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Organisational Learning

If there are images in this attachment, they will not be displayed. Download the original attachment 1. Introduction In order to survive in the rapid changing business environment the organisations need to acquire knowledge and innovate fast enough. This dynamic, complex and globally competitive nature of the business requires learning organisations. CEO of British Petroleum Company John Browne (1995) says “Learning is at the heart of a company’s ability to adapt to rapidly changing environment. ”(p. 148)  Many approaches are being articulated to build learning organisations.

In this work, three articles which portray suggestions to build a learning organisation are being reviewed, critically analysed, and compared and contract. 2. The Literature Search Key words: Organisational learning, organisational developments, management learning, continuous learning. Sources: Harvard Business School Review, Emerald journals 3. Review of the articles Article 1: “Building A Learning Organisation” by David A Garvin In the article Garvin has mentioned about the three dilemmas which are essential for flourishing the execution of the transforming the organisations into learning organisation: Meaning, Management and Measuring.

A new approach to learning organisation is being bought into the study. ”A learning organisation is an organisation skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behaviour to reflect new knowledge and insights” (p. 3) To build an organisation into a learning organisation Garvin recommends five building blocks: Solving problems systematically, Experimenting with new approaches to work, and Learning from past experience, Learning from other companies and from customers, Transferring knowledge throughout organisation.

Implementing these activities assists the organisations guarantee continues improvements. In the later part of the article the steps for   measuring the learning are described. The article advice  Half life curves, questionnaires and surveys on behavioural changes comprehensive learning audit to measure the learning instead of using traditional methods like learning and experience curves which focus only on , cost or price. The article put forward a slight shift in focus, away from continuous improvement and toward a commitment to learning.

Article 2: “The Fifth Discipline” By Peter M Senge This article demonstrates how to create a background, where the employees are supported to learn collectively and individually. Senge says in order to withstand the competitors and to excel in the field or market, the organisations have to ensure two conditions: The capability to design the organisation to match with the desired result or outcome, ability to recognise any deviation from the desired outcome and to bring it back to the right track by undertaking the necessary initiatives and steps.

He describes five disciplines which creates learning organisations The System thinking, Personal mastery, Mental models, Shared vision and Team learning. The System thinking is considered as the fifth discipline, Senge describes it as the ‘cornerstone’ which underlies other disciplines. The five disciplines have to be learned by the individuals in the organisation and put into the business activities. According to Senge organisations that are capable of learning from their experiences do better than those organisations that simply adopt to their environments.

They take advantage of rapidly changing conditions. Their strategies are sufficiently open ended to allow for the unexpected so that their capabilities of organisational learning can deal with external rapidly changing situations Article3: “Building and sustaining a learning organisation” By Richard Teare and Richard Dealtry  This editorial document discuses how to build a learning background and the implication for Learning organisations. It depicts on the experience and observations of members the organisations which run learning programmes at their work places.

It debates on four themes: Modelling the learning process in organisations, organisational readiness, Team working and learning and networked learning . These themes are related to the plan for organisational learning and organisational learning renewal. It claims that effective learning is depends on the environment for learning and the efforts of organisational leaders and managers in creating, nourishing and encouraging the suitable circumstances for learning to occur. 4. Critical Appraisal Article 1: The flow of text is easy to read and it is free from technical terminology.

The examples quoted in this article come from both larger and smaller organisations. The examples are, interesting, and generously interspersed throughout the article. The article includes examples of both successful and failed attempts, gives an idea about how corrections can be made when an initial attempt does not work. Garvin has take on a structural approach. His hypothesis gives the guidelines for real time applications and it is loaded with operational advice rather than high objectives. However, structural improvements are only as good as the enthusiasm for learning, so there are limitations to this theory as well.

Article2: It is very important that an ensemble could be developed from the five disciplines proposed by Senge . However it is a challenge because it is much difficult to incorporate new tools than simply apply them separately. However the payoffs are gigantic. Senge fails to claim any theoretical or empirical evidence to support his claims. This article is better at perceptions than at the provision of realistic steps for managers. The organisations which consider profit as the bottom line, an essential concern with the culture and development of employees and associates is too unrealistic.

There is a question of about the applications of the systems theory. Though he establishes variety of broader appreciations and focus to his hypothesis, it is not fully set in a political or moral framework. Article3: It illustrates a systematic approach to learning organisations, starting from the organisational objectives, diagnosing the need and opportunities, learning organisations support and progress review. It takes the advantage views and experiences of the two real time organisations to portray the real time situations in building the organisation.

It gives a brief review on the different concept and the realities about building a learning environment. It is well known that the concept of building learning organisation is been articulated by different scholars and has a disagreement. This article seeks support from various sources and scholars which is likely to have some contradicting arguments in the article. 5. Comparison of articles Article1 is the theoretical approach to build learning organisations and in article2 Garvin renovate this into reality.

In article1 Garvin looks at managing behaviour and performance which is an external view while in article2 Senge looks at the mental models that determine behaviour which is an internal view. Article 1, 2 &3 disagree about what conditions promote the creation of learning organisations. Each list different factors that represent or promote learning. However, they approach the learning organisations with a normative or prescriptive orientation. Providing an enhanced understanding is a key issue in learning organisations. Article1 claims mental model and system thinking will facilitate this enhanced understanding.

In the case of article2, it is systematic problem solving, experimentation and learning from past experiences. Mental models, Team learning and system thinking disciplines are suggested by Senge(article2) in order to acquire knowledge . In view of Garvin(article1)  knowledge acquisition is  done through learning  from the others and learning from  the past experiences. In order to filter the acquired knowledge Garvin implements systematic problem solving and experiments, and Senge recommends inquiry and dialogue which are discussed in the discipline team learning.

