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Yakult and Its Marketing Strategy

Contents Executive Summary2 Section 1: Introduction2 Section 2: Current Situation2 Part 1: SWOT Analysis2 Strength:3 Weakness:6 Opportunities:7 Threats7 Part 2: PESTLE Analysis8 Part 3: USP Analysis9 Section 3: Recommendations11 Part 1: Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning11 Segmentation11 Targeting12 Positioning12 Part 2: Marketing Objectives and Goals – SMART Principles12 Part 3: Product, price, place and promotion13 Products13 Price14 Place14 Promotion14 Section 4: Conclusion14 Reference:15 Executive Summary Growing probiotic market has a potential value that every relevant firm wants to share profit in this market.

Collecting data from dependable source and thinking deeply to analyse the current market for Yakult, giving suggestions in marketing a new overseas market and concluding the primary points of this paper are the main methods in illustrating the whole paper. Section 1: Introduction This paper not only shows you the current situation of Yakult and the probiotic market, but also illustrates Yakult’s future market, Russia market. After reading the paper, you will learn how well the Yakult business is and how to develop its potential overseas market using market mix.

The map of this paper likes the following brief introduction. The first section of paper will give a current situation of Yakult through SWOT analysis in part, PESTLE analysis in part 2 and Unique Selling Proposition in part 3. In the second section, through STP method to segment market, target consumers and position the firm in part 1, after choosing the Russia market, an objective based on SMART principle is given in part 2 and in the final part, combining the market mix and the real situation, a marketing framework is produced.

The conclusion section is drawn according to the previous sections. The paper goes in a way of analysing the firm and the market and giving some recommendations based on previous analysis and target market. Section 2: Current Situation Part 1: SWOT Analysis Yakult has produced a range of products. The major products include fermented milk drinks, juice, tea, make-up products, skincare products, haircare products, ethical drugs, medical instruments and biochemical products etc. We choose the largest part, the functional food – fermented milk drinks. SWOT Table: Internal Factors: | |Strengths : |Weakness: | |Strong Brand Image and Sales Power |Decline in Margins and Returns | |Excellent R&D |Packaging size and Products size | |Fair Business Performance | | |The Yakult Information Services | | |Right Price | | |Unique Distribution Channel | | |Same Product Design | | |External Factors: | |Opportunities: |Threats: | |Growing Global Probiotic Market |More and more competitors and competition factors in the | |Demand for iversification |Probiotic Market | | |More and more beverage brands | | |Advanced Technology | Source: Based on MarketWatch: Global Round-up, ‘Company Spotlight: Yakult Honsha’, Aug 2010, Vol 9 Issue 8, p57 Strength: Strong Brand Image and Sales Power Yakult has operated its business in 31 countries and regions outside Japan with selling Yakult in an average amount of 17. 8 million bottles. [1] Such strong performance has built up its brand image.

Excellent R&D [pic] Source: Yakult Honsha Co. , LTD 2010, Annual Report 2010, p20 Billions of Yen have been used to its R&D. In May 2005, Yakult Honsha has established its Europe Research Centre for Microbiology ESV. In March 2010, Yakult Central Institute is equipped to tackle the development and joint research in an efficient way. [2] Fair Business Performance [pic]Source: Yakult Honsha Co. , LTD 2011 Yakult Company Profile 2010-2011, p29 The business performance of Yakult is fair. Due to the global finance, the dropping in sales results in falling in revenue. In 2010, it recovers soon with a satisfied performance. The Yakult Information Services

In Australia, in order to increase the awareness of health and Yakult brand, Yakult provides a series of free education activities to folks, including community groups, consumers and educational establishments. [3] Right Price Yakult sells its products at a right price. The price is about 2. 5 pound in 7-bottle packaging in UK. In China, the price is about 8 Yuan in 5-bottle packaging. The price is affordable. Unique Distribution Channel [pic] Source: Yakult Honsha Co. , LTD 2010, Annual Report 2010, p15 Yakult has its Yakult Ladies to distribute fermented milk drinks to every consumer, which is very convenient for consumers. Generally, consumers can purchase Yakult via supermarket, even the corner store. Same Product Design [pic] [pic]

Source: Yakult Honsha Co. , LTD 2010, Annual Report 2010, p18-19 Same product design helps to build up a strong Yakult image. The bottles have a same shape and same logo with printing different language text. Weakness: Decline in Margins and Returns First, due to the intense competition, Yakult should adjust its price to gain more customers. The more money investment in R&D and the lower price will reduce the profit margin. Second, due to the global finance crisis, the net income drops dramatically in 2009 compared with the performance in previous years. Although it has recovered in 2010, the condition is serious. Packaging Size and Product Size

