Education plays really of import function in bring forthing human resources of all the state around the universe. One state can be good developed based significantly on the quality of human resources and this can be achieved by carry oning instruction merely. Cambodia is one of the states in the universe which besides need good instruction system to bring forth qualified human resources for developing the state. Education system in Cambodia is divided into four degrees, Pre-School Education, Primary Education, Secondary Education ( lower and upper ) , and Higher Education ( UNESCO, 2008 ) . The Royal Government of Cambodia ( RGC ) has set the end to assist kids acquire basic instruction at least at grade ninth. After completed class 9, pupils can either travel to upper secondary schools or secondary vocational preparation plan provided by Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training ( MOLVT ) . After finishing upper secondary schools, pupil can either enter vocational preparation or universities ( UNESCO, 2008 ) .
Technical Vocational Education and Training ( TVET ) plays a critical function in the socio-economic development of any state. The Royal Government of Cambodia ( RGC ) is committed to economic and societal development as a precedence. The ‘Rectangular Strategy ‘ , the sanctioned national economic development model, and the more elaborate 5 old ages National Strategic Development Plan 2006 – 2010 are committed to skills development. Cambodia will accomplish the Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) of Poverty and Starvation Reduction, Enhancing Gender Equity and Creation of Globalization Partnership for Development partially through a antiphonal and better quality preparation system. For growing, employment, equity and efficiency the RGC is committed to beef uping the Technical Vocational Education and Training ( TVET ) sector.
To accomplish this committedness, the RGC mandated the constitution of a new ministry, the Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training ( MLVT ) , in 2004. Within the ministry the Directorate General of TVET ( DGTVET ) was established and under this sits the National Training Board ( NTB ) with a mission to guarantee that Cambodia meets its economic and development ends through an industry driven, quality TVET system.
A cardinal scheme to accomplish quality effectual TVET and competence based course of study and preparation is appellation of the National Technical Training Institute ( NTTI ) , runing under the Directorate General, TVET, as a Lead Institute and a Centre for Excellence for TVET instructor preparation in Cambodia. NTTI is responsible for VET Teacher Training and Development for instructors serving both the Regional and Provincial Training Centers in throughout the state.
There are 30 eight ( 38 ) TVET establishments run by Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training ( MLVT ) in Cambodia and those establishments are separated as Provincial Training Centers ( PTCs ) , Regional Training Centers ( RTCs ) , and TVET institutes ( MOLVT, DTVETM ) . NTTI is one of the TVET establishments under the umbrella of MLVT and is the lone establishment which has the chief responsibility to develop TVET instructors both Senior and Junior degree in order to supply those instructors to work at all the 38 TVET establishments throughout the state. The MLVT has set the policy to enroll three 100s ( 300 ) of TVET teacher trainees every twelvemonth.
1.2 Problem statement
A survey conducted by Nock and Bishop ( 2008 ) showed the major causes of Kampuchean instructor dissatisfaction such as low wage, corruption/nepotism, hapless leading, hapless life conditions, pupils behavior, and working environment. The same survey revealed that 99 per centum of the respondents said that they could non last on their salary and this problem caused 93 per centum of them to keep the 2nd occupation. Furthermore, other surveies in Cambodia besides found out the increasing discourtesy from society toward instructors in public schools ( CITA, 2010 ) . MoEYS ( 2010b ) admitted that many learning forces has left their instruction places, transferred to the new occupation, and reached the retirement age and this job besides occurs in MLVT. These surveies had non specified the jobs in Technical Vocational Education and Training ( TVET ) but it stated the common jobs go oning in Kampuchean instruction environment.
In add-on to the affairs mentioned above, TVET is a really hapless sector in Cambodia and it is ever considered as the 2nd pick to all people including pupils. TVET is a freshly established establishment which has merely been started developing in 2004, the twelvemonth that MLVT was established. The registration rate in TVET is really low if comparing to the Academic Education. Furthermore, the leading, learning installations, and particularly human resources are in the bad status. Yet, there are many alumnuss who come and apply for the entryway scrutiny to be a TVET instructor at NTTI. Based on the observation at NTTI, normally the figure of appliers who applied for the entryway scrutiny at NTTI ever far exceeds the figure of recruits. For illustration, in the academic twelvemonth 2012 – 2013, there are more than 1,800 campaigners have applied for the entryway scrutiny while MLVT recruits merely 300.
1.3 Research Questions
To go through the entryway scrutiny at NTTI in order to be a TVET instructor trainee is non easy. Yet, there are some trainees who drop out from this preparation plan when they have another pick or better occupation chance. Therefore, this research is fundamentally aimed to happen out the chief factors that trainees want to go a instructor in TVET sector on their position in learning calling. The specific inquiries that the survey seeks to reply are:
What are the perceptual experiences of alumnuss, who are using for the entryway scrutiny at National Technical Training Institute, toward TVET teacher calling?
