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Effects of Unemployment on Crime

Term Project Report: The effect of unemployment of crime Table of Contents Background3-4 Regression Analysis5-6 Conclusion7 References8 Data9 What affects do the unemployment rates have on crime level? 1. Purpose Statement The purpose of this project is to determine how the rate of criminal activity (CRIME) is affected by the rate of unemployment (UNEMP), while also considering the affects of the fluctuation of Consumer Price Index (CPI).

This study uses a time-series analysis with 30 annual observations, from 1969 to 2009. The information was taken from several sources; considering mainly: The Bureau of Labor Statistics and The Bureau of Justice web site. The model is: CRIME = UNEMP+CPI 2. Definition of Variables The dependent variable is defined as the Crime Rate (CRIME). This will take into account the annual rate of both violent and property crimes committed during a measurable time period, of 1970 to 2001.

The independent variables are: • UNEMP (Unemployment Rate) This variable was chosen because when the lack of available opportunity exists to provide income and the means to provide for ones self and/or a family, it puts a negative pressure on an individual to resort to basic survival. We will look at the corresponding annual rate of unemployment over a period of time, from 1970 to 2001. • CPI is Consumer Price Index, which measures changes through time in the rice level of consumer goods and services purchased by households. This variable was chosen because it is a determinant for the level of prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services, which turns signifies how out of reach basic goods and services might be for those without resources of income. We will look at the corresponding annual consumer price index over a period of time, from 1970 to 2001.

The relationship between CRIME and the independent variables should be a positive one because when the unemployment rate and the consumer price index decreases, it increase the ability of the households to obtain goods and services, as mentioned before, puts reduces the pressure on the individual to resort to criminal activity. 3. Data Description The data obtained for the purpose of this report was compiled by obtaining a sample of 30 years and obtaining an annual rate for CRIME, which includes both violent and property crimes.

These statistics were obtained from the Bureau of Justice and the online data collection. In addition, the independent variables data obtained include the rate of unemployment and consumer price index for each year selected, which was obtained from the U. S. Bureau of Labor. 4. Regression Analysis The model was calculated using one period = 1 year for the CRIME variable. The results are shown in the table below: Crime = UNEMP(138. 371725) +CPI (2. 291143153) Table 1 Regression Statistics |  |  |  |  | | |R Square |0. 383040391 | | | | | |Adjusted R Square |0. 340491453 | | | | | |Standard Error |251. 18294 | | | | | |Observations |32 | | | | | |ANOVA |df |SS |MS |F |Significance F | |Residual |29 |1836041 |63311. 7 | | | |Total |31 |2975950 | | | | |Results |Coefficients |Standard Error |t Stat |P-value | | |Unemployment Rate |138. 3717525 |33. 31553 |4. 15037 |0. 000266 | | |Consumer Price Index |2. 291143153 |1. 06965 |1. 6965 |0. 040725 | | The results of the regression analysis were close to expectations. As projected, there is a positive relationship between CRIME and the independent variables UNEMP and CPI. This indicates that as the rate of UNEMP and CPI (cost of goods) increases, the rate of CRIME will increase. We can also see that there is a stronger statistical significance for the relationship between CRIME and the variable UNEMP, while a weak statistical relationship between CRIME and the variables CPI exist.

In addition, there is a little to no correlation between the independent variables. Table 2 |  |Average Crime Rate |Unemployment Rate |Consumer Price Index | |Average Crime Rate |1 | | | |UNEMP |0. 534259935 |1 | | |CPI |0. 128746083 |-0. 14181485 |1 | We can also see through the meaning of t and/or “P-Value” how important the independent variables are to the dependent variable. In this case, the rate of UNEMP shows that the independent variable is very significant. While on the other hand, CPI could be considered a less significant independent variable. The value of Adjusted R2 of 0. 3405 indicates that approximately 34. 1% of the total variation in the dependent variable has been accounted for by the independent variables.

Due to the level of significance of the independent variable, CPI, a second regression calculation was performed in which only CRIME (dependent) and UNEMP (independent) were recorded. The results are as follows: Crime = UNEMP(115. 8516423) Table 3 |Regression Statistics |  |  |  |  | | |R Square |0. 285433679 | | | | | |Adjusted R Square |0. 61614801 | | | | | |Standard Error |266. 240114 | | | | | |Observations |32 | | | | | |ANOVA |df |SS |MS |F |Significance F | |Residual |30 |2126513. 49 |70883. 79831 | | | |Total |31 |2975950. 427 | | | | |Results |Coefficients |Standard Error |t Stat |P-value | | |Unemployment Rate |115. 8516423 |33. 46649509 |3. 461720206 |0. 001634512 | |

In this regression where only the variable UNEMP was recorded, the coefficients and the t are positive, which still indicates that as the rat of UNEMP increases, the rate of CRIME will increase respectively. The significance of t tells us that the independent variable does have significance to the dependent variable. However, the value for Adjusted R2 using the single variable decreased to 0. 2616, which shows that only 26. 2% of the total variation in the dependent variable has been accounted for by the independent variable.

This reduction in this value indicates that the single variable might not fit the model as well as with the original two independent variables. 5. Conclusion After evaluating the results of the two regressions, I arrived at the following conclusions: 1. The results on the first regression should not be improved. Despite the fact that both outputs show a positive relationship between the independent and dependent variable, the positive relationship of the variables as well as the Adjusted R2 did not improve at all in the second regression. 2.

In fact the Adjusted R2 actually decreases significantly in the second regression, indicating that the data does not fit the function as well. 3. A positive correlation between the rate of CRIME and UNEMP and CPI existed according to the results on the first regression even though CPI seemed to have less significance over the dependent variable. So, it might not affect the rate of the CRIME as much as the variable UNEMP does. 4. While the low R-Square value indicates additional variables could be added to strengthen the model we can assert that the rate of CRIME is influenced by the rate of Unemployment and the Price of Goods. . Works Cited Page 1. Economic Report of the President 2010 pages 371-410. Retrieved on September 15, 2010 from: http://www. whitehouse. gov/sites/default/files/microsites/economic-report-president. pdf 2. Historical US Unemployment and Consumer Price Index Data Table Retrieved on September 9, 2010 from: http://www. bls. gov/data/ 3. Historical US Crime Rate Data Table Retrieved on September 9, 2010 from: http://bjs. ojp. usdoj. gov/dataonline/ 4. Raphael, S. & Winter-Ebmer R. [2001]. “Identifying the Effect of Unemployment on Crime. ” Journal of Law and Economics 7. Data (see attached worksheet) [pic]

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Seagate Case Study

Seagate Case Study Effective Global Strategic Resourcing Analysis The key to a successful supply chain and its integration with customers and supplies lies in its ability to communicate wants, needs, and realities. Seagate has taken communication to its highest level by creating visibility at every level of its supply chain. This visibility is the Holy Grail for Seagate because it is a form of communication that breeds trust and transparency throughout every level of its supply chain.

This visibility has been bred through heavy investments in IT infrastructure, employee, supplier, subcontractor, and customer education, capital expenditures on research and development, and even bucking supply chain trends through vertical integration with subcontractors. Karl Chicca is quoted as saying, “Electronic connectivity gives us the visibility up and down the supply chain, so we don’t have to generate new capacity every time there is a request for more product. (Cohen & Roussel, 2005) This key concept of visibility both up and down the supply chain keeps the manufacturing process and the inventory allocation the flexibility it needs to react quickly to market changes. Seagate has worked to combine legacy systems and multiple ERP’s acquired over the years into just two systems, with a focus on further refinement to one system for all ERP needs. They have made this a core requirement and thus have excelled and created a core competency within the organization.

This visibility and higher form communication is what enables Seagate to achieve real-time demand management, and lower reliance on demand forecasts. As stated by Cohen and Roussel (2005), “Seagate’s ambitious goal is to ship to real-time changes in demand – not to plans or forecasts. This means that the company has to monitor the economy, the high-tech industry, and the information technology subset of the industry to get a sense of which way demand is flowing. Economists, compliance officers, IT professionals, and engineers must be employed to keep the supply chain relevant and are just as important to the process as the manufacturing line. While some suppliers have been resistant to the changes of Seagate they have tried to mitigate risks through investing in what it calls “factory of the future” alliance. (Cohen & Roussel, 2005) This investment has created a fully automated production line(s) that can manufacture any drive at any time on any line.

