Glass ceiling is an mute, unobserved unreal barrier that prevent adult females from progressing on their calling to senior degree place regardless of all the makings, experience and accomplishment. Even though there is no jurisprudence stating adult females can non obtain the executive place in the organisation or in any other field, there are obstructions that lie beneath the surface which adult females are unable interruption so that she can accomplish her end. It now has different significance than it was foremost coined in Civil Rights Act of 1964. The term ‘Glass Ceiling ‘ was once more mentioned by Carol Hymowitz and Timothy Schellhardt in 1986 to find gender prejudice in corporate America ( Smith and Burke ) .
Federal Glass Ceiling Commission that surveyed corporate leaders, adult females, minorities acknowledge that glass ceiling exists in the organisation but besides concluded that the biasness towards adult females and minorities are decreasing compared to decennary ago and is traveling in a positive way because of the altering demographics in labour force, national consumer market and rapid globalisation of the market place ( DOL ) .
For centuries, adult females have ever been dominated by adult male. The work forces were the staff of life earner in the household and adult females were taking attention of the household and place. Most adult females, themselves ne’er thought of working outside their place. Those who were working were from lower category and merely used to make family plants. That ‘s how society worked for centuries. But that all changed during the World War II. Womans were called to work on production line because work forces were away to war. This was thought to be a impermanent solution for the deficit in the work force. Womans were given entree to high-skilled occupation that were done by work forces. Most people thought that one time work forces returned from war, they will make the work and adult females will travel back to their ain life style, which is taking attention of place and household. But adult females hold their clasp and stayed and work-force got divided between work forces and adult females. Labor force was no longer male dominated.
After World War II, the spread between male and female in the work force started to acquire slender. Womans were made up of merely 14.8 % of work force in 1967. Their representation in the work force has been increasing easy in recent old ages. Womans now comprise of 46.6 % of labour force in US ( BLS ) .
Some people argue there are no such things as Glass Ceiling and it does non be any longer. Carleton Fiorina, foremost female CEO of Hewlett Packard in 1999 claimed that there is no such thing as glass ceiling. She added that there are no bounds for adult females and they can accomplish whatever they want if they are dedicated and determined ( Cotter et al. , 2001 ) . In 2006 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, current president of Liberia was able to check the glass ceiling by being the lone adult females to contend with 22 presidential campaigners and eventually interrupt the glass ceiling by winning the presidential term of Liberia ( Harsch ) . Others like Professor Harminia Ibarra, and Professor Morten T. Hansen, argues that glass ceiling still exist. They surveies informations of 2009 from leading of 2000 universe executing companies and found that one merely adult female, Meg Whitman- former CEO of eBay and Current CEO of Hewlett Packard, made it to their 100 CEOs list. They claim that Glass Ceiling exists non merely in corporate universe but besides in educational establishments and public disposal ( Ibarra & A ; Hansen ) .
Research Supporting One Side or View
In today ‘s working environment, adult females are demanding more equality. Modern adult females now have entree to exceed quality instruction as work forces do. Their rights are being protected by ordinances that focus on gender equality and favoritism against adult females. They are given same regard as work forces and are considered an plus by organisations and society ; non merely a individual who is supposed to pass their clip in kitchen and taking attention of households. The position of the adult females in the profession environment is bettering. Women ‘s are more and more involved in the concern determinations of the company. They are on top leading places or are on the manner to be prospective leaders in close hereafter. Womans like Hillary Clinton of US, Suu Kyi of Myanmar, and Sonia Gandhi of India are now successful politicians. When people see adult females in such an influential places, it is possible to believe that glass ceiling extinct long ago.
But in world the job of glass ceiling is still at big. Even though adult females grasp in political relations and in concern are turning, they are still understated in male controlled society. Harmonizing to UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs ( UN DESA ) study of 2010, merely 17 % seats are occupied by adult females in national parliaments, less than 5 % elected Heads of the State are adult females, and less than 6 % of the adult females are Heads of Government in the universe. Merely 8 % of companies with female in senior degree places have female Chief Executive Officers globally. In every sector and in all states of the universe, adult females are underrepresented.
There is a realisation that presence of adult females is needed to distribute the diverseness and apprehension of human cognition, but nil concrete has been done to advance it. Women face disadvantage in managerial and professional scenes. As adult females progresss on her calling, the prejudice against them becomes more terrible. They experience important spread in their net incomes and low chance of acquiring promoted. Womans are treated otherwise non merely because of occupation relevant makings, but societal status in the workplace and cultural biasness besides plays a cardinal function in the being of glass ceiling. Pigeonholing and prepossessions about the function of the adult females still exist in the society. Particularly, in Africa, Southeast Asia, Middle East there is a immense gender spread in the highest place of the company. Womans are ignored and are non considered tantrum to run the large corporation in these parts.
