Aravind Eye Hospital
Bettering Lives One Eye at a Time
A Brief Introduction
Imagine holding the universe as you know it cease to be, the things you one time saw be erased, and holding no hope to derive control of your life. This is how life for many people in India one time was, and how it still is for some even today. A cataract, a curable imposition of the oculus, has attacked work forces and adult females of every age, saving no 1, non even a kid. They build up in size over clip, and leave many blind. Once struck, the person in inquiry can no longer work, and has no manner to take attention of themselves, doing them wholly dependent on their household for support. Populating in an already destitute country, sightlessness has dire effects, ensuing in many instances of premature decease. There is a simple process that can change by reversal the effects of cataracts and return sight to the user. However, this surgery is excessively dearly-won for some to afford. In India, a state with an highly high poorness rate, cataracts had become a major job for the dwellers. Cataracts have left 1000000s to endure with an unneeded disablement, but one adult male came about to dispute its clasp on the people of India. Dr. Govindappa Venkataswamy revolutionized the medical field of oculus attention, and built a wellness establishment that would let everyone afflicted to acquire the aid they needed, despite their ability to pay. This instance analysis examines that establishment, how it came into being, how it operates, its Godhead, and the general background of the state of inception.
Poverty and Healthcare in India
Poverty is one of the biggest societal issues in India. Harmonizing to the Indian authorities, of its about 1 billion dwellers, an estimated 260.3 million are below the poorness line. More than 75 % of these hapless people reside in destitute small towns ( Azad, 2008 ) . The causes of rural poorness include unequal and uneffective execution of anti-poverty plans, and the inaccessibility of irrigational installations. The hapless irrigation systems result in crop-failure and low agricultural productiveness, coercing husbandmans into a debt-trap. Economic development since independency has been lopsided. There has been an addition in unemployment rates that have forced many people into a province of poorness, and the population continues to turn at an dismaying rate ( Economy, 2009 ) . Overpopulation of an already scarce occupation field has kept many persons trapped by poorness.
India has a Universal Health Care System operated by the authorities, like many other industrialised states. The governmental infirmaries offer wellness attention to the multitudes at the tax-payers ‘ disbursal. The Indian authorities set up the wellness attention system to assist people who are below the poorness line, but many people have jobs utilizing the infirmaries. One ground for this is the fact that there are an highly low figure of medical practicians available for the people. Another ground is that most public infirmaries are inefficient, and supply hapless quality medical services to their patients. Quality could be better, but public infirmaries by and large merely provide basic intervention, and have lower quality equipment to execute with. Inefficiency in the system is caused by the instability between medical suppliers and the destitute population. For illustration, although India requires more than 74,000 infirmaries to fulfill demand, it merely has approximately 37,000 wellness attention centres ( Liberty, 2009 ) .
Due to the destitute people ‘s deficiency of resources, they can non afford to travel to a private oculus infirmary to acquire their cataracts removed. And because of the limited handiness and aid from authorities infirmaries, and their inability to execute oculus surgery, most persons are left with no pick but to stay blind. This in bend adds to the increasing rate of unemployment, as it is hard for a unsighted individual to acquire or keep a occupation. And that leads to holding even more people below the poorness line, as it is non merely the person in inquiry, but their full household every bit good. If there was a topographic point they could travel to be treated, it would assist halt the rhythm of poorness, and give them a contending opportunity to populate.