Neither article1 nor article2 explicitly mentioned the need to unfreeze organisation before substantial improvements can be achieved. Whereas article3 discuss unfreezing organisational way of thinking and avoiding decision making that is skewed to either extreme. Under some circumstance the Organisational standards have become as a predicament for the organisations which prefer innovation. Article3 uses the same concept to overcome this problem. Article2 says the leaders of a learning organisation “are designers, stewards, and teachers.

They are responsible for building organisations where people continually expand their abilities to understand complexity, clarify vision, and improve shared mental models – that is, they are responsible for learning. ” Article3 has the similar approach to leadership. It seen that article3 has followed some influences of Senge’s (article2) recommendations in the process of building a learning organisation. 6. Conclusion Learning organisations create a culture which sustain and encourage continuous learning by its employees. Vital thinking and acceptable risk taking new ideas.

The concept of the learning organization has gained increasing attention in the management literature. For a quite long time the organisational theorists have studied about the subject under the discussion and their diversity views imply there is a considerable disagreement. In this work, such of three articles which portray suggestions to build a learning organisation are being reviewed, critically analysed, and compared and contract. To conclude, even though there are disagreement regarding the subject basic foundations such as knowledge acquisition, deeper understanding and improved performance are widely accepted by most of the scholars. . REFERENCE (1) Dealtry,R and Teare,R(1998) Building and sustaining a learning organisation, The Learning organisation 5(1) p 47-60 (2) Garvin,D. (1993). Building a learning organisation. Harvard Business Review (3) Senge,P. (1990) The Fifth Discipline :The art and practice of learning organisation United states,Currency. (4) Steven P. (1995) Unleashing the power of learning: An interview with British Petroleum’s John Browne. Harvard Business Review, 75(5) p. 148

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Media War Coverage

Media War Coverage From the beginning of time when humans started fighting wars regardless of the reasoning leaders discovered how important propaganda and the public’s opinion of why they were fighting the war. If the nation’s leaders believes in why they are fighting a war the Country willbe more likely to give their support and motivated to stay in the fight for the long haul. Edward R. Murrow, former reporter for CBS once said, “We must not confuse dissent with disloyalty.

We will not be driven by fear into an age of unreason if we remember that we are not descended from fearful men, not from men who feared to write, to speak, to associate and to defend causes which were, for the moment unpopular. ” A delicate balance exists between the military and the media censorship and evolution of wartime media from WWII through modern day WAR in Iraq. World War II coverage came mostly through newspapers and radio coverage.

During this time journalist had a good relationship with the military, both were working toward a common goal that would bring an end to Adolf Hitler’s war machine, which was determined to take over the world! Without being heavily censored by military leader reporters were able to provide much more coverage of the war. Reporters during this time were at a much larger disadvantage compared to reporters of today because of their technological disadvantage.

What would take journalist during World War II hours if not days to report battles or events through radio, print, or even telegraph was plenty of time for the military to screen the story. But it also provided a buffer of time to prevent any issues of violation what is known as operational security. In other words by the time the story reached its viewers in the United States a potential battle plan had already been executed. The soldiers involved wouldn’t be in any danger of valuable information reaching the enemy.

Not to mention if a battle went particularly wrong there was time to adjust or screen a story in order to portray it in a different light that may be more favorable. Vietnam armed with newer technology allowing the average American family to have a television in every living room created a way to usher in graphic images of the war. No longer could we use the view the war over there as a separate entity being left over there and nor were reporters on the battle field as highly censored they were able to relay events on the battlefield and the reality in pictures of what combat was truly like.

Because we now possessed the technology so Americans at home could see war first hand. Young Americans formed their own opinions of the war causing protest swaying public opinion and subsequently support for the war causing a large Anti-war feeling. Ho Chi Minh and the Communist north believed that with the American public losing confidence in the Unites States government. Since the mainstream media were not in support of the war, media portraying the violence and how the US progress in Vietnam in a negative light that eventually was said to be the motivation leading to the pull out of Vietnam.

The concept of winning by proxy meaning: to simply wait out the enemy until they lose the will of the people to continue to fight. The theory held by the enemy proved to be correct due to the lack of media support helping to drive the motivation of the people and the length of the war dragging on over several years the United States did eventually pull out of Vietnam. During the Gulf War the media had progressed and had grown leaps and bounds since Vietnam. The technology currently available allowed reporters to report from hotel rooms within Kuwait during the air campaign in the early hours of Desert Storm.

New companies such as CNN had correspondents bringing up to date information and developments from the beginning of Operation Desert shield to the building up of forces. The destruction of SADAAM Hussein’s Army as it moved waged its campaign against Kuwait through the liberation of Kuwait. The images we saw of Scud attacks and Victory parades were brought to us twenty-four hours a day seven days a week. The positive view portrayed by the media had a direct affect on the public’s view on the war. From the beginning of the War on Terror Allied reporters who were covering stories for both Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Allied reporters were imbedded with American troops fighting on the battlefield, these reporters were able to use satellite cards for access to the Internet and laptops were able to report from anywhere on the battle field up to date information on the progress of operations and how the war was going with virtually little to no chance of the military censorship. Reporter’s ability to use technology to avoid censorship was evident with the opening of the ground war in Iraq; a reporter named Jeraldo Rivera announced planned movements of American troops on television. Mr.

Rivera was being broadcasted internationally creating the potential for the enemy to be better prepared for the oncoming attacks by the American Forces. Powerful Photo essays and Internet blogs often show the harsh side of war, unlike the harsh side of WWII where media images were more benign. The one constant through history has always been evident and media wither or not being censored is powerful in determining the support in a nation and in many cases the outcome of success or failure in a conflict. A. Censorship War Coverage: Barhart, Aaron. “Speeding Up War Coverage. ” Television Week.

