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Arctic Region In Barents Sea Commerce Essay

My paper work will be concentrated on specifying the inquiry which I am interested on is: What Oil companies may see in Arctic part in Barents Sea and the chance to be involved in the procedure of developing?

First of all I will concentrate on the thoughts as theoretical model and practical day of the months, will specify them to the thought how pattern and theory may work together in the existent life clip. Here I will seek to specify the stakeholders positions and will utilize method which will be most utile in my field of definition. The literature which will be attached to my undertaking work will back up my thoughts of researching the inquiry which I am interested to acquire answer on it. I will roll up informations through the given information and will roll up it. It gives answer that the chief method which will be utile in my undertaking work is quantitative, as the chief method in the field of oil/gas or sustainability. As good support stuffs will be from the schemes and from the communities which have been involved in due work.

“ The Arctic and our northern parts contain prodigious wealth. We must make a Soviet organisation which can, in the shortest period possible, include this wealth in the general resources of our socialist economic construction ” . – Josef Stalin, 1932.

In peculiar, the political tradition of experience with societal democracy, and assorted capitalist economy with powerful trade brotherhoods have made the nisus for consensus a major force in Norse society. We believe this experience has created its decisive ‘corporate societal duty ‘ cast on the moral manner of thought in Norway.



Why I am interested in this subject.

Boundary line to the limited research.

Shtokman undertaking.


Qualitative method.

Social constructivism.

Development theory and historical chronology

Instrument of definition

Research scheme.


Companies involved in Shtokman undertaking

Regulations which have been signed up during the undertaking procedure.

Philosophic point of position

Roll uping informations

Analyzing informations.

Data cogency and dependability





Last yearss we have been detecting different state of affairss, roll uping stuffs, coming up with inquiries and making decisions. All these assist us to recognize in some instances, how I need to show major political orientation terminal consequence through the busy clip, where were connected, so much resources.

As have been discussed in the research method to roll up informations should be planed right, attack to make that expected to be planed or organized, as expected to be structured.

The chief platform in the Arctic duologue was analyzing circuit where we as pupils can be involved in existent life narratives where major subject related to the Arctic Dialog with immense debatable inquiries. Where in my sentiment gave us possibility to construct some attack or declaration – how we could show our declaration and in which signifier that shows the terminal consequence.

We do observe immense resorts of information which have been giving during the clip period in the Arctic part, from the theoretical analysis, we have to detect every bit much as we can, whole type of information can be utile and of import, but in my instance I will concentrate my research thought on the relationship Between Russia and Norway in the Barents Sea, so this undertaking got a name as Shtokman. What we know about it? Well from the seeking information I can reason that already were composing and showing much information and thesis about it, but I will seek to keep and come up with my ain research which may give some apprehension in instance of survey the research direction.

We can detect the state of affairs between oil and gas companies which do run in the Barents invested in competency development, set uping new concern contacts, and larning about offshore practice.1

1.1 Why this subject is interesting for me

The growing of the universe market of energy resources is depended, foremost of all from the oil and gas, conveying possibilities to the politicians from all over the universe to be active and set up new schemes to advance ain national involvements in the Arctic part. As good, they concentrate to develop scientific discipline research and to larn more about Arctic with natural resources in it, as it is the chief strategic part for developing. They provide armed forcess activities for tasting.

From old research which shows that about 25 % of the oil and gas are located in this part. This information became in danger for the North states, as it is may pay attending from others to concentrate their head on it. As we know from geopolitics and history that these resources did large harm in the life manner of people.

The large concentration on developing, utilizing or geographic expedition oil and gas has influenced the Global heating which is turning quickly and the immense sum of glaciers are runing as shown in statistical day of the months.

The developing procedure may assist people to alter the state of affairs in the topographic point where are they now, as we do unrecorded in Arctic part, we do desire to widen cultural relation, to develop in a manner with understanding the environmental and ethical facets.

Boundary line to the limited research.

The boundary line procedure will assist to contract down the research of my subject where my concentration will be more delimitated on the information which I am interesting to specify. Well, the thought of this procedure to specify or restrict the sum of the information where you will be more concentrated in. So, I will specify geographically, the common undertaking there and the research method2.

Geographically – my focal point will be on the Barents Sea, I will seek to specify the population, communities, location and common resources at that place ;

The common undertaking there – good, it is Shtokmon and co-operation between Russia and Norway, and I will detect the understanding between them, as historically and legal papers.