Enter the Vision, Aravind Eye Hospital
Aravind Eye Hospital has risen from its low beginnings to advance oculus wellness non merely in India, but besides throughout the universe. Doctor Govindappa Venkataswamy, along with his sister and brother-in-law, started Aravind in 1976 ( Maurice, 2001 ) . This oculus infirmary was foremost opened in a rented house that contained merely 10 beds. The three laminitiss were the lone physicians at Aravind when it foremost opened. Since so it has grown little by small each twelvemonth. This infirmary has grown into a five-story edifice that is located in Madurai, in the southern Indian province of Tamil Nadu. This peculiar infirmary now contains 1,900 beds. As of 2001, about 1.5 million blind people have left this one infirmary with their sight wholly restored. In add-on to this, Aravind Eye Hospital has now expanded into a sum of five infirmaries throughout India ( Maurice, 2001 ) . The Aravind franchise includes a infirmary created specifically to assist reconstruct sight to kids ( Maurice, 2001 ) . The International Institute for Community Ophthalmology, which is a portion of Aravind Eye Hospital, trains oculus attention workers from low-income states. There is a medical research foundation every bit good as an oculus bank that handles about 900 corneas a twelvemonth that are associated with Aravind. Aurolab is a fabricating installation that makes lenses, pharmaceuticals, and surgery supplies for Aravind ( Maurice, 2001 ) . Aravind Eye Hospital subsequently branched out and opened Aurolab, despite dissensions from the Indian authorities, because imported intraocular lenses, IOLs, were excessively expensive for low-income patients to afford ( Shah, 2004 ) . Aurolab makes about 700,000 IOLs each twelvemonth ( Maurice, 2001 ) . These IOLs are so sold, non merely to Aravind but to oculus attention installations in over 80 states, for a monetary value that is 10 times less expensive than the same quality of IOLs used in western states ( Maurice, 2001 ) . Aurolab besides manufactures eyeglassess, suturas, and medicines along with the IOLs, to sell to the infirmaries for decreased costs ( Chang, 2004 ) .
The Aravind group worked with about 1.3 million patients in 2000 ( Maurice, 2001 ) . This is about 85-90 % more than most other infirmaries in India. Besides, Aravind holds nomadic ‘eye cantonments ‘ throughout the twelvemonth to raise oculus attention consciousness in India ( Maurice, 2001 ) . These oculus cantonments screen villagers on a Sunday, so bus the patients into Aravind in the eventide ( Chang, 2004 ) . The surgeries are so performed on Monday. There are normally 300-400 instances on Mondays, with the record being 500 instances ( Chang, 2004 ) . Most oculus sawboness in the universe perform less than 350 surgeries each twelvemonth. At Aravind, the mean figure of surgeries per physician is 2000 per twelvemonth. Aravind looks to multiply its benefits by engaging and developing local physicians and sawboness. Even though Aravind pays somewhat more than the authorities infirmaries, seven to ten physicians leave each twelvemonth. The ground is, since Aravind is non-profit-making organisation, it is unable to vie wage wise with private pattern establishments ( Maurice, 2001 ) .
The Path to Aravind
As antecedently mentioned, Aravind was founded by Govindappa Venkataswamy, who is normally known as Dr. V ( Maurice, 2001 ) . Dr. V does non see his occupation as work, but instead as something that he is excited to be able to make. Harmonizing to Dr. V, if there is something you can make, you should make it. Dr. V was born in 1918 and died at the age of 87 on July 7, 2006 ( ‘Govindappa ‘ , 2009 ) . He received a Bachelor ‘s of Humanistic disciplines in chemical science from American College in Madurai in 1938. Then, in 1944, he received a physician of medical specialty from Stanley Medical College in Madras. Finally in his instruction he received a physician of ophthalmology from the Government Ophthalmic Hospital in Madras in 1951. From 1976 until his decease in 2006, Dr. V was the president of Aravind Eye Hospital. In 1956 he was named the caput of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Government Madurai Medical College. At the same clip, he was an oculus sawbones at the Government Erksine Hospital. He held both of these places for 20 old ages until his forced retirement from the authorities infirmary in 1976 ( ‘Govindappa ‘ , 2009 ) . Dr. V was partially influenced in the creative activity of Aravind by his wise man, the philosopher and mysterious Sri Aurobindo, whom Dr. V was a adherent of for 50 old ages ( Maurice, 2001 ) . When Dr. V was asked about the influence of his wise man into Aravind, he made the undermentioned statement: ‘You do your best in your occupation and higher thoughts come to you, and so you try to recognize those thoughts excessively ( Maurice, 2001 ) . ‘ Dr. V was besides motivated from his work at the authorities infirmary ( Shah, 2004 ) . The authorities asked him to hold four cantonments a twelvemonth while he still worked with the authorities infirmary in 1961. This besides proved to be a portion of his chance designation. He saw the figure of patients go toing lift each clip the cantonment was held ( Shah, 2004 ) . The fact that 18 million people are blind by curable cataracts worldwide is another portion of Dr. V ‘s chance designation ( Chang, 2004 ) . This figure is turning at an alarming, about epidemic rate. Blindness causes decreased life anticipation, and productiveness is lost for both for the blind every bit good as for those that care for them ( Chang, 2004 ) .
