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Acc/561 Wk3 Wileyplus Be15-5, E16-1, E17-9

Resource: WileyPLUS •Brief Exercise BE15-5 •Exercise E16-1 Exercise E17-9 Question 1 In January, Reyes Tool & Dye requisitions raw materials for production as follows: Job 1 $900, Job 2 $1,200, Job 3 $700, and general factory use $600. During January, time tickets show that the factory labor of $5,000 was used as follows: Job 1 $1,200, Job 2 $1,600 Job 3 $1,400, and general factory use $800. Prepare the job cost sheets for each of the three jobs. (If answer is zero, please enter 0, do not leave any fields blank. ) Job 1 DateDirect MaterialsDirect Labor 1/31900 0 /310 1,200 Job 2 DateDirect MaterialsDirect Labor 1/311,200 0 1/310 1,600 Job 3 DateDirect MaterialsDirect Labor 1/31700 0 1/310 1,400 Question 2 Doc Gibbs has prepared the following list of statements about process cost accounting. Identify each statement as true or false. 1. Process cost systems are used to apply costs to similar products that are mass-produced in a continuous fashion. True 2. A process cost system is used when each finished unit is indistinguishable from another.

True 3. Companies that produce soft drinks, motion pictures, and computer chips would all use process cost accounting. False 4. In a process cost system, costs are tracked by individual jobs. False 5. Job order costing and process costing track different manufacturing cost elements. False 6. Both job order costing and process costing account for direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead. True 7. Costs flow through the accounts in the same basic way for both job order costing and process costing. True 8. In a process cost system, only one work in process account is used. False 9.

In a process cost system, costs are summarized in a job cost sheet. False 10. In a process cost system, the unit cost is total manufacturing costs for the period divided by the units produced during the period. True Question 2 – Solution 1. True. 2. True. 3. False. Companies that produce soft drinks, oil, and computer chips would all use process cost accounting. 4. False. In a job order cost system, costs are tracked by individual jobs. 5. False. Job order costing and process costing track the same three manufacturing cost elements. 6. True. 7. True. 8. False. In a process cost system, multiple work in process accounts are used. . False. In a process cost system, costs are summarized in a production cost report for each department. 10. True. Question 3 Peter Catalano’s Verde Vineyards in Oakville, California produces three varieties of wine: Merlot, Viognier, and Pinot Noir. His winemaster, Kyle Ward, has identified the following activities as cost pools for accumulating overhead and assigning it to products. For each of Verde’s fifteen activity cost pools, identify a probable cost driver that might be used to assign overhead costs to its three wine varieties. 1. Culling and replanting. Dead r overcrowded vines are culled, and new vines are planted or relocated. (Separate vineyards by variety. ) Labor hours 2. Tying. The posts and wires are reset, and vines are tied to the wires for the dormant season. Labor hours 3. Trimming. At the end of the harvest the vines are cut and trimmed back in preparation for the next season. Labor hours 4. Spraying. The vines are sprayed with chemicals for protection against insects and fungi. Gallons of chemicals 5. Harvesting. The grapes are hand-picked, placed in carts, and transported to the crushers. Number of cartfuls or labor hours 6. Stemming and crushing.

Cartfuls of bunches of grapes of each variety are separately loaded into machines which remove stems and gently crush the grapes. Number of cartfuls 7. Pressing and filtering. The crushed grapes are transferred to presses which mechanically remove the juices and filter out bulk and impurities. Gallons of juice 8. Fermentation. The grape juice, by variety, is fermented in either stainless-steel tanks or oak barrels. Gallons of juice 9. Aging. The wines are aged in either stainless-steel tanks or oak barrels for one to three years depending on variety. Gallons of wine or months of aging 10. Bottling and corking.

Bottles are machine-filled and corked. Number of bottles 11. Labeling and boxing. Each bottle is labeled, as is each nine-bottle case, with the name of the vintner, vintage, and variety. Number of bottles 12. Storing. Packaged and boxed bottles are stored awaiting shipment. Number of boxes 13. Shipping. The wine is shipped to distributors and private retailers. Number of shipments 14. Heating and air-conditioning of plant and offices. Number of gallons processed 15. Maintenance of buildings and equipment. Printing, repairs, replacements, and general maintenance are performed in the off-season. Number of gallons processed

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Acc/561 Wk 2 E13-5, E13-6, E13-9