Apr. 2003. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOhost. U. of Hartford Lib. 1 May 2005 Hernandez, Debra Gersh. “The simple days of war coverage. ” Editor & Publisher. Jul. 1994. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOhost. U. of Hartford Lib. 1 May 2005. . “Newseum: War Stories Technology. ” War Reporting & Technology. 1 May 2005. Rather, Dan. “Truth on the Battlefield. ” Harvard International Review. Spring 2001. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOhost. U. of Hartford Lib. 1 May 2005. . Rosenberg, Jim. “Tech from Gulf War to Gulf War. ” Editor & Publisher. March 2003. Academic Search Premier.

EBSCOhost. U. of Hartford Lib. 1 May 2005. . Shafer, Jack. “Embeds and Unilaterals. ” 1 May 2003. 1 May 2005. B. WWI Coverage: BibliographyChase, Stuart. Guides to Straight Thinking. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1956. Combs, James and Nimmo, Dan. The New Propaganda: The Dictatorship of Palavar in Contemporary Politics. New York: Longman Publishing Group, 1993. Doob, Leonard. Propaganda: Its Psychology and Technique. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1935. Edwards, Violet. Group Leader’s Guide to Propaganda Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1938. Ellul, Jacques.

Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes. New York: Vintage Books, 1965. Hummel, William and Huntress, Keith. The Analysis of Propaganda. New York: William Sloane Associates, 1949. Institute for Propaganda Analysis. Propaganda Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1938. Institute for Propaganda Analysis. The Fine Art of Propaganda. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1939. Lee, Alfred McClung. How to Understand Propaganda. New York: Rinehart and Company, 1952. Lowenthal, Leo and Guterman, Norbert. Prophets of Deceit. Palo Alto: Pacific Books Publishers, 1970.

Miller, Clyde. The Process of Persuasion. New York: Crown Publishers, 1946. Pratkanis, Anthony and Aronson, Elliot. Age of Propaganda: The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1991. Rank, Hugh. Language and Public Policy. New York: Citation Press, 1974. Thum, Gladys and Thum, Marcella. The Persuaders: Propaganda in War and Peace. New York: Atheneum, 1972. C. How Media Coverage of the Vietnam War Changed America, Journalism Cossa, Frank. Photojournalism and the “War at Home”. 19 October 2005. Digital History, The Vietnam War.

Online American History Book, Period: 1960’s. 19 October 2005. Kahrs, Kristian. “Lies, Deceit and Hypocrisy. ” May 1997. 19 October 2005. LaborLawTalk: Vietnam War, Encyclopedia. LaborLawTalk. com. 3 December 2005. Lester, Paul Martin. Chapter Four: Victims of Violence, Photojournalism An Ethical Approach. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, Hillsdale, 1991. Digital Version, 1999. McLaughlin, Erin. “Television Coverage of the Vietnam War and the Vietnam” Veteran. December 3, 2001. August 2004. The Media and the Vietnam War. 19 October 2005. Reference. com, Encyclopedia: Vietnam War.

Copyright 2001-2005 Tennant, Michael. “Now You See It, Now You Don’t. ” 27 May 2004. Strike the Root. 19 October 2005. “Vietnam War. ” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Digital version. 19 October 2005. “Walter Cronkite. ” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Digital version. 19 October 2005. D. Censorship in the Gulf Clark, Ramsey. The Fire This Time: U. S. War Crimes in the Gulf. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 1994. Denton, Robert E. , Jr. , ed. The Media and the Persian Gulf War. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1993. Fialka, John J. Hotel Warriors: Covering the Gulf War.

Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1992. MacArthur, John R. Second Front: Censorship and Propaganda in the Gulf War. New York: Hill and Wang, a division of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1992. Massing, Michael. “Another Front. ” Chap. in The Media and the Gulf War. ed. Hedrick Smith. Washington, DC: Seven Locks Press, 1992. Nohrstedt, Stig A. “Ruling by Pooling. ” Chapter in Triumph of the Image: The Media’s War in the Persian Gulf–a Global Perspective. Mowlana, Hamid, George Gerbner, and Herbert I. Schiller, eds. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1992 Norris Margot. Only the Guns Have Eyes. ” Chapter in Seeing Through the Media: The Persian Gulf War. Susan Jeffords and Lauren Rabinowitz, eds. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutger’s University Press, 1994. Schanberg, Sydney H. “Censoring for Political Security. ” Chap. in The Media and the Gulf War. ed. Hedrick Smith. Washington, DC: Seven Locks Press, 1992. Trainor, Lt. Gen. Bernard E. , USMC. “The Military and the Media: A Troubled Embrace. ” Chap. in The Media and the Gulf War. ed. Hedrick Smith. Washington, DC: Seven Locks Press, 1992. Williams, Pete. “Ground Rules and Guidelines for Desert Shield. ” Chap. n The Media and the Gulf War. ed. Hedrick Smith. Washington, DC: Seven Locks Press, 1992. Williams, Pete. “Statement before the U. S. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs. ” Chap. in The Media and the Gulf War. ed. Hedrick Smith. Washington, DC: Seven Locks Press, 1992. Woodward, Gary C. “The Rules of the Game: The Military and the Press in the Persian Gulf War. ” Chap. in The Media and the Persian Gulf War. ed. Robert E. Denton, Jr. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1993 E. Military censorship of the war in Iraq Naomi Spence ”Military censorship of the war in Iraq”, 31 July 2008 All of

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Authority Power Politics

Authority/Power/Politics Authority What is Authority The word authority derives from the Latin word auctoritas meaning invention, advice, opinion, influence or commands which originate from an auctor, indicating that authority originates from a master, leader or author. Essentially authority is imposed by superiors upon inferiors either by force of arms (structural authority) or by force of argument (sapiential authority). Usually authority has components of both compulsion and persuasion.