Visibility backed by technology has helped keep flexibility and absorb some of the risks associated with real-time demand supply pulls. With such a vast network of suppliers, subcontractors, and VMI hubs around the globe, Seagate has many compliance issues to consider and deal with daily. Along with social and governmental compliance comes ethical compliance and considerations. Seagate faces customs duties and must stay abreast of any changes to governing laws of each nation it imports and exports to; this simple requirement could involve an entire department of personnel devoted to research and classification.

In the US alone you have government bodies like the CBP (Customs and Border Patrol), FTC (Federal Trade Commission), FCC (Federal Communications Commission), DHS (Department of Homeland Security), and many others, but this is only the US. Many countries have their own versions of these organizations and Seagate must remain compliant with them all to avoid fines and levies. Seagate could do this for their selves or hire out a third party contractor to handle these requirements.

Customs brokers are common, as are companies like ITS (Intertek Testing Services) who handle material compliance and product testing. ITS also does audits for social compliance; this would help Seagate keep up with changing labor landscapes like China, where major changes to labor laws have taken place over the past 12-18 months. Social compliance brings up ethics questions and staying compliant with emerging regulations like the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

The FCP Act tracks corruption and tries to mandate fair trade and ethical business from country to country by reducing bribes and unfair, often illegal forms of payment. (Brannen, 2008) Acts like these can create situations of heavy fines and judgments against an organization if the regulations are not kept up on by the organization. These laws and governing rules evolve daily and the US is not the only nation with such regulations. The EU (European Union) has regulations that are far reaching in Europe and affect every nation that is a member of the EU.

As visibility increases with Seagate and all parties of its supply chain, so regulatory compliance should be easier to manage and maintain between parties. Visibility breeds accountability as actions are seen by all levels of the supply chain process. References Brannen, L. (2008). Steering Clear of Foreign Corruption. Business Finance, 14(1), 7. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Cohen, S. , & Roussel, J. (2005). Strategic Supply Chain Management: The 5 disciplines for top performance. New York. McGraw-Hill.

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Supply Chain of Iron Ore

SUPPLY CHAIN OF IRON ORE With the increasing demand in iron ore due to rapid industrialisation and increase in demand of steel, the need for a proper distribution network or a supply chain has been realised. The following section takes into account the supply chain system of iron ore with some examples quoted from the Australia-China supply chain, which is one of the most important supply chains due to Australia being the largest exporter and China being the largest importer of iron ore. Logistic System: The iron ore logistic chain is comparatively simpler as compared to some other commodities.

Ore is transferred directly from the mine site to the steel plant refinery through various transportation sources like rail, sea or road and conveyors. The transport of iron ore forms 15-45% of the total cost of the exported ore and more than 60% of the cost of domestic consumption of coal. Iron ore’s high density and large volumes make the transportation and handling more expensive and time consuming. Hence, the efficiency of the total supply chain of iron ore is very important for the overall profitability of a mining operation.

The basic supply chain of iron ore can be depicted as follows: Fig. 1 International supply chain for iron ore Fig. 2 Domestic/inland supply chain for iron ore 1. Mine Site: A mine site is an area from where the iron ore is mined in it’s most basic and natural form and is not ready to be used in the steel industry or refinery. The ore is extracted from open cut mines using drilling and blasting techniques. There are three main types of iron ore deposits. a) Magmatic Magnetite ore deposits: It is the most magnetic of all the elements present on the earth surface.

Some iron ore deposits in Chile, formed from volcanic flows are known to have magnetite ore deposits in them. Metamorphic accumulations of the ore at Tasmania also are a rich source of magnetite form of iron ore. b) Hematite ore: This ore is found on every continent except for Antarctica, with great intensity in South America, Australia and Asia. Although rarer to find, it is cheaper to process as it does not require any beneficiation process. But being harder than magnetite they require more energy for crushing. ) Banded Iron Formation (BIF): These are metamorphosed sedimentary rocks composed of thinly blended iron minerals and silica. The mining involves moving tremendous amounts of ore and waste. The waste comes in two forms, bedrock in the mine (mullock) that isn’t ore, and unwanted minerals which are an intrinsic part of the ore rock itself (gangue). The mullock is mined and piled in waste dumps, and the gangue is separated during the beneficiation process and is removed as tailings. Taconite tailings are mostly the mineral quartz, which is chemically inert. This material is stored in large, -regulated water settling ponds.

The key economic parameters for magnetite ore being economic are the crystallinity of the magnetite, the grade of the iron within the BIF host rock, and the contaminant elements which exist within the magnetite concentrate. The size and strip ratio of most magnetite resources is irrelevant as BIF formations can be hundreds of metres thick, with hundreds of kilometers of strike, and can easily come to more than 3,000 million or more, tonnes of contained ore. 2. Stockpiling and Blending: After the impure ore is extracted from the mine, it is stored on a plot which may be on the same place as the mine or away from it.

To transfer the ore to the plot, road transportation is used. The stored ore for purification undergoes beneficiation. It is the process of separating the mineral from the unwanted waste or gangue. The mineral is then transported further in the supply chain. The gangue is mainly dumped as it of no use. A recent technical breakthrough in the mining industry has made the beneficiation process much cheaper as compared to before. The new technology, ESS, not only is useful for the extracted iron ore but also for the iron ore obtained as a by-product from copper production.

This moves the iron ore directly into the semi-processed higher value market. The technology is basically a low-cost furnace that works on self-regulating basis to produce pig iron from the iron ore. The grades of iron that are available and required for the purpose of production are: a) Low grade iron: 45-50% iron content b) Medium-grade iron: 50-55% iron content c) High-grade iron: 55-65% iron content The semi-processed iron is then passed on to the next stage 3. Rail/Road Transportation: – Most of the mines have a direct rail connection. For those who have a rail connection near-by, the material is transported using trucks or conveyors.

Trains are indexed into the loading point automatically one or two wagons a time. The material is then transported to the desired port in case of an international transfer or a steel refinery or a nearby rail station for a domestic transfer. After reaching the port, the ore is stockpiled again and lower quality of ore is treated with that of higher level to attain a consistent desired level. This is the second level of blending. 4. Ship loading and Sea Journey: When ready to be exported, the ore is collected from the stockpile by a reclaimer. This is controlled from ship loader and manoeuvres about on rail.

The ore travels to the ship loader via a conveyer. The loader is located on the wharf which is several hundred metres from the reclaimer. Direct loading or the DSO have three types of loaders: * Fixed pedestal i. e. the least expensive, but limited range due to fixed pivot. The ship needs to move during the loading process. * Quadrant/linear quadrant consist of a fixed point at the rear of the loader and a rail at the wharf face. A bridge spans between the pivot and the rail, supporting a shuttle, luffing ship loader. It can only serve a single berth. Travelling(linear)/long travel type: Most versatile but also most expensive. It can travel along the wharf and perpendicular to the wharf. Length of travel is only is only limited by the length of the rail on the wharf. It’s capacity is 16000 tonnes/hour. At ports that are shallow (and not economical to dredge) and the export volumes are relatively low, a transhipment method may be used. A smaller vessel of about 60,000t capacity will ferry loads out to a capesize vessel up to 12 nautical miles out of the sea. The loaded ore is then shipped to the destination port in vessels. The essels are supplied under one of the four different types of contractual arrangements: 1. Voyage charter: Transport for specific load from source port to the destination port for a fixed price on a specific day. 2. Contract of Affreightment: Series of cargoes between the two ports( source and destination)at a fixed price rate. The ship owner/operator is able to plan the use of their ships in the most efficient manner. 3. Time Charter: Charter has operational control of the vessel over a fixed period. 4. Bare boat Charter: Charter has complete operational control over the vessel. Shipping cost and Global Competitiveness:

As discussed earlier, one of the major cost for extraction of iron and delivering it to the steel industries is the transportation cost with shipping cost being one of the major contributors to this cost. Thus, the shipping cost plays a vital role in determining the final price of the output and also decides the global competitiveness of the mining firm or the country in the market. Let’s take the example of shipping iron ore from Brazil and Australia (the two major exporters of iron ore) to China (the major importer of iron ore). The country having a lower landing cost for the same grade of iron ore would be preferred over the other.

