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Influence of the Eu on Democracy in the Uk

Influence of the EU on Democracy in the UK One of the objectives of the creation of the European Union was to develop a single market and remove trading barriers so there would be standardisation of technical regulations and convergence of conditions between European markets. With this in mind, it saw the need for employers and employees to work together in order to achieve this. The main statement of the European social policy is the Social Charter (approved by 11 of the then 12 member states) which seeks to improve working and living conditions and ensure the effective use of human resource across the EU.

This policy seeks to guarantee rights to individuals in areas such as freedom of movement, improved living and working standards, fair remuneration, freedom to join a trade union, equal opportunities for men and women, and protection for the disabled, children and adolescents in the workplace. In addition, workers have rights to be consulted and informed in the cases where there is new technology, collective redundancy, and mergers. It was agreed by the members of the EU that the Social Charter be implemented by directive so member states will be bound by legislation and utilise all necessary resources as to ensure its provisions.

Companies in the EU also have the option of forming companies that operate on a Europe-wide basis and governed by community law. This is governed by the European Union Statute (2001). There is an accompanying Directive that requires employee involvement arrangements that includes collective bargaining on decisions, unitary board structure with worker representatives and sub-board level company council which comprises solely of worker representation. Trinidad and Tobago is influenced by this initiative. In the Caribbean, a similar initiative was created.

It was called CARICOM and was established in 1973. Members of CARICOM also recognised the need for employees and employers to work together in order to create a successful single market in the region. The work environment is evolving into more of an employee relations environment and workers now have more rights, and opinions. The IRA plays a big role in ensuring that employees are fairly treated in the workplace. Organizations have opted to implement employee relations policies within their organizations as well.

These provide a forum for employee participation and employee involvement. Although organizations in Trinidad and Tobago are governed by legislation, it is still ineffective in many instances. There are cases where the recognized majority trade union defy the law and do not comply with the regulations of the IRA. An example is the “No Work Day Campaign” by the Public Services Association in January, 2011. This protest would clearly go against section 69 (1) where public servants are not allowed to take industrial action.

In relation to participation in the EU, various countries have different approaches to encouraging employee participation. For example, in Germany, a system called co-determination is used where employees and their representatives are involved in all decisions relating to personnel and other aspects of company policy. It is supported by legislation and involves three methods by which workers can participate. These methods include a Works Council, Supervisory Board, and Management Board.

Works Councils are formed where there are more than five workers and consists only of workers’ representatives. They have rights to receive information on health and safety, jobs, work changes that adversely affect employees, and the work environment. They also have the right to make suggestions during the formulation and implementation to human resource plans and policies. Their suggestions are not binding but must be considered. The supervisory board is made up of worker representatives and other members elected by the shareholders (these are in companies employing over 500 people).

They generally oversee the overall direction of the business. The third method, the management board, is generally responsible for the day-to-day operations of the business. Sweden has adopted a similar approach to industrial democracy. They have used techniques such as job enrichment and quality of life working programmes. They differ in the sense that they are more unionised than Germany. They have an average of 80% union membership. Other countries such as Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, France, and Spain also have co-determination models.

However, there is a smaller range of issues open to employee approval in these countries. In the Netherlands and Belgium, companies have to also supervisory and management boards. In Trinidad and Tobago, employee representatives (trade union representatives) are part of supervisory boards and works council. They must be informed of changes that affect trade union members and consulted on issues such as working conditions, health and safety, and pay structures. It is important to note that this is only in organizations that have agreed to ave a recognized majority union represent their employees. Some organizations have implemented techniques such as job enrichment and work-life balance programmes such as use of flexi-time, and programmes to help new mothers re-enter the workforce after being away on maternity leave. These programmes can be very expensive to implement. Employees would need to be convinced that these changes are good. Ideally, some employees will resist these changes so they would need to be involved from the very beginning.

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Science Background Information

Question: Which number of windmill blades, two, three, or five, create more electricity and spin the fastest? Wind is a form of solar energy. There are many different types of windmills. For example, there are modern, horizontal axis, and vertical axis windmills. The sizes of the windmills are one hundred kilowatts to as large as several megawatts. One of the most important components of a windmill are the windmill blades. There are many different numbers of blades that a windmill can have. The more blades a windmill has, the harder it will be for the windmill’s blades to turn.