For this reason, as used in Roman law authority is differentiated into potestas (legal or military power) and imperium (persuasive political rank or standing). Weber on Authority Max Weber in his sociological work has identified and distinguished three types of authority. Weber defined authority as the chance of commands being obeyed by a specifiable group of people. Legitimate authority is that which is recognized as legitimate and justified by both the ruler and the ruled. Weber divided legitimate authority into three types: The first type discussed by Weber is Rational-legal authority.

It is that form of authority which depends for its legitimacy on formal rules and established laws of the state, which are usually written down and are often very complex. The power of the rational legal authority is mentioned in the constitution. Modern societies depend on legal-rational authority. Government officials are the best example of this form of authority, which is prevalent all over the world. The second type of authority is Traditional authority, which derives from long-established customs, habits and social structures.

When power passes from one generation to another, then it is known as traditional authority. The right of hereditary monarchs to rule furnishes an obvious example. The Tudor dynasty in England and the ruling families of Mewar, in Rajasthan (India) are some examples of traditional authority. The third form of authority is Charismatic authority. Here, the charisma of the individual or the leader plays an important role. Charismatic authority is that authority which is derived from “the gift of grace” or when the leader claims that his authority is derived from a “higher power” (e. . God or natural law or rights) or “inspiration”, that is superior to both the validity of traditional and rational-legal authority and followers accept this and are willing to follow this higher or inspired authority, in the place of the authority that they have hitherto been following. Some of the most prominent examples of charismatic authority can be politicians or leaders, who come from a movie or entertainment background. These people become successful, because they use their grace and charm to get more votes during elections.

Examples in this regard can be NT Rama Rao, a matinee idol, who went on to become one of the most powerful Chief Ministers of Andhra Pradesh. History has witnessed several social movements or revolutions, against a system of traditional or legal-rational authority, which are usually started by Charismatic authorities. What distinguishes authority, from coercion, force and power on the one hand and leadership, persuasion and influence on the other hand, is legitimacy. Superiors feel that they have a right to issue commands; subordinates perceive an obligation to obey.

Social scientists agree that authority is but one of several resources available, to incumbents in formal positions. For example, a Head of State is dependent upon a similar nesting of authority. His legitimacy must be acknowledged, not just by citizens, but by those who control other valued resources: his immediate staff, his cabinet, military leaders and in the long run, the administration and political apparatus of the entire society. Power What is Power Power is a measure of an entity’s ability to control the environment around itself, including the behavior of other entities.

The term authority is often used for power, perceived as legitimate by the social structure. Power can be seen as evil or unjust, but the exercise of power is accepted as endemic to humans as social beings. Often, the study of power in a society is referred to as politics. Sources of Power Power may be held through: Delegated authority (for example in the democratic process) Social class (material wealth can equal power) Personal or group charisma Ascribed power (acting on perceived or assumed abilities, whether these bear testing or not) Expertise (Ability, Skills) Persuasion (direct, indirect, or subliminal)

Knowledge (granted or withheld, shared or kept secret) Celebrity Force (violence, military might, coercion). Moral persuasion (including religion) Operation of group dynamics (such as public relations) Social influence of tradition (compare ascribed power) In relationships; domination/submissiveness Politics What is Politics Politics is a process by which groups of people make collective decisions. The term is generally applied to behavior within civil governments, but politics has been observed in other group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions.

It consists of “social relations involving authority or power” and refers to the regulation of a political unit, and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy. Politics at Workplace Politics – the other face of the creative, innovative and manipulative and human mind, which always seeks power, recognition and authority. So how can there be no politics at the place where hundreds and thousands of human minds are spending most part of their day and there’s a constant struggle for power and recognition. Yes, double standards, secrecy, camps, demoting others and/or self promotion, in short – politics is all over the workplace.

No organisation is and will be completely free from the politics. Office politics refers to the use and manipulation of situations, power and people to secure their position, gain from the situation, let others down or even increase their own power, image and status within the organisation. The results or the benefits can be tangible or intangible, depending upon the situation. Politics at workplace is a game can be played equally well by a single player or teams together, can result in the interest and benefit of the organisation or go against it, can benefit those who don’t play or can throw them out of the organisation.

It is a double edged sword which can either create a happy, dynamic and improved environment at the workplace or can destroy it. Politics at workplace is often hard to resist and be away from. It compels and makes you compete. Although a part of all the organisations across the world, the politics at workplace has taken the more advanced and dangerous form in India, where the people staying away from it are being seen as a threat. Office politics has made employees good actors, hiding the facts and even true self from their own colleagues and organisation and being hypocrites for their reasons.

Grey side of the issue Every workplace has conflicts, but how the employees and the organisation tackle it goes a long way in ensuring the success of the employees as well as the organisation. Politics at workplace is complex, and can turn the organisation into an ugly and nasty battlefield. Most often, the power is the bone of contention. The powerful employee can take advantage of the situations and manipulate things. The employees can take the things to them at a personal level. This, in turn, can harm their personal and professional lives.