•Exercise E13-5 •Exercise E13-6 •Exercise E13-9 The comparative balance sheets of Nike, Inc. are presented here. NIKE INC. Comparative Balance Sheets May 31 ($ in millions) Assets20072006 Current assets$8,076$7,346 Property, plant, and equipment (net)1,6781,658 Other assets934866 Total assets$10,688$9,870 Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity Current liabilities$2,584$2,612 Long-term liabilities1,079973 Stockholders’ equity7,0256,285 Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$10,688$9,870 Complete the horizontal analysis of the balance sheet data for Nike using 2006 as a base. If amount decreases, use either a negative sign preceding the number, e. g. -45 or parenthesis, e. g. (45). Round all percentages to 1 decimal place, e. g. 12. 5. ) NIKE, INC. Condensed Balance Sheet December 31 ($ in millions) Increase or (Decrease) 20072006AmountPercentage Assets Current assets$8,076$7,346$7309. 9% Property, plant and equipment (net)1,6781,658201. 2% Other assets934866687. 9% Total assets$10,688$9,870$8188. 3% Liabilities and stockholders’ equity Current liabilities$2,584$2,612$(28)(1. 1)% Long-term liabilities1,07997310610. 9% Total stockholders’ equity7,0256,28574011. % Total liabilities & stockholders’ equity$10,688$9,870$8188. 3% Complete the vertical analysis of the balance sheet data for Nike for 2007. (Round all of the percentages to 1 decimal place, e. g. 12. 5. ) NIKE, INC. Condensed Balance Sheet May 31, 2007 $ (in millions)Percent Assets Current assets$8,07675. 6% Property, plant and equipment (net)1,67815. 7% Other assets9348. 7% Total assets$10,688100. 0% Liabilities and stockholders’ equity Current liabilities$2,58424. 2% Long-term liabilities1,07910. 1% Stockholders’ equity7,02565. 7% Total liabilities and stockholder’s equity$10,688100. % Question 2 Here are the comparative income statements of Winfrey Corporation. WINFREY CORPORATION Comparative Income Statements For the Years Ended December 31 20102009 Net sales$598,000$520,000 Cost of goods sold477,000450,000 Gross profit$121,000$70,000 Operating expenses80,00045,000 Net income$41,000$25,000 Complete the horizontal analysis of the income statement data for Winfrey Corporation using 2009 as a base. (Round all percentages to 1 decimal place, e. g. 12. 5. ) WINFREY CORPORATION Condensed Income Statements For the Years Ended December 31 Increase or (Decrease)

During 2010 20102009AmountPercentage Net sales$598,000$520,000$78,00015. 0% Cost of goods sold477,000450,00027,0006. 0% Gross profit121,00070,00051,00072. 9% Operating expenses80,00045,00035,00077. 8% Net income$41,000$25,000$16,00064. 0% Complete the vertical analysis of the income statement data for Winfrey Corporation for both years. (Round all percentages to 1 decimal place, e. g. 12. 5. ) WINFREY CORPORATION Condensed Income Statements For the Years Ended December 31 20102009 $Percent$Percent Net sales$598,000100. 0%$520,000100. 0% Cost of goods sold477,00079. %450,00086. 5% Gross profit121,00020. 2%70,00013. 5% Operating expenses80,00013. 4%45,0008. 7% Net income$41,0006. 8%$25,0004. 8% Question 3 Armada Company has these comparative balance sheet data: ARMADA COMPANY Balance Sheets December 31 20102009 Cash$25,000$30,000 Receivables (net)65,00060,000 Inventories60,00050,000 Plant assets (net)200,000180,000 $350,000$320,000 Accounts payable$50,000$60,000 Mortgage payable (15%)100,000100,000 Common stock, $10 par140,000120,000 Retained earnings60,00040,000 $350,000$320,000 Additional information for 2010: 1. Net income was $25,000. . Sales on account were $375,000. Sales returns and allowances amounted to $25,000. 3. Cost of goods sold was $198,000. 4. Net cash provided by operating activities was $48,000. 5. Capital expenditures were $25,000, and cash dividends were $18,000. Compute the following ratios at December 31, 2010. (Round to 3 decimal places, e. g. 2. 515. ) Current 3. 000:1 Receivables turnover 5. 600 times Average collection period 65. 179 days Inventory turnover 3. 600 times Days in inventory 101. 389 days Cash debt coverage 0. 310 times Current cash debt coverage 0. 73 times Free cash flow$5,000 Solution Current ratio=$150,000=3. 000 :1 $50,000 Receivables turnover=$350,000=5. 600 times $62,500(1) (1) ($65,000 + $60,000) ? 2 Average collection period = 365 days ? 5. 600 = 65. 179 days Inventory turnover=$198,000=3. 600 times $55,000(2) (2) ($60,000 + $50,000) ? 2 Days in inventory = 365 days ? 3. 600 = 101. 389 days Cash debt coverage ratio=$48,000=0. 310 times ($160,000 + $150,000) ? 2 Current cash debt coverage ratio=$48,000=0. 873 times ($60,000 + $50,000) ? 2 Free cash flow = $48,000 – $25,000 – $18,000 = $5,000

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Acc/561 Wk3 Tootsie Roll Industries Inc. Loan Package

Tootsie Roll Industries Inc. Loan Package ACC/561 – Accounting August 15, 2011 Tootsie Roll Industries Inc. Loan Package Since the company’s establishment in 1896, Tootsie Roll Industries Inc. has expanded to become one of the biggest candy companies in the United States. Tootsie Roll Industries Inc. is one of America’s most recognized candy companies through manufacturing and selling some of the most popular candies in the world.