Dr. Govindappa Venkataswamy ‘ A True Social Entrepreneur
Dr. V had entrepreneurial quality, which is one of the four classs used to measure Ashoka campaigners ( Bornstein, 2004 ) . Peoples with entrepreneurial quality seek to alter an full field, non merely acquire something done locally. Peoples with this trait non merely want to show their thoughts, but they want to travel out and be a portion of work outing the jobs by put to deathing their thoughts ( Bornstein, 2004 ) . Dr. V has shown entrepreneurial quality through his work at standardising the processs for cataract surgery because this allowed the alteration to distribute throughout the field, non merely at his infirmaries in India. Another manner he has shown entrepreneurial quality is through the preparation that Aravind does for physicians in other states. Finally, the fact that Dr. V did over 100,000 oculus surgeries successfully himself shows that he was willing to be a portion in put to deathing his thought ( ‘Govindappa ‘ , 2009 ) .
The Six Qualities of Social Entrepreneurship
Dr. V has besides demonstrated the six qualities of a successful societal enterpriser as laid out by David Bornstein ( 2004 ) . These six qualities are as follows: the willingness to self-correct, the willingness to portion recognition, the willingness to interrupt free from established constructions, the willingness to traverse disciplinary boundaries, the willingness to work softly, and a strong ethical drift ( Bornstein, 2004 ) . Dr. V asked for aid from concern schools to on how to maintain physicians from falling back into complacence at their ain infirmaries after finishing developing with Aravind ( Shah, 2004 ) . This shows his willingness to portion recognition because he publically sought their aid. It besides shows his willingness to self-correct because when he saw the job of physicians going complacent, even after having Aravind ‘s preparation, he took active steps to repair the job. He besides shared recognition with the other physicians that work with him, admiting the fact that Aravind could ne’er hold become such a success without the difficult work put forth by everyone involved. And as mentioned earlier, the authorities was against the creative activity of Aurolab ( Shah, 2004 ) . By making the installation anyhow, Dr. V demonstrated his willingness to interrupt free from established constructions. Dr. V was able to traverse disciplinary Fieldss from medical and into fabrication when he opened Aurolab. Besides, by working in private at making Aurolab and doing it low-cost, Dr. V demonstrated his ability to work softly ( Shah, 2004 ) . Dr. V has repeatedly demonstrated his strong ethical drift. During an interview Dr. V said that the focal point of Aravind was on honestness and esteeming the patients ( Shah, 2004 ) . Besides, he said he tries to take compassion over cost. This is exemplified when they spend more than the fixed charge for a patient because they do non bear down the excess cost to the patient. R.D. Thularsiraj, the executive manager of Aravind, says that Dr. V instituted a system of values into the infirmary that has the consequence of steering their work to desiring to assist others and off from concentrating excessively much on money ( Maurice, 2001 ) . Finally, Dr. V has capacity edifice plans that fundamentally work to transfuse unity and quality into new infirmaries ( Shah, 2004 ) .
Structuring Sustainability, the Core of Aravind
Dr. V wanted to make those who had non been reached before, and assist the poorness afflicted persons, who without his aid, would non be able to see. He removed barriers, promoted community engagement, and had a turning market theoretical account for health care. Even after his decease, his dream is still populating on. Aravind continues to research new attacks to the primary oculus attention market, and continuously seeks new inventions to assist the population.
