I. The Urban Frontier
By 1890. New York. Chicago. and Philadelphia all had a population greater than 1 million. Louis Sullivan contributed to the development of the skyscraper. City bounds were extended outward by electric streetcars. Peoples were attracted to the metropoliss by comfortss such as electricity. indoor plumbing. and telephones. Trash became a big job in metropoliss due to throwaway bottles. boxes. bags. and tins.
II. The New Immigration
The New Immigrants of the 1880s came from southern and eastern Europe. They came from states with small history of democratic authorities. where people had grown accustomed to harsh living conditions. Some Americans feared that the New Immigrants would non absorb to life in their new land. They began inquiring if the state had become a runing pot or a dumping land.
III. Southern Europe Uprooted
Immigrants left their native states because Europe had no room for them. The population of Europe about doubled in the century after 1800 due to abundant supplies of fish and grain from America and the widespread cultivation of Europe. “America fever” caught on in Europe as the United States was portrayed as a land of great chances. Persecutions of minorities in Europe sent many flying immigrants to the United States. Many immigrants ne’er intended to remain in America everlastingly ; a big figure returned place with money. Those immigrants who stayed in the United States struggled to continue their traditional civilization.
IV. Chemical reactions to the New Immigration
The federal authorities did virtually nil to ease the assimilation of immigrants into American society. Trading occupations and services for ballots. a powerful foreman might claim the trueness of 1000s of followings. In return for their support at the polls. the foreman provided occupations on the city’s paysheet. found lodging for new reachings. and helped acquire schools. Parkss. and infirmaries built in immigrant vicinities. The nation’s societal scruples bit by bit awakened to the problems of metropoliss. Walter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden were Protestant reverends who sought to use the lessons of Christianity to the slums and mills.
Jane Addams established Hull House. the most outstanding American colony house. Addams condemned war every bit good as poorness. Hull House offered direction in English. reding to assist immigrants cover with American big-city life. child care services for working female parents. and cultural activities for vicinity occupants. Lillian Wald established Henry Street Settlement in New York in 1893.
The colony houses became centres of women’s activism and of societal reform. Florence Kelley was a womb-to-tomb combatant for the public assistance of adult females. kids. inkinesss. and consumers. The pioneering work of Addams. Wald. and Kelley helped to make the trail that many adult females subsequently followed into callings in the new profession of societal work. The urban frontier opened new possibilities for adult females. The huge bulk of working adult females were individual due to the fact that society considered employment for married womans and female parents taboo.
V. Narrowing the Welcome Mat
Ant foreignism. or nativism. originate in the eightiess with strength. Nativists worried that the original Anglo-Saxon population would shortly be outnumbered and outvoted. Nativists considered eastern and southern European immigrants inferior to themselves. They blamed the immigrants for the awful conditions of urban authorities. and unionists attacked the immigrants for their willingness to work for little rewards. Among the antiforeigner organisations formed was the American Protective Association ( APA ) . Created in 1887. it urged to vote against Roman Catholic campaigners for office.
Organized labour was speedy to demo its negative attitude towards immigrants. Immigrants were often used as strike-breakers. In 1882. Congress passed the first restrictive jurisprudence against immigrants. It forced paupers. felons. and convicts back to their place states. In 1885. Congress prohibited the importing of foreign workers under contract-usually for substandard rewards. Federal Torahs were subsequently enacted that were made to maintain the undesirables out of America. In 1882. Congress barred the Chinese wholly from immigrating to the United States ( Chinese Exclusion Act ) .
VI. Churches Confront the Urban Challenge
Protestant churches suffered significantly from the population move to the metropoliss. where many of their traditional philosophies and pastoral attacks seemed irrelevant. A new coevals of urban evangelists stepped into this distributing moral vacuity. Dwight Lyman Moody. a Protestant revivalist. proclaimed a Gospel of kindness and forgiveness.
He contributed to accommodating the quaint faith to the facts of metropolis life. The Moody Bible Institute was founded in Chicago in 1889 to transport out his work. Roman Catholic and Judaic religions were deriving tremendous strength from the New Immigration. By 1890. there were over 150 spiritual denominations in the United States. The Church of Christ. Scientist was founded in 1879 by Mary Baker Eddy who preached that the true pattern of Christianity heals illness.
VII. Darwin Disrupts the Churches
Published in 1859 by Charles Darwin. On the Origin of the Species stated that worlds had easy evolved from lower signifiers of life. The theory of development dramatis personae serious uncertainty on the thought of faith. Conservatives stood steadfastly in their beliefs of God and faith. while Modernists categorically refused to accept the Bible in its entireness.
VIII. The Lust for Learning
During this clip period. public instruction and the thought of tax-supported simple schools and high schools were garnering strength. Teacher-training schools. called “normal schools” . experient great enlargement after the Civil War. The New Immigration in the 1880s and 1890s brought new strength to the private Catholic parochial schools. which were fast going a major portion of the nation’s educational construction. Public schools excluded 1000000s of grownups. Crowded metropoliss by and large provided better educational installations than the old one-room rural schoolhouses.
IX. Booker T. Washington and Education for Black People
The South lagged far behind other parts in public instruction. and African-Americans suffered the most. The taking title-holder of black instruction was ex-slave Booker T. Washington. He taught in 1881 at the black normal and industrial school at Tuskegee. Alabama. His self-help attack to work outing the nation’s racial jobs was labeled “accommodationist” because it stopped short of straight disputing white domination.