The company has an extensive amount of products sold in many venues including grocery stores, vending machines, and drugstores. Tootsie Roll Industries Inc. applies innovation consistently by developing new forms of presentation and creating more options for the consumer. In the first quarter of 2011 the company increased sales effectively through improved marketing processes but the increased costs of ingredients, freight, energy, and other factors lowered the net earnings to $8,000,000 compared to $9,204,000 in 2010. Tootsie Roll Industries Inc. s currently seeking beneficial opportunities to improve the net earnings and shareholder value of the organization. The company is completing a loan package by determining its current financial situation through ratio analysis of its financial statements. The goal is to secure a loan for the company to fund $2. 5 million to improve the business. The company will explain how the proceeds from the loan will be used to enhance business operations and how the loan approval will affect the company. Tootsie Roll Industries Inc. s confident its reputation as a stable company with an internationally recognized brand of products paired with a thorough assessment of the company’s financial needs and a complete loan package presentation will effectively acquire the funds necessary to enhance business and financial performance (Tootsie Roll Industries, 2011; U. S. Small Business Administration, 2011). Financial Statements Ratio Analysis Liquidity Ratios 20102009 Tootsie Roll Industries’ current ratio and debt coverage ratios fluctuated between 2009 and 2010 with an increase to $4. 6:1. The Company’s financial statements indicate an increase in cash from $90,990 to $115,976 and a decrease in investments as well as an increase in accounts payable and accrued liabilities. Tootsie Roll’s accounts receivable and inventory ratios also fluctuated, but generally indicate a strong and consistent ability to manage its receivables, employ effective credit policies, and effectively turn over its inventory. Solvency Ratios 20102009 Tootsie Roll Industries’ debt to assets ratio is low compared to that of Hershey Company.

This indicates that Tootsie Roll has more assets relative to its liabilities. Tootsie Roll also has very high interest coverage ratio and cash debt coverage, which could be because of the relatively low level of debt. This company appears to be sufficiently generating cash flows to cover its debt obligations. Profitability Ratios 20102009 Although Tootsie Roll’s profitability ratios decreased slightly between 2010 and 2009, the results appear fairly consistent. This Company appears to provide a steady profit and rate of return to its investors.

The stock price has also fluctuated less, providing a steady price/earnings ratio. This is another indicator of a strong, steady performance by Tootsie Roll Company, and stable profitability results. Loan Justification Tootsie Roll Industries, Inc. is applying for a $2. 5 million dollar loan to open an additional distribution center in the mid-United States to assist in the production of candy. Halloween has been proven to be the number one selling period for Tootsie Roll Industries Inc. so this distribution center will provide the additional distribution needed during this busy time.

Also with the additional distribution center, Tootsie Roll Industries will be able to expand their services to additional areas throughout the world. The company is focused on finding new ways to distribute its products to a larger consumer base and the best form of doing so is by extending its distribution channels through the additional facility. Tootsie Roll Industries Inc. expects this project to increase profits by selling more to the consumer, cutting distribution costs through shorter shipping routes, and creating a faster connection to consumers in the surrounding region.

The company will reduce its risk of unforeseen circumstances, such as a natural disaster, halting operations if a distribution center were affected because it would have the option to reroute operations through another facility. Tootsie Roll Industries Inc. ’s products will be made available in more locations and will increase consumer awareness of the many products the company offers. With the projected increased revenue this distribution center will bring Tootsie Roll Industries, Inc. will be able to pay the loan back in three years rather than the traditional five years.

Uses of Loan Proceeds and Effects on Company Taking on this loan will increase liabilities by 10%. Obviously, Tootsie Roll Industries, Inc. must have a plan to use the proceeds of this loan. The biggest portion of proceeds from this loan will be used for investing in new equipment. As stated in the corporate principles, “we invest in the latest and most productive equipment to deliver the best quality product to our customers at the lowest cost” (Kimmel, 2009). In addition, Tootsie Roll will use the proceeds to expand on the distribution center so the company can keep up with demand during key periods.

One of these is Halloween. As stated above, the addition revenue generated from the distribution improvements will allow the company to repay the loan sooner. Taking on this loan will increase pressure upon the company. Additional debt is accumulated so scrutiny will be on the executives championing the distribution improvement effort to see if they succeed. Failures to repay this loan by the set due date will adversely affect future loan decisions so it is imperative the distribution center is a success. Another impact the new will have is added scrutiny to financial statements.

During the course of the loan the company will need to have accurate financial statements as well as increased communication with the bank so the bank has an idea of what is happening at the company. In this time of economic downturn, banks are looking for communication from their customers. Conclusion Tootsie Roll Industries, Inc. is applying to take on a sizeable amount of debt from this loan. However, careful planning and distribution of the funds from this loan will improve manufacturing and distribution processes. In the long-run, this loan could be to Tootsie Roll’s advantage.