Landed cost of iron ore to China in 1999 Landed cost of iron ore to China in 2004 The difference of the landing cost of Brazil and Australia in China in the year 1999 was around 7. 5 million USD, while that in the year 2004 was 13. 5 million USD. Although the FOB cost in both the years was less for Brazil as for Australia, but the freight costs for Brazil-China was much more than that for Australia-China because of the distance between the two countries. While looking at the production of iron ore, Brazil can produce it at a much lower price as compared to Australia.

But the shipping cost of ore from Brazil to China is much more than that from Australia to China. Thus, with the inclusion of shipping costs, not only does Australia’s ore become more competitive but also the difference is quite large. The extent of the difference is dependent on the shipping rates. Due to this difference in landing price of the iron ore in the Chinese market, BHP Billiton, an Australian mining company, in March 2010, negotiated with Chinese steel makers to sell ore for a ‘landed price’. This gave the Australian mining companies a further advantage over the Brazilian corporations.

The concept of bulk shipping market in 2011 is quite different from that in 2004. During the commodity boom from 2004 to 2008, many new capsize ships were ordered which are all coming online now. In other words, the orders made during those four years are impacting the bulk shipping market now. According to Blas, 307 capsizes are due for completion in the year 2011, one in every 29 hours. Also, due to the low scrapping rates of older ships, it would lead to lower freight rates. These freight rates are expected to lower the ever increasing rate of iron ore to an extent of 10%-20%. 5.

Post-shipment processes: After the vessels reach the destination port, the iron ore is again transported to the nearby plots for beneficiation and storing. This is the third level of beneficiation (if required) and the higher grade of ore is treated with the lower grade to attain a consistent desired grade again. The ore is then stored in these plots till it is not required for the steel refinery. These days, using ESS the iron obtained here is pig iron and can be used directly for steel refinery. In many cases, by this time the ownership of the goods lies with the client and also does the risk.

The process of unloading is generally similar to that of loading at the source port. The unloaded goods are then either loaded onto a conveyor or truck, if the rail network lies away from the port or directly to the rails if it lies near to it. The rail/road network then carries forward the goods to the steel refinery for it to be used there. SUPPLY CHAIN OF FORTESCUE METAL GOURP LTD. : A Case Study Fortescue Metal Groups Ltd. (FMG) is the fourth largest exporter and producer of iron ore in the world. Ever since it’s first export to China in 2008, it has become the third largest producer and exporter in Australia.

A study of FMG’s supply chain would help us understand better the working of the distribution and transport of iron ore. 1. Mine site and mining: Mining at Fortescue’s first minesite, Cloudbreak, began in 2008 with more than 28 million tonnes of iron ore mined in the first full year of production. Since then, mining and processing at Cloudbreak has increased to more than 100,000 tonnes of ore each day. Fortescue has also established it’s second minesite, Christmas Creek, which is 50 kilometres east of Cloudbreak. Together, the two mines make up the Chichester Hub.

In 2010, Fortescue will extend its rail line through to Christmas Creek and construct a second ore processing facility at the site. FMG Mining Sites, Current Scenario Mining Breakthroughs Overburden Removal The ore at Cloudbreak sits below a layer of overburden with an average thickness of around 20m (starting at 0m and reaching more that 60m in depth). Initial overburden removal consists of a conventional truck and shovel stripping method. A substantial reduction in the use of conventional methods will occur when the overburden removal system is introduced, however, conventional methods will always form part of the process.

Fortescue has teamed with FLSmidth Rahco to design, engineer and fabricate an overburden removal system that takes existing technology to another level. The revolutionary system, capable of removing 50 million tonnes of overburden per year, will deliver true continuous removal of overburden with costs below other less-efficient methods. The system’s design affords the mine team exceptional control over the repositioning of overburden, allowing them to mimic the natural form of the landscape and begin the work of environmental restoration almost immediately.

Being able to create an extremely flat bench of stripped overburden means that the top soil is far less likely to wash away, making revegetation more successful and allowing cattle to eventually return to the area. Overburden Removal System Mining the Ore The flat lying nature of the deposit has led Fortescue to elect to use a fleet of Wirtgen surface miners rather than traditional drill-blast-excavate mining techniques. Wirtgen 2500 surface miners weigh over 100 tonnes and have over 1000 horsepower, which gives some idea about the size of the operation.

Surface miners have been used for a quarter of a century in soft rocks such as coal and salt and in hard rocks such as limestone and granite that are up to 10 times harder than the average ore at Cloudbreak. Results using this innovative technique have been very encouraging and the benefits of using surface miners on this particular deposit are numerous. 2. Rail Transport: FMG operate one of the heaviest trains and use wagons carrying up to 137 tonnes or ore with each wagon having an axle load of 34 tonne, the highest axle loads of any railway in the world.

Between 2006 and 2008, FMG built a completely new port facility on 2 million sq. metres of reclaimed land AT Anderson Point. Here all the facilities are centrally located and include: train unloading, ore blending and ship loading. After a fully laden train arrives at a port, a rack and a pinion indexer takes control of each loaded rake of FMG wagons and pushes it into the train unloader cell two cars at a time. The tippler works by rotating each car by 150 degrees, tipping the ore onto hydraulically operated apron feeders 20 metres below the cells.

The apron feeders control the delivery of iron ore onto a tunnel conveyor travelling to the stockpile. FMG train wagon unloader 3. Stockpiling and Blending: Following unloading from the train , conveyor belts transport the ore at 5. 5m/s to the stackers. The stackers build the ore into stockpiles. The FMG tracker has an operational design of capacity of 11,080t/hr. FMG’s stockyard contains 12 stockpiles typically designed to hold 5-10% of the total annual throughput volume of the port. Each individual stockpile is usually quivalent to a typical capsize ship load of 180,000-200,000t). These stackers are capable enough to traverse the width of the stockpile and are rail mounted. FMG Iron Ore Stockyard 4. Ship logistics: Shipping began at Fortescue’s port in Port Hedland on schedule on 15 May 2008. Since then, the rate has steadily increased in line with Company targets. The port infrastructure consists of train unloading, ore blending and ship loading facilities, centrally located within the port. The port was engineered for scale and expandability.

The greenfields site means that both the present and the future can be accommodated in one low cost, high tech design because the ‘bolt on’ design of the facility allows future expansion to proceed without hindrance to the existing operations. Since operations began a second berth has been constructed and commissioned and a second stacker installed. The site also has the capacity for huge increases in the amount of stockpiled materials. Trains arriving at this facility from the mines are unloaded using a rotary dumper, which unloads a pair of wagons at a time, in a continuous process.

The ore passes from the dumper via a conveyor to a transfer point, then to a travelling stacker for stock pile blending and quality analysis. The product stockpile configuration and equipment proposed will allow the maximum flexibility in the manner in which ore product is arranged in stock piles and reclaimed. Chevron stacking, together with a bucket wheel reclaimer, provides the best blending capabilities at this time, however other modes of stacking, such as wind rowing, can be adopted to improve blending control and flexibility should this be required. FMG capesizes 5. Unloading in China: Shen Yang

Shen Yang is one of the most important cities in China due to it having many of the steel refineries. But it is land-locked and thus direct unloading of iron ore from Australia isn’t possible. It has to source it’s iron ore from three main ports namely Qinhuangdao , which is the largest dry port in China , Dalian and Bayuquan. Connection with key ports Steel companies in this region are faced with different delivery times, issues and costs depending upon which port are used. Quinhuandago, although the port itself has adequate capacity, is some distance from the steel plants.

