg-shaped Polarization

Linear Polarization

The polarisation is said to be additive, if the E-field ( or H-field ) vector is oriented along a consecutive line. Demonstrates additive polarisation:

Linear polarisation is farther divided into two types:

  1. Horizontal Polarization
  2. Vertical Polarization

Horizontal Polarization

If a moving ridge is propagating along x-axis, it is said to be horizontally polarized. A horizontally polarized moving ridge can be expressed as:

Where E1 is directed along x-axis.

Vertical Polarization

If a moving ridge is propagating along y-axis, it is said to be vertically polarized. A vertically polarized moving ridge can be expressed as:

Where E2 is directed along y-axis.

Round Polarization

A moving ridge is said to be circularly polarized if the magnitude of both constituents is same i.e. E1=E2. In this instance the moving ridge is propagates in both the perpendicular and horizontal way and the stage difference between them is 900.

Mathematically round polarisation is expressed as:

Egg-shaped Polarization

In general, E-field of a going moving ridge in z-direction may hold both x-component and y-component with a stage difference “?” between the constituents, the moving ridge is said to be “Elliptically Polarized” .

Beam Efficiency

Adding the chief lobe and the minor lobe gives us the entire beam country.

The ratio of beam country of the chief lobe to the entire beam country of an aerial is known as beam efficiency of chief lobe.

The ratio of beam country of the minor lobe to the entire beam country of an aerial is known as beam efficiency of minor lobe. It is besides known as Stray factor.

Input Impedance

Input electric resistance is defined as “The electric resistance presented by an aerial at its terminuss or the ratio of electric and magnetic field constituents at some point” . Mathematically

ZA = RA +¼ XA

By and large, the input electric resistance of transmittal line of an aerial is 50 ohm, but this value may differ for the aerial itself.

Bandwidth

The bandwidth is fundamentally the scope of frequences on either side of the centre frequence on which an aerial is operated. It is advantageous to hold an aerial with high bandwidth. The bandwidth is expressed in term of ratio of upper cut off to the lower cutoff for broadband aerials.

Microstrip Patch Antennas

Introduction

Spaceships, aircrafts and other military applications such as missiles where of import restraints to see are public presentation, fabrication outgos, smooth profile and easiness of installing and now a twenty-four hours ‘s other systems such as wireless communicating requires similar type of specifications to see. And the basic constituent which is required by these listed applications for transmittal of instructions or informations and to have these instructions on the receiver terminal is “antenna” . Hence to run into the demands listed above e.g. smooth profile, cost and public presentation etc Microstrip aerials are used. Microstrip aerial are bantam profile, conformable to planar and non-planar surfaces, easy and inexpensive to build utilizing the up to day of the month printed circuit engineering.

Microstrip aerials have really flexible behaviour to polarisation, resonant-frequency, and electric resistance and radiation form. They are besides used to increase the bandwidth.

They consist of a land plane over which a substrate is mounted and the radiating spot is mounted on the substrate. By and large the land plane and the dielectric substrate have equal length and breadth. The Microstrip aerials are illustrated by the breadth, length and the tallness of the insulator substrate which is sandwiched in between the land plane and the radiating spot as shown in figure below.

Basic Characteristics And Overview

Microstrip aerial got the nominal attractive force towards them in 1970s but the thought of a Microstrip aerial can be traced to 1953. The form of the radiating spot can be of any size and form e.g. rectangular, square, triangular etc. For rectangular spot the length ( L ) of the component is normally ?0/3 & lt ; L & lt ; ?0/2. There are so many types of stuffs which can be used as a substrate but the limitation is on their insulator invariable which ranges from 2.2 ??r ? 12. For high public presentations thick substrate with lower insulator invariable is desirable, this is because they provide us high public presentation with larger bandwidth, enhanced efficiency and slackly bound Fieldss but with the escape of larger component size. Antennas dwelling of thin substrate and high insulator invariables are required for microwave circuitry, but they have lower bandwidths and greater losingss. So all we need is to negociate between superior aerial design and circuit design.