For example, the old ones used to have four very heavy blades. But now the average number of blades a windmill has is two and three blades. In addition, the lengths of the windmill blades are important too. If a blade is longer, it covers a much larger surface when it turns. So then it can catch more wind with every rotation. Furthermore, the shape of the windmill blades effects the rotation of the windmill. A few examples of the shapes of windmill blades are flat, rectangular, wind shaped, and an airplane wing. Based on horizontal axis windmills, the wing shaped blade is proven to be the most efficient one.

Also, the vertical axis windmills work very well with every type of windmill blade shape. But the flat and round edged ones give the best performance by the vertical axis windmills. The windmill blades are made with lighter material so the windmill can faster than usual. The common materials that they use are carbon fiber, PVC, and synthetic material. There are new materials that are being tested to find cheaper and more effective solutions. A wind turbine works in an exact opposite way as a fan. Instead of using electricity to make wind, like a fan, turbines use the wind to make electricity.

Almost all windmills the produce electricity consist of rotor blades that rotate around a horizontal hub. The hub is connected to a gearbox and generator. They are located inside the nacelle. The nacelle is the large part at the top of the windmill tower where the numerous electrical components are located. The wind turns the blades around and it spins the shaft that connects to a generator. After, electricity is made. A generator is a machine that produces electrical energy from mechanical energy compared to an electric motor which does the opposite. There are many different parts to a windmill. First there is the

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Transcendence vs. Immanence

Transcendence vs. Immanence Transcendence and immanence represent two viewpoints of the relationship people have with God and how they experience him. Transcendence emphasizes the distance between God and humanity. A transcendental point of view sees God as omnipotent, meaning all powerful and distant from man whose responsibility is obedience. Immanence focuses on the union between God and humanity. God is seen as being present in the world, to be experienced in many ways, and humanity’s response is cooperation. Transcendence and Immanence are almost completely opposite each other.

Transcendence describes a God beyond our understanding leaving us to rely on a privileged source to provide us knowledge about him. A transcendent God leaves us to find a privileged source. By making people find a privileged source, people are going to see different sources. For Christianity the bible is seen as a privileged source. Catholics don’t see the bible as literally as other Christian religions. It is hard to find a meaningful role for human life if God is seen as omnipotent. Whereas obedience is emphasized, any responsibility that humans have to change the conditions of the world is diminished.

If he is seen as all powerful, all knowing, and all loving then he would know everything that happens before it does and because he is all loving, he is the only one who could change the bad conditions in the world. In saying we cannot change anything; we have no point of living, except to obey God. By focusing on an imminent point of view one focuses on the union of God and humanity. An imminent point of view also sees God in everything one experiences. If God is in everything then that means he is in evil things and in good. The bible says that God is evil in no way, shape, or form.

I do not believe that God is evil. Personally encountering a God who permeates our lives in an effort to help us develop as people is an attractive viewpoint but how do we separate God’s will from selfish desire. Immanence presents the problem of what God is and isn’t actually in. Although Immanence proposes that God permeates all aspects of life, are we to trust that all life experiences are valid ways to experience God? Both of these questions re-state the statement of: If God is in everything then he must be in all things evil as well as all things good.

Immanence also points people in the wrong direction by having them worship false things as God. This is called idolatry. Idolatry is strictly against the first commandment. I prefer to think of God as near in accessible to me in many life experiences. I can see God as being all powerful. I can also see that he deserves obedience. At the same time, we rely on him as a partner with whom I can ask for help to have a good life and bring about positive change in my life. I also ask him for help to bring about positive change in my community and the world.

So in a way I see God from both points of view. He is all loving and powerful. At the same time gives us reason to try to better our worldly conditions or to better ourselves. I do not see God in every experience or action that I commit, but I do see how he influences many actions and experiences in my life. My view of God is probably much different from others. I view God in both views instead of seeing him concretely in one sing view. When talking about immanence and Transcendence one has to think literally to find the problems and stances that both sides take.

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A Culture of Creativity: Design Education and the Creative Industries

A culture of creativity: design education and the creative industries Billy Matheson Centre for Creative Industries, Wellington Institute of Technology, Wellington, New Zealand Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the in? uence of the creative industries on design education in New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach – A range of contemporary literature is presented to help de? e the term “creative industries”, and to locate this new “culture of creativity” within a wider global trend of creative cultural theory. Continue reading A Culture of Creativity: Design Education and the Creative Industries

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How Global Brands Compete

How Global Brands Compete – Douglas B. Holt, John A. Quelch, Earl L. Taylor. In the article the authors have conducted a research in 12 countries with 1800 respondents. The authors have tried to find the perceptions of consumers regarding the global brands, the global consumer segments and have suggested the business leaders regarding new opportunities and responsibilities in global arena regarding global brands.

