In this thesis paper I am traveling to supply a definition of motive, describe and explicate the differences between current and traditional attacks to motive and identify and depict all motive theories including content, procedure and support theories. I am traveling to research the manner motive influences public presentation and research ways in which directors can make a sense of significance and importance for employees within their on the job environment.
In this paragraph I have the demand to show my deepest gratitude to all the people that in one manner or another contributed in the assemblage of information and successful completing of this thesis paper.
First of all I would wish to thank my coach please province the name of your coach, whose changeless advising and guiding has offered me wealth of cognition and support throughout my old ages of survey.
I would besides wish to thank my internship and at the clip work supervisor, for demoing me that theory can be put into pattern and even though there might be troubles in using academic theories, consequences compensate for all the attempt that is put in these actions.
Last but non least I would wish to thank my parents that offered me the chance to go on my surveies at this academic degree and have supported my attempts, both morally and financially, throughout all my old ages of survey.
Table OF CONTENTS
Motivation is non a new managerial or leader ‘s tool. It has been used for old ages and hence a figure of motive theories exist, current and traditional 1s. However using motivational theories in pattern makes us come across troubles that have to make with each single employee. Personality, demands and ends are factors to take under consideration before using any motivational theory to a group of employees in order to do certain that positive consequences with derive from this attempt.
Daily alteration makes its visual aspect due to either market switches or technological accomplishments. Every industry faces alterations and in most instances senior employees become outdate and cut down their productiveness. Younger and more energetic employees become their directors, go forthing them with no other personal end instead than to wait for their retirement.
So companies have come to a point where, what used to be one time the most productive portion of their work force halt bring forthing. Even if the new employees fill the spread of the reduced production ( or gross revenues ) the company still is at loss and that has to be corrected.
During this attempt to bring forth a realistic and existent solution to this job, I came across the strongest restriction I could of all time meet. Motivation, every bit good as all the factors it involves can non be observed straight. All theories and their rating derive from the concluding result of a individual ‘s actions. However our observation of that consequence makes the stairss followed antecedently seem rational and do sense. But it is non until the concluding consequence is measured that we really know if the method used was the right one or the most efficient one.
So, in order to supply a solution I am traveling to show the informations collected from my research and try an analysis that will offer a figure of proposed solutions. I can non claim that this paper includes new motivational theories and constructs. However, I believe that it depicts, analyzes and offers solutions to a major job of out clip.
The motive Concept
“ Motivation refers to the forces either within or external to a individual that arouse enthusiasm and continuity to prosecute a certain class of action. ” Richard L. Daft, 2006.
Every twenty-four hours, from the really forenoon we wake up, we are involved into actions. We go to school, or to work, we have a certain behaviour, but it is really rare for as to oppugn the ground behind, us wishing some activities more than others. For case why do we bask one category more, or certain undertakings at work conveying out the best of us. However our behaviour is ever motivated by something.
The following tabular array will assist us indentify what hides behind our behaviour.
Model of Motivation. Source Modified from Games H. Donnely, James L. Gibson, and toilet M. Ivancevich, Fundamentals of Managemnet, 3rd edition, p. 185, 1978, by Business Publications, Inc.
The demands we feel depend on our recent activity. For illustration, some one who is attenting a dinner event and has merely eaten, may non experience hungry but yet wants to pass on and entertain. On the other manus person who is merely returning from work and had no repast during the twenty-four hours, is hungry and likely has no temper for societal interraction until he/ she eats. So, what we want ( our ends ) depends on our
attacks to fulfilling our demands. Let us non bury that the attack to fulfilling one ‘s demand may look logical to the individual involved, but strange to person who has other demands to carry through.
The following measure is to follow a certain behaviour that will take to making our ends. This attempt might tow different results. One is the end ‘s accomplishment which gives feedback that the behaviour used to fulfill the demands is succesful. However a continious attempt with no success will convey defeat, in which instance the individual involved may either seek a new constructive behaviour ( really involves new hunt behaviour, end indentification and purposive behaviour ) . If once more legion attempts do non win, psychological defence is put to utilize, intending that the individual involved avoids believing and feeling of the demand even though it is non to the full or at all fulfilled.
When a end is achieved a individual received a kind of wages, that indicate that the behaviour followed was the appropriate one and is to be used once more in the hereafter. There are two types of wagess.
The instrinsic wages, which derives within the individual involved and has do more with the sense of ego fulfilment. And the extrinsic wages, which is given by a 3rd individual a supervisor or director and could be a publicity, or fillip. Both types of wagess are of import for an employee. Successful directors help their employees reach their intrinsic wages, while offering them extrinsic wagess excessively. It has been observed that the most innovating and high public presentation employees are the 1s that find wages in the work itself.
It is merely natural to reason, enen though surveies have besides proven it so, that employee motivaton leads to high public presentation nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide increases productiveness and net incomes.