Tootsie Roll has shown that they know the liquidity of the company and has a detailed plan on how to use the money. In addition, there is also an accelerated plan to repay the loan so Tootsie Roll will remain in good standing with the bank and reduce liabilities quickly. Careful planning such as this will keep Tootsie Roll aware of their financial records and remain successful while taking on more debt. References Kimmel, P. D. , Weygandt, J. J. , & Kieso, D. E. (2009). Accounting: Tools for business decision making [Appendix A]. (3rd ed. ).

Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Small Business Administration. (n/d). Business loan application checklist. Retrieved from: http://www. sba. gov/content/business-loan-application-checklist Tootsie Roll Industries. (2011, August). Company Information. Retrieved from http://www. tootsie. com/about. php Tootsie Roll Industries, Inc. . (2011). Financial Information. Retrieved from http://www. tootsie. com/comp_financial. php University of Phoenix. (2011). Week Three Student Guide. Retrieved from University of Phoenix. Week 3 Assignment. ACC/561. Accounting Online course Web site.

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Acc/561 Wk1 Be1-7, Be1-8, Be1-9

Wk 1 Assignment Complete the following in Wiley Plus: Brief Exercise BE1-7, Brief Exercise BE1-8, and Brief Exercise BE1-9 Question 1 Indicate which statement you would examine to find each of the following items: income statement, balance sheet, retained earnings statement, or statement of cash flows. Income Statement (a) Revenue during the period. Balance Sheet (b) Supplies on hand at the end of the year. Statement of Cash Flows (c) Cash received from issuing new bonds during the period. Balance Sheet (d) Total debts outstanding at the end of the period. Question 2

Use the basic accounting equation to answer these questions. (a)The liabilities of Cummings Company are $90,000 and the stockholders’ equity is $230,000. What is the amount of Cummings Company’s total assets? (b)The total assets of Haldeman Company are $170,000 and its stockholders’ equity is $90,000. What is the amount of its total liabilities? (c)The total assets of Dain Co. are $800,000 and its liabilities are equal to one-fourth of its total assets. What is the amount of Dain Co. ‘s stockholders’ equity? Assets=Liabilities +Stockholders’ Equity (a)$320,000 $90,000 $230,000 b)$170,000 $80,000 $90,000 (c)$800,000 $200,000 $600,000 Solution $90,000 + $230,000 = $320,000 (Total assets) $170,000 – $90,000 = $80,000 (Total liabilities) $800,000 – 0. 25($800,000) = $600,000 (Stockholders’ equity) Question 3 At the beginning of the year, Fuqua Company had total assets of $800,000 and total liabilities of $500,000. (a)If total assets increased $150,000 during the year and total liabilities decreased $80,000, what is the amount of stockholders’ equity at the end of the year? (b)During the year, total liabilities increased $100,000 and stockholders’ equity decreased $70,000.

What is the amount of total assets at the end of the year. (c)If total assets decreased $90,000 and stockholders’ equity increased $110,000 during the year, what is the amount of total liabilities at the end of the year? Assets =Liabilities +Stockholders’ Equity (a)$950,000 $420,000 $530,000 (b)$830,000 $600,000 $230,000 (c)$710,000 $300,000 $410,000 Solution ($800,000 + $150,000) – ($500,000 – $80,000) = $530,000 (Stockholders’ equity) ($500,000 + $100,000) + ($800,000 – $500,000 – $70,000) = $830,000 (Assets) ($800,000 – $90,000) – ($800,000 – $500,000 + $110,000) = $300,000 (Liabilities)

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Acc/561 Cvp and Break-Even Analysis

CVP and Break-Even Analysis ACC/561 – Accounting Wk 5 August 29, 2011 Snap Fitness Snap Fitness, a fitness business based in Minnesota, offers franchise opportunities. The opportunity comes with a start-up fee ranging from $60,000 to $184,000. The following items are included in the start-up fee: 1. Franchise Fee 2. Grand Opening Marketing 3. Leasehold Improvements 4. Utility and Rent Deposits 5. Training Many people dream of owning a business as opposed to working for another business. The benefits of owning a franchise is priceless if ran properly.

This paper will show an estimate amount of variable costs and monthly sales in members and dollars for Snap Fitness. Also included are five examples of variable costs and a summary about purchasing a franchise and the decisions that come along with it. Estimate Amount of Variable Costs A Snap Fitness franchise is estimated to incur fixed operating costs of $4,000 and $2,000 to lease fitness equipment. A newspaper article providing details about fitness centers like Snap Fitness states this form of business may only require 300 members to reach its break-even point.

The cost-volume-profit, also known as CVP, analysis will assist Snap Fitness in determining the effects of changes of volume and costs on the business’ profits. The CVP analysis will help the new franchise apply appropriate profit planning. The CVP analysis determines profit by subtracting total revenue from total costs. The equation separates costs into variable and fixed. The equation coverts to profit = total revenue – total variable costs – total fixed costs.