In Africa, even though adult females are on top leading places and are shattering glass ceiling, there still is a immense gender disparity in the workplace. The path to make the top is twice difficult for adult females than it is for work forces. Womans have to travel through humiliation and have to confront dire effects if they stand up to work forces. Centre for Human Rights and Rehabilitation ( CHRR ) , a Malawian homo rights watchdog claims that adult females who challenge to run for elected office are summoned to show in small town tribunal on allegations for dissing work forces by running for the office ( Opio, 2011 ) .
In Canada, adult females comprises of 47.3 % of labour force, but merely 35.4 % of adult females held the direction businesss and less than 23 % adult females are in senior direction businesss ( Catalyst ) . The per centum of adult females in senior degree place is less than it was a decennary ago.
In Japan, adult females comprise of 42.6 % of the entire work force, but merely 8 % adult females held the senior managerial place in the state ( Hays ) . Japan is among the state with last per centum of adult females in senior direction businesss.
In India, adult females comprise of 39.9 % of the entire work force, but merely 3 % of the adult females are in legislative, direction and senior degree places. Womans have to confront many obstructions to make to the senior managerial degree. Women foremans are non respected by work forces and are excluded from formal and informal webs. Glass ceiling exist in India and can be easy seeable. Harmonizing to the survey done in 2011 by Gender Diversity Benchmark, adult females at junior degree of the workplace comprise of 28.71 % . As they move up to the higher degree, the per centum of adult females in the workplace decreases, consisting of merely 14.9 % at in-between degree. The per centum of adult females decreases well as she moves to senior degree, which comprises of merely 9.32 % . ( Catalyst ) .
Survey done in 2009 by McKinsey of corporations who have involvement in the emerging market reveals that less than 20 % of the companies have shown enterprises in advancing adult females in the work force ( Coleman ) . More than 80 % company executives have shown no enterprises to authorise adult females in the work force. Companies that have shown enterprises reported that they have already seen net incomes on their investing because of their determination to authorise adult females. Though the result is positive, adult females are still underrepresented in the work force globally.
Surveies done by Catalyst, New York based research organisation in 2011 discovered that even though adult females made up 46.6 % of labour force in US, adult females are accounted for merely 7.5 % top earner executive officer place and merely 16 % adult females are on board seats at Fortune 500 companies. They besides found out that in Fortune 500 companies, there are no female executive officers in more than 125 companies. Furthermore, in 2008 during the clip of recession, adult females in senior degree place were three times more likely to lose their occupation than male in similar places ( Schlesinger ) .
Herminia Ibarra and Morten Hansen stresses on the research completed by Catalyst Corporation which shows that adult females comprise 57 % of college pupils but merely 26 % are full professors and merely 14 % are University Presidents. They besides point out to the fact that 47.2 % of adult females are jurisprudence school alumnuss but merely 25 % of them are Judgess ( Williams. ) .
There is a immense gender pay spread among male and female. Even though adult females have same makings, experience and instruction, adult females are paid less compared to work forces. Gender spread has n’t changed for a decennary. Based on the 2011 Current Population Survey, adult females are gaining 77 cents for every dollar work forces earn ; 23 cents less compared to work forces ( Catalyst ) .Women are still confronting tonss of obstructions in the workplace. Federal Glass Ceiling Commission ( FGCC ) , a bipartizan organic structure appointed by President George H.W.Bush in 1991 discovered three degrees of barriers to the promotion of adult females calling in higher place
The first degree is social barriers which includes the educational background of adult females. These barriers are outside the control of the concern. Stereotyping, favouritism, dogmatism besides falls in social barriers.
The 2nd degree is internal structural barriers. This includes deficiency of mentoring, unequal enlisting patterns and progress direction preparation. Percept and fright are the chief grounds work forces are non supplying adequate preparation and mentoring to adult females. They fear that they will lose the chances to progress their ain calling if they provide mentoring to adult females. Men expression for people who are like them, culturally and ethnically.
Third degree is a authorities barrier. Government is non systematically supervising the glass ceiling in the workplace. They are unable to roll up the employment related informations efficaciously and merely few glass ceiling in a workplace are being reported.