Research method – will command the findings, as the research in my paper will be stress on the Barents declaration between Russian and Norway.

“ This is a historic milepost. The pact resolves what for several decennaries remained the most of import outstanding issue between Norway and Russia. We are pleased that we have now established the maritime boundary between Norway and Russia in the Barents Sea and the Arctic Ocean, ” noticed Prime Minister Stoltenberg3.

My findings will be defined and observed from the jurisprudence, books, personal interviews and online publican stuffs.

Shtokman undertaking

Political, concern and general public attending paid to develop of the Arctic resource and to the Shtokman field in peculiar, has grown during the last decennary in Russia and in the planetary position. The part in the Arctic shows the state of affairs which is go oning at that place and where the focal point is concerned on the future security and on the resources of the huge hydrocarbon. The common demand to increase quickly the sum of energy needed, energy companies ‘ emphasis on the Region where they can acquire every bit much as possible, and common subject is the Arctic.

The chief thought of developing the Sthokman is to transport the gas via grapevine to Europe, every bit good as cargo of the liquified natural gas ( LNG ) to the Atlantic markets. The coaction between does alter the top topographic point in the oil market of USA, as domestic production of shale gas created challenges for both Russian and Norse natural gas exports. Nowadays the both parts of the declaration to keep, develop and analyse the Arctic in a manner of investings for the Shtokman undertaking due to alterations in the oil and gas market.

The undertaking was organized as the location with the largest gas condensate sedimentations in the Barents Sea in February 2008, and this undertaking was established, as a company A«Shtokman Development AGA» . Stockholders are Russian Gazprom, France ‘s A«Total SAA» and Norse A«StatoilHydro ASAA» with portions of 51 % , 25 % and 24 % severally. The undertaking is a long and expected to be til 2043. The undertaking provides a complete rhythm of gas field development from research to refinement and transit. The immense cognition and experience do carry on the spouse to this undertaking from “ Gazprom ” , “ Entire ” and “ StatoilHydro ” , the national and international specializers rotary motion ( Russia – Moscow, Murmansk, St. Petersburg, United Kingdom – London, France – Paris, Switzerland – Canton Zug ) technological and managerial solutions necessary for the success of this alone undertaking. The successful development of the Shtokman field will be important in guaranting the supply of gas to international markets4.


A last thing to maintain in our head, is that all research workers imagine and construe theoretical representations in their ain manner, and this means that different researches will come up with different theoretical representations even though the general subject of the research may be the same. Three farther features of good research, whether it be expansive or low, and which distinguish it from activities such as decision-making or consultancy, are identified by Phillips and Pugh ( 2005 ) . First, good research is based on an unfastened system of idea. This requires continual testing, reappraisal and unfavorable judgment of other ‘ thought, and willingness to guess new thoughts, even if one ca n’t happen half a twelve mentions to back up one ‘s position. Second, one must ever be prepared to analyze informations critically, and to bespeak the grounds behind decisions drawn by others. Third, one should ever seek to generalise the research, but within stated bounds. This means trying to pull out understanding from one state of affairs and to use it to as many other state of affairss a possible.

2.1. The empirical scene

The part in the Arctic shows the state of affairs which is go oning at that place and where the focal point is concerned on the future security and on the resources of the huge hydrocarbon. The common demand to increase quickly the sum of energy needed, energy companies ‘ emphasis on the Region where they can acquire every bit much as possible, and common subject is the Arctic. This subject which is discoursing in my paper during whole session is about the current legal government which is common presents in the. The manner to analyse or come up with decisions is chiefly concerned on the current resources at that place. The jurisprudence and declarations which were suggested to be utile at that place, do play of import function to run there and make alterations, every bit good as support the part in the manner of high security of the Arctic part. It is true that the government which is common there is un structured and for the investings are quit unknown to make rectify the undertakings energy companies where the emphasis to geographic expedition and the chief object of this government. “ It is suggested that the Arctic States reconsider their current stance and research the issue of a comprehensive and holistic legal model for the high seas part of the Arctic Ocean ” 5.