The newspaper stated the average break-even point would be 300 members and each member pays a $26 monthly fee to attend a Snap Fitness center. The break-even point in dollars would be $7,800. With a minimum of 300 members the total revenue for the month is $7,800. The business has estimated total fixed costs of $6,000. To estimate the amount of variable costs Snap Fitness will incur the business must apply the CVP basic equation (Kimmel, Weygandt, & Kieso, 2009). Profit = Total Revenue – Total Variable Costs – Total Fixed Costs = $7,800 – Total Variable Costs – $6,000 $7,800 – $6,000 = $1,800 Variable Costs By applying the CVP analysis Snap Fitness has identified its total variable costs to be $1,800 per month. As illustrated in the estimated monthly statement below, Snap Fitness is expected to acquire a minimum of $7,800 in sales, variable costs of $1,800, a contribution margin of $6,000, fixed costs of $6,000, concluding in the break-even point of $0 net income. The CVP analysis helps management in the decision-making process to identify the relationship between costs and revenues and to seek forms to increase business health.

Another key benefit of the CVP analysis is its ability to help management reach the desired target net income for the end of the period because it clarifies the required amount of business needed to meet goals (Kimmel, Weygandt, & Kieso, 2009). Monthly Sales For Snap Fitness to be successful the company must set monthly sales goal for the company to achieve. These goals must be set so the company has a barometer to gauge if they will be able to have the cash flow to meet its financial obligations.

Another use of these goals is to measure if the sales crew is meeting performance levels. Snap Fitness needs to meet $17,800 in monthly sales to achieve their Target Net Income of $10,000. The income amount of $10,000 will enable the company to cover costs and make a profit for the investors. To make the monthly sales goal of $17,800 the sales team must sign-up and additional 685 new members. To find what the required sales are to meet the $10,000 goal the Target Net Income formula must be used. Required Sales = Variable Cost + Fixed Costs + Target Net Income 7,800 = 1,800 + 6,000 + 10,000 Examples of Variable Costs Most fixed costs are easy to plan for and estimate. Expenses such as rent, insurance, and monthly utilities are examples of fixed costs that the manager of any organization should be able to budget for accurately. A more difficult task is identify and planning for variable costs. Variable costs can change from month to month and sometimes cannot be planned for. For a fitness center or health club, the biggest and most ongoing variable cost to think of is maintenance and repair of the equipment.

To maintain quality, of the fitness equipment must be kept in prime condition at all times. Although monthly and routine checks of the equipment may be part of an employee’s responsibilities, replacing or repairing damaged equipment could be a cost that varies greatly from month to month. One way to try to reduce or manage this variable cost is to ensure equipment is inspected regularly and problems are being addressed while they are still small. Another variable cost to consider is continuing education and training for employees.

Like any business, it is important for those in the health and fitness field to stay on top of current trends in the industry. From time to time it may be beneficial and necessary for full-time employees to attend seminars or training sessions to expand their knowledge in the industry. This is a good example of a cost that would not be incurred on a regular basis, but should be budgeted for at least once a quarter. Two variable costs that organizations overlook are office supplies and fuel.

In every organization employees use office supplies. In many organizations fuel is needed for company vehicles and can add a huge cost to any budget. A final variable cost to consider is the extra cost related to employee turnover. One good thing about this type of business is that the manager could hire many part-time employees to cover the shifts. This reduces labor costs by not needing to provide insurance or other benefits to the employees. However, it could also increase employee turnover.

If the business experienced a situation where most of their part-time staff quit they could be in a bad position. Even for part-time employees, there is a cost associated with recruiting, hiring, and training. Managers should try to keep even its part-time employees satisfied at work by offering other perks in lieu of benefits and making sure employee satisfaction is at a high level to avoid some of these unexpected turnover costs. Summary of Franchise Information Before deciding to enter a franchise of this nature, significant research, and analysis is required.

Large amounts of essential information can be found on corporate websites. Through research it was discovered that the corporate office provides a large amount of beneficial support when deciding to purchase a franchise. First, one should consider the downside to owning a franchise. The largest negative aspect is the time and effort implemented into being a business owner. The information provided in this paper has addressed many of the financial fixed and variable costs but there is also the cost of personal time.

No one should own a franchise without seriously considering the commitment and responsibilities that are attached to the title of business owner. Of course, there are also many positive aspects to a franchise venture. Someone who is very interested in health and fitness would thrive in this kind of environment and is a quality many corporations are looking for to run its franchises. In addition, most corporations offer ongoing support once a person becomes a franchise owner. One of the benefits of owning a Snap Fitness franchise is the seminars and training sessions offered exclusively to owners.

Another form of support they offer is guidance on selecting real estate and location of the franchise. Everyone has heard the saying, “location, location, location. ” Snap Fitness will make sure its franchise owners are selecting the right location to be a success. Last, many corporations offer financing for the franchise purchase. As noted in earlier sections, the costs of maintaining a franchise of this type are relatively low as is the break-even point, so the time necessary to pay back the loan could be short.