The rail journey requires an hour long stop and a crew change. It also passes through two rail jurisdictions making a continuous trip difficult. The railway lines serving the port are heavily congested . The available capacity of coal trains is only one-third of the demand and also the transportation costs are $11. 40/t. Dalian is slightly closer to the industry hub, but has a heavily congested port and the rail connections are saturated with passenger traffic. It is within the same province as Shen Yang so the scheduling of trains is made easier.

The transport costs are at a low of $7. 35/t Bayquan is the closest port but it lacks a rail connection and is of limited capacity. The port charges are higher but better priority is offered for iron ore shipments. Steel manufacturers use company owned trucks to keep the costs down. The transport costs are less with $7. 15/t. This shows that rail transport may always never be an answer to the land transportation. Shen Yang also shows that various factors need to be taken into account while investigating alternative supply chains like regulatory issues and human factors.

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Describe the Factors to Consider When Promoting Effective Communication

You need to consider a number of factors: Verbal communication: Tone and pitch of your voice, does it suit the situation or topic? A louder more direct communication maybe required if trying to get the attention of a group of children to come back inside. However this would not be suitable in a situation whereby a child is upset say for example if they have wet themselves and are embarrassed, this would need a quieter and understanding tone to reassure them.

Use of language is important, when talking to children you need to keep things simpler than if you were walking to an adult, however if you talking to an adult using very simple instructions this may be deemed as patronising, so it is important to choose your language carefully. The speed in which you talk is also key. When talking to children I tend to get down to their level and talk to them at a relatively slow speed, this way they are more likely to understand me more than if I was walking round above them talking as though I would talk to adults.

Non-verbal communication: Facial and hand gestures, again this needs to be tailored to the situation or topic. In the example above, a smile and perhaps a hand on their shoulder is sufficient to the situation. Whereby frowning and waving arms as if annoyed would be detrimental to the feelings of the child. Eye contact is an important factor as this engages the audience, keeping them focused on what you are discussing.

By making eye contact you are directing your conversation at that specific person, demonstrating that you are devoting your time and are not able to be distracted as if you would by looking around. Body language plays an important part, for example folded arms can indicate you are being defensive or not open to suggestions, whereas slouching, hands on hips, rolling of eyes and huffing can seem rude and disrespectful. It is always advisable to evaluate a number of factors before communicating information:

What is the information I need to communicate? Who is my audience? Is written or verbal the best form of communication? What is the best time of day, at morning drop off or should I book some time in with the parent? Where should the communication take place, would it be appropriate to talk within ear reach of others or is the matter sensitive, therefore needing privacy. By considering the above, you are demonstrating professionalism and considering the needs of others.

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Nokia Marketing Plan

1. Executive Summary Nokia is one of the world’s largest cell phone companies who follow a particular customer driven marketing strategy, which can be considered as a model for other company. Nokia segmented the market of world according to their economic condition and then try to targeting as much as they can. Suppose, Nokia itself launch varieties models of mobiles at varieties prices and positioning itself as more for more, the same for less and less for much less. They also try to bring their product differentiation, service differentiation provide new classic models, features and long lasting batteries.

We hopefully say that, this particular customer driven marketing strategy should be widely followed to achieve the unified whole. 2. Introduction The company I have chosen to analyze in my assignment is the mobile phone giant Nokia. This assignment tells us briefly what Nokia actually is, its Customer driven marketing strategy, how they create value for target customer view on the size and sales of the company and also the Various Market segmentation Strategies, target market strategies and differentiation and positioning their products to desired market with customer satisfaction.

Since January 2004, Nokia Group has consisted of four different business groups: Mobile Phones, Multimedia, Enterprise Solutions and Networks. “In addition, there are two horizontal groups that support the mobile device business groups: Customer and Market Operations and Technology Platforms. ” In the year 2004 Nokia’s net sales for mobile phones was 18507 million euro, which went down 12% from 2003. Nokia’s market areas were Europe/Africa/Middle East (55% of net sales), Asian Pacific and China (25%) and Americas (20%).

Nokia’s market share in Europe was 45. 8% in 2003, in 2004 it was 34. 8% and in the third quarter of 2005 it was 36%. The average number of personnel for 2004 was 53511. At the end of 2004, Nokia employed 55505 people worldwide. In 2004, Nokia? s personnel increased by a total of 4146 employees. Nokia’s turnover for the third quarter of 2005 was 8403 million euro from which mobile phones brought in 62%, multimedia 17%, Enterprise solutions 2% and Networks 9%. “The year 2004 was demanding for Nokia.

In response, the company set five top priorities in the areas of customer relations, product offering, R&D efficiency, demand- supply management and the company’s ability to offer end-to-end solutions. Nokia is making good progress in these areas, and is now better positioned to meet future challenges 3. About the Company Nokia- Connecting People! Nokia Corporation is one of the world’s largest telecommunications equipment manufacturers. With headquarters in Keilaniemi of Espoo, Finland, this Finnish telecommunications company is best known today for its leading range of mobile phones.

Nokia also produces mobile phone infrastructure and other telecommunications equipment for applications such as traditional voice telephony, ISDN, broadband access, professional mobile radio, voice over IP, wireless LAN and a line of satellite receivers. Nokia provides mobile communication equipment for every major market and protocol, including GSM, CDMA, and WCDMA. [pic] In the 1970s Nokia became more involved in the telecommunications industry by developing the Nokia DX 200, a digital switch for telephone exchanges. In the 1980s, Nokia offered a series of personal computers called MikroMikko.

However, these operations were sold to International Computers, Ltd. (ICL), which was later merged with Fujitsu-Siemens AG. Nokia also began developing mobile phones for the NMT network. In 2004, Nokia resorted to similar streamlining practices with layoffs and organizational restructuring, although on a significantly smaller scale. Recently, Nokia joined other mobile phone manufacturers to embrace Taiwanese Original Device Manufacturers. Nokia signed a contract with BenQ, a Taiwanese Original Device Manufacturer, to develop three high- end mobile phones, which are scheduled to retail by the end of 2005. . Nokia’s marketing strategy: Nokia maybe the world leader in the mobile phones arena, but it seems as if it has completely lost its way as far as the marketing strategies are concerned NO DOUBT THAT the products from the Finnish company, Nokia, are some of the very best in the world, but the company still hasn’t found a profitable way to market its goods. The very reason that other mobile phone companies are fast eating up Nokia’s market share is their superior (yet simple) marketing practices. Motorola and Samsung must now be in the FUW (frequently used words) list in Nokia’s board meetings.

These companies have made Nokia pay dearly for its rudimentary approach in marketing its phones. The aggressive marketing practices followed by Motorola have hit Nokia very hard and it is losing very crucial global market share every month to its American competitor. Nokia, quite alarmed by the dropping sales of its phones, is now putting all its weight behind the N-Series range. The N-Series is packed with multimedia features and Nokia believes that these phones might woo the costumers back to the big daddy of the mobile phone world. But Espoo, we have a problem!! (Nokia is headquartered at Espoo, Finland).

While Motorola (quite intelligently) gives a dashy-flashy name to every phone it brings into the market, Nokia tends to do the exact opposite. Nokia from the very start has relied on numbers rather than names. This strategy worked very well in the past, but only because there wasn’t much competition back then. But times have changed. Every month the market sees at least a dozen new handsets from an equal number of manufacturers. Consumers now have more than they can choose. Consumers are more attracted by names because they can thus easily relate to the features of the phone.

This is evident from the success of the MotoRazr, MotoSlvr, MotoRizr and MotoKrzr. These phones are not packed with heavy multimedia features like the N-Series; still they are selling like hot cakes. Just by reading the name of the handset, one gets a broad idea what the phone looks like or what its features are. Nokia advertises more than Motorola. Still its market share is dropping. Motorola does not need to spend much money for the promotion of its products and it doesn’t have to worry about the marketing of these phones; it just simplifies its job by naming its products right.

Take the example of Apple. It did not have to do much to promote its iPhone. Thanks to the leaked photos and technical specifications, it became the most anticipated gadget all times. It is high time that Nokia starts applying some common sense to its marketing strategies. It doesn’t have to do anything great, other than just naming its phones. A few months ago, a highly placed Nokia official told Reuters that his company would soon go the Motorola way and start using names for its new phones.