Formulae To Pull A Rectangular Patch

In order to plan a Microstrip aerial holding rectangular spot, there are several expressions to acquire the length ( L ) and width ( W ) of a rectangular spot which are given below.

Where ?L is the length trimmed from the aerial to cut down the bending consequence of radiating moving ridges.

Leff = L + 2 ?L

Where

?eff = Effective insulator invariable

Er = Dielectric invariable of substrate

H = Height of substrate

W = Width of spot

Feeding Methods

We have assortment of feeding techniques to feed Microstrip aerial. The most popular 1s include coaxal investigation provender, Microstrip transmittal line provender, aperture coupled provender, and propinquity coupled provender.

Microstrip Line Feed

In Microstrip line feeding a strip with size really much less so the radiating spot is placed at any of the border of the radiating spot harmonizing to the design of the aerial. This is the simplest technique used to feed Microstrip aerial. The dimensions which are suggested to acquire the input electric resistance of 50? are 17mm length with 3mm breadth. The restriction of this method is that when we increase the substrate thickness it will do the provender radiations to increase which farther limits the bandwidth, which is non desirable. The Microstrip line provender is shown in figure below.

The tantamount circuit for Microstrip line provender is shown in the figure below:

Aperture Coupled Feed

The aperture matching provender is the most hard technique to manufacture and it besides limits the bandwidth and provides us narrower set as compared to all other feeding techniques. In this type of feeding two substrates are used which are separated by a land plane sandwiched between both of the substrates. By and large the substrate over the land plane consists of low dielectric invariable whereas the substrate which lies under the land plane consists of larger dielectric invariable. A Microstrip provender line is placed under the lower substrate whose energy is coupled to the radiating spot through a slot placed right over the land plane which separates the two dielectric substrates.

The tantamount circuit for Aperture coupled provender is shown in the figure below:

Coaxial Probe Feed

In the coaxal investigation provender we have two music directors of coaxal investigation ; the interior side music director is connected to the radiating spot extended through the dielectric substrate while the outer music director is connected to the land plane. This is besides a hard technique to cover with because it has excessively many issues associated with it which are:

  1. Difficult to pattern in such instances where we have antennas holding thick insulator substrate which will do the bandwidth to go narrower.
  2. When we use thick substrates electric resistance matching will be really hard to accomplish because of the restrictions on the size of the coaxal investigation, because when we will increase the size of the investigation it will go more inductive which is non desired. However there is a solution for this job that is to get the better of induction series of capacitances can be used.

In order to fit the electric resistance different feeding places can be tried until to acquire the electric resistance matched.

The coaxal investigation provender is shown in the figure below:

The tantamount circuit for coaxal investigation provender is shown in the figure below:

Proximity Coupled Feed

The propinquity matching gives us the highest bandwidth up to 13 % of among all of the four techniques discussed here. Another advantage of this technique is that it is easy to pattern that is a Microstrip line provender is placed between the two substrates and the spot is placed on the upper substrate, but the fiction of such type of method is hard. In order to fit the electric resistance 1 has to play with the width-to-line ratio of the spot.

The propinquity yoke technique is shown in the figure below:

The tantamount circuit for Proximity coupled provender is shown in the figure below:

Advantages And Restrictions

The advantages of the Microstrip spot aerials are:

  • Less weight, low volume and low profile construction
  • Support both additive and round polarisation
  • Capable of operating at multiple frequences
  • Can be robust when mounted on a stiff surface
  • No pit backup is required
  • Can be integrated on a microwave integrated circuit
  • Multiple eating techniques are possible.
  • Operating frequences are 100 MHz to 100 GHz

The disadvantages of Microstrip spot aerial are:

  • Low efficiency
  • Low addition and narrow bandwidth
  • Lower power handling capacity
  • Surface wave excitement
  • Large ohmic losingss
  • Excitement of surface moving ridge
  • High public presentation arrays require complex provender constructions
  • Polarization pureness is hard to accomplish