The authors have found out the perceptions regarding the global brands and have categorized it under following headings –
• Quality signal – global brands are signal of high quality and technology in minds of consumers. They have watched the fierce battles the companies wage over quality and are impressed by the victors.
• Global Myth – consumers look global brands as symbols of cultural ideals. They use brands to create an imagined global identity that they share with like – minded people. Social Responsibility – people recognize that global companies wield extraordinary influence, both positive and negative on society’s well being. They expect firms to address social problems. They believe that global brands have a special duty to tackle social issues. People also exert more pressure to address social issues on multinational giants rather than local companies. Global consumer segments
• Global Citizens – 55 % of total respondants, they rely on global companies for quality and innovation.

They also want these companies to behave responsibly.
• Global Dreamers – 23 % of respondents, they are less discerning about but more ardent in their admiration of global companies. • Anti globals – 13 %, they are skeptical about global brands to diliver quality products and dislike that they preach Amercian values.
• Global Agnostics – they don’t regard global brands as global, instead they evaluate a global product by same criteria as they judge local brands. Suggestions Think Globalness – companies should manage their brands as global symbols because this is what consumers perceive them to be.
• Manage the dark side – Global companies should manage the dark side. They should understand that they have social responsibility.
• Treat Anti globals as customers – the companies should treat anti globals as their potential customes. They should try to persuade them that their products are of good quality and they are concerned about the social and cultural values of the country.

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Direct Tv vs Dish Network

Strategic Analysis of DIRECTV and DISH Network DIRECTV DIRECTV (NASDAQ:DTV), established in 1994, provides digital television entertainment services through its subsidiaries and affiliated companies in the United States, India, Brazil, Mexico and other countries in Latin America. DIRECTV provides digital television service to 19. 22 million customers in the United States and 8. 85 million customers in Latin America. (DIRECTV, 2010). DIRECTV reported revenues of $24. billion in 2010 with net profit margin percent of 9. 12. DIRECTV is composed of two main operating units – DIRECTV U. S. , and Latin America, as well as DIRECTV Regional Sports Networks. As of December 31, 2010, DIRECTV U. S. had 19. 22 million subscribers with average monthly revenue per subscriber, or ARPU, of $89. 71. (DIRECTV, Annual Report, 2010) (Exhibit B). DIRECTV has strategically partnered with AT&T, Verizon, Qwest, CenturyLink, and Frontier to provide TV services bundled with phone and internet.

DIRECTV’s mission is to provide customers with the best video experience in the United States both inside and outside of the home by offering subscribers unique, differentiated and compelling programming through leadership in content, technology and customer service. (DIRECTV, 2010) Differentiation Business Model DIRECTV’s strategy is to pursue differentiation business model to sustain competitive advantage. It is the only Pay TV provider in Latin America and only provider to offer NFL sports package.

DIRECTV’s geographic market of operations in Latin America, gives them opportunity for growth, as visible from the increased revenue growth for that segment. It is also exclusive provider of DISHA India channel in the U. S. , catering to the needs of South Asian families in the US by offering spiritual, social and cultural programming. DIRECTV offers Differentiated and Exclusive Content Services, such as NFL SUNDAY TICKET, which allows subscribers to watch up to 14 games each week. They are also exclusive provider of NCAA- MEGA MARCH MADNESS. (DIRECTV, 2010) (Exhibit D) Investment in Technology

DIRECTV invests in technology innovation to differentiate from competitors and provide broader content and services to customers. They offer more 3D programming than their competitors do. In 2009, they solely broadcasted 3D program of MLB All-Star Game and U. S. Open Tennis Championship. DIRECTV has strategically collaborated with Panasonic to provide dedicated 3D TV channel, namely “n3D Powered by Panasonic”. DIRECTV has invested in technology and has strategically focused on “anytime, anywhere” experience to compete with new service providers available over Internet Protocol TV(IPTV).

DIRECTV also offers Whole-Home DVR service and provide mobile apps, to browse shows, schedule recordings and set DVR from anywhere with any computer or phones. Evaluation of DIRECTV’s Strategies DIRECTV captured First Mover Advantage in providing digital television entertainment services through satellites. They capitalized on the opportunity to lock consumers into their services, thus making it difficult for their competitors to break down the consumer base. In spite of capturing the first mover advantage, they are not in monopoly position anymore.