It is in Nokia’s best interest that it takes to this path as early as possible, otherwise the once market leader might see otherwise the once market leader might see its market share plummeting to even lower depths. 5. Macro-Environmental Analysis: >>Political-legal Environment 1. NOKIA is operating on global level it was important to abide to rules in different countries by their govt. 2. NOKIA surveys in order to find the rules & regulations of govt to withstand taxes, subsidies, and patents over technologies and equipments as government decides upon these things 3. Laws of copyright and abuse of phone usage” limited the misuse of mobile phones. 4. Legal decision Impacts growth e. g. recent govt decision on 3G technology in India that may impact Nokia as well. >> Economic Environment 1. Economic environment controls what to produce, how to produce and category of consumers who will use this produce. 2. Nokia is expanding globally, knowledge about the economy status of nations is important. 3. NOKIA launched the products of different price range to reach all kind of customers globally. 4.

In recent Inflation scenario, Nokia planned to lower the logistic cost so as to reduce the prices and increase profit margin as well. 5. Nokia’s market share grew to 39% (in quarter 3, 2007) & sale increased by 3% & operating margins increased by 76%. 6. Consumer’s confidence on Nokia increased as it considered all the economic groups. >> Socio-cultural Environment 1. Nokia operates in different countries with different cultures and all social classes with different products as per requirements despite of social differences on race, religion etc. . Lifestyle changes with time, Nokia tried to provide innovative products as per the changing needs of its consumers. E. g. it launched range of handsets like N-series with advanced features like camera, video recording etc. 3. Nokia launched mobile phones as per changing Work/career needs with features like MMS, WAP, Wi-Fi, 3G features etc. 4. Nokia focused on education policies & relation between industry and universities as in telecommunication sector skilled workforce is required. E. g. in 1980s CEO Kairamo paid much attention toward this. . It focused on R&D on Demographics, Age, and Social Mobility etc to cater all social classes. >> Technological Environment 1. Telecommunication is most emerging market with new technology everyday, NOKIA focused on Innovation and Development of new products and new technology. For an e. g. Nokia developed handsets with 3G feature, Wi-Fi, Touch Screen etc, remaining up-to-date with latest technology. 2. NOKIA focused on improving customer experience via developing devices and services as well. For an e. g.

Nokia planned to enter into internet services and software segment, and for this planned to create a segment of its own in 2008. 3. Get into Symbian which helped in explosion of mobile innovation. >> Natural Environment 1. In today’s market sustainability is the major factor affecting consumer’s behaviors and that’s why focus is on green product i. e. environmental friendly. 2. Greener products with minimal negative impact are in demand. Nokia is taking care of this by using renewable materials in production. For an e. g. n Finland on the bank of Nokia river company uses hydro-electricity for production of various products 3. As a part of ongoing commitment to sustainability Nokia recently promoted mobile phone recycling in Korea and raising awareness on mobile phone recycling in Middle East. 4. Nokia has also started selling its products without charger (with charger option also) minimizing the impact on environment by 25% and also encouraging users to use their old chargers. >> Demographic Environment 1. Nokia priced its products according to different income classes in society 2.

Nokia mainly targeted youth as they are more technology freak and maximum sale is from youngster’s age group. 3. Nokia’s mission statement is connecting people and as per that Nokia launched product according to need of different age groups and classes e. g. Nokia E series for working class, N-Series for age group interested in gaming, music etc. Inference: – >> From analyzing the macro-environmental factors that Nokia faced and considered we find out that Nokia has become the top leading mobile maker by considering these factors. gt;> Nokia focused on its consumer’s needs and also considered the other factors that may impact the consumer behaviors. Nokia entered into mobile sector and upon entering faced various issues like adaptability etc with various potential competitors already in the field. >> However Nokia focused and went in to R&D and able to overcome factors impacting its growth. Nokia introduced various new products & innovative products at competitive price and always incorporated new technologies as per needs of its consumers from time to time. >> Mission line of Nokia is connecting people.

And it has always worked toward that by considering all the factors related to its consumers, abiding by the laws and regulation of the region. Nokia worked with aim of working towards the world where everyone is connected and contributes to sustainable development thus considering the nature environment factor which most consumers demand now days. Focusing on all these macro-environmental factors Nokia was able to expand it customer’s base, thus increasing the market share. 6. Market Segmentation for Nokia: My assignment deals with customer driven marketing strategy done in leading mobile phone company Nokia.

This part mainly focuses on various market segmentation done by Nokia Co. Ltd. in the market. Nokia is a world leader in mobile communications, driving the growth and sustainability of the broader mobility industry. Nokia connects people to each other and the information that matters to them with easy-to-use and innovative products like mobile phones, devices and solutions for imaging, games, media and businesses. Market segmentation is the process of identifying key groups or segments within the general market that share specific characteristics and consumer habits.

Once the market is broken into segments, companies can develop advertising programs for each segment, focus advertising on one or two segments or niches, or develop new products to appeal to one or more of the segments. Companies often favor this method of marketing to the one-size-fits-all mass marketing approach, because it allows them to target specific groups that might not be reached by mass marketing programs. The market can be divided into segments by using four “segmentation basis”: Psychographic, behaviorist, geographic, and demographic basis. The basic criteria for segmenting a market is are customer needs.

To find the needs of the customers in the market it is important to undergo market research. Psychographic and behaviorist bases are used to determine preferences and demand for a product and advertising content, while geographic and demographic criteria are used to determine product design and regional focus. Nokia, arguably the biggest player in the world, has divided the market into four segments: Hi-fliers: The biggest segment as far as Nokia is concerned consists of ‘Hi-Fliers’, corporate executives who use a mobile phone to increase productivity at work.

Aged between 25 to 45, the segment looks for data transmission and other business-related features. In most cases, the company sponsors the handset, hence price is not a major consideration. Trendsetters: In any technology adoption cycle, the first segment to adopt an emerging technology is dubbed as ‘the early adopters’. For Nokia, these early adopters are ‘Trendsetters’ who are most receptive to advanced models. This was the segment at which WAP-enabled models were aimed. Social contact: The third segment for Nokia is the upwardly mobile, socially-conscious segment that uses a mobile to stay in touch.

Today’s youth and affluent housewives constitute two major chunks of the segment. Assured: The fourth and last segment as defined by Nokia comprises of CEOs, high-profile celebrities, industrialists and other high “net worth” individuals. The fact that the segment cannot do without a mobile phone makes it the ‘assured’ segment. 6. 1 . The Segmentation of Nokia conducted on the basis of Consumer Markets: Geographic World region – Asia, China Country – Bangladesh Cities – Reach out maximum places Demographic Age – All age group Gender – Male, Female Income – All income groups

Occupation – Every sector Religion – Irrespective of religion Psychographic Social class – All class of people Lifestyles – Urban, rural, and even far villages Behavioral Benefits – Quality Loyalty status – Strong 6. 2 The Segmentation of Nokia conducted on the basis of Price: The price ranges are as follows: Range 1: (1000tk – 5000tk) Workers and laborers: 1. The nokia phones falling in this range are mostly used by the manual Workers because they cannot afford a high price mobile phone. 2. Some students also use cell phone from this range as they have the fear of snatch of mobile phone. . Mobile phones falling in this category are simple phones who only meet the purpose of messaging and calling. These phones do not have additional features such as camera, blue tooth or infra red. 4. The only feature available in this phone is FM radio, which is most preferred laborers, security and watch men. Range2: (5000tk – 9000tk) middle manager 1. The main users of this segment are middle managers because they have limited and average salary and cannot afford to spend it on unnecessary expenses. 2. They do not keep mobile for show off purpose. 3.

The core feature of this segment is Audio Video Player, FM Radio, Camera, EDGE, GPRS and Expandable Memory. 4. The need to remain in connection with internet, this segment offers EDGE connectivity so they can faster access information, including emails or news clips. 5. With the VGA camera, users can capture special moments with images and video clips or connect to their colleagues using push to talk technology. Range 3: (9000tk – 15000tk) university students: 1. The cell phones falling in this range are mostly used and popular in university or college students. . These cells have a stylish look and have all the essential features such as Audio Video Player, FM Radio, Bluetooth, Camera, EDGE, GPRS and Expandable Memory. 3. They are popular among this group because they have high resolution mega pixel camera, they like to click photos of family and friends and they want to save their memories. 4. They have high memory, so they can download songs videos and share it with their friends. Range 4: (15000tk – 21000tk) music lovers/ high memory 1. This segment contains cell phones for music lovers 2.