Playing on other people’s emotions to make things work for them, people have stooped to such levels where they have put their own morals and conscious aside. But the organisation feels the brunt of the continuous politics at workplace when it starts effecting the overall performance, efficiency and productivity of the organisation. This is mainly due to the considerable amount of time spent on the politics and thinking about the strategies and the moves, rather than the job and the work. Ultimately, this can lead to losses for the organisation and even the loss of jobs for the employees. Workplace Politics: A necessary evil

Again, the question arises about the employees who do not become a part to this politics at their workplace. Experts say that giving up to the politics without being a part of it and fighting it, especially when it is unfair, is not advisable either. Sometimes, the politics becomes the necessary evil simply for self defense. As often, the people staying away are taken as a threat and become the victim of the workplace politics and are eliminated. As it has become unavoidable to avoid the politics at today’s workplace, it has become necessary for every employee to: connect to people, try to identify the source of power, bserve and be aware of the happenings around, people’s strengths and weaknesses and their emotional intelligence. Avoiding politics at workplace Although it is practically impossible to make your workplace free from the politics, but the organisation and the employees can follow certain ethics for themselves to make their workplace healthier: Avoid distorting or manipulating the truth and the facts. Be yourself. Don’t have different faces to suit different people and different situations. Be fair in your dealings. Take decisions based on other’s performance and not on the basis of your relations with them.

Be flexible, approachable and accessible to others. Rigidity can isolate you. Communicate – Lack of proper communication is the root cause of most of the problems. Therefore, ensure a timely and open communication system. Hiding information, rumors or distorted information can aggravate the situation and problem. Proper communication will also help to combat the effect of gossip. Have a broader perspective. Don’t work to satisfy your ego every time. Give a fair chance to everyone to put forward their thoughts. Last but not the least; be clear in your conscious.

Don’t compromise on your morals and ethics and, don’t hesitate to apologize if you realize that you are wrong. It would be right to conclude that being a part of the interpersonal relations, politics at workplace is prevalent everywhere, and is unavoidable in most cases. But it’s more important to play the game right. Know the rules, stay true to yourself, don’t harm someone personally or his/her career, don’t take grudges home. Try to create a win-win situation for yourself, others and the organisation. Politics at workplace – can be good or bad – depends on how people take it and make it!

Don’t confuse authority, power, and politics If you work in an organization, you need a clear understanding of three closely related concepts–authority, power, and politics. Unfortunately, for many employees these concepts often confuse, frustrate, or elicit anxiety or indifference. The traditional concept of organization is built upon the principle that someone has the “right” to command someone else, whose duty is to obey the command. This “right” is bestowed by the formal organization, and we call it authority. It is important to note that “right to command” does not connote the “capacity to command. Most of us would be making a mistake if we were to equate right and capacity–i. e. , authority and power. This is especially true in a professional environment. We must always be careful to undergird our right to command with the appropriate power, the capability to secure dominance of one’s values or goals, if we want to develop and maintain highly effective organizations. Even though it may be socially unacceptable to admit that one aspires to power or worries about power relationships, we must recognize that power and politics enter into every organizational decision.

Positive power. However, concern about power and politics does not mean that a person is committed to such Machiavellian tactics as “doing unto others before they do unto you. ” Power has a positive side as well. Organizations could not function without some kind of power relationships. The positive side is characterized by a concern for group goals and their achievement. Leaders enjoy the greatest overall influence when they help their followers feel powerful and accomplish greatness on their own.

The direction of communications, their frequency, and their content reveals a great deal about the power relationships within an organization. It is as simple as who talks to whom about what. Office politics. The process by which power is exercised and sometimes acquired is called politics. In politics, contesting forces compete for favorable outcomes on decisions involving who gets what and how. Political activity is usually stronger where there are no prescribed routine answers or no stated policy. It also centers around the interpretation of existing policies and those situations involving value judgments.

Any organization that attempts to totally reduce these arenas of political activity by instituting rules, regulations, and policies from the top would quickly strangle in its own red tape. Political processes form the dynamic that enables the formal organization to function. In a sense, power and politics act as the lubricant that enables the interdependent parts of the organization to operate smoothly together. When we pretend that power and politics don’t exist, we greatly reduce the ability of an organization to get things done, especially when innovation and change are involved, because they abandon procedures we have always followed.

Since power and political processes are a fact of life in all organizations, we must develop and use the appropriate skills to achieve the organization’s goals. Managers must avoid working in isolation and instead as part of the flow of social forces. They must understand that a managerial position is not self-perpetuating. References Don’t confuse authority, power, and politics, By Ted Gautschi, Consultant, Wellesley Hills, MA — Design News, May 4, 1997

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Into the Wild Reaction Paper

Into the Wild Reaction Paper Dawn MB Nyberg COLS-100 Ever wonder what it would be like to be snow-bound, scared, alone, cold and hungry out in the wilderness of Alaska? Christopher McCandless knew and he knew it well; he knew that feeling so well, that he died. I don’t think he was a man with a mental illness or any personality disorders; even though Jon Krakauer states that,”it’s not clear that much of values is learned by reducing Chris McCandless’s strange spiritual quest to a list of pat psychological disorders. (184) I do, however think Chris lived a life according to his parent’s wishes up until he graduated from Emory University when he decided to become “his own person” and venture out on his own “sabbatical”; completely opposite of his parents wishes. As author Jon Krakauer points out, “Chris spent the previous four years, as he saw it, preparing to fulfill an absurd and onerous duty: to graduate from college.

At long last he was unencumbered, emancipated from the stifling world of his parents and peers, a world of abstraction and security and of material excess, a world in which he felt grievously cut off from the raw throb of existence. ”(22) Chris seemed to be well-liked wherever he went and among whomever he came across in his travels. Even though he made up a fictitious name for himself, I believe that we all can be whomever we choose to be whether we use the name our parents gave us or not.

He never used anyone else’s social security number and when he filled out the W-4 form at Wayne Westerburg’s the second time, he did give his real name, and permanent address as well. (100). Chris seemed to be a young man that needed to run away and find who he really was after being someone who his parents wanted him to be his whole life, unfortunately it came to a tragic end. When thinking about Chris’s life and comparing it to mine, I find that our lives are quite the opposite.