There are four motive attacks and the directors form the manner they use motive and wagess harmonizing the motive attack they choose to follow.
The Traditional Approach
Frederic W. Taylor was the first who studied employee motive in order to increase their work efficiency. The wagess of this attack are merely fiscal. The employee is paid more harmonizing the to quality and measure of the work produced.
The Human Relations Approach
The human resource attack takes a measure further that the traditional attack. For the first clip employees were studied as people and directors tried to supply wagess that covered societal demands as good, which seemed more of import that economic wagess.
The Human Resource Approach
This attack brings the two old approached to a new degree. This theory really identifies employees as complex human existences that can be motivated in more than one manner. Harmonizing to the human resource attack, working a critical activity for every individual. This is the footing of the modern-day attack.
The Contemporary Approach
Three types of theories dominate the modern-day attack. The content theories point out the employees ‘ demands and aid directors place them and carry through them in the on the job environment. Procedure theories are focused on the behaviour the employees embrace in order to make wagess within the work topographic point. The 3rd and concluding are the reinforcement theories that focus on how employees are traveling to be trained into a certain type of behaviour, within their working environment that will take them to the desired consequence and therefore the wages as good.
Contented theories on motive
Understanding what motivates employees is a cardinal facet of direction and can help in accomplishing high public presentation criterions and organisational development. Contented theories seek to place what people need at work and to boot how they try to run into these demands. Directors need to understand the assortment of demands employees are seeking to carry through and plan work in such manner as to assist them fulfill these demands but at the same clip make organisational ends every bit good.
So, this theory focuses on the demands that drive employees. Peoples have all kinds of demands, at one clip or another, from basic demands such as nutrient and vesture to achievement and money wagess. Contented theories help place the demands that act as incentives and do people follow behaviours that will take them to carry through these demands. So, all direction has to make is to plan occupations that will run into theses demands and promote desired work behaviours.
The Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Developed by Abraham Maslow, the hierarchy of demands theory may be the most celebrated theories and identifies that people have multiple demands which are put in hierarchal order.
Harmonizing to Maslow human needs signifier a pyramid, at the base of the pyramid are most basic human demands, besides knows are physiological demands. They involve eating nutrient, imbibing H2O, take a breathing air. Within a on the job environment these demands represent wage to guarantee endurance as good working status up to sufficient heat and air supply.
Merely above are the safety needs that represent the demands for a safe and unafraid environment. Following are the belongingness demands and they include the demand of experiencing portion of a group, holding good dealingss with other co workers and by and large being accepted as a squad member.
Then come the regard needs that chiefly have to make with having acknowledgment and positive attending, being appreciated and motivated by having congratulations, publicity and more duties. Last come the self realization needs that represent the demand for self fulfilment. Within an organisation ego realization is reached when employees are provided with chances for growing, creativeness and preparation.
Harmonizing to Maslow the demands at the base of the pyramid must be met, before the 1 at the top are satisfied. Once one degree of demands is satisfied so the individual seeks to carry through the following in hierarchy degree of demands.
The ERG Theory
The ERG theory is “ a alteration of the demands hierarchy that proposes three classs of demand: being, relatedness and growing. ” ( Richard L. Daft, 2006 ) . This theory was developed by Clayton Alderfer that really modified Maslow ‘s theory.
He simplified the demands and put the tree below classs:
Being demands, are the demands of physical well being that include nutrient, H2O, air, heat, safety and so on.
Relatedness demands, are the demands to hold relationship with others.
Growth demands, are needs that focal point chiefly on a individual ‘s development.
This theory besides suggest that when an employee fails to carry through a higher degree demand, as the demand of personal growing, so turns back and focuses on an already fulfilled demand, as the demand to gain more money.
This theory explains why companies are working so hard in order to happen ways to demo acknowledgment and promote engagement of employees in determination devising. The ground is that employees that contribute thoughts and experience apprehended feel valued, loyal and motivated. It is besides of import to observe that when an employee ‘s thought is really implemented the positive affect of motive influences non merely the employee involved but the full work force, that sees hope for their attempts to be recognized and appreciated every bit good.
It is besides of import to observe, at this point that other actions such as offering occupation flexibleness enhance motive within organisations. Such actions include telecommunicating, flexible hours, and occupation sharing, enables employees to hold more control over their work and duty for its organisation. Job flexibleness is considered an of import benefit that makes employees more committed to the company they work for. Additionally companies have tried to do employees experience that there is connectivity between their personal and working life, by seeking to add the component of merriment in the workplace, doing less rigorous regulations and doing work something more pleasant and personal.
The Two-Factor Theory
The two-factor theory was developed by Frederic Herzberg, who after questioning big figure of employees concluded that there are two factors that influence work motive.