Two years after their entry in the market, their main competitor “Dish Network” entered the market of providing digital television entertainment services as well. While DIRECTV is still ahead in ARPU with the advantage of being the first mover, DISH Network has also captured a significant subscriber base by providing similar services at a low cost. As per the resource based view, DIRECTV has utilized its resources and capabilities to gain competitive advantage over their competitors following differentiation strategy.

DIRECTV has a distinctive competence in offering NFL sports package, which positions them uniquely in comparison to their rivals. Large subscriber base, leading brand name, most full time HD programming channels, premium sports channels – including NFL Sunday, MLB Network, Grand Slam golf and tennis coverage, international soccer and major international cricket coverage are primary competitive drivers of DIRECTV. The business strategy of DIRECTV involves bringing more focus on customer’s needs and convenience.

They are strengthening their business by having strategic partnerships to offer bundled options for TV service, phone service and internet service. The strategic partnership has enabled DIRECTV to offer discounts on equipment, programming packages and thus gain broader base of subscribers. DIRECTV’s provision of “anytime, anywhere” experiences, expansion of Whole-Home DVR service, connecting customer HD-DVR’s to the Internet and by providing mobile apps, DIRECTV has not only satisfied customer’s need, but has also tapped opportunities to create new revenue sources and expand business.

DIRECTV is able to grow their subscriber base by focusing on acquiring higher quality subscribers, as well as by improving customer service. DIRECTV’s strategy of building new revenue streams by having local advertisements for target customers, and by delivering new products focused on priority commercial segments, like hotels, restaurants and other businesses will be fruitful. DIRECTV has achieved economies of scale with the increased demand for the product and maximizing revenues, with the first mover advantage and by implementing business strategies.

It offsets the extra cost incurred in adopting Differentiation business level strategy and R&D expenditure. DIRECTV is charging premium price for the unique service being provided in response to customer needs. At the same time, the premium price it is charging is reasonable enough to stay within the limit the price, which the customer is willing to pay. The only challenge with DIRECTV’s differentiation strategy is that it will need to continue to maintain the distinctive competencies and the brand loyalty that goes with it, when NFL contract will be up for renewal.

The contract with the NFL is extremely important for DIRECTV to maintain a unique premium sports package and loyal subscriber base (Exhibit C). DISH Network Corporation DISH Network Corporation (NASDAQ:DISH) established in March 1996, is the provider of digital television entertainment services. DISH Network, a publicly traded Fortune 200 company, is the media and entertainment firm of its former parent company, EchoStar Communications Corporation, founded in 1980. DISH Network reported revenues of $11. 6 billion in 2009 with net profit margin percent of 7. 9. As of December 31, 2009, DISH Network had 14. 1 million subscribers with average monthly revenue per subscriber, or ARPU, of $70. 04. ) (DISH NETWORK, Annual Report, 2009, Exhibit B) The mission of DISH Network is to be the best at delivering video anytime, anywhere. (DISH NETWORK, 2011) Cost Leadership Business Model DISH Network has pursued cost leadership strategy as competitive advantage. As a cost-leadership business model, DISH Network chooses strategies to lower its cost structure, so that it can sell services at a lower cost than its competitors.

To sustain competitive advantage over its rivals, DISH Network focuses on making television affordable and accessible by most customers and it has the philosophy to keep costs low by focusing on the value and quality for their customers, thus trying to capture more subscriber base. (DISH NETWORK, 2010) (Exhibit D). While DISH Network’s business strategy is to be a cost leader, still they have chosen low level of product differentiation relative to its competitors. DISH Network was the first to launch a programming package in the US designed for Mexicans.

It was the first pay TV provider to offer local channels in all 210 US local markets, and the first pay TV provider to offer 200+ channels in HD to differentiate itself from its competitors. DISH Network provides the most international channels, and award-winning HD and DVR technology. DISH Network distributes live international TV channels in collaboration with NeuLion. In 2010, DISH Network introduced TV Everywhere. Dish Network has offered their subscribers to watch TV on compatible smart phone, laptop, or tablet anywhere, where they can connect to high-speed Internet or over a 3G cellular data plan.