These mobile phones are specifically optimized for entertainment, music and games. These Music phones offer dedicated music or gaming keys, expanded memory, large LCD screen and extended battery performance to provide quick and easy access to entertainment content. 3. These phones offer up to 18 hours of music playback, memory for up to 3,000 songs on an optional 4GB microSD card and dedicated music keys. Range 5 (21000tk – 30000tk) Communicator/ high and young business people 1. Young and energetic business men fall into this category of age 30 –40. . These people are young and adapt new changes quickly. 3. They are busy most of the time so they want quick solutions for their problems 4. They want easy access to everything. They like challenging and new things. 5. The cell phones falling in this category are business phones including communicators and high memory storage phones. 6. These phones enable to connect the business people to one another. They have a lot of storage space and connect to GPRS anywhere. They can take their office work with them and can even download heavy files.

Range 6: (30000tk – above) Higher Class Executive It is both a mobile phone and media player rolled into one. Similar as the N95 and G600, the candy bar N82 is packed with lots of advanced function and features such as HSDPA, Bluetooth 2. 0 with A2DP, Wi- Fi, integrated GPS, FM radio, microSD and TV-out. 7. Market Targeting of NOKIA: Through the consistent releasing if the new units of the mobile phones with different services and difference feature, the company has its target market that expected to support the kind of products and services.

The company is very optimistic that their new line of products will going to support by the target market as the sports enthusiast persons for the sports services that the phone is offering. To the specified fashion fanatic for the latest trend and for the updated fashion design suitable for every their daily lives. The music driven consumers segment is also the company top target market due to the music service that the new products have offering. Including in the said music services are the radio, the mp3, the XpressMusic, and the music player.

In market targeting we have two jobs: During market targeting Nokia consider two types targeting job 1. Evaluation the market segments 2. Selecting Target market segment 7. 1. Evaluation the market segments: In evaluation Nokia follow 3 criteria. Such as- Segments Size and growth of Nokia: Nokia divide their segments on basis of the size of segments. For each segments they introduce different types of product. They divide the market according to the financial condition. For that they are able to sell their product to middle and lower class people. Structural Attractiveness of Market Segments:

Nokia looks at the attractiveness of each segment and launch the desirable products. For instance they had launched NOKIA 1100 for lower class people and N70 for middle class people. Company Objectives and Resources: Nokia balance their supply on the basis of their company’s target and available resources. 7. 2. Selecting Target market Segments After doing all evaluation Nokia decide to choose differentiated marketing policy. They launch different products for each segment. For example, NOKIA1100-Lower middle class, 5300-Higher middle class, N-95-High class executives. 8. Positioning and differentiations of Nokia: 8. 1. Nokia Positioning

When Nokia positions its brand in the crowded mobile phone marketplace, its message must clearly bring together the technology and human side of its offer in a powerful way. The specific message that is conveyed to consumers in every advertisement and market communication (though not necessarily in these words) is “Only Nokia Human Technology enables you to get more out of life” Fig. -2 Nokia Logo In many cases, this is represented by the tag line, “We call this human technology”. This gives consumers a sense of trust and consideration by the company, as though to say that Nokia understand what they want in life, and how it can help.

And it knows that technology is really only an enabler so that you-the customer-can enjoy a better life. Nokia thus uses a combination of aspiration, benefit-based, emotional features, and competition-driven positioning strategies. It owns the “human” dimension of mobile communications, leaving its competitors wondering what to own (or how to position themselves), having taken the best position for itself. 8. 2. Nokia Brand Personality Nokia has detailed many personality characteristics for its brand, but employees do not have to remember every characteristic.

They do, however, have to remember the overall impression of the list of attributes, as you would when thinking about someone you have met. As the focus is on customer relationships, the Nokia personality is like a trusted friend. Building friendship and trust is at the heart of the Nokia brand. And the human dimension created by the brand personality carries over into the positioning strategy for the brand. 8. 3. Nokia Positioning – Product The product of the Nokia goes to the high end quality controls to give its client high tech and quality worth of a product.

Including in the top-end devices of the company is the new release number of unit which is considered safe and has the quality of the materials as well as the design and together its features. Mobile phones accessories as the headset, the memory card and its features as the camera and video were some of the clients want in their mobile phones. To be able to keep abreast to the faster world, it is much important to determine the updated phones so that the company will also be up to date and cannot overcome by its competitors. Nokia Product Design:

Nokia is a great brand because it knows that the essence of the brand needs to be reflected in everything the company does, especially those that impact the consumer. Product design is clearly critical to the success of the brand, but how does Nokia manage to inject personality into product design? The answer is that it gives a great deal of thought to how the user of its phones will experience the brand, and how it can make that experience reflect its brand character. The large display screen, for example, is the “face” of the phone. Nokia designers describe it as the “eye into the soul of the product”.

Fig. -3 Nokia Various product 8. 4. Nokia Positioning – Price In cooperation of the local mobile operators, the company offers a solution which was designed for the low cost of the ownership and the providing affordable mobile phones. In this manner, though the products offers a wide range of high tech features, the company maintains its prices in order for the consumers can afford the said products. These strategic prices that the company is offering will benefit not only the consumers but also the company itself due to the affordable prices in their service that their company is offering.

In this regard, the company will accommodate and can enhance to its consumers a good quality the products with an affordable prices. 8. 5. Nokia Positioning – Place Through the plan of diversifying its products and its services, the company offers its business in the United States, Venezuela, in India, Brazil, Indonesia and to the other parts of the world which focus on the establishments of the of the luxury mobile phones, as well as the communication products. In this manner, the products and the service of the company will be well-known all throughout the world.

Furthermore, upon diversification the company will expect to come up for the ample income return. In this manner, the company also merged and shared its products to the other service provider company as the awing to have a strong team building for the promotions and for the continuous providing high quality services to its consumers. Then, these companies will provide a technology as well as the services that will allow the brands and the products to execute, to plan, to create, measures, and to optimize the mobile advertisements worldwide.

Regarding this team-up, the products will go to be a high end by providing its consumers a media sharing solution as well as the organizations of the shared photos. 8. 6. Nokia Positioning – Promotions There are many promotions that Nokia is doing in order for them to have a market. Advertisements are the first thing that the company had done. These advertisements can be through the television, to the newspapers, to the radio, to the prints and to the others as the posters. Some of the advertisements are the worldwide promotions in order for the consumer to know and the latest trends in the field of the mobile phones.

Promotions are also the strategy of Nokia in order to enhance the consumers. Distribution of these products also to the other part of the world will help for the promotions and to the knowledge of the consumers in the other part of the world. Providing the quality services and the high technology products is the bet for the promotions because the consumers will determine the quality of the products the special and unique features they will have in the said products. The demand of the consumers had pushed Nokia in pursuing its plan to serve its consumers for the services they want and they need.

Since communication is the ultimate way of transaction whether formal or in the business sector or the informal one as the family and the friendly communication. Regarding this, it will obviously determined that the mobile is part of every people for whatever reason that is the Nokia is always and never stop in giving quality services and updating its products for the benefit of the its consumers. 8. 7. Nokia Positioning Maps: In planning their products differentiation and strategies nokia of a prepare perceptual positioning maps which show consumer perception to their particular model verses other models.