When opening the first infirmary in Madurai, in Tamil Nadu, his sister and her hubby, both oculus sawboness, joined Dr. V in his attempts. To cut costs, all three physicians took important wage cuts since bankers would non finance a clinic that, irrespective of ability to pay, gives oculus attention to the rich and hapless. Dr. V even mortgaged his house to acquire the necessary fundss to get down the infirmary. Within a twelvemonth, all the attempts paid away and the infirmary quadrupled in size. There are now five Aravind Eye Hospitals, and all are self sustaining, thanks to a design copying system that has allowed for easier cognition transfusion throughout the infirmary concatenation. Dr. V took the unusual measure of inquiring even hapless patients to pay whenever they could, believing that the volume of paying concern, which amounts to about 30 % of clients, would prolong the remainder ( Aravind, 2007 ) . Two tierces of patients receive the free outpatient services, while paying patients having extra comfortss, such as private suites for drawn-out recovery, and hot repasts. The net income made from every one paying client covers the costs of two patients that can non pay. Aravind is celebrated for its fee construction. The audiences are free for hapless patients while others pay 50 R ‘s ( their currency, about $ 1 US ) . Impoverished patients can be expected to pay every bit small as nil, or up to 250 R ‘s, which is every bit much as they can save. A subsidised rate is 750 R ‘s ( about $ 15 US ) . The regular patient fee, which is aimed for in-between income patients, is 3,500-6,000 R ‘s. For a Phaco surgery, the rate is 6,500-12,000 R ‘s ( Saravana,2002 ) . This is a demand based crystalline fiscal system, and it is this sort of trust and attention Aravind has built that attracts paying patients. The lower than market cost for even the paying patients, at least 25 % lower, attracts them besides.
The Business Model of Aravind
Aravind Eye Hospital operates with a concern theoretical account unlike that of any other concern in the wellness attention industry, bearing striking similarities to the fast nutrient industry alternatively. Dr. V. was impressed with how a concatenation like McDonalds could offer the same quality merchandise no affair where you went, and still acquire it to you rapidly ( Health, 2007 ) . He became inexorable about the fact that a infirmary could be run under the same rule, and trained his employees to handle big sums of people without giving quality. Today, Aravind ‘s web of infirmaries has the differentiation of being the most productive oculus attention organisation in the universe in footings of surgical volume and the figure of patients treated. The success of Aravind ‘s concern theoretical account is dependent on Numberss, as it is the high-volume of low cost processs that offsets the costs associated with presenting such a high quality service. In order to make more patients, Aravind Eye Hospital advertises its services to a great extent, and is benefited by the positive word of oral cavity that has rapidly spread about them. They have besides implemented engineering that allows his staff to function people that are non able to come to the infirmary ; they do this by picture conferencing, instant messaging, on-line patient questionnaires, and through the usage of web Cams. One illustration of how they have used engineering to assist their concern can be seen through the cyberspace kiosks the topographic point in distant small towns. Here, they have adult females trained to take images of the patient ‘s eyes utilizing a webcam, so they send the images to the Doctor along with the filled out patient questionnaire. The physician so receives the file via e-mail about outright, and is able to interact with the patient through an on-line confab plan. This is made possible because of coaction with the University of Berkeley Information Technology centre, with a low cost Wi-Fi connexion. This provides entree to the patient, and a singular cost decrease. This besides allows the staff to supply audiences with people who would otherwise non be able to do it to the infirmary, and makes it easier for the squad to reassign information between each other ( Aravind, 2007 ) .