The packaging size of five bottles or seven bottles sounds clearly that Yakult chooses the number according to the market research, but actually, the number is not suitable for all of the consumers. The product size makes Yakult like a cute brand. When compared with other large size foods and beverages, consumers will easily ignore Yakult bottle. Opportunities: Growing global probiotic market The global probiotic market is to grow to $ 31. 2 billion in 2014 at a Compound Average Growth Rate (CAGR) of 12. 6% from 2009 to 2014. European and Asia will account for approximately 42% and 30% of the total revenue respectively. The probiotic dairy products accounted for 70% of the probiotic market in 2009 with reaching a value of $ 24 billion by the end of 2014. [4] Demand for Diversification

Nowadays, the call for diversification is increasing heavily. People tend to choose different tastes, different design and even different functions. As foodstuff, especially as functional foodstuff, Yakult has a stable position in leading the food tastes and food functions. Threats Competitors and competition factors Like Meiji Dairies, American Dairy, Nestle, Mother Dairy and Amul, they are the global competitors, which decide Yakult should compete with them at a global level and under the regulation like WTO rules. Different competitors will create distinctive products to cater for newly demands from consumers, which is another big challenge for Yakult. 5] Other functional foods based on health-concern will be other major competitors. Other beverage brands The Coca-cola and other beverage giants will compete with Yakult to gain the customers who just take the Yakult as drinks. This competition will intensify because the beverage will increase its energy function to appeal to more young and energetic customers. Advanced technology The technology world has changed a lot from day to day, especially the biotechnology. People tend to consult a doctor rather than consume Yakult daily. More advanced technology such as the tablets will be produced to tackle the health problem. Part 2: PESTLE Analysis

Discussing Yakult from political, economic, sociological, technological, legal and environmental aspects will be a macro-perspective in trading its products in the international market. |Factor |Components | |Political |- Tax regulation. Like Australia Government has planned to impose a tax on carbon | | |dioxide. [6] | | |- More and more countries have set up strict regulation to measure the quality of | | |Japanese food due to the Nuclear crisis. | |-  the Goods and Services tax which is taken by Australia, Canada, India or other | | |countries will influence the purchasing power in the short term | | |- The middle east regime revolution maybe stop the plan of entering into the middle east| | |market | |Economic |- The global finance crisis (GFC) has passed and it begins to recover slowly now | | |- Due to the GFC and the later recovery, many people go through the process from saving | | |to spending, currently, the purchasing is not so strong compared with previous years | | |- the weak of dollar makes other countries a difficult in exporting | | |- The high inflation rate lead to increasing prices in raw material | | |- High CPI has reduced the purchasing power and influenced the sales | |Sociological |- Products are sold at various countries and regions which will add more difficulties to| | |the current management of Yakult | | |- People tend to care about health more in daily life | | |- More and more people have been educated about the health. | | |- Yakult has brought the knowledge about probiotic products and its brand image into | | |community and society group. | | |- Using the advertising campaign to strengthen its brand in public. | |Technological |- Yakult has invested much more in its R&D centre to take advanced technology | | |- The ways in which consumers make purchases | | |- Yakult connects nutrition and the liquid drinks, which is innovative. | |- Using updated Internet technology to intensify its communication with stakeholders. | | |  | |Legal |- The whole process of producing Yakult fermented milk drinks is inspected strictly. | | |- Yakult Honsha Co. , Ltd is a listed company which decides it should use the money | | |legally | | |- Foreign policy has stopped it to enter foreign market.

Yakult has to wait 17 years to | | |enter China market [7] | |Environmental |- Advanced water treatment system using Yakult container has been taken | | |- Participating in Team Minus 6% movement to reduce greenhouse gas emission [8] | Part 3: USP Analysis The best way to know customers is to communicate with them. The best service should be provided by people. The unique selling proposition (USP) asks to locate the uniqueness in selling or in marketing. Going through the whole process of producing, marketing and servicing, the distinctive point for Yakult is the marketing.

One element of all factors, like advanced biotechnology, top ranking and more, Yakult Lady is highlighted. Yakult ladies are well known as women distributors. Their responsibility is not just delivering the goods to the households, but also visiting them regularly to get some customer information, like their attitudes, needs or more. Over 80,000 Yakult ladies have operated their work in different market places. [9] This distribution system can be called as direct selling or door-to-door selling. It has brought many benefits to Yakult. Firstly, avoid culture difference. As a global giant in probiotic market, Yakult definitely will expand its foreign markets.