The benefits of support and financing options provided by Snap Fitness offer a lucrative opportunity if the purchaser has the drive and motivation to put into the franchise to succeed. Conclusion Owning a business or franchise has pros and cons attached. According to Dahl (2011) the number one reason someone would own his or her own franchise is the ability to control his or her own destiny. This is true with Snap Fitness. This paper showed an estimate amount of variable costs and monthly sales in members and dollars for Snap Fitness.

Also included were five examples of variable costs and a summary about purchasing a franchise and the decisions that must be made. As with any business, the fitness business is risky, although with any risk come rewards. References Dahl, D. (2011). Top 10 Reasons to Run Your Own Business. Inc. Retrieved on August 28, 2011 from http://www. inc. com/guides/201101/top-10-reasons-to-run-your-own-business. html Kimmel, P. D. , Weygandt, J. J. , & Kieso, D. E. (2009). Accounting: Tools for business decision making (3rd ed. ). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

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Ten Commandments for Domestic Violence Survivors

TEN COMMANDMENTS IN INTERACTION WITH DOMESTIC VIOLENCE VICTIMS by Delishia Mitchem Domestic Violence is an issue for people of all walks of life. Regardless of social class, gender, economic background or ethnic group, domestic violence is prevalent. Current studies show that one out of every four women is a victim of domestic violence, and there are rising numbers in the male population. This takes the form of emotional, verbal and physical abuse. As a domestic violence survivor, I am compelled to share the following commandments for interaction with domestic violence victims and survivors.

This is not simply crisis counseling, but it is specialized with a systematic approach. When interacting with the victim of domestic violence, it is important to govern yourself by the following commandments: 1. Thou shall not make the victim feel as if he/she lacks intelligence and common sense. While he/she chose the partner, he/she did not actively choose to be abused. 2. Thou shall not give unsolicited advice. During the decision-making process, the victim needs both the freedom to make choices and the support of a listening ear. 3.

Thou shall not waste time talking about the perpetrator and his/her ill-fated future. Instead, time and attention needs to be directed toward the victim as a plan is developed for survival. 4. Thou shall not tell the victim that they helped to cause the problem. That is “perpetrator mentality” (Read “The Types of Domestic Abuse”). Nothing the victim has said and/or done provides justification for his/her suffering. 5. Thou shall encourage the domestic violence victim with phrases such as “You are an overcomer” and “You have our support”.

This is a crucial time and the victim will not want to feel alone in the transition. 6. Thou shall listen to the victim with an objective mind. 7. Thou shall locate a secure method of transportation and place of abode, to secure the victim and any other family members from the perpetrator. Do not provide the address and telephone numbers to others, especially during the first months of the transition. 8. Thou shall not have communication with the perpetrator in reference to the abuse, as a means of understanding or reconciliation.

Studies will clearly show that perpetrators react in a more violent way towards the victim after he/she has shared it with someone else. 9. Thou shall connect the victim with resources for all needs, so he/she will have no reason to return to the place of residence after making the transition. (There are some stores that provide clothing, toiletries and food to domestic violence victims. Check with your local domestic violence shelter. ) 10. Thou shall pray with the victim and direct him/her to scriptures for encouragement and empowerment.

Continually emphasize a closer relationship with the Lord. A time of tribulation with domestic violence is not a final determination on one’s life; it can simply be a turning point for greater things ahead. God bless you as you help others align with their God-directed destiny. Suggested Reading Family and Friends’ Guide to Domestic Violence: How to Listen, Talk and Take Action When Someone You Care About is Being Abused by Elaine Weiss (Paperback – Oct 1, 2003)

It’s My Life Now: Starting Over After an Abusive Relationship or Domestic Violence — Old Edition by Meg Kennedy Dugan and Roger R. Hock (Paperback – April 2000) Healing the Trauma of Domestic Violence: A Workbook for Women (New Harbinger Self-Help Workbook) by Edward S. , Ph. D. Kubany, Mari A. McCaig, and Janet R. Laconsay Handbook of Domestic Violence Intervention Strategies: Policies, Programs, and Legal Remedies by Albert R. Roberts and Marjory D. Fields (Hardcover – Feb 28, 2002)

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Representations of Race

1. Representations of race Poem 1: There is a clear representation of race in the poem “We are going” by Oodgeroo Noonuccal. Aboriginals are seen as inferiors to white people as they are being kicked out of their own home and land by the white people who think by them being superior to the Aboriginals can just come to their land and take anything they want. The poem talks about the aboriginals being invaded “they came into the little town” (line 1) and took anything they wanted. There is a double meaning to the phrase “We are going”.

The title represents the Aboriginals going back to their home, but in the last line the phrase states that they are going that they are leaving their homes. In the poem Oodgeroo expresses the fears of the aboriginals as they were being invaded and their sacred places destroyed and used for rubbish tips. The poem represents the white settlement, when the English invaded the lands of the indigenous people and didn’t care about what it was doing to the Indigenous people that lived there and were being kicked out of their own homes.