DISH Network has introduced Sling technology to offer Sling loaded DVR and adapter to compress the television signal and make the TV available over the web, thus enabling TV anywhere where the high-speed internet is available. DISH Network has also introduced DISH Remote Mobile App, which not only allows subscribers to enjoy TV programming anywhere, but also enables managing home television by scheduling a recording and managing DVR through mobile device. The mobile device can also transform into TV’s remote control DISHOnline. om provides online content and videos available to anyone, though DISH subscribers can watch more contents on demand. Recently, as of April 6, 2011, DISH Network was announced as the winning bidder in the bankruptcy court auction for all of the assets of Blockbuster, Inc. This deal will offer more than 1700 locations, Blockbuster’s existing streaming and video delivery service that mimics the Netflix model and new cross-marketing and service extension opportunities for DISH Network. (DISH NETWORK, 2011).

Evaluation of DISH Network’s Strategies The business strategies of DISH Network, aligns with their Cost Leadership Strategy chosen for competitive positioning. The resources and capabilities of DISH Network are being utilized to create distinct competitiveness through cost advantage and they have been able to capture the #2 position in the household television provider in the United States. DISH Network focuses on lowering its cost structure to sell services at a lower cost than its rivals.

DISH Network strategy to enhance Operational Effectiveness by increasing productivity and by strategically managing programming content costs to attain competitive terms and competitions, is keeping it to be a profitable and sustainable business, even though its ARPU is less than that of “DIRECTV”. DISH Network is imitating the strategic moves of its differentiator rival and has invested in technology to provide similar services to its subscribers. Since 2010, DISH Network is also providing TV Anywhere option, paying close attention to changing customer’s needs and keeping up with their rival’s technology moves.

By providing similar services in conjunction with the low price model, DISH will be able to retain its customer base. DISH Network as a cost leader aims for a sufficient level of differentiation which is obtainable at a low cost. In alignment with the business strategy to offer wide selection of channels than most pay TV providers, Dish Network offers more International packages than its competitors do. It was the first to launch a programming package in the US designed for Mexicans to offer unique service for a particular segment.

These strategies have helped in their subscriber’s growth, even though these are not the strategies which can not be adopted by rivals. DIRECTV has adopted the same strategy by being the exclusive provider of DISHA Indian channel for South Asian Indians in US (Exhibit C). DIRECTV and DISH Network are the two major players in the market of satellite television provider. There is a barrier to imitation for other competitors in the market place due to the astronomical upfront cost of launching or leasing satellites.

The upfront capital needed to lease or launch satellites, combined with low price charged by DISH from its subscribers creates a barrier for entry into the field of satellite television provider. It is interesting to watch DISH Network following the footsteps of its competitor, DIRECTV by increasing the flat price for their core programming packages in 2011. It will subsequently freeze prices for at least 2 years. This will lead to higher average revenue per user for DISH Network.

Since DISH Network is spending more on technology and is trying to stay close to its competitor, DISH Network is planning to increase prices to yield more returns to the company. Already low subscriber growth rated of DISH Network in comparison to DIRECTV’s subscriber growth rate, might further deteriorate DISH Networks’ subscriber growth going forward. At the same time, the price freeze for next 2 years might help in retaining customers. Charlie Ergen, founder of EchoStar, owns majority of the voting control of DISH Network.

DISH Network’s Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer is the principal stockholder and controls DISH Network. The strategic decision of having the reins in one persons hand increases risk for the company. In our opinion, the voting controls should be distributed to more than one person, to have more than one voice in strategic decision-making. DISH Network would be safe as long as it can maintain its low-cost advantage, but if the competitors are able to develop new strategies that would lower their cost structure, then it will cause issues for DISH Network.

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Teacher’s Day

Teacher’s day is celebrated on 5th of September every year throughout the country. Students take the opportunity of this special day to express their gratitude and appreciation for their teachers. There are several ways through which the students can appreciate the immense contribution of the teachers. Teacher’s day celebrations that are an integral part of 5th September are incomplete without the presence of some good and meaningful teacher’s day speeches and teacher’s day messages. In this page you will find some simple teacher’s day speech ideas. Ideas for Teacher’s Day Speech :

Teacher’s Day, which is observed as a mark of tribute to the teachers, is the ideal day of telling your teachers that you feel blessed because of their presence in your lives. Teacher’s day speeches are actually considered as a wonderful way for expressing our respect and sincere acknowledgement to our teachers. The significant role and contributions of the teachers in giving a proper shape to our lives can not be described or expressed in words. But, still here are some simple ideas that can be consulted for preparing a simple yet meaningful speech dedicated to all the teachers.