That asks Yakult should be in different management style under other culture systems. Hiring some qualified local ladies in selling product is a successful approach because consumers tend to communicate with locals with easy understanding. Secondly, be convenient. The convenience is one of elements everybody pursues. Households can order Yakult fermented milk drinks and Yakult lady will distribute drinks to their houses directly. It helps consumers to save the time apparently as well as enables Yakult to record its sale tracks. Thirdly, build up customer loyalty. Every company wants to retain customers nowadays. But just building up the corporate image is not enough, the company should take more actions to appeal customers.

Yakult use this unique distribution system to expand the timescale, the time that customers hold the Yakult order. Highlight the Yakult Ladies System After we have analyzed the unique selling point and its advantage, we should give some promises in highlighting this unique point. Here are some recommendations following. First one, operate the business activities with joint venture. Some business activities, like hiring the qualified people, turning the customer base of joint venture into Yakult’s, they should be operated under the cooperation between two firms. [10] Second one, broaden the activities. An example of educating locals about the probiotic is set in Australia. We can extract some ideas from this education programme.

For instance, a well designed magazine about probiotic knowledge can be brought to the households by Yakult ladies. Third one, well-educated Yakult ladies are needed. A basic principle, Yakult ladies just like the interface of Yakult, the consumers can judge Yakult by measuring Yakult ladies’ work. Their communication skills, their attitude towards the customers and their solving problems skills should had better exceed the customer expectation. Section 3: Recommendations Part 1: Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning Segmentation For Yakult, a multinational, it has segmented its global market in terms of geography and profitability. Table 1: the Yakult Business Overseas Europe |Asia |Oceania |North America |South America | |France |Taiwan |Australia |USA |Brazil | |Spain |Hong Kong |New Zealand |Canada |Uruguay | |Netherlands |Thailand | |Mexico |Argentina | |Belgium |Korea | | | | |Luxembourg |Philippines | | | |UK |Singapore | | | | |Ireland |Vietnam | | | | |Austria |Brunei | | | | |Italy |Indonesia | | | | | |Malaysia | | | | | |India | | | | | |China | | | | | |Japan | | | | Source: Based on Yakult Official Website, ‘the Yakult Business Overseas’. The above lists indicate that Yakult has great potential expansion ability in other undeveloped countries. Africa countries, Middle East countries and most of South America countries can be on the list. In recent years, Russia will be a new market. First, Russia has about 141. 9 million residents, [11] which is a huge market.

Second, the milk market in Russia is strong, especially the long-life milk and the total demand is expected to a value between 1279 to 1653 million Euros in 2012. [12] Targeting Yakult has their target consumers in different markets. In Australia, its target consumer is everybody. [13] In India, it targets on urban consumers with health conscious in metro. [14] In USA, Yakult even regards the military as its target consumers. [15] In Russia, the targeting strategy can follow the Australia pattern, targeting everybody in the country and bringing them about the products knowledge. Yakult can be consumed by everybody who can offer it. The advantages of fermented milk drinks are healthy, convenient and tasteful. The audience of Yakult can be everybody. Positioning

Yakult develops this functional food to keep everybody healthy in their daily life. Obviously, the probiotic technology helps Yakult to position easily. In Russia, many people tend to consume the long-life milk, this will be a challenge. Yakult can position itself as an expert of knowing the health and knowing what consumer likes. It can develop new technology to cater for the new taste. Part 2: Marketing Objectives and Goals – SMART Principles Yakult should have a specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and timely objective in the Russia market. This will be a motive for Yakult to move ahead. Table 2: Sales volume in different countries in 2010 in thousand Europe |Asia |Oceania |North America |South America | |Austria (20) |India (14) |Australia & |USA & |Argentina(36) | |Italy (36) |Vietnam (20) |New Zealand |Canada(89) |Uruguay& | |Luxembourg& Belgium (80) |Malaysia (170) |(184) |Mexico(3,128) |Brazil (1,444) | |Netherlands |Singapore (183) | | | | |& Spain (206) |HK (576) | | | | |UK & Ireland |Taiwan (834) | | | | |(228) |China 1286) | | | | | |Philippines (1,299) | | | | | |Indonesia (1,407) | | | | | |Thailand (2,226) | | | | | |Korea (4,176) | | | | | |Japan (8,625) | | | | Source: Based on Yakult Honsha Co. , LTD 2010, Annual Report 2010, p04-05 In Russia, in terms of the population of 141. 9 million, its attitude towards milk and its Gross national income per capita of $ 9,340. [16] The objective can be defined as following. Yakult can achieve at a sales volume of 12 thousand in its first year in Russia. This objective is specific with a 12 thousand sales volume. It is also measurable based on the population, attitudes and spending power. It is attainable because it is set after comparing with the data from other countries, like the sales volume in 2010.