What Makes Aravind Different
A nucleus portion of Aravind ‘s theoretical account is to ne’er turn away a patient due to economic grounds. In fact, it has even been recorded that Dr. V one time accepted a poulet as payment for surgery. The end of Aravind is to assist as many people as they can, non to do a net income. Their concern theoretical account is formatted in a manner that provides a degree of self-sustainability that allows them to utilize all income towards spread outing their procedures, bettering their work, and maintaining services free to those who need them. Dr. V set up this theoretical account believing that people will pay when they can, even if it ‘s months after their surgery. Aravind ‘s concern theoretical account originally focused on merely oculus surgery and attention, but after clip it expanded into fabrication in order to make low cost lenses. This alteration in the theoretical account was necessary because importing the lenses from the West was excessively expensive, and in order to follow with their vision of supplying oculus attention to the disadvantaged, they needed to come up with a manner to take down costs. Another manner they have put into their system to assist them make more clients is by utilizing a two tiered pricing construction. Affluent people are expected to lend more, and for every one paid surgery, Aravind can afford to make many free surgeries. And because Aravind is the best oculus infirmary in the part, affluent people choose to travel at that place. In order to keep maximal degrees of efficiency and resource use, the hospital staff performs merely their specific specialisation, and the surgery procedures themselves are standardized. And to do certain that all who want to travel to Aravind are able to, the clinic provides coachs that choice people up in the forenoon, and so drive them back to their communities after the twenty-four hours is over ( Shah, 2009 ) . Before the patients are brought to the infirmary, they must travel through an oculus testing at their local community, utilizing one of the cyberspace booths as mentioned earlier. They are so evaluated, and transported to the infirmary if it appears that surgery or a unrecorded audience will be necessary. This procedure is promoted, organized, and financially backed by local concern leaders. In maintaining staffing cost low, Aravind recruits locally. The bulk of the staff is from local small towns. Being trained and holding grown up in the same community as they will be working, they portion the dream of the infirmary. And since local rewards outlooks and cost of populating are low, the infirmary can pay these persons less than persons coming from out of the state. The medical staff is besides trained, non merely for a occupation, but a esteemed life long calling. For each sawbones, the infirmary has four extremely trained paramedics for support. Aravind Eye Hospital ‘s eye doctors are linked with video conferencing with their Vision Center ‘s technicians for each patient.
Expanding their concern theoretical account, Aravind ventured into lens production. They now have a mill that can bring forth parts at low-priced monetary values. Compared to the $ 200 for imported lenses, they produce these for approximately $ 5 at their place mill ( Dan, 2008 ) . Now, because of outside support they export their merchandises to over 80 states. Their method to production lens was branched out to bring forth other merchandises such as blades, instruments, suturas, and pharmaceuticals. They can bring forth these merchandises for fractions of what the western universe can, and do a fine-looking net income. This besides cuts costs on purchasing them from someplace else. The income gained from the paying patients contributes to about 20 % of the budget. The other income comes from the production of manufactured merchandises and the proviso of preparation and audiences. In order to retain a sustainable operation Aravind is invariably looking to better. Since they adopted many engineerings earlier than other infirmaries they are staying high in discovery engineering. They utilize their engineering to pass on easier with fellow staff members, patients, spouses, and other infirmaries across the Earth. Aravind has regular reappraisals of their system, and follows up on executive determinations to guarantee they stick to their intended theoretical account. But they are ever looking for new ways to better themselves, and to turn.
Scalability of the Aravind Model
The Aravind System has a great attack to get the better ofing obstructions in the cataract surgery industry. The chief feature of the Aravind theoretical account is that they provide quality attention at monetary values that everyone can afford. They are self sustaining, yet still able to supply their services to the hapless and rich likewise. Their concern theoretical account stresses a maximal usage of all resources. This is all achieved by their high volume quality, and a good structured system.
The Aravind theoretical account can be replicated in states with cheap labour. For illustration, the theoretical account would work good in Asia or underprivileged countries in Africa. Their theoretical account will work good if you have a big population with a societal demand, and if you can happen physicians who are willing to run many times daily. Besides, to be financially stable there must be adequate gross to cover the free services from the paying 1s. The cost of the service can non be excessively high. In order for the need-based service to work, there must be inducements to paying. The people at Aravind wage because they want to hold a bed in a private room with air conditioning, or the other comfortss that they offer. Aravind eliminated non-beneficial activities and delay clip. By holding standardized protocols of clinical processs, activities, and administrative steps, it cuts down on the mistake count and makes processs more efficient. The sawboness do non make undertakings such as fixing patients, taking measurings, or nosologies proving, this is all done by trained helpers. Leting the sawboness focus on merely the surgical process itself. It cuts down on passage clip between surgeries. The province of the art engineering requires sawboness to exhibit less energy, and allows them to run more times per twenty-four hours. Since sawboness mean 1700 more surgeries than the national norm, there are many benefits to being an Aravind sawbones. Surgeons here do non merely want to do a difference in the lives of the people, but by executing many more surgeries than they would otherwise, they are besides breaking themselves.