WiMAX Technology

Introduction

Today demand for broadband services is turning aggressively. Traditional solutions to supply high velocity broadband entree is to utilize wired entree engineerings like overseas telegram modem, digital endorser line ( DSL ) , Ethernet, and fiber ocular. However, in rural and distant countries, it is really hard and expensive to construct and keep wired webs. To get the better of these jobs Broadband radio entree ( BWA ) engineering is a flexible, efficient, and cost effectual solution. WiMAX is one of the most popular BWA engineerings, which provides high-speed broadband radio entree for radio metropolitan country webs ( WMANs ) . The air interface criterion, IEEE 802.16, normally referred as global interoperability for microwave entree ( WiMAX ) , is a specification for broadband radio communicating criterions developed for WMANs, which supports fixed, portable, and nomadic broadband entrees and enables interoperability and coexistence of BWA systems from different makers in a cost effectual manner. As compared to the complicated wired webs, a WiMAX system merely consists of two parts: the WiMAX base station ( BS ) and WiMAX subscriber station ( SS ) . Therefore, it is easy to construct at a low cost. WiMAX is besides considered as a following measure in development of nomadic engineering.

WiMAX

WiMAX means world-wide interoperability for microwave entree. It is a telecommunication engineering which provides radio informations transmittal utilizing assortment of transmittal manners from point-to-multipoint links to portable and to the full nomadic cyberspace entree.

With the alert advancement in the radio communicating, WiMAX ( 802.16e ) engineering has joined the radio communicating household with really high success rates. This engineering provides high throughput broadband connexions over long distances ( screens 50 kilometers with informations rates up to 72 Mbps ) .

The name WiMAX was created by WiMAX Forum to advance interoperability of the criterion. The forum describes it as a standard enable of presenting last mile broadband entree as an surrogate of overseas telegram and DSL ( digital subscriber line ) .

WiMAX Standards

WiMAX criterions are assisting the industry to supply compatible and interoperable solutions across multiple broadband systems.

Presently, WiMAX has two fluctuations:

1. IEEE 802.16-2004 criterion ( for fixed radio applications )

2. IEEE 802.16e criterion ( for Mobile radio application )

IEEE 802.16-2004 Standard ( for fixed radio applications )

IEEE 802.16-2004 criterion is optimized for fixed and mobile entree. This criterion is designed for fixed BWA systems to back up multiple services. It is a combined and improved version of IEEE 802.16, 802.16a, and 802.16c.

Frequency sets

This standard specifies both the 10-66GHz and 2-11GHz frequence sets.

Bandwidth

IEEE 802.16-2004 criterion has channel bandwidth between 1.25 and 28 MHz.

Data rate

This criterion is designed to back up a maximal information rate of 75 Mbps at a distance of up to 30 stat mis.

The end of this criterion is to enable planetary deployment of novel, low-cost, and interoperable multivendor BWA merchandises, and increase the capacity of competition of BWA systems against their wired opposite numbers.

IEEE 802.16e Standard ( for Mobile radio application )

IEEE 802.16e criterion purposes to supply portability and mobility to wireless devices.

Frequency sets

The frequence bands suited for mobility must be below 6 GHz.

Bandwidth

IEEE 802.16e criterion has channel bandwidth between 1.25 and 20 MHz.

Bit rate

This criterion is designed to back up a maximal information rate of 15 Mbps at a distance of 1-3 stat mis.

Detailss of both criterions are besides given in following tabular array:

Spectrum For WiMAX Network

For deployment of WiMAX services spectrum is one of the cardinal demands. Many of the engineerings being developed for WiMAX depend on the frequence set in which the systems can be deployed ( i.e. , 2.4 GHz, 3.5 GHZ, or 5 GHz ) . This is because all the parametric quantities, such as useable bandwidths, familial power, and extension features, depend on the frequence set.

WiMAX Forum has published three accredited spectrum profiles which are 2.3GHz, 2.5GHz and 3.5GHz, in order to diminish costs. In the unaccredited set, 5 GHz is the sanctioned profile. Telecommunication companies are improbable to utilize this spectrum.