Washington avoided the issue of societal equality. George Washington Carver taught and researched at Tuskegee Institute in 1896. He became an internationally celebrated agricultural chemist. Black leaders. including Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois. attacked Booker T. Washington because Washington condemned the black race to manual labour and ageless lower status. Du Bois helped to organize the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ( NAACP ) in 1910.
Ten. The Hallowed Halls of Ivy
Female and black colleges shot up after the Civil War.
The Morrill Act of 1862. passed after the Southern provinces had seceded. provided a generous grant of the public lands to the provinces for support of instruction. The Hatch Act of 1887 extended the Morrill Act and provided federal financess for the constitution of agricultural experiment Stationss in connexion with the land-grant colleges. Millionaires and barons donated liberally to the educational system. Johns Hopkins University. founded in 1876. maintained the nation’s foremost top-quality alumnus school.
Eleven. The March of the Mind
Due to new scientific additions. public wellness increased.
William James made a big impact in psychological science through his legion Hagiographas.
Twelve. The Entreaty of the Imperativeness
The Library of Congress was founded in 1897 from the contributions of Andrew Carnegie. The innovation of the Linotype in 1885 increased the production of texts. Joseph Pulitzer was a leader in the techniques of sensationalism in St. Louis. William Randolph Hearst built up a concatenation of newspapers get downing with the San Francisco Examiner in 1887. The Associated Press. founded in the 1840s. was deriving strength and wealth.
Thirteen. Apostles of Reform
Magazines partly satisfied the public appetency for good reading. Possibly the most influential diary of all was the New York Nation.
Started in 1865 by Edwin L. Godkin. it crusaded militantly for civil-service reform. honestness in authorities. and a moderate duty. Henry George. another journalistic writer. wrote the book Progress and Poverty in 1879. which attempted to work out the association of advancement with poorness. Harmonizing to George. the force per unit area of turning population on a fixed supply of land inexcusably pushed up belongings values. lavishing unearned net incomes on proprietors of land. He supported a individual revenue enhancement. Edward Bellamy wrote the socialistic novel. Looking Backward. in which the twelvemonth 2000 contained nationalized large concern to function the public involvement.
Fourteen. Postwar Writing
As literacy increased. so did book reading. “Dime novels” were short books that normally told of the natural states of the West. General Lewis Wallace wrote the novel. Ben Hur: A Tale of the Christ. to battle Darwinism. Horatio Alger was a Puritan-driven New Englander who wrote more than 100 volumes of juvenile fiction affecting New York carrier in 1866.
Fifteen. Literary Landmarks
In fresh authorship. the romantic sentiment of a vernal epoch was giving manner to the petroleum human comedy and play of the universe. In 1899. feminist Kate Chopin wrote about criminal conversation. self-destruction. and women’s aspirations in The Awakening. Mark Twain was a journalist. humourist. ironist. and opposition of societal unfairness. He recaptured the bounds of pragmatism and wit in the reliable American idiom. Bret Harte was besides an writer of the West. composing in California of gold-rush narratives. William Dean Howells became the editor in head of the esteemed Boston-based Atlantic Monthly.
He wrote about ordinary people and about modern-day. and sometimes controversial. societal subjects. Stephen Crane wrote about the unpleasant bottom of life in urban. industrial America. Henry James wrote of the confrontation of guiltless Americans with elusive Europeans. His novels often included adult females as the cardinal characters. researching their interior reactions to complex state of affairss with a accomplishment that marked him as a maestro of psychological pragmatism.
By 1900. portraitures of contemporary life and societal jobs were the literary order of the twenty-four hours. Jack London was a celebrated nature author who turned to picturing a possible fascistic revolution in The Iron Heel. Black author Paul Laurence Dunbar embraced the usage of black idiom and folklore to capture the profusion of southern black civilization. Theodore Dreiser wrote with neglect for predominating moral criterions.
Sixteen. The New Morality
Victoria Woodhull wrote the periodical. Woodhull and Clafin’s Weekly in 1872. which proclaimed her belief in free love. Anthony Comstock made a life-long war on the immoral. The Comstock Law censored “immoral” stuff from the populace.
Seventeen. Families and Women in the City
Urban life launched the epoch of divorce. Peoples in the metropoliss were holding fewer kids because more kids would intend more oral cavities to feed. Womans were turning more independent in the urban environment. Feminist Charlotte Perkins Gilman called upon adult females to abandon their dependent position and contribute to the larger life of the community through productive engagement in the economic system. Eighteen. In 1890. the National American Woman Suffrage Association was founded. The re-born right to vote motion and other women’s organisation excluded black adult females. Ida B. Wells helped to establish the black women’s nine motion. which led to the constitution of the National Association of Colored Women in 1896.
Nineteen. Prohibition of Alcohol and Social Progress
Liquor ingestion had increased in the yearss of the Civil War and had continued to boom afterwards. The National Prohibition Party was formed in 1869. The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union was formed in 1874 by hawkish adult females. The Anti-Saloon League was brushing new provinces into forbiding intoxicant. and in 1919. the national prohibition amendment ( 18th ) was passed.
Twenty. Artistic Victory
Music and portrayal picture was deriving popularity.
The record player. invented by Thomas Edison. enabled the reproduction of music by mechanical agencies.
Twenty-one. The Business of Amusement
The circus. originating to American demand for merriment. emerged in the 1880s. Baseball was besides emerging as the national interest. and in the 1870s a professional conference was formed. The move to witness athleticss was exemplified by football.
Basketball was invented in 1891 by James Naismith.