Aravind has reached over 200 infirmaries through their consultancy procedure, and they hope to make many more in the close hereafter. The Aravind theoretical account makes scalability in developing states limitless through their fee system, direction techniques, high aspirations, and quality of attention. From the David Bornstein ‘s book illustration of ‘blueprint copying ‘ , Aravind wants to be used as an illustration. They want their techniques, direction protocols, and doctrines to be copied by others, every bit good as they have in doing their infirmaries across India. Just as the Grameen Bank ‘s thought of Micro-credit has spread to legion loaning plans, Aravind ‘s basic theoretical account, a 250-bed infirmary was adopted in Mumbai, Kolkata and Nepal infirmaries. Besides, the Indian authorities is following Aravind ‘s medical protocol philosophy for their preparation centres around the state. Aravind ‘s end is to be an illustration of efficient direction and cheap attention to patients, since any eye doctor can supply oculus attention, but can merely prolong affordability to the multitudes every bit long as it is managed decently. This is their new focal point called Managed Eye Hospitals. In the long term, harmonizing to their web site, they want to impact a larger population, by transcending 100 oculus attention infirmaries distributing to other parts of the universe. They want to be an illustration for other wellness attention infirmaries to go more efficient, and to turn and boom. Aravind ‘s ultimate end is to fall in together with others to assist extinguish treatable sightlessness wholly by the twelvemonth 2020 ( Aravind, 2009 ) .
A Bittersweet Critique
It is difficult to review a societal concern, as we try to contradict or warrant the defects in the system by contrasting it with the good it does for the populace. However, a company, no affair how good intentioned, can non turn to its full potency if non given the unfavorable judgment necessary to better their system. In this subdivision, we will foremost explicate the defect we found within Aravind and how we believe they might negatively impact the company in the hereafter. Then we will explicate some of the great benefits or pros of Aravind, and how we believe they will execute in the hereafter.
The concern theoretical account of Aravind, although scalable, is really reliant upon holding a strong client base. In peculiar, it needs a changeless inflow of paying clients to contradict the costs incurred by offering their services for free or for highly decreased monetary values. The location of new ventures is besides a factor of success for the theoretical account to work, as their construction involves engaging local occupants to work in the infirmaries. If the quality of workers is diminished in the country attempted, so the Aravind system will non run every bit expeditiously or efficaciously as intended. Besides, it would be them more to convey in employees from outside the country, which would raise the overall cost degree, and cut down their ability to offer their services to the destitute people of the country. Another defect in the Aravind system is the high turnover rate they must cover with. Doctors come from all over the Earth to develop in these infirmaries, as they perform more surgeries in a twenty-four hours than they would otherwise perform in a few months clip. But since Aravind is seeking to run on as little a cost budget as possible, they can non afford to pay their staff rates that are high plenty to vie with private pattern houses. One concluding defect we saw when analyzing Aravind, was the fact that they make staff members work even when they are ill. Although this is done to maintain production up, it besides makes room for mistakes, and contagious disease. The dedication seen by the employees is admirable, but when ill, you should non be executing any service in the medical field.