In USA, the biggest section available is about 2.5 GHz. In Asia, some states like India and Indonesia use 2.5 GHz and 3.3 GHz and other frequences while Pakistan ‘s Wateen Telecom uses 3.5 GHz.

Different states uses different WiMAX frequence sets which is mentioned in the figure given below:

Antenna For WiMAX

With the alert advancement in the radio communicating, WiMAX ( Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access ) ( 802.16e ) engineering has joined the radio communicating household with really high success rates. This engineering provides high throughput broadband connexions over long distances ( screens 50 kilometers with informations rates up to 72 Mbps ) . The operating frequence scope of WiMAX 802.11e which refers to WMAN ( portable ) is 2-6 GHz and for WiMAX 802.11d which refers to WMAN ( fixed ) is 11 GHz. But the current WiMAX systems are runing at 2.4 GHz, 3.5GHz and 5.2 GHz. To work on these frequences, Numberss of aerials are proposed. This engineering requires efficient aerials at both terminals ( conveying and having ) . Efficient working of wireless communicating systems requires efficient aerials. These aerials should be compact, broadband and capable of working on multiple resonating frequences.

Now a twenty-four hours ‘s micro strip aerials are going more popular because of their attention-getting characteristics of low profile, light weight, easy fiction, and conformability to mounting hosts.

There are a figure of ways in which microsrtrip aerials are designed. Land and spot can be meandered. Slots can be embedded in both spot and land plane.

One of the manner in which microstrip aerials can be designed is by intrenching different slots in the spot. The slots can be of different forms. Combination of two slots can be done to do spot work on double frequences. The radiating component of the aerial is a rectangular spot. V-slot non merely makes the spot resonate at a much lower frequence ( as compared with a conventional rectangular spot of the same size ) , but besides increases the effectual electrical length of the spot.

5 Antenna Design

Previous Design

Micro strip aerial can be designed by intrenching different slots in the spot. The slots can be of different forms. Combination of two slots can be done to do spot work on double frequences. The radiating component of the aerial is a rectangular spot. V-slot non merely makes the spot resonate at a much lower frequence ( as compared with a conventional rectangular spot of the same size ) , but besides increases the effectual electrical length of the spot.

Earlier, the design was used to do aerial for WLAN utilizing two different feeding methods ( propinquity coupled and coaxal investigation provender ) . Illustrates its geometry and constellation. This aerial is a propinquity coupled Microstrip spot aerial with a V-slot entrenched on its spot. This aerial has broad bandwidth in WLAN frequence set.

Alteration In Design

In this undertaking, an aerial is designed which works for WiMAX, Wi-Fi, BLUETOOTH, CDMA 2000 criterions by utilizing individual provender merely ( transmission line ) .

Figure 5.2 illustrates the geometry and constellation of proposed rectangular-shaped aerial for multiband operation ( WiMAX, BLUETOOTH, Wi-Fi, and CDMA 2000 ) on a substrate of thickness of 1.6mm and the dielectric invariable ( ?r ) of the cheap FR4 substrate is 4.7. The two opposite corners of spot are truncated and there is a V-shaped slot in it. The dimensions of V-slot on spot are shown in the Figure 5.3. Antenna is fed by a 50? transmittal line merely ( which is 3mm broad ) alternatively of propinquity coupled eating method. The spot is connected at the terminal of the eating line.

Simulations And Consequences

The aerial was designed and simulated in Ansoft HFSS. For high frequence design, HFSS is a utile and user friendly tool. Using HFSS, we can acquire accurate consequences of aerial ‘s radiation form and other parametric quantities concerned with it.

Consequences Of Simple Patch Antenna

Change in the length of radiating spot affects the power of aerial while alteration in width affects the radiating frequence. Keeping these points in head simple microstrip spot aerial was designed ab initio which is shown below:

After imitating simple spot aerial, following return loss was obtained.