Survey conducted by Catalyst in 2003 with CEOs from Fortune 1000 companies and with senior degree female employees reveals that deficiency of experience in general direction was the chief barrier in the calling promotion of the adult females to senior leading functions. It besides reveals that two-third of CEOs believe the function of the company is important to run into the direction demands of adult females. Furthermore, about 50 % adult females showed exclusion from informal webs as a barrier to their calling promotion, compared to 18 % CEOs who believes exclusion from informal web as a barrier in adult females career promotion. 16 % of adult females believe that deficiency of mentoring as a barrier in their calling promotion ( Lockwood ) .
Glass Ceiling exists because people in senior degree places believe that managerial function requires strong proficient and interpersonal accomplishments and there is a common perceptual experience of maleness. Womans are less likely to hold all these masculine qualities and are hence deprived from the senior degree places in the organisation. They are punished because they fail to accommodate to social outlook where work forces are considered to be decisive, confident, determined and rational and adult females are considered to be soft, dependent, helpful and friendly. Since senior degree executives views all the leading qualities in work forces, adult females are non considered for top place. Womans are merely able to make to certain degree in corporate hierarchy before they encounter with glass ceiling that prevents them from making to the senior degree position in the company.
One of the illustrations that show the being of glass ceiling would be the statement by Rhonda Harper, former Vice-President of Marketing at Sam ‘s Club in Dukes vs. Wal-Mart instance ( Featherstone ) .In her testimony she explained how she was told by senior frailty president Ray Hobbs that she should non worry about progressing her calling at Wal-Mart and should pass clip in kitchen and looking after her household. She farther add that to be accepted in a group of executives, she had to acquire involved in made ruling activities such as hunting and fishing which she did n’t enjoyed.
This non merely shows the male domination in the corporate universe but besides a glass ceiling that adult females encountered when she further wants to progress her calling. She either has to suit in with civilizations of company, dominated largely by males or has to lose her occupation, which happened to Rhonda harpist. She was fired by the Company when everyone was anticipating she would be the new CEO of Wal-Mart because she could non suit within the work forces ‘s nine of Wal-Mart
Research Supporting the Opposite View
Many top degree directors, research workers argue glass ceiling is long gone and there is no such thing as glass ceiling. The glass ceiling that exists today is in the heads of the adult females, who label it a ‘glass ceiling ‘ if she is non selected for the senior degree place. Hillary Davey, a multi-millionaire and female parent of two enunciates that glass ceiling is nil but an alibi for adult females ain incompetency in the corporate universe ( Glennie ) . Womans are given equal chances as work forces and have managed to acquire equal or excel the place of work forces non merely in the corporate universe but besides in other countries such as political relations. Womans like German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton are now in a leading place functioning their state.
One of the ground adult females are non in a top degree place is because many adult females goes for less demanding callings where they do n’t hold to to the full perpetrate to their work and can go forth clip for their household. They are non promoted because they do n’t use for publicities and want to work less hours with less or no emphasis at all. Review of the research grounds by Catherine Hakim shows that when picks are unfastened to adult females, 20 per centum are home-centered adult females who do non prefer to work and gives precedence to household values, 60 per centum are adaptative adult females who want to work but do non desire to wholly committed to work calling and merely 20 per centum are work centered adult females who are committed to work ( Hakim, 2006 ) .
Survey of 6.700 companies in Japan in 2002 revealed that 51 % of the respondents agree that adult females tend to take occupation that do non take them to direction place. The study besides revealed that adult females are non willing to go on concern trips or relocate, which is of import in managerial occupations ( International Labor Office ) .
This statistics shows that adult females ain personal penchants are the grounds for non accomplishing the highest place in the field they work, and non the glass ceiling. Some adult females walk off from their occupation to get down their ain concern. It ‘s non that they are forced to go forth the company but they made a pick to populate on their ain footings and conditions.
Lorraine Heggesssey, the first female accountant of BBC1 in the interview with Evan Davis describes it ‘s non the glass ceiling that stops adult females in their calling promotion. She explains that there are barriers that work forces or adult females do n’t recognize even exist. She gave the illustration when she was a manufacturer of current personal businesss at BBC1. She clarifies work forces tend to discourse assignment with equals at break clip or during the class of the football lucifer and complete it. She adds that work forces are non seeking to be sexist or seeking to know apart against her but it is convenient to them at that clip ( BBC Radio ) . It ‘s the deficiency of experience that is the obstructions in adult females career promotion, non glaze ceiling.