How strong are they committed in working to better TVET in order to develop the socio-economic of the state?
1.4 Significance of the research
This survey will be utile in some countries as following. First, this survey will lend to determination shapers or policy shaper when enrolling TVET instructor trainees. Those people will hold a basic determination from this research so that they will be able to do a good determination when choosing or planning TVET teacher developing. Second, the research is intentionally aid to retain instructors to remain in their current instruction place and station. The survey aims to happen the best campaigner to go a TVET instructor and guarantee that they will non alter their learning occupation to other occupations. Third, the survey will supply assorted positions of alumnuss and persons ‘ grounds for going as a TVET instructor. Last, but non least, the survey will lend to the present literature on TVET teacher preparation sector.
In add-on, the survey will be conducted in order to happen out the manner to better TVET in Cambodia because TVET is ever considered as the key to socio-economic development of any state around the universe.
Chapter II: Literature reappraisal
A figure of surveies have been conducted in many states throughout the universe over the last 20 old ages researching the motive of those who decide to go school instructors ( Chris Kyriacou & A ; Mellissa Coulthard, 2000 ) . Such surveies indicate that the chief grounds for taking instruction as a calling autumn into three chief countries: ( 1 ) selfless grounds: these grounds deal with seeing learning as a socially worthwhile and of import occupation, a desire to assist kids win, and a desire to assist society better ; ( 2 ) instrinsic grounds: these ground conver facets of the occupation activity itself, such as the activity of learning kids, and an involvement in utilizing their capable affair cognition and expertness ; and ( 3 ) extrinsic grounds: these grounds cover facets of the occupation which are non built-in in the work itself, such as long vacations, degree of wage, and position. The consequences of such surveies have received peculiar attending because of the enlisting crisis confronting many states in pulling people of sufficient quality into the instruction ( Chris Kyriacou & A ; Mellissa Coulthard, 2000 ) .
The survey above shows us about the three grounds why some pupils choose the instructor calling for their occupation, and the manner that people help the following coevals to be successful in their life is one portion of taking teacher profession. Another ground is that they wish to portion cognition and expertness to other people in order to supply the capable affair to their community. In contrast, some people choose teacher calling for their ain benefit such as good payment, for journey, or for pleasance. However, the survey revealed that 95 % of pupils rated ‘a occupation that I will happen gratifying ‘ as really of import factor in taking learning calling. Some other factors were besides high rated such as ‘working with kids ‘ , ‘a occupation where I will lend to society ‘ and ‘a occupation which give me duty ‘ , ( Chris Kyriacou & A ; Mellissa Coulthard, 2000 ) .
Another survey conducted by Thomas J. DeLong ( 1987 ) , has stated some grounds why people choose their calling in learning as following: most people rated ‘I like working with children/youth ‘ the most follow by ‘I like to assist others larn and develop ‘ , following is ‘it fulfills a demand of mine to experience useful/contributing ‘ , and so ‘I wish the hours and holidaies ‘ , least rated one is ‘It ‘s a profession that besides allows me clip to prosecute other occupations or concern ‘ and ‘I wish money ‘ . The survey besides stated about the influences on instructors ‘ credence of first learning occupations such as geographical location, learn my country of expertness, merely needed a occupation, occupation satisfaction, good administration/bosses, long-range security, a opportunity to be originative, good physical environment, benefits, liberty, and promotion into school disposal. The consequence of this survey suggests that instructors go into learning for really different grounds and are influenced in different ways to take learning as calling.
The five grounds which received the highest evaluation in a research survey conducted by Chris Kyriacou, Age Hultgren & A ; Paul Stephens, are as follow: ( 1 ) I enjoy the topic I will learn, ( 2 ) It enables me to utilize my topic, ( 3 ) I like working with kids, ( 4 ) There are long vacations, and ( 5 ) It is a socially worthwhile occupation. However, there are two grounds which got the highest evaluation ; ‘I want to assist kids win ‘ and ‘I enjoy the topic I will learn ‘ . These findings are conducted by both the York and Stavanger sample.
In drumhead, the antecedently cited literature identified a consistent set of the most commonly popular factors that persons had for come ining the instruction profession. These factors included: basking working with kids and immature people ; doing a difference to society, acquiring the chance to be originative ; and a respected good paid profession. In add-on, many instructors found their occupation emotionally fulfilling. The selfless factors were the focal point of most of the cited surveies.