We obtained 6 vibrating points from the above secret plan. The resonating points are at 0.4GHz, 2.4GHz, 3.4GHz, 3.9GHz, 4.4GHz, and 5.1GHz frequences with return loss of -21.65 dubnium, -24.68 dubnium, -27.69 dubnium, -19.42 dubnium, -21.37 dubnium, and -39.96 dB severally. Following tabular array besides describes the radiating frequences along with the return losingss and per centum bandwidths.

The tabular array shows that minimal return loss is -39.96 dubnium at 5.1GHz.

Radiation forms of simple spot aerial are shown in following figures:

Consequences Of V- Shaped Slotted Patch Antenna

Then a V shaped slot was introduced in the spot which is shown below:

After imitating V-shaped slotted spot aerial following return loss along with the per centum bandwidth was obtained:

Radiation forms of simple spot aerial are shown in following figures:

Consequences Of Corner Truncated V-Shaped Slotted Patch Antenna

After that corners of V-shaped slotted aerials were truncated. The design is shown in following figure:

After imitating corner truncated V-slotted spot aerial on HFSS, 7 multiple sets were obtained, which are centered at 0.3GHz, 2.4GHz, 3.4GHz, 3.9GHz, 4.3GHz, 4.6GHz and 5.2GHz. These sets are utile for CDMA 2000/ 1 ten EV-DO ( 3G ) , Bluetooth ( 802.15.1 ) , Wi-Fi ( 802.11 b/g ) , WIMAX ( 802.16e ) criterions. For the first set, the return loss obtained is -21.38 dubnium at frequence of 0.3GHz with per centum bandwidth 136.84 % . For the 2nd set, the return loss obtained is -27.39 dubnium at frequence of 2.4GHz with per centum bandwidth 4.17 % .For the 3rd set, the return loss obtained is -30.99 dubnium at frequence of 3.4GHz with per centum bandwidth 7.41 % .For the 4th set, the return loss obtained is -20.60 dubnium at frequence of 3.9 GHz with per centum bandwidth 7.25 % .For the 5th set, the return loss obtained is -23.12 dubnium at frequence of 4.3GHz with per centum bandwidth 7.65 % .For the 6th set, the return loss obtained is -13.43 dubnium at frequence of 4.6GHz with per centum bandwidth 3.57 % .For the 7th set, the return loss obtained is -17.86 dubnium at frequence of 5.2GHz with per centum bandwidth 10.33 % .The undermentioned figure shows graph for S11 parametric quantities for proposed aerial.

The tabular array shows that minimal return loss is -30.99 dubnium at 3.4GHz.

Radiation forms of proposed aerial are shown in following figures:

Fabrication

Materials Required

Fabrication of antenna requires:

  • a sheet of dielectric stuff ( FR4 ) of tallness 1.6mm and coated by Cu from both sides
  • ferrous chloride pulverization ( FeCl3 )
  • lodging sheet
  • cutter
  • poached H2O

Procedure

  1. First of all cut a rectangular piece of substrate ( harmonizing to dimensions and antenna design ) with the aid of a cutter.
  2. Take the prints of antenna spot on the jutting sheet and cut it along the spot dimensions.
  3. Now paste the lodging spot design on one of the side of the substrate piece.
  4. Cover the other side of substrate piece with jutting sheet excessively.
  5. Boil at least one cup of H2O. Carefully pour and mix few sum of ferrous chloride in it.
  6. Put the substrate piece covered by lodging spot design in it.
  7. After some clip, the Cu will disappear from the substrate sheet except from the country covered by the jutting sheet.
  8. Take out the piece of sheet from the solution and rub it.
  9. Now take the lodging sheet from the substrate piece.
  10. Solder the SMA connection at the terminal of the transmittal line image on the substrate piece.