Aravind has greatly enlarged the societal impact they have on society by non merely supplying a necessary service to run into one of their health care demands, but besides by making occupations and engaging locally. This is seen both with Aravind infirmaries and with their fabrication works, Aurolab. Aravind could easy outsource to acquire employees and resources, but alternatively they choose to go on assisting the societal sector in their several countries. And even though Aravind Eye Hospitals treat more patients than any other oculus attention installation in the universe, they continue to publicize their service across the state in order to happen and function more persons. They are actively seeking out their mark market alternatively of waiting for them to come to them. Eye cantonments, booths, and coach tallies have been created by the Aravind system to acquire them closer to their market, and physically convey their clients in. Their usage of engineering allows them to confer with and portion their patterns with infirmaries worldwide, and increases productiveness among staff members, and allows them to make the population that can non do it into the infirmaries. Aravind Eye Hospitals have created an efficient and effectual service that best serves the societal sector, and provides much needed aid to the economically disadvantaged and unsighted population. And because Aravind is renowned worldwide for its invention in the field, proficient excellence, and operational efficiency, it attracts new eye doctors to the system. Once these new sawboness get trained in the Aravind manner, it betters the sawbones himself because of the monolithic sum of surgeries he will finish, and it besides extends the Aravind pattern into even more infirmaries across the Earth.
We believe that Aravind is making an first-class occupation so far, and has a really sustainable theoretical account. They have been critical in their determination devising therefore far, and we feel confident that they will merely go stronger as clip goes by. This will hit a cap at some point though, as Aravind gets closer to making its vision of bring arounding all the universes ‘ treatable sightlessness, their market will get down to worsen. Once demand sinks low plenty, the current theoretical account used by Aravind will go useless, and they will necessitate to undergo some major alterations to their theoretical account. Overall though, it truly is an first-class concern theoretical account, and is making a great trade of good for the people of India.
Azad India Foundation: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.azadindia.org/social-issues/poverty-in-india.html
Economy Watch: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.economywatch.com/indianeconomy/poverty-in-india.html
Reason For Liberty: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.reasonforliberty.com/current-affairs/indian-health-care-an-overview.html
Bornstein, David. How to Change the World: Social Entrepreneurs and the Power of New Ideas. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc. , 2004. Print.
Chang, David F. ‘Three plans offer hope. ( Cover narrative ) . ‘ Ophthalmology Times 34.9 ( 2009 ) : 1-43. Health Beginning: Nursing/Academic Edition. EBSCO. Web. 27 Oct. 2009.
‘Govindappa Venkataswamy, MD ( deceased ) . ‘ ASCRS: The American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. 2009. ASCRS. Web. 17 Nov. 2009. & lt ; hyyp: //www.ascrs.org/awards/Govindappa-Venkataswamy-MD.cfm & gt ;
Maurice, J. ‘Restoring sight to the millions’the Aravind manner. ‘ Bulletin of the World Health Organization 79.3 ( 2001 ) : 270. CINAHL. EBSCO. Web. 27 Oct. 2009.
Shah, Janat, and L. S. Murty. ‘Compassionate, High Quality Health Care at Low Cost: The Aravind Model. ‘ IIMB Management Review 16.3 ( 2004 ) : 31-43. Business Source Complete. EBSCO. Web. 4 Nov. 2009.
Aravind Eye Hospitals: hypertext transfer protocol: //184.108.40.206/search? q=cache: -V-GZ0L9JZMJ: www.aravind.org/tribute/A % 2520Man % 2520Who % 2520Saved % 25202.4 % 2520Million % 2520Eyes.pdf+aravind+eye+hospital+business+model & A ; cd=7 & A ; hl=en & A ; ct=clnk & A ; gl=us
Health Scribe Media: hypertext transfer protocol: //health.scribemedia.org/2007/01/03/aravind-eye-clinic/
Saravanan, S. , ‘Organisational Capacity Builting- A Model Developed by Aravind Eye Care System hypertext transfer protocol: //laico.org, retrieved on 11-29-2009, hypertext transfer protocol: //laico.org/v2020resource/files/capacity_build.pdf.
Dan, Sorin A. , ‘ARAVIND EYE HOSPITAL: Assignment Public Management’http: //www.people.umass.edu, retrieved on 11-27-2009. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.people.umass.edu/sdan/projectspapers/Aravind.pdf. Last opened 11/29/2009.