The first set of factor is besides called hygiene factors. Are the factors that make an employee non satisfied, but non dissatisfied with the working environment. They include work status, payment and interpersonal relationships. When the hygiene factors are low so the employee is more likely to be dissatisfied. It is of import to observe that good hygiene factors merely take dissatisfaction, but do non arouse satisfaction.
The 2nd set of factors are called incentives. They are chiefly focused on the higher degree of demands, such as acknowledgment, accomplishment, personal growing and duty. The absence of incentives causes, with good hygiene factors cause impersonal feeling towards work.
The decision of this theory is really interesting. It shows that dissatisfaction and satisfaction for one ‘s work semen from wholly different factors. So directors need to correctly concentrate their attempts towards both factors in order to hold non merely, non disgruntled employees, but besides motivated 1s that will increase their public presentation.
Acquired Needs Theory
Harmonizing to David McClelland, some demands people get during their life-time. These demands are non at the footing of Maslow ‘s pyramid of demands and people are non born with them, but instead learn to hold them. More specifically these demands are:
The demand for Achievement.
The demand for Affiliation
The demand for Power
Life experiences are responsible for the acquisition of such demands. After 20 old ages of survey McClelland concluded that people with high demands for accomplishment are chiefly enterprisers, while those with high demand of association make good coordinators and set up good working relationships. Those with high demand of power are most likely the 1s to take waies that will take them to managerial places.
Procedure theories on motive
Process theories of motive seek to understand the complex relationship between the many variable that motive consists of. Directors need to understand what initiates behaviour, and how it is directed and sustained.
There are two chief procedure theories. The equity and the anticipation theory.
The equity theory is “ the procedure theory that focuses on persons ‘ perceptual experiences of how reasonably they are treated comparative to others ” ( Richard cubic decimeter Daft, 2006 ) .
J. Stacy Adams, who developed the theory, claims that people are motivated by seeking societal equity. If people believe that they are compensated every bit much as others for a comparative equal part, so they would experience that they are reasonably treated. In order for people to mensurate equity they use a ration of inputs ( that are attempt, instruction, experience and ability ) to outputs ( that are acknowledgment, payment, publicities and benefits ) . Equity is achieved when 1 ‘s individual ‘s ration equals another ‘s individual ‘s ratio. Within a on the job environment that unfairness is perceived there is tenseness and a strive to convey equity back.
The methods most normally used to rectify unfairness are:
Change inputs. For illustration a individual that is overpaid may increase attempt while a personal that is underpaid may diminish it.
Change results. For illustration an employee or a brotherhood may bespeak a rise or better working conditions in order to be input with end product, comparatively to better paid employees.
Distort perceptual experience In such instances, people unnaturally believe and make others believe that their occupation place is more of import than it truly is, or that person else ‘s benefits are non so of import as they might sound. This brings a delusional balance.
Leave the occupation. For illustration people that feel that there is no equity will seek another working environment that is more balanced.
Harmonizing to the anticipation theory, motive depend on person ‘s outlooks about their ability to execute undertakings and receive desired wagess. It is concerned with the believing procedure people use in order to be rewarded. Based on single attempt and public presentation it involves the followers:
Whether the attempt that will be put into a undertaking will ensue to the coveted public presentation degree.
Whether the successful public presentation will convey the coveted result.
Whether the value of the result is extremely valued by the employee every bit good.
High anticipation and high valued outcome leads to high motive, otherwise motive degree is low. So really this theoretical account theory is non concerned with the demands people have and how they act as incentives. It focuses on they manner employees think in order to accomplish wagess. Since each employee is a personal with different personality, their ends may differ every bit good and seek to fulfill different demands.
This personalization of demands brings deductions for direction. Since the end of the direction squad is to assist employees run into their ain ends but at the same clip run into the company ‘s ends every bit good, directors need to do certain that personal abilities match the occupation demands and at the same clip that each employee is given the clip, equipment and support needed to make the ends set.
The Goal Setting Theory
It has been observed that employees seem to be more motivated when specific marks are given to them to accomplish. The end needs to be specific, come-at-able and accepted by the employees. The last and one of the most of import elements of his theory is feedback. Performance feedback is important in order to prolong coveted work behaviour, though motive.
Harmonizing to Edwin Locke and Gary Latham, who came up with this theory, end scene additions motive because it helps employees aim their energy and attempts towards one way. Challenge is another strong incentive, when asked to accomplish hard ends, that drives employees into seting in more attempt to make their end accomplishment.
Reinforcement theories on motive
The support theory does non affect attacks harmonizing to the demands and ways of thought of the employees. It is merely based on the relationship between behaviour and effects.
The jurisprudence of affect is what regulations over this theory. A behaviour that is rewarded tends to be repeated when a behaviour that is punished tends to be corrected. So a positive support, is a pleasant rewarding for an employee ‘s working behaviour and may dwell of congratulations, publicity, more duty, work flexibleness, societal acknowledgment. This tool of support theory shows that non fiscal inducements have proven to be every bit powerful as the fiscal 1s.