Fabricated aerial is shown below:

Applications

From the fake consequences it is cleared that the designed aerial non merely work on WiMAX frequence sets but besides on CDMA 2000/ 1 ten EV-DO ( 3G ) , Bluetooth ( 802.15.1 ) , Wi-Fi ( 802.11 b/g ) frequence sets. These multiple sets support different types of applications. Some of them are as follows:

  • Cellular application: WiMAX provides a cell phone substructure for informations communicating. A big figure of cell phones can be operated through this substructure at low cost. The informations transferred by WiMAX can be of assorted types e.g. Audio ( voice ) , picture on demand, Television, videoconferencing, nomadic informations etc.
  • Military applications: WiMAX can shore up up the preparation and war games. The information from one topographic point to another can be exchanged efficaciously and expeditiously. WiMAX is appropriate in order to run into the demands of tactical defence operations theoretical account. The latest informations can be sent to the soldiers by attaching nomadic aerials to vehicles. The bids and waies of commanding officer can besides be delivered to army people inspite of the distance.
  • VoIP: WiMAX provides the most recent types of omnipresent fixed and nomadic services like voice over IP ( VoIP ) . Wireless IP web is required for this application and WiMAX is carry throughing this demand. Among all of the radio broadband entree, WIMAX is the strongest rival that supports and deploys different companies systems expeditiously.
  • Medical applications: In instance of exigency where patient needs instant medical support, WiMAX provides the foundation for a nomadic infirmary through e-health service. In this service, physician can look into his patient from some far location. The patient and physician ‘s computing machine equipments can be interconnected through WiMAX.
  • IEEE 802.11b radio engineering fulfills the maximal toll place roadway distance demands and operational demands of equipment technicians.
  • One of the applications of Bluetooth is Automatic Message Delivery in which one can compose electronic mails on portable Personal computer while being on an aircraft. When the trade is landed nomadic phone is switched on, the messages in waiting line are instantly sent.
  • Nokia uses CDMA 2000 web for IP Multimedia Applications.

Decision And Future Work

Decision

It is concluded that the efficiency of microstrip spot aerial can be increased or changed by utilizing different feeding methods. Because of different feeding methods, the aerial has achieved the multiple bands holding compatibility non merely with WiMAX but besides with Wi-Fi, BLUETOOTH, and CDMA 2000 criterions. We have besides come to cognize that slots added in the spot makes the spot resonate at a much lower frequence ( as compared with a conventional rectangular spot of the same size ) , and besides increases the effectual electrical length of the spot.

Future Work

The hereafter work will concentrate on increasing the bandwidth of aerial. The bandwidth can be varied by different methods such as increasing aerial ‘s substrate thickness, utilizing meandered land plane, utilizing slotted land plane, implanting suited slots in radiating spot, utilizing chip-resistor burden, utilizing stacked shorted spots.

Appendix A

How To Use Ansoft HFSS

The undermentioned tutorial will assist the pupils to make, imitate and measure the response of standard stripline construction.

HFSS Interface

The chief HFSS interface is shown in the figure below:

3D Modeler Window:

The 3d modeller window contains options used to make the coveted construction geometry of the theoretical account. The 3D modeller window consists of Grid and the history tree as is shown in the figure above. The history tree contains history of the actions taken in the theoretical account spectator country. And it besides provides alternate ways to choose the objects. The drawn-out position of the history tree is shown in figure below.

Undertaking Manager And The Project Tree:

This is the window which contains all of the HFSS undertakings opened. Under each undertaking there are inside informations available about the geometric theoretical account, material assignments and the boundary conditions, station processing information and the field solutions of the opened undertaking. The drawn-out position of undertaking director is shown in the figure below.

Properties Window:

There are two sub checks in the belongings window. The check named attribute check contains the information about the show belongingss and the stuff of the object. The check named bid check contains information about the actions which were selected in the history tree that was performed to make a new object or any altering made in the existed object.

Advancement Window:

This window is used when the simulation is in advancement. This window shows the position of the simulation and the running processes as shown in the figure below.

Message Director:

This window displays any message associated with the undertaking such as the mistake masseges and the warnings as shown in the figure below.

