Bilinguals in the universe have been categorised into groups depending on certain points. The Finnish linguist Skutnabb-Kangas ( 1981 ) discusses this portion of the issue of bilingualism and she proposes that bilinguals in the universe can be classified into four different groups and there are some factors should be taken into history to separate between these groups. The factors are: the force per unit area to go bilingual, the requirements for bilingualism, the method used to accomplish bilingualism, and the effects in the instance of failure. Skutnabb-Kangas focal points chiefly on kids bilinguals in her categorization, but this categorization to some extent might use on bilinguals other than kids. She classifies the groups as the followers:
Elect bilinguals: this group consists of people who have chosen to larn another linguistic communication and go bilingual and in most instances they are non forced to bilingualism. Most of the bilinguals in this group are upper and in-between category people. For illustration, some of them become bilinguals for the interest of analyzing or working abroad such as wining scholarships or holding concern, while others move and change their state of abode, so they want to larn the linguistic communication of the mark state. Sing the factor of force per unit area, elect bilinguals volunteer to larn a 2nd linguistic communication and there is largely no force per unit area, unless the kids from the households who move to other states might experience the force per unit area since they have to larn the linguistic communication of the new state. In this group, the bilinguals ‘ requirements are seen to be most frequently suited for them, because this is their pick of being bilinguals. In the instance of kids, the parents make their kids get the female parent lingua really good, so they will non lose it when larning another linguistic communication. When they live abroad, the kids so will be encouraged to larn a 2nd linguistic communication which is expected to be used most frequently, nevertheless they will still utilize the female parent lingua at least within the place environment. The method of accomplishing bilingualism for elect bilinguals is a combination of the “ natural method ” and learning as Skutnabb-Kangas provinces, where kids or other bilinguals will confront state of affairss in which they must talk and pass on in the foreign linguistic communication. Besides, they will be taught the foreign linguistic communication in their place state every bit good as in the mark state. In the instance of failure for elect bilinguals, there are no serious effects when non doing a positive advancement in larning a 2nd linguistic communication. For illustration, kids or bilinguals might hold less contact with native talkers and in some instances they will attach to talkers of their ain female parent lingua.
Childs from lingual bulks: this group consists chiefly of kids who learn a linguistic communication at school other than their female parent lingua and this linguistic communication is more likely to be a minority linguistic communication, where kids or bilinguals from such groups will larn it for certain grounds. This minority linguistic communication is used either for the sweetening of its prestigiousness, Hoffmann ( 1991 ) provides an illustration of larning Gallic in Canada ( Hoffmann 1991 ) , or a linguistic communication might be regarded as being extremely good in the field of instruction and besides in acquiring good businesss in a state, so this linguistic communication will be used in submergence programmes or in foreign linguistic communication categories, Hoffmann ( 1991 ) mentions the instance of utilizing English as a foreign linguistic communication in Netherlands as an illustration for the 2nd ground ( Hoffmann 1991 ) . Another illustration for the ulterior ground could be the state of affairs of learning English in about all the educational establishments in Oman and utilizing it widely in most of the businesss in the assorted Fieldss of work. There is small or no force per unit area on the kids or other people of this group to larn a 2nd linguistic communication. The household and the society might be a beginning of force per unit area for the kids ; the parents will actuate their kids to go bilinguals for either of the grounds been mentioned antecedently at least. The members of this group are taught to larn a 2nd linguistic communication and the methods used in learning are believed to be better than the methods used for the remainder of the groups, because these methods involve well-prepared stuffs that aid the acquisition of the 2nd linguistic communication. The effects of failure in larning the linguistic communication and being bilingual are little and this might ensue that people of this group will utilize the female parent lingua in the society and they will hold less chances of acquiring better occupations.
Harmonizing to Hoffmann ( 1991 ) the members of the predating two groups come from monolingual backgrounds. In the contrary, the members of the undermentioned two groups are from bilingual backgrounds.
Childs from bilingual households: this group consists of kids who come from bilingual households which are the households that the parents have two different female parent linguistic communications. For illustration, a household in Finland where the male parent ‘s female parent linguistic communication is Finnish and the female parent ‘s is Swedish. In this instance there is some force per unit area on the kids to be able to talk with their parents in their female parent linguas. Besides, the society will force and promote the kids to larn the linguistic communication used officially in the state which is more likely to be the mother linguistic communication of either parent, and this helps the kids to incorporate in the society and to be successful at school. However, in this instance the kids become monolingual and there are some possible jobs in the relationship between them and one or both of their parents, because these kids lack complete bilingualism of both parents female parent linguas. In the instance of failure, the kids of this group will confront some jobs and there might be negative effects within the household environment. For illustration, a kid has negative relationship with one of the parents because he or she fails in being bilingual and larning the female parent linguistic communication of the male parent or female parent.
4. Child from lingual minorities: this group consists of kids whose parents use a linguistic communication of the minority. For illustration, a household in Canada, where both parents speak Gallic ( minority ) . In this instance, there will be strong force per unit area from the society and the household on this group of kids to go bilingual and larn the linguistic communication of the bulk ( English ) in order to successfully reach in that society and get by up with the others from bulk groups. The methods and stuffs used to accomplish bilingualism demand to be more developed, because they still have non reached the degree of the high outlooks. In the instance of failure, the kids of this group will confront effects that are thought to be greater than for any of the other old groups as Skutnabb-Kangas shows that the failure of being bilingual may be ruinous. For illustration, the kids might lose most of the educational and future chances and their contact with the society will be really limited.