Just have a look at them – Teacher’s day is celebrated on 5th of September every year throughout the country. Students take the opportunity of this special day to express their gratitude and appreciation for their teachers. There are several ways through which the students can appreciate the immense contribution of the teachers. Teacher’s day celebrations that are an integral part of 5th September are incomplete without the presence of some good and meaningful teacher’s day speeches and teacher’s day messages. In this page you will find some simple teacher’s day speech ideas. Ideas for Teacher’s Day Speech :

Teacher’s Day, which is observed as a mark of tribute to the teachers, is the ideal day of telling your teachers that you feel blessed because of their presence in your lives. Teacher’s day speeches are actually considered as a wonderful way for expressing our respect and sincere acknowledgement to our teachers. The significant role and contributions of the teachers in giving a proper shape to our lives can not be described or expressed in words. But, still here are some simple ideas that can be consulted for preparing a simple yet meaningful speech dedicated to all the teachers. Just have a look at them –

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History of Cosmetology

History of Cosmetology & Nail Care Cosmetology is the study and application of beauty treatment. Branches of specialty including hairstyling, skin care, cosmetics, manicures/pedicures, and electrology. Nail Technology is the art and science of beautifying and improving the nails and skin of the hands and feet. The history of nail care reveals some intriguing facts. It was a part of aristocracy and a symbol of status in ancient times. It was in the nineteenth century that nail care started to become a part of fashion and glamour.

Today nail salons all over the world offer various nail care services and plenty of nail care products are available for use in home but it still in some way reflects that symbolism of aristocracy and status. Manicures began 5000 years ago. In Arab countries, henna was used for manicures. The term mehendi, used synonymously for henna, henna being an Arabic word, derives from the Sanskrit mehandika. Empress Dowager Cixi was known to keep very long naturally-grown nails. Nail Care History in Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptian manuscripts reveal that women at that time used henna (also known as mehendi) to polish their nails. The colors however determined the class and status. Royal people choose their own color and normal people were not allowed to use those colors. At the time of Queen Nefertiti, royals would wear red nail colors to symbolize their status. It is also said that the great queen Cleopatra always wore rusty red color on her nails and at the time she ruled Egypt, the color was only reserved for the queen. Nail Care History in Ancient China

In ancient china finger nails also played a great role in defining noble people. People of high status grew long nails to show their status and the color of the nail would reveal the social class. In Chou Dynasty (600 B. C. ), Gold and Silver colors were worn by people of highest ranks and status. People below them wore black and red colors on their nails. Normal people were only allowed to use pale color tones. Gold and silver color indicated highest rank and power whereas black and red were symbols of strength and boldness and pale tones would have indicated feebleness.

History of Nail Care in the Nineteenth Century With the social and technological developments, new tools for nail care began to emerge in Europe. In 1830 a foot doctor named Sitts invented a wooden manicure tool. Before that metal rod, acid, scissors etc. were used for manicure. Almond shaped nails or slightly pointed nail styles were popular at that time. In 1890’s these trends reached United States. Soon many salons started to offer nail care services to women. But mostly nail care was a personal thing; women usually took care of their nails by themselves.

History of nail Care in the Twentieth Century In the beginning of Twentieth century nail care and nail polish become hugely popular by courtesy of glamorous Hollywood film stars. New companies were coming in the market with new nail care tools and techniques. New nail paints and shades arrived together with polish removers, nail protectors and other tools that made it possible to choose any style at any time and complement the overall dress up with a matching nail color. At that time manicure was done in barber shops not in beauty salons. 1970’s was the era of artificial nails.

These nails looked real, were usually long and worn by the rich. Soon nail drills were introduced to use on acrylic nails. Nail charms, gold nails as well as nail art were getting popular. Then French manicure arrived in the market and it was ruled the manicure industry during the 90’s. Nail salon business bloomed at that time and many new nail salons in New York and in other states started to offer an array of manicure services. Recent Trends With the beginning of twenty-first century, pedicure entered the nail care industry. And the nail care industry continued to blossom.

In the year 2000, there were fifty thousand nail salons throughout the U. S. which now has doubled since. Now, most nail salons offer different types of manicure and pedicure services for both men and women as boys are also getting interested in nail care and styles. The choice of color and shades are endless and the process has become safer for nails than it was 10-15 years ago. Today, in nail style, anything goes and the women consider nails as an essential part of their overall professional outlook. ——————————————–