Maureen Rice, editor of Psychologies magazine writes that 60 % of the in-between degree adult females give up their calling on their mid-30 ‘s onwards to pass more clip with their households. Rice gave an illustration of a adult female at 20 ‘s who was basking her occupation to the fullest but lost the flicker at her 30 ‘s because of the everyday work. Rice adds that though the adult female was talented and have achieved success in her calling, she wanted to use the glass ceiling to her ain calling for her personal addition.
Research done by Elacqua, Beehr, and Hansen besides points out to the fact that work forces tend to be more involved in interpersonal relationships and in situational issues than adult females. Womans have problem set uping mentoring relationship with the male-dominated callings and exclude themselves from powerful male webs, therefore extinguishing the possibility of traveling up the calling ladder. Research besides indicated that adult females do non utilize web because they feel that it is non necessary for themselves and for their company.
But male use their interpersonal accomplishments to set up relationship with wise mans who are normally high ranking officers and senior degree employees, thereby increasing their opportunities of really be promoted in upper degree places. It is non the glass ceiling that is halting adult females to accomplish what they want but the deficiency of assurance in their ain ability to near to wise mans and inquire for their counsel and information that prevents them to mount to the senior place in the organisation. They are scared of defense and hence are non able to mount to the top.
Study commissioned by Dell and conducted by Harris Interactive on adult females director in transnational companies around the universe reveals that glass ceiling is non the factor adult females consider before they quit the work force or fall in the work force in the first topographic point. The survey concluded that there are assorted challenges adult females faces that forestall them from progressing on their calling, irrespective of any civilizations. Study discovered that adult females exit the work force for personal and household duties. They felt that these duties were the chief hinderances in their calling promotion. 76 % adult females echoed personal and household duty as the ground for go forthing work force, 73 % adult females said inordinate hours at the work force as the chief ground, 67 % adult females said their ain personal pick as ground for go forthing the work force, 46 % said less salary compensation as ground for go forthing work force and 38 % said they were forced to remain place ( Rudrappa ) .
Study conducted by Harris Interactive besides reveals that the chief ground adult females stayed in the work force or accepted the occupation in the first topographic point was for good compensation bundle, position, chances for disputing work and promotion in the company, and for company values. 76 % adult females said they looked for good compensation and benefit bundles before fall ining the company, 58 % said company place mattered in their choice of the company, 51 % adult females said chances for disputing work to be the ground that attracted them to the company, 44 % said that chance for promotion in their calling within the organisation as a ground they are remaining with the company and 42 % said that demand to place company values as chief ground they stayed with the company ( Rudrappa ) .
Discussion and Analysis
Based on the research that I have done, there is no incredulity that adult females position in the work force is bettering. But the growing rate of adult females in the work force has non been satisfactory. Harmonizing to Catalyst ( 2012 ) , a non-profit rank organisation, merely 14.1 % adult females are in the executive officer place in and merely 16.1 % adult females were in board seats at Fortune 500 in 2011, even though more than 50 % adult females are in direction, professional and other related places.
The statistics clearly indicates that senior degree place is still being dominated by work forces. This besides shows that adult females are still confronting favoritism in the workplace, are non provided with proper progress preparation, and are excluded from certain countries where her presence disrupts norm of male laterality, thereby demoing glass ceiling being in the workplace.
Statisticss from adult females workforce in India, Japan and Canada shows that senior degree directions, dominated by work forces, are still loath to accept the policies that are good to adult females in the workplace. They are unable to accept the fact that advancing adult females in workplace is a good concern pattern and can be fruitful for the company.
Research besides suggests that adult females portion of professional occupation in 2009 falls to 2004 degrees. Research done by Grant Thornton International Business Report ( 2011 ) found that adult females merely hold 20 % of senior direction place worldwide, 4 % less than 2009. Research besides revealed that there is some betterment in in private held concerns where adult females 38 % adult females are in senior direction place, 3 % addition than 2009.
My determination indicates that India, United Arab Emirates and Japan have the lowest per centum of adult females in senior managerial places. Less than 10 % of senior direction place is being held by adult females in these states. Thailand was ranked first with 45 % of adult females in senior direction place followed by Georgia with 40 % and so Russia with 36 % ( Grant Thornton International Business Report ) .
My determination besides suggests that glass ceiling being has been questioned many times by different writers, research workers and bureaus. Some believe in glass ceiling being, others believe that there is no such thing as glass ceiling and it is merely a myth. There is besides confusion on what should be considered as glass ceiling or how glass ceiling should be defined.