2.2. Social constructivism

I our instance work I will utilize a positivism understanding which says that the cardinal thought is that the societal work exists externally and that its belongingss should be measured through nonsubjective methods, instead than being inferred subjectively through esthesis, contemplation and intuition. And societal consructionism which has been developed by philosophers mostly in reaction to the application of positivism to the societal scientific disciplines, stems from the position that world is non nonsubjective and exterior, but is socially constructed and given significance by people.

‘All good minds have repeated, since Bacon ‘s clip, that there can be no existent cognition out that which is based on ascertained facts. ‘ – Auguste Comte ( 1853 ) .

This statement contains two premises:

An ontological premise, that world is external and nonsubjective ;

An epistemic premise that cognition is merely of significance if it is based on observations of this external world.

Harmonizing to Kuhn, scientific discipline advancement in bantam stairss, which refine and extend, what is already known: but on occasion experiments start to bring forth consequences that do non suit into bing theories and patterns6.

Development theory and historical chronology

Development implies a procedure of societal alterations. The impression has its root in the original transmutation of Western European societies or the rise of modern industrial societies.

Development involves: New institutional set ups and changed forms of human interaction with their societal and natural environment connoting new societal organisations of economic activities in order to fulfill peoples ‘ demands and desires.

Two chief positions: Growth and advancement

Growth: . Economic growing is in focal point. Economic theoretical accounts of dealingss between rates of nest eggs and investments- capital formation, industrialisation and economic growing ;

Advancement: Focus is on qualitative alterations, human development, which can be enhanced by human cognition and progressive motion of productive forces.

The procedure of economic transmutation in states involved both internal and external factors:

Internal factors: Natural resources: Natural stuffs, fish and lumber, hydro-electricity.

Institutional factors: The province ‘s function in economic planning, capital accretion back uping a long term structural alteration ; modulating involvement rate, recognition, monetary value, pay etc. , and in building substructure. Equal chance for higher and vocational instruction through province financess paving the way for intensified political participation7.

External factors: International chances: External urges of technological revolutions from USA.

Instrument of definition

Strategic planning determines where the Shtokman undertaking will travel in the following few old ages or more, and so how it gets at that place. Normally, the procedure involves the full organisation, as a whole, or dressed ores on a peculiar functional unit, such as section or country, good in our instance it is Barents sea. Strategic planning is a dynamic procedure ; it is populating beings that have evolved over clip. Therefore, strategic invention and mid-course corrections “ Strategic Plan ” should be the basis scheme of the organisation that wants to last in a invariably altering and unpredictable clime of the concern world8.

Research scheme

Supplying our strategic way is to find the possible effects of the chief jobs and pull decisions about what the current undertaking takes in order to obtain long-run competitory advantage. These findings represent the overall consequences ( strategic aims ) , which should do the undertaking and the overall methods ( or schemes ) to accomplish these consequences. These decisions or aims should maximise the undermentioned features: Designation, mensurable, suited for those who realize the end, realistic, limited clip.

At a certain phase of the strategic planning procedure ( sometimes, in finding the strategic way ) , we will explicate or update that can be called the strategic “ doctrine ” . This includes the preparation or updating of a mission statement, vision and / or values aˆ‹aˆ‹of the organization8.

The concluding measure is the alleged “ eventuality planning ” , action planning is the development of a elaborate program of the strategic aims of our undertaking. Action be aftering frequently consists of productions, under each strategic end, aims, or specific consequences. Therefore, the strategic aim, normally linked to the execution of intermediate marks – in this sense, the job is the end, but on a little graduated table. In our instance, it will be associated with a purely defined tactical move, which represents one of the methods needed to carry through the undertaking. Execution of the scheme consists of the realisation, as the Stokman undertaking concerned to develop Arctic part, co-operate and unfastened new activities together with Russia and provide the resources of oil and gas to the Europe, USA and Asiatic market.

Action planning besides includes answerability, or understanding on the allotment of duty and timely execution of each undertaking between the affected parties. The procedure of planning must besides unwrap methods of monitoring and rating program. These methods allow to understand, how the organisation finds out who, what and when did it.

The budget is normally present in both the strategic program, and in the operating room. Budgets besides reveal inside informations of how the money will be used, such as work force, equipment, natural stuffs, etc.

Two old ages of the first stage of the Shtokman budget will be $ 800 million, and shared between the three chief companies Gazprom, Total and StatoilHydro10.