Puting Up HFSS

To hold efficient and accurate operations we need to put some of the parametric quantities if you are utilizing HFSS for the first clip.

  1. Travel to tools bill of fare, select options so select general options, a window will open, here choice default units check and set the default length to mm, so click Oklahoma.
  2. Travel to tools bill of fare, select options and so choose HFSS options, a window will open, look into the option “include ferrite materials” . Now click the convergent thinker check, set figure of procedures to 2, preferred RAM bound to 4000 MB now click Oklahoma.

Now you are ready to utilize Ansoft HFSS.

Bibliography

[ 1 ] Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, Ed. 3. John Wiley

& A ; Sons Inc, 1997.

[ 2 ] Guo, Y. J. , A. Paez, R. A. Sadeghzadeh, and S. K. Barton, “A spot aerial for
HIPERLAN, ” Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 3, 389-396, 1996.

[ 3 ] K. L. Wong, Design of Nonplanar Micro strip Antennas and Transmission Lines,
Wiley, New York, 1999.

[ 4 ] Kin-Lu Wong, Compact and Broadband Microstrip Antenna, 2002 John Wiley & A ; Sons, Inc.

[ 5 ] John D. Kraus and Ronald J. Marhefka, Antennas for all Applications, Ed. 2. Mc-Graw Hill Inc, 1988.

[ 6 ] Ramesh Garg, Prakash Bhartia. Inder Bahl, and Apisak Ittipiboon, Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook, Artech House Inc, 2001.

[ 7 ] G. A. Deschamps, Microstrip Microwave Antennas, Presented at the Third USAF Symposium on Antennas, 1953.

[ 8 ] D. M. Pozar, Microstrip Antennas, Proc. IEEE, Vol. 80, No. 1, pp. 79-81, January 1992.

[ 9 ] Noorsaliza BT Abdullah, Microstrip Sierpinski Carpet Antenna Design, MSc Thesis, UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA, 2005.

[ 10 ] Syed Ahson and Mohammad Ilyas “WiMAX applications” , 2008.

[ 11 ] Wikipedia: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WiMAX

[ 12 ] Aiting Wu, Boran Guan and Zhonghai Zhang, “A Novel WiMAX Patch Antenna” . Institute of Electronics Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Institute of Electronic Engineering, Xidian University,2006

[ 13 ] Guy Cayla, Stephane Cohen and Didier Guigo, “WIMAX AN EFFICIENT TOOL TO BRIDGE THE DIGITAL DIVIDE, ” November 2005.

[ 14 ] Amitabh Kumar “Mobile Broadcasting with WiMAX: Principles, Technology, and Applications” , 2008.

[ 15 ] Guo, Y. J. , A. Paez, R. A. Sadeghzadeh, and S. K. Barton, “A spot aerial for HIPERLAN, ” Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 3, 389-396, 1996.

[ 16 ] Aiting Wu, Boran Guan and Zhonghai Zhang, “A Novel WiMAX Patch Antenna” . Institute of Electronics Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Institute of Electronic Engineering, Xidian University,2006

[ 17 ] Guy Cayla, Stephane Cohen and Didier Guigo, “WIMAX AN EFFICIENT TOOL TO BRIDGE THE DIGITAL DIVIDE, ” November 2005.

[ 18 ] Wen-Shan Chen and Bao-Hung Kao, “A triple-band polygonal slot aerial for WiMAX applications” , Microwave Journal, Vol. 50, No.1, Jan 2007, pp.134.

[ 19 ] K. L. Wong, Design of Nonplanar Micro strip Antennas and Transmission Lines, Wiley, New York, 1999.

[ 20 ] Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ti.com/corp/docs/webemail/newsletter/broadband/jul06/wimax_bands2.gif

[ 21 ] Kumar, G. and K. P. Ray, Broadband Microstrip Antennas, Artech House, Boston, 2003.

[ 22 ] J. S. Roy and M. Thomas, DESIGN OF A CIRCULARLY POLARIZED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA FOR WLAN, Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 3, 79-90, 2008.

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