Poem 2: In the poem “Your perception, my reality” by Kohl Fallin, African Americans are treated as worthless people, the people that might be special in their own kind but are worth nothing to different people. In the poem Kohl has presented her side to how different races act to each other when all in one place, how they think and respond to actions done by others.

The title of the poem “Your perception, my reality” gives a meaning that different races don’t care if you are kind and considerate; you are different so they won’t want to have anything to do with you. In the poem the white people are seen as the superior people and will do anything not to be associated with the inferiors or the people with different races. The poem represents modern day racism. Even over the years races still don’t treat each other with equality they deserve even though we are all equal and live together as one in the world.

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Organisational Theories Via a Movie : Yes Man

I was at the cinema watching “Yes Man”, an American comedy, starring Jim Carrey. I found it hard to concentrate at the very end as three old, serious-looking men were deep in discussion. I was just about to ask them to be quiet when I realised that they were discussing the representation of bureaucracy portrayed in “Yes Man”. It is through the discussion of these three men : Max Weber a German sociologist and economist , Robert Merton an American economist and Michel Crozier a French sociologist that this essay will examine the characteristics of bureaucracy found in the movie “Yes Man”.

Since the seventies new organisational theories based on motivation and participation have emerged. However, a more traditional organisational system remains from the past : the bureaucracy system. This essay documents a hypothetical interaction between Weber, Merton and Crozier. Weber as the founder of the theory of bureaucracy and both Merton and Crozier as two of its renowned critics. This essay will explore the representation of bureaucracy through “Yes Man” and the life of the main character, Carl Dan.

Overall this essay will show the different points of view of Weber, Merton and Crozier about bureaucracy by pointing out and discussing scenes from the movie “Yes Man”. Weber, Merton and Crozier started their conversation about Carl’s depressed state. Indeed, Carl is melancholic and unhappy. He dislikes his job, he does not want to do anything or to go out with his friends, and would rather spend every night watching horror movies on his own. Robert Merton opened the conversation : “I believe that it is the repercussion of repetitive tasks that make this poor Carl depressed”.

In fact, Carl works in a Bank and his task is to accept or deny loans according to very strict, predetermined criteria. He does not have to take any personal initiative or have any innovation and he must always do things according to the book (Merton, R, 1957). Merton continued by adding : “I have noticed more than being not motivated that Carl has a tendency of being selfish as well (Merton, R, 1957). Carl does not care about anyone other than himself. He even missed his best friends engagement party which is a real pity”.

Carl lives as a recluse and the movie convinces the spectators that he did not used to act like that before finding his boring and repetitive job. Mr Crozier was following Merton’s point of view without taking part of the conversation. Again, Merton spoke : “As far as I am concerned, I believe that Carl acts selfishly and lacks motivation because of the rigid rules that a system of bureaucracy requires. He is stuck by those strict regulations and threatened by both routine and conformism. ” (Merton, R, 1957) Finally, Mr Weber replied with a self-assured voice. The written rules and detailed description of each task and action are one of the six reasons, that allow the efficiency of my organisational theory” (Johnston, K, B, August 17, 2010). This sentence was an electric shock for Crozier who asked with a very strong French accent: “I would be very interested to hear your other reasons why your organisational theory is, according to you, an efficient organisational system Mr Weber, Sir. ” At this point of the conversation Merton’s point of view and fears about the bureaucracy system were understood.

Furthermore, through Weber’s conversation we saw that written rules help the efficiency of the bureaucracy system. This essay will now relate the continuation of the conversation. Weber after a short minute of reflection exclaimed : “Dear Mr Crozier, I actually do believe that the bureaucracy system has the best technical efficiency out of all of the other theories. The phenomenon of Bureaucracy is irreversible because it is faster, more precise and more objective. It also allows problems, when they occur, to be solved without conflict. ” (Kilcullen, J, n. d. ).

Crozier looked surprised and asked Weber : “How can problems be solved without conflict ? It is impossible. The more people there are in an organisation, the more problems will arise. This just asks for conflict”. Weber smiled wryly and responded: “In “Yes Man”, as Merton said, Carl does not have to take any initiative. Indeed, he is following the written rules of his organisation and as you must have noticed Carl too, is following what his boss instructs him to do. Furthermore even Carl’s boss follows his own boss without even thinking or asking any questions.

We can see here three more traits of the reason why bureaucracy is the most efficient organisational system (Johnston, K, B, August 17, 2010). The first trait is the strict definition of the authority of each person. Without explaining to you my theory about the three types of authority, it will suffice for the conversation to say that it is a legal authority based on norms and impersonal procedures that bureaucracy exert. (Kilcullen, J, n. d. ) . Employees like Carl subject themselves to a dominant authority.

The other aspects of the bureaucracy’s efficiency showed in this example is the hierarchic structure that comes from this legal authority. Finally, the last features that support the efficiency of bureaucracy showed in this example is the rejection of personal preferences. As a matter of fact, employees do not do anything that relate to their preferences, they only follow written rules or that which is said by their boss. ” (Kilcullen, J, n. d. ) Merton replied, heatedly: “ Bureaucrats are hiding behind those rigid and strict directives and thus they forget the objective of their jobs. (Merton, R, 1957).