Phenomenology, as it is normally discussed in histories of qualitative research, emphasized merely the antonym. It aims to place and depict the subjective experiences of respondents. It is a affair analyzing mundane experience from the point of position of the topic, and it shuns critical rating of signifiers of societal life. So, in this point of position we will detect the companies and people, and how they studied from the old spills of oil and what coders in this instance were provided.

Companies involved in Shtokman undertaking

Do emphasis on the chief survey about the Shtokman we are pulling on a comparative survey of two Norse oil companies as Statoil and Hydro, France Company Total and the Russian one Gazprom. It is argued that the holistic focal point on history, execution and results of the invention thoughts brought by these companies potential to be involved in this immense undertaking. The grounds shows that the institutional entrepreneurship can themselves merely, to a little extent, change the bing norms of power and privilege in a top-down regulated context. Rather they can assist to micro-actors associate and innovate. The sort of institutional work stimulates bottom-up alteration mechanisms which differ from version to isomorphic force per unit area from environmental aspects11.

Regulations which have been signed up during the undertaking procedure.

The Euro-Arctic Cooperation in the Barents Sea and the intergovernmental traffics in the Arctic part was happened in that clip when the Foreign Ministers of Russia, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, Iceland and the European Commission were signed the Kirkenes Declaration on 11 January 1993. Norway -Russia Maritime Boundary Agreement signed September 13, 2010. ( hypertext transfer protocol: // )

The Council plan came up with thought from the Northern states as Russia, Norway, Sweden and Finland, as to closer co-operation between them in the Barents part. Equally good as groups of autochthonal people and some organisations and members of this part was connected to the Barents Euro-Arctic Council, where the object of the Forum is to advance and develop the Barents region12.

It is obvious that the contract with the Russian side is chiefly for the benefit of the trade good anteroom, which can non wait to get down developing hydrocarbon sedimentations in the Barents Sea. The involvements of the fishing industry have been grossly marginalized.

Meanwhile, nil prevents Russia at this phase to negociate with Norway ‘s lone subdivision of offshore hydrocarbon Fieldss, non at all mentioning to inquiries about the boundaries of sole economic zones, means fishery issues. So it was possible to lodge and retreat, and to keep the position quo in the piscary. And that position quo is surely good to our piscaries, which proves from the pattern of the last 35 old ages.

Philosophic point of position

In this instance we will detect the philosophical premises about the nature of the societal universe – ontology and epistemology which is concerned about the nature of different approved societal cognition. The capable affair of the societal scientific disciplines is typical from that of the physical scientific discipline. Social world is an of import subclass of world, and its facts are facts merely by human understandings. When it comes to the positions of institutional theory, modern-day theoreticians non merely choice different pillars ( regulatory, normative and cultural-cognitive ) to back up their versions of institutional construction, but these pillars are constructed utilizing changing types of ontological regulations and doing different ( epistemic ) premises about how best to account for societal behavior13.

Roll uping informations.

Before following the information aggregation, it ever helps to be clear about the overall aims of the research. So to make that we have to concentrate our head on:

We have to be leery of informations aggregation that goes harmonizing to program ;

Research topics have besides been known to be people ;

The judge ‘s scientific observation is the individual ‘s real-life experience.

Entire trust and complete incredulity are also-rans in the field. All things in moderateness, particularly trust and incredulity ;

Pay attending to enticement in the field that it appears to hold something to make with what we are analyzing ;

Always carry excess batteries and gateway money.

From Halcolm ‘s Fieldwork Laws

Analyzing informations.

Purpose is the commanding force in research. Decisions about design, measuring, analysis and describing all flow from intent. Therefore, the first measure in a research procedure is acquiring clear about intent. The centrality of intent in doing methods determinations becomes apparent from analyzing alternate intents along a continuum from theory to action.

The practical significance of the research lies in the fact that its commissariats may be used every bit good: a ) in the activities of environmental protection, jurisprudence enforcement and judicial organic structures to see instances of environmental misdemeanors ;

B ) In the authorities operations that perform public maps in the direction and protection of the environment ;

degree Celsiuss ) For the farther research in this country ;

vitamin D ) In the jurisprudence devising activities in bettering the bing environmental, administrative and condemnable statute law, statute law on the territorial sea, sole economic zone and Continental shelf of the Russian Federation ;

vitamin E ) The foreign activities of authorised authorities and direction to conserve marine environment and its constituents, and in the acquisition procedure in learning the classs “ Environmental Law ” and “ International Law ” .