Another tool is negative support, that chiefly indicates that a negative effects will halt one time the coveted behaviour is adopted. Punishment is another tool that suggests that an unwanted working behaviour suffers effects, nevertheless this tools fails to indicate out the desired or “ right ” behaviour, since it provide merely negative input to the employee. The last reinforcement tool is extinction, that involves the backdown of positive wagess such as congratulationss, wage rises.
There are five basic types of support agendas, harmonizing to which the timing and frequence of support have the desired impact on employees.
Continuous support is one method, proposing that every clip the desired behaviour occurs it is reinforced. This scheme is particularly effectual in the early phases of larning desired on the job behaviours.
Partial support suggests that positive support occurs merely after the reiterating the desired behaviour several times.
No uncertainty, we are traveling through some disruptive times. Organizations seek ways to increase public presentation and by engaging new, immature and extremely ambitious employees, that are extremely motivated to make new, increased gross revenues and productiveness ends. They are positioned as directors of senior employees with cherished experience and cognize how.
So from the one manus we have extremely motivated immature directors and on the other we have low motivated senior employees. What happens to them is that the seconds lose involvement in their occupation and instead go through their clip, until retirement. The loss for the organisation is greater than suspected, since the under productive employees, apart from their ain productiveness, act upon the productiveness of their full group or squad.
Their behavior derives from the deficiency of motive. The new, younger and inexperient employees are put to places above the seniors, having the same or even more payment. This a clear instance of unfairness, that influences the public presentation of the one time strongest performing artists are invariably under executing even though they know they still have a batch to offer. A smart director should seek to maintain feelings of equity in balance in order to maintain the full work force motivated.
Empowering people to run into higher demands is a really good manner by which direction can supply motive. In our instance of the senior workers empowerment would intend power sharing, and even if new and younger employees were put in managerial places, authorization could be shared with senior employees. This manner, the managerial occupation description would be a small altered, nevertheless senior employees would non be hostile towards the junior directors and would seek to work together with them as a squad. This is besides a manner for the senior employees to set themselves on the trial and look into if they could, within the current market conditions, lead their squad to successful consequences. These employees already know the can make a good occupation and so empowerment at this phase merely releases a motive that already exists. Employee empowerment involve four elements that need to be given to employees in order for them to be able and carry through their occupation.
Information. Employees receive all information about company public presentation. Access to the company ‘s fiscal and operational information gives the feeling of power and importance to the employee.
Knowledge. Training plans are put together, made accessible to all employees, doing certain that everyone has the cognition required to lend to organisational public presentation but besides fulfill the demand of personal growing.
Power. Employees have the power to do substantial determinations, act uponing organisation public presentation, within self directed work squads.
Reward. Employees are rewarded based on the companies public presentation. This sort of wages inspires more team work and Acts of the Apostless as a really powerful incentive.
Giving Meaning to Work
Another manner to actuate employees is to assist them place intrinsic wagess from their ain work. For illustration in the instance of the senior employees, allow them give talk to seminars for new direction trainees and to talk and take Sessionss at conferences on territory directors, assisting them fulfill high degree regard and self realization demands. Mentoring relationships could besides be allowed to assist towards the same way.
Another manner to give significance to the work for the senior employees could be to set them in groups that keep close communicating and do them vie on existent consequences.
Using the above techniques and actions will assist senior employees feel respected, valued, of import and empowered within the company, hiting their motive and therefore their public presentation to the sky.
Now that we have closely seen what motive is and how it is applied it is clip to reply the inquiry of how does motivation really affect public presentation.
Traditional and modern-day motive theories as analyzed before suggest that there is a strong nexus between motive and public presentation. What we really need to make is to understand the nature of motive. An single employee may oppugn the motive theory, by merely inquiring “ Why should I execute harder? “ .
Is there concrete grounds that motive is linked to public presentation? In order to reply this inquiry we need to look to this issue from another position. Since motive and the factors involved in it, can non be straight observed and it is merely the concluding result that can be evaluated, allow us detect what happens to public presentation in the deficiency of any motive activity. Taking under consideration the content theories of motive there are clear hygiene factors, such as working conditions, payment and safety, that if non fulfilled will take to highly low public presentation.
Consequently factors such unfairness or rare support besides show a really low public presentation degree. However it is really difficult to anticipate employee behaviour to follow a certain form and besides difficult to propose to what widen a annually or semi annual assessment will guarantee that coveted working behaviour is achieved on a day-to-day footing.
The function of the director presents is non to command the work force but more to set up the environment in which the work force will larn, contribute and grow. Their function besides includes imparting employee motive toward the achievement of organisational ends, by doing the best out of each employee ‘s alone accomplishments, endowments, involvements and demands.