He comes from the family that wanted to basically make sure he got the best of everything, and he didn’t want it, and I came from the family that had nothing and didn’t want to further their education, or couldn’t because of the financial disadvantages. His parents encouraged a college education, and mine never encouraged anything but a high school diploma. He chose to give it all up and I chose to work hard to go to college and get my degree. I care very much about getting a degree even though I have get student loans and Chris’s education was paid for.

He never struggled through school with his brilliant mind as I struggle with having to take medications to keep my mind at even keel. I have always told myself that my life will always be a challenging journey due to the medications that I take and the levels and panels that are tested through blood tests very often when things are “out of wack. ” While reading Into the Wild, I have felt radical involvement in the process of absorbing the story. What has been happening all week is I relive night after night a night-terror of a female ghost trying to terrify me.

There is maybe a trigger that I am not aware of something from the past? The future? The present? All I know is that the night terror has me sleep deprived, and scared at night and during the day. I cry because I don’t understand it; maybe Chris’ McCandless’s life has more meaning to me than I realize. This semester has had some radical changes for me in my lifestyle. Even though our financial status has dropped considerably since I have given up employment to attend college, like Chris, we have not given up on life. Even though he suffered a demise, we will not suffer.

We have similar beliefs, we enjoy “God’s outdoors”, though we would never attempt to go as far as he did to run away from civilization or current lifestyle. We are better educated about what the land provides, and we have more respect for it!. While putting myself with Chris McCandless and knowing that our lives are very different, he struggled with who he wanted to be before so many years until he could finally free himself of the material things he so loathed, unlike him, I need just the necessary material things to survive like a roof over my head, clothes on my back, warmth, food and medications to keep my mind and body alive and well.

I also need companionship and love from another human being. I am not able to live without human contact, as he was. I would literally die of depression. Maybe he died of depression, even though as Jon Krakauer states,”that the final journal entry of Chris McCandless where he penned a final adios “I HAVE HAD A HAPPY LIFE AND THANK THE LORD. GOODBYE AND MAY GOD BLESS YOU ALL! ” (199). I enjoyed reading about Chris McCandless, though I did not care to read so much about Jon Krakauer and what his ventures were.

It was like he was trying to “one-up” Chris, and this book was supposed to be about Chris McCandless, so I thought. I thought Krakauer was Arrogant and self-centered and we “little people” seemed beneath him. I may choose to read another book of his to see if Krakauer puts himself as much in that book too. He did keep me interested and I guess that is what is intended by authors. Chris is another story. It is hard for me to say that I don’t like him having five children of my own and three of them being boys each of them having their own strong personalities.

Matter of fact, I have one that is a free spirit like Chris. The one thing that I didn’t like about Chris was that he didn’t have respect for authority: the law or the wild. He chose his path in having to be difficult from the start, and he put himself above all others who weren’t as intelligent as he was, though when he was on the road he wasn’t like that at all. He lived a life of tramping meeting all kinds of people and giving them all respect.

None of them expected anything from him and maybe that is why he accepted them so freely. I would like to say that I understood Chris and my life resembled that part of his life to a point. I never changed my name, even though there were times I didn’t want to be found. I have always been told that I was a free-spirit and Chris McCandless seemed to want to live his last couple of years just as that. With Christopher McCandless’ free-spiritedness does that mean that he knew that he was going to die in the wild?

I am not so sure he set out to die. He was one of many that went into the wilderness of Alaska unprepared and got snow-bound, scared, cold and hungry and was either never seen again or never came out alive. Even though I didn’t like Krakauer, I am glad that I was able to read about Chris McCandless, his sad story makes life worth living. Works Cited Krakauer, Jon. Into The Wild. Anchor Books A Division of Random House: 1997. Print (22) (184) (100) (199)

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Descriptive Final

Robert Campbell Mrs. Overly ENGL 1301. 54 11/1/2005 Assignment: Ch. 3. Descriptive Writing—“The Body Farm” p. 139, #1. Write an essay in which you describe something that most people would find repulsive or frightening. Skydiving It was an ordinary day in June when a few friends and I decided that we wanted to do something that we thought was exhilarating, so we went skydiving. What is skydiving you might ask yourself? Skydiving is exactly what it sounds like, the act of jumping or falling out of an aircraft and parachuting to the earth.

Some people might call you crazy or even think that it is repulsive or frightening, but those adventurous enough to participate will never forget what it is like and will want to do it over and over again. To us, skydiving is a vacation. The morning that we decided to go skydiving was a time that I will never forget. I awoke that Saturday and began to think about what I was going to do; after an idea came to me I called my friend Raquel and Julie. When they picked up the phone and heard of what I was asking of them they both were apprehensive and nervous, but after talking to them for a while they both decided that we would go.

Around 12:30 I picked them up and we went to get something to eat at McDonalds, before heading out to Skydive Spaceland in Rosharon. I have to admit that upon arriving at Skydive Spaceland my friends and I began to wonder what had gotten into us. Upon our arrival we first went into the plane hanger and then to a place they call “Manifest”, which is where you began to sign your life away. Filling out the papers took my friends and I approximately 30 to 40 minutes to complete, and this paper work was basically legal documents that say if you are injured or hurt in anyway shape or form in the dive that the are not liable for anything.

When we were through signing the papers and paying the fees, we were then ready to take the class required for the dive. In order to skydive you must take a 45 minute class that explains the important things required to prepare for jumping. Probably the two most important instructions they teach you, are what altitude you must pull the parachute at, which is 5500 feet, and the saying “fly fifty five to stay alive”. Another thing that was also important was the arch of your back when first exiting the plane. This was necessary because it forces your body to flip over causing you to fall in a controlled motion.