Service Better Less High Apple iphone N900 Price Sony Ericson W995 Nokia 1100 Low Figure-04: Nokia positioning Map. The figure shows us that Nokia produce 1100 for lower income people and N70 for middle class people and N900 for higher class people. 8. 8. Developing Positioning Statement of Nokia: To- Several classes people Our-NOKIA Connecting people Is- Connect people

That- high featured, durable and economic prices 8. 9. Overall Positioning Strategy of Nokia: |More |More |More | |for |for |for | |more |the same |Less | | | |The same for | | | |less | | | |Less for much | | | |less |

Fig. -Positioning Segment of Nokia More for more Nokia offers high performance handsets for much higher price such as Nokia E series , N series. Same for Less In contrast to their competitors nokia offers same features service for less price. Such as Nokia produces 5300 handsets for much less price while their competitors like Sony Ericson , Samsung offer same features for less price. Less for much less price Considering lower income people, Nokia produces handsets with less features for much less prices.

Nokia 1100, 1200, 1208 produces to provide least features but high quality at much less price. 8. 10. Differentiation policy of NOKIA Product differentiation of Nokia: Nokia launches different types of models. They have enormous number of mobile. Especially they have targeted all classes of people abd launches different models which is totally absent in other mobile companies. Their products have shaped that easy to hold, soft key, expressing personality, life styles and mode of user. Service differentiation: Nokia is reputed for their long lasting battery.

They also have larger number of dealer around the world. Recently they started to operate service center in every district named “NOKIA CARE CENTER”. By those outlets they provide customers with great service. These types of differ them from others. Channel Differentiation: Nokia maintain a huge number of outlet and distributor. This is one of the strategy by which they occupy strongest place in south asian country People differentiation: Nokia’s employees have reputation for their well behavior and skilled performance.

They provide service the whole world with high reputation for several years. Image differentiation: Nokia have particular logo, music, state like “CONCENTRATE PEOPLE”. All these things work as image of Nokia and promote their market. 8. 11. Criteria for Differentiation of Nokia Important: Nokia Offer the Consumer to Connect the over Communicating Network. Distinctive: Nokia offer the difference from other company the size, shape, model etc. Superior: The difference is superior that’s way that Nokia mobile using process is very easy and comfortable.

Communicable: Nokia’s Differentiation is communicable and visible all over the world because it is top mobile selling company of the world. Preemptive: Competitors cannot easily copy the difference because Nokia has serial number, IMEI number and Code number. Affordable: Buyers are not paying the differentiation cost of Nokia mobile. Nokia charge suitable price of each mobile. Profitable: Nokia have many difference to attract buyers and finally Nokia try to earn profit. 9. Conclusion

From the above assignment I have come to this conclusion that Nokia has implemented various segmentation strategies for its products on a large scale & becoming no. 1 leader in the world of mobile phones. Nokia segments its market according to various variables. The main segmentation is done on the basis of price. As per our opinion Nokia had introduced various schemes to attract people & gain more goodwill into market. I would like to conclude that Nokia had been launching various new products & strategies throughout the year but still it is the no. 1 brand leader in mobile phones.

Many people around the globe are purchasing Nokia phones, as they are very cheap, good & efficient to operate. Nokia have used better & efficient market segmentation strategies to market its products according to various segments of customers in the market. Nokia as such has used all modern & good techniques to tackle problems of customers in market. Customer care & feedback is also given more importance. Better, efficient & advanced techniques are used to increase the sales of product. Also Nokia is largest manufacturer of mobile phones in India & also the no. leader in it. Various segmentation strategies and positioning and differentiating strategies are being enrolled into the market to increase the sales of the products. New models & their strategies are being well utilized to enhance the product. 10. Bibliography: 1. www. nokia. com 2. En. wikipedia. org 3. www. scribd. com 4. Principles of marketing –Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong, 13th Edition 5. Global marketing 4th Edition –Warren J. Keegan ———————– Figure 1: Nokia Headquarter ———————– 14

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Black Poems

In the past during apartheid being black meant you lost out in many privileges it also showed how black people where oppressed. In this poem we see that Mbongeni Khumalo uses the word black in connection to all the bad things.

He highlights that there is this darkness associated with the colour black and that in the 1960’s when someone called you a black person it showed nothing good and that no one should be proud of being black. He also looks at all the words that start with “black” and if one looks deep into them then we see that there’s a deeper meaning to that particular word and that it has got something to do with wrong doing or bad happenings.

The first line of the poem reads “you don’t need a BLACK-BELT to write blackpoems”, if one looks at this line and critique it then we see that he says that one doesn’t need a black belt to write black poem and the way it is written from the small letter at the beginning of the sentence to the to the black belt in a big font and black poems as one word this shows that as a black person no one really paid attention to the diction of the poem. B/LACK” when one looks at this word and the way it has been written then you can interpret it as be lack, as if he’s trying to point out that when you are black you lack in something. He further one uses the word “prac-teasing” and instead of writing practising he uses the teasing showing that he was isolated for mocking black art but in his own right one can argue that he was not mocking it but just highlighting the points that were true and that there was a time when anything that was done by a black person was just done and not taken seriously, a black person could only go so far with their art. Trampling my so(u)l/e/” the way he has chosen to break down the word soul in a way that one can say he is trampling the word himself and he also adds an “e” at the end which shows that he can do anything to this poem since it is a black poem. Served sausages made from minced pork and call(ed) it BLACK PUDDING” one can say that it was called black pudding because in the black culture the only time that the families ever ate pudding which consisted of custard and fruit was during Christmas otherwise black people always feasted with meat he could also have been referring to himself as the black sheep because he did not eat meat and in that case being black and not eating meat meant that you were a different type of black person and therefore you were out casted and you were a black sheep. I suffered a BLACK DEATH at the hands of a BLACK GUARD”, what the writer brings out in this line is how black people still killed each other regardless of the fact that they were all oppressed by the same people for the same reason. The guards were also said to be puppies for the oppressors so that the hit on them could be lighter and that they could spare them their lives. So it shows that black people were also turned against each other and killed each other just so that they can hold their own end.

The language that he has chosen to use is simple but the was in which he has broken down his words and placed them in way that one could clearly see the point he is trying to make about black poems. As one carries on to read this poem you could say that this is not a black poem but a poem about black people. He uses a playful tone but at the same time the way he stresses some words to show his point and the double meanings behind them. He also used the words to show what was happening in that time to black people trying to pass on the torch of awareness so that people could stop being naive and actually know how things were done in that time.

He attracts the reader by his title which is “BLAK POWEMS” which shows the way he wrote it as if he were a actually saying it in a Bantu accent, so he chose to write it the way he would say it because no one really paid close attention to the diction and the style of the way black poets wrote their poems because it always ended up being black people reading each others poems. The way this poem has been written it shows well that it is protest poem in such a sense as when one looks at the diction used in this poem and the style of writing that the poet has chosen to use.

He plays with associations surrounding blackness to put his point across of how blackness is associated with bas things and in this case particularly back in the 1960’s during times of black oppression and apartheid. The tone of this poem is in a playful but honest manner, not harsh but it keeps one intrigued that there could be so many things associated with the colour black that represent a darker side of life and the poet does a good job of bringing them out and also highlighting them.

This poem makes the reader see the problems that the past could add on to a simple phrase or word. The word black in this poem has been separated and put on a spectrum whereby we can all see the negatives that could and that are surrounding this one word in particular. The poet has also made us think of how history played out and he did this not by writing that in the 1960’s this is what happened but he used words that show or highlight the main events of the 60’s.

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Leveraging Social Networking Sites in Marketing Communications

Leveraging Social Networking Sites in Marketing Communications The social media networking websites represent an important media channel for reaching a diverse demography. Nowadays, consumers respond less to traditional marketing and rely more on blogs, mobile messaging, comparison shopping sites etc. What is a social networking website? It’s a website that brings people together in central location to talk, share ideas and interests and make new friends. For e. g. facebook, bebo, myspace, youtube, friendster etc.

What makes a social networking website an important tool for marketing communications? * Increase in number of people visiting networking websites * Increase in advertising spending on social networking websites * Global reach of social networking websites Importance of demographics of social networking website users for marketing communications Although the larger portion of social networking sites is still represented by youth; middle to old age users has also started joining the social networking sites. This gives marketers an opportunity to target niche customer segment.