It will be ever a figure of people who will pay attending on the information which you are seeking to specify, and individual who is traveling to protect every bit much as possible some information which he or his company tries to protect from the observation.

In my point of you it ever has to be a spouse or individual which can protect or follow you during the instance definition with the same position, experience in the interested filed.

In my instance survey I decidedly will utilize interviews. So, I will utilize simple inquiries which will assist a individual start to be in an unfastened, friendly place and may give him a opportunity to get down to speak and to portion the information with me. The get downing point can be: “ Can you state me delight about your background, working experience, how did you get down to work in Energy Company or what is common or high-sounding discussed subject in a instance of oil and gas field? ” . As a consequence of several interviews may give a challenge to cover with them in a instance of acquiring the of import stuffs.

Validity and dependability

To make emphasize on the qualitative survey which is associated with the freedom to take definitions and develop readings of the information. The chief poi nod the qualitative method is to do your work paper easier and softer, means that research supposes to be available to people, who is non scientists. The connexion between informations which we got and theoretical model may link them together and to make that you have to concentrate you mind in a proper manner. For illustration, Chapman argues that the field is non unfastened for the research worker ‘s favourite accounts.

Theoretical accounts or readings are to be developed in a meaningful manner, consistent with roll uping the field informations. The quality of this procedure has to make with the cogency and dependability standards. And both cogency and dependability is the chief construct which you may see in my paper work.

So, procedural dependability is about keeping the approved research method. Contextual cogency is about measuring each piece of grounds by comparing it with other sorts of grounds sing the same issue. To do this procedure more transparent would stand for a new attack to cogency in qualitative surveies. And to make so, multiple beginnings of grounds can be used.


Data analysis started from the obtained information into following classs: organized web, description of the cardinal histrions, experienced challenged, gotten consequence from the interviews, matching controls, the development of regional steps to protect the environment faces a figure of complexnesss.

First proposed by representatives of the scientific discipline of categorization of protected countries are less suited for usage by legislators because of the different classs of multi-variant and governments and we have to take between the demands and better reflect the demands of environmental environment and chances of legal technique will be shown below, this pick does non ever supply the optimum degree of protection and preservation of natural systems in footings of increasing anthropogenic.

Regulatory model of research are international pacts and conventions on the protection of the Marine environment, the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Russian federal statute law, the statute law of the European Community and single Member States, Torahs U.S. , Canada, Australia and some states of the CIS.

Among the beginnings analyzed jurisprudence – acts modulating the execution of regional steps to protect the environment in general and the Acts of the Apostless set uping the characteristics of the execution of such steps in the marine environment during the operation were besides examined ordinances set uping the features of authorities in protecting the Marine environment

Empirical footing of this research is the information about the environment, studies on activity of the governments and administrative organic structures on the execution of territorial environmental protection steps in single provinces, the stuffs of international intergovernmental, international and public organisations dedicated to the organisation of regional steps to protect marine environment.

The grade of the amplification of the research subject. The regional steps of the environmental protection, is a complex establishment of environmental jurisprudence execution of such steps involves the usage of legal resources related countries of jurisprudence ( including administrative, condemnable, and civil ) . The pick of steps of legal protection of the districts in order to protect the environment or its constituents depends on the geographic, biological, economic and other cognition necessary for effectual declaration of complex societal state of affairss in connexion with the infliction of limitations on all or some activities on selected countries of legal tools used to cover with such societal state of affairss, in theory of jurisprudence have been called legal governments characteristic of legal governments is exactly is the handiness of its internal construction to supply the coveted degree of the diverse control of the societal dealingss through a combination of methods and tools built-in in the assorted subdivisions of jurisprudence.

With respect to the territorial protection of the Marine environment, to the general jobs of building the legal government is added to the inquiry of the relation between international jurisprudence and national statute law.

The administrative reform and the turning influence of the Russian Federation on the international scene aroused the involvement of research workers to the jobs of administration in the environmental field, including the Marine environment devoted to these jobs, in peculiar, work in a Vlasov14 “ Public disposal in the field of environmental protection and nature. ”

Should acknowledge that the topic ( except for some publications associations ) the scientific community has non been given particular attending because among the assortment of work carried out by Russian research workers in the assorted subdivisions of jurisprudence ( international, international Marine, administrative, ecological ) , the writer could non happen surveies covering with issues of legal government of the territorial steps protect the Marine environment, foregrounding the demand and seasonableness of this work.