In the class my friends and I had to practice this motion by squatting and quickly going to a standing position while arching our backs, it insured that we understood the motion. Following the class was over we then began to suit up into royal blue jump suit, which look like astronaut space suits. Once suited up we began to board into the aircraft, which was a twin engine plane only big enough to seat about 25 people, and reeked of gasoline. Before this point in my life I had never rode in a plane, so it was going to be a first. We boarded the plane and began to seatbelt ourselves in next to our tandem jump instructors.

Then the plane began to take off and at this time I was pretty nervous but my adrenaline was pumping so fast I did not know what to think. The plane ride took about 15 minutes to reach the appropriate altitude that we needed to exit the plane, and the time we rode with the cargo bay door wide open. When we reached the appropriate altitude I was the first in line to exit the aircraft, which was scary because I had not watched anyone else exit before me. Upon exiting the aircraft you hear a loud sound “whoosh”, and a cold wind comes over your body. Then the most exhilarating feeling came over me and I was having a blast.

We had to do a number of things that we learned in our class, while we were up in the air. Such as, checking you altimeter at different altitudes and shaking the camera mans hand, and over all just having fun. And then at 5500 feet it was time to pull the parachute. There is a misconception that when the parachute is pulled that the person is jerked up from the parachute deploying; but this is not true because it is an optical illusion due to the fact that the camera man videoing the free fall continues to fall, therefore making it look as the he was jerked upward.

After the parachute was deployed, there is an 8 to 10 minute descent, after landing on the ground I was thankful but at the same time my adrenaline was pumping and I was ready to do it again. And the video camera observed the whole scene. Although some people might call you crazy or even think that sky diving is repulsive or frightening, but to those who venture to share in this act we call skydiving will never forget what it is like and will want to do it over and over again. Skydiving is something that I enjoy and plan to do at least a few more time in my life. I have to say that it was the funniest experiences in my life.

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Google Swot Analysis

GOOGLE Google has market leadership for search related advertising with 65 percent of all online searches in 2008. Google has a strong brand name. The company has developed a reputation for providing the best search results as an online search engine. Google is very easy to use or user friendly, anyone with minimal computer knowledge can easily maneuver its way through Goggles website and search for whatever information they would like. The simplicity of the website makes it so that users become familiar with Google very fast. Google is able to provide search results at a very high speed.

Someone can type a keyword in the search box regarding any kind of topics and search results will be displayed in seconds. Another strength of Google is its ability to adapt and innovate its products with changes in demand. Google shows strong financial position with positive cash flow and low debt. Some weaknesses of Google include manipulation of Google ranking technology by spammers. Google cost per click advertising charging and ranking policy confuse marketers in the sense that they cannot predict where their ad would be positioned and how much it would cost.

Another weakness of Google is that it does not provide highly personalized search or expert search. Also Google does not have sticky like yahoo and MSN which can attract users. Although Google is the market leader among search engine websites, only 50 percent to 60 percent of search queries are answered appropriately. As far as opportunities, Google can add sticky like chat rooms and email systems to attract more users. Google can also add more personalized or expert searching. The company can add more services such as private database, print media and multimedia.

Google can merge with established mass market companies to gain more users and advertisers. As far as threats, Google is facing strong competition from rivals such as Yahoo, Msn and face book. Also Google depends partially on some companies or portals like AOL and getting those contracts terminated, Google would loose large amount of revenues. There is no real entry barrier in this kind of online business. This means more competitors can emerge in the future and by providing the same services with improve interface, they can steal Google’s market. Google confusing cost per click and ranking can detract many potential advertisers.

Companies like yahoo provide more services and solutions with conventional search than Google. Google might loose its users to companies with more services. As far as recommendations for strategy, Google should adapt a product development strategy where its focus will be on improving its currents services to attract new users. Google can focus on making its search engine more accurate, relevant and dependable than it is now. Google should also use a diversification strategy where they can add new services to attract new users. Services such as print, multimedia, instant messaging will drive new customers to Google.

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Amway Essay 9

Amway summary Introduction Amway is one of the world’s largest direct sales companies. It was founded in 1959 and is still owned by the families that founded it. It employs 14,000 people worldwide and markets over 450 product lines. A key part of its success is its three million ABOs (Amway Business Owners) spread round 80 countries. Amway enables these people to have a business of their own. Amway recognises that it has other responsibilities, for example, to the communities in which it works. Its global vision is to help people lead better lives. Stakeholders

Stakeholders are groups or individuals who have an interest in the decisions of the company and its business. Stakeholders can be external, like suppliers, customers or the public or internal, such as employees, or shareholders. Different types of stakeholders may have different priorities or interests. Amway has to balance out the different priorities. The families that own Amway are its only shareholders. Amway communicates regularly with stakeholders through websites, email, events, publications and membership of trade bodies. How stakeholders affect Amway

Amway is a direct selling company, cutting out retail outlets and selling straight to consumers. It has its own supply chain through ABOs. Amway needs feedback from ABOs and customers to know how well it is doing and to improve service. ABOs are independent small businesses, but rely on Amway suppliers to produce quality goods. How Amway affects stakeholders Amway’s vision to ‘help people lead better lives’ explains how it works with communities. It promotes corporate social responsibility (CSR) around the globe. This means that it meets its wider duties to the communities in which it works.

This involves supporting good causes and acting in an ethical way. Amway supports its stakeholders in a number of ways. These include making good products and giving support to social programmes. It has a partnership with the children’s charity UNICEF. It helps provide vaccinations to combat the world’s six most deadly diseases. It has chosen this charity because its ABOs were most concerned about families. Ethical business Ethical businesses act to improve the communities where they work. Amway’s business ethics give it a clear framework in which to work. Acting in an ethical way, however, also gives it a positive business advantage.