The four major consumer categories which marketers focus are as follows: * Teens and young adults * Women and mothers * Old age users * Affluent Individuals How marketers use social networking websites for marketing communications? As use of online media grows, marketers can proactively engage their customers on social networking sites such as placing paid advertising, posting comments or feedbacks and adding a link from social networking sites to company’s site. Following are few real life examples of companies that have successfully used social networking websites for: Improving customer understanding ) Unilever: To lunch its sunsilk brand in USA, Unilever targeted 25-year old single women. It started a campaign “Hairpay” which included three actors posing as hair care specialists. The company set up profiles on MySpace for these specialists through which it offered page visitors advice on hair care, dating and women issues. This provided company a platform wherein it could interact directly with its target customers and understand customers’ needs and habits. Unilever’s MySpace profile attracted more than 4000 online visitors in the first two weeks of the campaign. ) Xerox: Second Life is a virtual world created and managed by Linden Labs in which users interact with each other using internet based avatars. Xerox scientists round the world collaborate with customers and determine what features and products customers would like to see Xerox offer. Xerox used second life to launch 15 products on “Xerox Innovation Island”. On the marketing side, Xerox provides 3D virtual demos that customers use to try products and services. Xerox attracted more than five million people to its Second Life virtual island. ) Procter and Gamble: Procter and Gamble believes that a better understanding of women customers could enable more targeted offerings. P&G launched two websites aimed at creating online communities and forums for women to share their stories and learn from each other. P&G links one these websites to its people’s choice awards and allows women to share their views on topics such as entertainment. The other site provides a forum for women to discuss subjects of interest such as parenting, pregnancy and weight loss. This helped P&G to do an extensive market research on a particular customer demographic.

Promoting issues of social concern 1) Virgin Mobile: In 2006, Virgin Mobile USA partnered with Youth Noise, a youth-based social networking website and Stand up for Kids, a non-profit organization focused on improving the lives of homeless children. Through Youth Noise, Virgin Mobile provided its customer a platform where they can interact with each other on a wide array of issues and find ways to help their communities. Virgin Mobile employed various initiatives such as allowing customers to download ringtones from its website and donating 100% profits to non-profit organizations. ) Toyota: Toyota Motor Sales, USA, Inc. , a vehicle manufacturer, launched a social networking website for its community of more than 600000 hybrid, fuel efficient vehicles working on rechargeable battery, owners. This social networking website is a forum where hybrid owners talk about their reasons for driving an energy efficient hybrid car and provide statistics about them and their vehicles. The site also includes features such as gas savings calculator and an interactive distance map which charts how fuel efficient Toyota’s Hybrid vehicles are as compared to gas powered vehicles.

Promoting products and services 1) JP Morgan Chase: JP Morgan Chase sought to encourage the use of credit cards among college students. To promote the chase credit card, the company partnered with Facebook which has a large number of students as members. Banner ads on Facebook invited members to join a special chase network. After joining the Chase online community on Facebook, customers could activate a credit card and can avail other services also. Members also earned reward points for their activities such as paying their bills on time and could redeem these points for prizes. ) Cisco: A supplier of networking equipment and networking management for the internet. In 2006, Cisco bought two Second Life islands to conduct education and training, receive feedback from customers on products and perform presentations. One of the Second Life islands features amphitheatre for mass tutorials, spreading product information etc. The other island provides a community based platform meant to encourage people to discuss its products. Second Life enables Cisco to take advantage of the insight they gain from customer interaction. Facilitating internal knowledge sharing ) IBM: In 2006 IBM partnered with Second Life to establish a virtual business for IBM’s employees and customers. The company bought 12 Second Life islands to serve as a virtual meeting place for current and former employees, an information centre for marketing IBM’s services to customers and a virtual retail area for IBM’s customers to meet and discuss products. Through Second Life, IBM not only gives its geographically dispersed employees a common forum to meet, it also engages its customers in discussions and hence improves customer service.

Increased brand awareness 1) Burger King: To reach its target population primarily composed of younger demographics, Burger King rolled out a campaign on MySpace. It sponsored a special page reflecting the company’s US marketing slogan and used popular Burger King Mascot, The King. Burger King also partnered with Fox Entertainment Group to offer programs such as 24 free of charge to the 75 million members of MySpace. Consequently, MySpace members visited Burger King’s page to download free recordings of their favourite fox shows. ) Honda: In 2007, Honda allowed its customers to shape its marketing message for its new Honda Element SC. The advertising campaign included a variety of animal characters of which one character, Gil the Crab, gained immense popularity. Honda created a Gil the crab profile on MySpace. It was promoted as a typical social networking visitor. Gil the crab wrote blogs, comments and interacted with other visitors on its profile page. Consequently, more than 100000 people visited Honda’s MySpace page to discuss the Element SC.

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Thesis on Internet Banking

Thesis on Internet Banking Internet banking is the new method of banking using the new technologies available in the world today. Instead of needing to travel into a local branch of your bank, the Internet allows you to do a wide variety of useful things with your accounts. It can be accessed from anywhere that there is a computer with the Internet, and of course unlike bank branches the net is open 24 hours a day 7 days a week. The services available online vary from bank to bank.

Most of the general services are on all banking websites but the larger banks contain more control over your money. Here are some of the things that are possible – View your account balances Pay your bills (With the help of programs like ‘B-Pay’ View records of transactions Transfer money to linked accounts with the same bank Transfer money to specially selected unlinked accounts Order printed payment reviews Pay for shares Check interest in your accounts Send money overseas Change your details Open new accounts Receive advice on handling funds

These are not all of the services available because each bank is different and in the competitive nature of banks they are always offering new features to attract investors. These features are open to both individuals and businesses (businesses have a few more options). Everything has upsides and downsides and unfortunately so does online banking. First of all obviously it does not deposit physical money nor does it withdraw bank notes, which means you will still have to make a trip to the bank to do those things.

The fact that online banking is done over the Internet means that safety and security is a big issue. Only 28 percent of Australian websites surveyed by Australia’s consumer watchdog had some kind of privacy policy. A further 72 percent would not say whether they would disclose private information to other companies – many people are receiving advertisements from companies that they had not done business with or even heard of before both through mail and electronically, for example through email.

It is very possible to have your information stolen while it is being passed across the World Wide Web due to the latest surges in technology, sometimes even PIN numbers and user names are possible. In the near future, it is predicted that businesses will know who you are, where and how much money you have to spend etc. Every time you use electronic devices like credit cards, mobile phones, the Internet, even signing up for a competition your details are being recorded. A new science called biometrics will be able to identify people with retinal scans, fingerprints, voice or DNA samples.

While being secure it will not be too anonymous – which is why there are fears of moving into an Internet/electronic age of banking. On the other hand there are the obvious reasons why net banking is becoming popular and banks are becoming more and more online-aware – It is so much easier being able to access accounts from literally anywhere in the world at anytime than finding a bank branch and visiting it during normal business hours. The whole process also gets done much quicker than by physically talking to a teller and waiting for them to process the service.

All of the things that can be done by a teller can be done on the website of your bank and there is plenty of help and tutorials to help, and so far the services are listed in the first question but there will be many advancements in the new technology when more banks begin to cross to electronic methods and start to compete for online customers. In order to first begin to use a net banking service from your local bank, you must first have access (preferably regular access) to a computer with access to the Internet. When you go online direct your browser to the ebsite of your bank (you should check with your bank what the website is). Most banks will have a large link to net banking or otherwise use the search option to find it. There is a short process involved to receive a user name and password for online banking – follow the onscreen instructions, it usually involves a phone call and 3 working days to mail online details to you. Once you have logged on into your bank’s main account area there will be several options available to you – an outline of these were covered near the start of the document.

These options will come under different headings as links, simply click on them to take you to the list of features available. As an example, BankWest (at www. bankwest. com. au) has four options at the top of the screen – daily banking, where you can select accounts with the bank, bill payments where you can pay your bills with funds in your accounts, service center containing lots of options regarding your accounts (like printouts, statements, details, orders e. . new cheque books) and my profile where you can change your personal details. Despite doing your banking over the Internet being somewhat of a security issue it is obviously much easier and faster than talking to tellers and your local and branches. It is using new and advanced technology, which is fast evolving meaning that this method of banking will accelerate much faster in the coming years.