Federal Glass Ceiling Commission ( FGCC ) define glass ceiling as an unobserved barrier that keeps adult females or minorities from lifting to the corporate hierarchy regardless of her instruction making, accomplishment and experience. It shows the inequality over a period of old ages when adult females starts her calling but finds herself excluded when it comes to promotion or pay rise. But FGCC definition is non clear to its nucleus. Glass ceiling should non include all inequality towards the adult females. Rather, it should concentrate merely on occupation inequality that reflects the favoritism in labour market and non merely merely inequality in labour market. Inequalities that stem from picks people make to prosecute their ends such as household penchant, leisure are non considered glass ceiling.
FGCC definitions claims that as adult females moves to the top of the corporate ladder, favoritism additions with her. So, if adult females are non treated earnestly by their male co-workers, is it considered glass ceiling? Womans in all flat -professional or non-professional might confront the same state of affairs in their workplace. It can be a common form of gender inequality but, it can non be considered a glass ceiling. So the definition of glass ceiling demands to be closely examined.
Harmonizing to Liz Bingham, managing spouse for people, the thought that there is a glass ceiling that exist in the organisation, as a working construct for today ‘s calling is dead. He adds that because of assorted barriers company are losing brightest female endowment from the grapevine ( Anderson ) . Womans from the study reveal that deficiency of experience and making are the chief barriers in their calling and non the glass ceiling.
Survey conducted by Big4 house with 1,000 working adult females reveals age as the biggest obstructions in their calling. Almost half of the adult females between 18 and 23 expressed that age has already become a job. About 33 % adult females said that they have been perceived as either excessively immature or excessively old to work and another 27 % said that age is act uponing their calling growing in negative manner ( Foster ) . But, these are the barriers that most of the adult females face and can non be termed as a glass ceiling.
From the research that has been conducted on glass ceiling, I would urge that adult females get professional preparation and instruction that helps to progress their calling and make the highest degree in the organisation. Research done by Catalyst revealed that houses are endeavoring to turn to glass ceiling issues because of high turnover of gifted adult females employee from the work force. Business must therefore place the corporate environment dimensions that are forestalling them from retaining adult females and should pass on the concern instance throughout the organisation ( Successful Initiatives ) .
Company should recognize that the key concern measuring for success is the diverseness in the workplace, which includes adult females in senior places. They should supervise the impact of enrolling scheme that was aimed at pulling adult females to senior degree place.
Womans should hold entree to direction preparation, wise mans and function theoretical accounts at the senior degree every bit good as entry to formal and informal web.
If glass ceiling is working in the company, company should rapidly turn to it and happen solutions to get the better of it. Top direction should recognize that glass ceiling presence in the company is bad for company image and therefore should be committed to alter the existing civilization within the organisation.
Company should sharply take the alteration direction diverseness plan for directors and employees and should develop and implement the keeping plans for adult females. It should implement leading development plan that helps to educate and back up adult females in their calling development.
Company needs to set attempt to guarantee that equal employment chance policies are being carefully monitored. Negligence in the policies might convey case from adult females who might accused company of favoritism and prefering glass ceiling.
Family friendly policies should be implemented to back up adult females at work. This might include flexible on the job hours, tele-commuting, twenty-four hours attention installations. Google has been supplying twenty-four hours attention installation for employees at subsidised rate for old ages.
Company must guarantee that anti-discrimination Torahs are in placed so that adult females can acquire the same entree to occupations as work forces.
State and local authoritiess should carry on spread analysis on what they are making presently to take glass ceiling and what they can make to more to wholly extinguish glass ceiling.
Government has besides recommended different ways that need to be addressed to extinguish the glass ceiling such as intensify the attempt to enforce anti-discrimination Torahs, make employment related informations available whenever needed, describe the issue relevant to glaze ceiling to jurisprudence enforcement.
It is hard to happen ways to assist interrupt the glass ceiling. The procedure is long and frequently hard. There are no silver slugs in work outing the issues relevant to glaze ceiling but adult females all over the universe now have been interrupting glass ceiling. More adult females are in the senior degree in the organisation than earlier, though the rate of advancement is slow. Therefore, support from concern and authorities is needed for research on glass ceiling. Implementing the thought of diverseness, detecting the position of media and conveying significance to incorporate and into leading construction is one manner to work out the issue of glass ceiling. However, adult females should take the being of glass ceiling as a challenge that she needs to win and work forces should do a manner for gifted adult females to make to senior degree place without puting any hurdlings.