Freshness and scientific research consequences are as follows15:

– Carried out the aggregation, processing and analysis of the normative paperss of the Russian Federation, foreign provinces and international organisations in the domain of regional steps to protect the Marine environment,

– Been demarcated legal government of specially protected countries and protected countries on the footing of the features of their organisation and operation of the Marine environment,

– The basic waies of law-making in the organisation of the legal government of specially protected countries,

– Based on a reappraisal of scientific literature and ordinances give definitions of basic constructs used in the organisation and operation of Marine protected countries, and besides highlighted their characteristic characteristics.

Decision and Suggestion

As many decennaries the inquiry between Russia and Norway has non been agreed in a instance how to split the Arctic part in the Barents part. Already in 2007 two states agreed to administer 120 kilometer of the southern portion of the disputed Waterss, which is located between Russia ‘Rybaczkiy ‘ and Norway ‘Varanger ‘ peninsulas. After three old ages of treatment they eventually agreed the northern portion and a portion of the unfastened sea. In 15 of September in 2010 has been signed up a declaration where 860 thousand km2 went to Russia and 510 1000 km2 went to Norway. In add-on, the signed up understanding is allowed to take the moratorium on geological prospecting.

Dispute between them opens for Russia great positions in the development of the Arctic resources. Therefore, the Northerners have alone equipment for deep boring in the Polar latitudes. Without it, Russia can face with troubles to research the Shtokman and many other Fieldss. The Norwegians will non lose every bit good – their companies are connected to the Russian wealth.

It is hard to overrate the international significance of the signed up understanding. Russia, Norway, Denmark, USA and Canada are reasoning in the instance of spliting the Arctic shelf. All expect that Russia will fall in the NATO and theoretically are able to against them as an united forepart. Americans, Canadians and Danish have repeated that they will non give any piece of Arctic to Russia. Fortunately, the Norwegians were positive to happen a solution and a possible anti – Russian block has been broken. How to measure this understanding? – Well this understanding is good for Russia.

First, the fact that Russia is ill engineering developed, even for production of the hydrocarbons in shallow Waterss, and Norwegians have successfully begin to bore in deep H2O.

Second, Norway shows itself in dialogue procedure with Russia spouses and does that in a flexible manner, in contrast to all other rivals of the division the Arctic wealth. It is proven that by single-minded understanding. Oslo did non raise a call about some force per unit area from Moscow, they divided this part about every bit.

And 3rd, a similar understanding is besides the starting point for future bettering dealingss between Russia and Norway in the instance when other Arctic states try to split oil and gas resources, by forcing each other.

Collaborating together and back uping each other will better support their place in the universe.

Recognition: I am thankful for the talks of the Research Management with Jan-Oddvar Sornes, which may give us understanding of the common research methods, and possibility to make research more about the Arctic part. Well, our survey or more theoretical premises as a research gave us to be closer to the Norse – Russian coaction.

From my research I can reason that I still have to analyze more and form my paper work in better manner, but what we have studied during this semester gave me a possibility to acquire more cognition in the methodological model as a research direction.


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Qualitative and research and rating methods, 3 edition, M.Q. Patton, USA 2002.

Martinussen J.D: 1997: Society, State & A ; Market: A usher to viing theories of development, Zed Books, London, Chapters Introduction, 1, 2, 3,4, 5, 7, 9 ( 102 pages ) .

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Theory and society, W. Richard Scott, 2008, USA.

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Primary resources:

Approbation of the research consequences. Main commissariats of the research reflected in the published documents, presented at the III All-Russian scientific-practical conference “ Actual Problems of Jurisprudence ” ( Mr. Penza, September 2007 ) , an international scientific-practical conference “ Large Marine ecosystems of Russia in the epoch of planetary alteration ( clime, resources, control ) ( r Rostov-on-Don, October 2007 ) .

‘The future history of the Arctic ‘ by Charles Emmerson, 2010, London.

‘Oil and Gas jurisprudence in a nut shell ‘ by John S. Lowe, 2010, Southern Methodist University, US.

‘Arctic Energy in EU Policy: Arbitrary involvement in the Norse High North ‘ by Kristine Offerdal.

‘The Geopoliticss of Petroleum and Natural Gas ‘ by Andrew Browning reader

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