Its ‘One by One’ programme is good for the environment and also good for business. This programme supports organic farming, aims to reduce waste and packaging and aims to switch to renewable energy sources. These actions carry a cost, but this can be balanced against the benefits to both the business and the community. Conclusion Amway has to balance the needs of its many different stakeholders. It sets high standards of ethical behaviour and codes of conduct to make sure these are upheld. Its CSR programme helps the environment, its own employees and disadvantaged children all around the world.

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Career Goals and Learning Plan Paper

Career Goals and Learning Plan Paper I am a Grad student at the University of Pheonix pursuing a Masters Degree in Psychology. I have selected this particular field of study because I intend to become a Forensic Psychologist. Forensic Psychology involves applying psychology to the filed of criminal investigation and the law. I have an undergraduate degree from North Carolina State University and my major was Political Science and Philosophy. I worked as a Legal Assistant in a Law Firm for 8 years and obtained my Paralegal Certificate from Blackstone University in Dallas, Texas.

I have spent many long hours in courtrooms and find it fascinating. I have interest in the criminal mind, as well as the rehabilitation of criminals. What is Forensic Psychology Forensic Psychologists examine methods, theories and processes within the criminal, legal and civil justice systems, and also look at and apply psychological theory to a crime or criminal investigation as well as look at criminal behavior. They look at the psychological problems associated with that and fair treatment of criminals including rehabilitation.

Specifically they look at the assessment and treatment of offenders. One particular area that interests me focuses around risk assessment with offenders and making decisions as to whether or not they are suitable for re-integration. Career Goals My goals are ambitious, and study at the University of Pheonix will propel me towards achieving them. Goal setting is an important part of the career planning process. At this point I will start with dedicating myself to doing well in my current classes.

Procrastination is a problem for me and I have to deal with it. I have a full time job and a two year old baby so it is important for me to use my time wisely. I plan to spend 1 – 11/2 hours per day reading and being active in the discussion portion of my class. “Get Time On Your Side” by Jennifer Nichols was helpful to me. Several points which I intend to follow include; writing stuff down, tuning out distractions, talking to my professor, and making good use of my daytime hours. Nichols) Dr. Ferrari, Professor of Psychology at DePaul University indicates that “academic procrastinators tend to lack self-confidence…lie low during group assignments. ” (Hoover 2) I was delighted to find that he even has an online discussion group which centers on chronic procrastination! Furthermore, I must deal with stress in an effectual manner. Being a graduate student will demand a commitment, but out of the stress-filled times I am hoping will come tremendous personal growth.

I alleviate my stress with exercise and try to get at least 30 minutes of strenuous workout per day. The degree that I am working on will help me to achieve my goals. First, the counselor that I am working with has been extraordinary and is available to me most hours during the day. He has directed me to becoming acclimated to the online learning system. Second, my advisor has put together my schedule which consists of 39 credits and all classes that will be informative and beneficial to becoming a Forensic Psychologist.

Occupational Outlook Handbook According to the Bureau and Labor and Statistics Occupational Handbook, Forensic Psychologists use psychological principles in the legal and criminal justice fields. Significant points include: “34% of psychologists are self-employed, mainly as private practitioners and independent consultants. ” Furthermore “job opportunities should be the best for those with a doctoral degree in a subfield such as health…those with a bachelor’s degree will have limited prospects. ” This information did not surprise me.

It is a very a very competitive field which sort of excites me. A positive point is that employment is expected to grow 12% from 2008 to 2018 because of increased demand for psychological services in schools, hospitals, social service agencies, mental health centers, substance abuse treatment clinics, consulting firms and private companies. I have a second interest with respect to my future career path and that would be to work in a substance abuse treatment center. Since I have not studied many psychology classes I am going to wait to make my decision.

Multiple Pathways to Learning Test I completed the Multiple Pathways to Learning test in Chapter 2 of Keys for College Studying. The test aims to help me to identify a learning style so that I may choose study strategies and pursue learning goals. The assessment helps determine the levels to which ones eight intelligences are developed. (Center, Bishops, Kravitz) Howard Gardner is the one who developed the test and he believes “that the way you learn is a unique blend of intelligences resulting from your distinctive abilities, challenges, experiences and training. (Center, Bishops, Kravitz) The results indicate that I have highly developed verbal-linguistic, musical, interpersonal, and logical-mathematical intelligence. In sum I communicate well, have music sensitivity, communicate with others well and understand logical reasoning. This indicates to me that I will work well in groups, and maybe would do well studying with music. I especially like Classical music. The Personality Spectrum Assessment Personality assessments help you to understand how you respond to the world around you; which includes information, thoughts, feelings, people, and events.

The Personality Spectrum Assessment adapts and simplifies this material into four personality types; Thinker, Organizer, Giver and Adventurer and was developed by Joyce Bishop. (Keys for College Studying). The results of my test indicate that I am inclined to be a ,“Giver. ” Giver traits include honesty, authenticity, successful close relationships, and others, but more important; I am inclined to so well if I study with others, teach material to others, seek out tasks, groups, and subjects that involve helping people and put energy into my most important relationships.

I find the handbook to be very informative. I will follow advice from the author(s) with respect to playing to my strengths. Even though I will be studying and reading alone in my classes at the University, we will have Learning Teams which will work nicely with my “Giver” personality. I am very eager to begin Psychology Courses at the University of Pheonix. I am going to have to be focused and dedicated to my studies and schoolwork. In the long run I hope that this determination will give me the ability to find a position or career and work environment that suits me.