Carl, for instance denies a man who was begging with his wife and child for a loan without even feeling any pity. It is your theory, Mr Weber, that influences this kind of depersonalised behaviour. Employees, under bureaucracy, forget how to think and become mechanical. (Merton, R, 1957)” It was obvious that Weber was loosing his patience when he added : “Congratulations Merton, you have just touched on another important point that supports the efficiency of my theory. I would not have used the word “mechanical” as a metaphor out of respect but indeed, employees know very well how to perform their tasks efficiently. (Kilcullen, J, n. d. ) At this point of the discussion that this essay is documenting, Max Weber has explained the five features of his theory that were evident in “Yes Man” that make bureaucracy the most efficient organisational system. In summary, written rules, strict definition of the authority of each person, a strict hierarchic structure, the rejection of personal preferences and the fact that workers know the best way to perform their jobs are the five traits explained by Weber. Despite their different opinions, Weber, Merton and Crozier remain calm and civilised.

Finally, Michel Crozier began to speak: “I cannot disagree with Merton. As he said, bureaucracy evokes a routine and the frustration of employees. To this I would add bureaucracy complicates procedures. I sympathise with Weber the fact that bureaucracy is the rationalisation of collective activities (Crozier, M, 1964). Crozier was right about the very complicated procedure that bureaucracy involves. As we saw in “Yes Man” it is not simply a complication of procedures for customers but also a complication of procedures for employees. Carl was struggling to get anything such as a promotion.

He is like a drop of water in the ocean, he is a part of his organisation without being able to do anything. However, as everybody must follow complicated procedures people are treated equally and bureaucracy does not have any ethical problems. ” (Du Gay, P, 2005) Merton and Weber were both satisfied by Crozier’s speech, until Crozier added : “I will go further than you Weber, by saying that the more hierarchy and bureaucracy are developed into an organisation, the more efficient it becomes. However, the more the hierarchy prevails, the more the organisation suffers.

Indeed, because of this hierarchy, communication between services and departments within an organisation is harder and can lead to misunderstandings. This leads to the decisions that are made being maladapted to the situation and therefore decreases the efficiency of the organisation”. (Crozier, M, 1964) Crozier saw in Weber and Merton’s eyes that they were lost and continued giving examples from “Yes Man” : “When Carl was called by the head director of his bank, his boss told him that the purpose of the meeting was that he was going to be fired.

Carl believed him and was not surprised. However, it was Carl who got promoted and his boss who got fired. This is a classic example of misunderstanding between directors and employees due to strict hierarchic structure. These misunderstandings lead to a more centralised power that leads to the creation of more strict rules and procedures set up by the head of a bureaucratic organisation. An attempt to improve increases the centralisation of decisions and decreases the efficiency of an organisation. (Crozier, M, 1964) By relating the conversation this part of this essay showed Crozier’s point of view. By relating these gentlemen’s conversation about the movie “Yes Man” this essay has explored the representation of organisational life portrayed in the movie. This essay showed Max Weber’s theory and explained the criticisms of bureaucracy by Robert Merton and Michel Crozier. Through different scenes extracted from “Yes Man”, this essay has given the five features of bureaucracy found in the movie that for Weber allow an unrivalled efficiency with any other organisational theories.

Merton and Crozier’s criticisms of Weber’s theory were explained and illustrated via different sequences of the movie “Yes Man”. This essay shows that Merton and Crozier, even if they are notorious for their criticisms of Weber’s theory, still found some good features such as the efficiency of the bureaucracy. Bureaucracy still remains in many organisations such as governments and universities as it the most efficient organisational theory. However, as this essay illustrated, the principal criticism of bureaucracy cannot be avoided.

Even if this theory allows maximum efficiency, I believe that it is the evolution of the mind-set of the people of the twenty first century that will reduce the number of bureaucracy systems that we have at present. Indeed, with the development of freedom and liberty that people are acquiring, the essence of bureaucracy will be questioned and evolution will force it to become out dated. References Crozier, M. (1964). The bureaucracy phenomenon. Chicago : University of chicago Press. Du Gay, P. (2005). The values of bureaucracy. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press. Freund, J. (1968). The sociology of Max Weber.

London, Penguin Press. Johnston, K, B. (August 17, 2010). Bureaucratie Form According to Max Weber — His Six Major Principles. In busting bureaucracy. Retrieved August 9, 2010, from http://www. bustingbureaucracy. com/excerpts/weber. htm. Kilcullen, J (n. d). Max Weber: On Bureaucracy. Retrieved from POL264 Modern Political Theory, Macquarie University, from http://www. humanities. mq. edu. au/Ockham/y64109. html Merton, R, (1957). Bureaucracy Structure and personality. Glencoe, IL: Free Press. (pp. 195-206), Retrieved from http://www. sociosite. net/topics/texts/merton_bureaucratic_structure. php.