Based on the R&D innovation and its unique selling channel, Yakult can cater for the demand for long-life needs and achieve at its sales, which is realistic. Here, the objective should be completed in one year, it is timely. Part 3: Product, price, place and promotion Products For Yakult, its fermented milk drinks are sometimes treated like soft drinks by some consumers. Thus, there are two functions here, one is for health and another one is for drinking, which means Yakult can target two consumer groups in terms of their buying behaviours. For health, Yakult has nutrition for everybody and its strong brand image enables Yakult to pioneer in probiotic market. For drinking, its small size and cute shape have attracted more young people, especially the girls. Price

Yakult has implemented the price discrimination plan in its global market. Like about 2. 5 pound in 7-bottle packaging in UK, about 8 Yuan in 5-bottle packaging in China and in US, it’s about 2. 99 dollar in packaging of 5 with 2. 7 ounce servings. [17] We can see the price of each bottle ranges from approximately 0. 3 dollar to about 0. 6 dollar. Russia’s gross national income per capita is ranked in the middle position between UK and China, so its price can be from about 0. 4 dollar to 0. 45 dollar each bottle. Place The Yakult lady distribution system is a bright feature in its selling channel system. Yakult can also bring this unique system to Russia market.

Besides that, the traditional selling like placing the bottles on the shelves in shops is also valuable. Linking the Internet technology with Yakult lady may be another good distribution channel. Consumers can place their orders through the Internet and the Yakult sales department will receive orders. Then, the delivery will be completed by Yakult ladies. Promotion Since there are two major ways to deliver the products, we can consider add some promotions in these two chains, the Yakult ladies and retail chain. Yakult ladies can be motivated to do the promotion work during their deliveries. For example, they can give the promotion brochures to the customers and give some discounts to customers within their power.

Retail chain will be complex due to the cooperation with retailers. Through empowering the retailers to do the promotion, the retailers can discount the Yakult bottles and free products brochures can also be sent by retailers. Section 4: Conclusion Without any doubt, Yakult do an excellent in performing its business. It has more advantages than disadvantage. Its leading position in global probiotic market, its Yakult ladies distribution system, its innovation in products and its strong brand image in the world, they are the bright features of Yakult. After all, Yakult needs to do better by continuing to highlight its features and expanding its overseas market, like Russia.

Reacting to the Russia market, the undeveloped market, population and spending power are two primary factors. Subsequently, marketing mix is given to prove that Yakult can do its business in Russia. In fact, the global probiotic market has a great of potential. Some details in marketing its overseas business should be considered accordingly. To my readers, if you have some doubts or some suggestions, you can contact me as you want to. I hope I could help you in such questions. Reference: [1] Yakult Honsha Co. , LTD 2010, Annual Report 2010,p13, Yakult Honsha Co. , LTD, retrieved 9 May 2011, . [2] Yakult Honsha Co. , LTD 2010, Annual Report 2010,p20, Yakult Honsha Co. , LTD, retrieved 9 May 2011, . 3] Yakult Honsha Co. , LTD 2011, ‘Yakult Education & Information’, retrieved 9 May 2011, . [4] AllAboutFeed. net 2010, ‘Report: Global probiotic market worth $31. 2 billion in 2014’, retrieved 9 May 2011, . [5] Afaqs! news bureau 2009, ‘Kajol gets probiotic with Yakult’, retrieved 9 May 2011, [6] Franklin, M & Uren, D 2011, Nestle, Yakult, ‘Bundaberg Sugar among food giants joining war on carbon tax’, retrieved 9 May 2011, . [7] Free Paper Download Center 2003, ‘Yakult, ‘functional’ lactic acid bacteria Lacbotacillus landing China Strategy’, retrieved 9 May 2011, . [8] Yakult Honsha Co. , LTD 2011, ‘Company Profile’, retrieved 9 May 2011, . [9] Yakult Honsha Co. LTD 2011, ‘Yakult Company Information’, retrieved 9 May 2011, . [10] Yakult Honsha Co. , LTD 2005, ‘Kirin Group and Yakult Honsha to Form Business Alliance’, retrieved 9 May 2011, . [11] Russian Federation – Dederal State Statistics Service 2010,’Redident population’, retrieved 9 May 2011, . [12] PRLog (Press Release) 2009, ‘The Growth Potential Of The Russian Milk Market Remains High’, retrieved 9 May 2011, . [13] Yakult Honsha Co. , LTD 2011, ‘Yakult Marketing Tools’, retrieved 9 May 2011, . [14] Sangita Srinivasa 2010, ‘Selling the Benefits of Bacteria’, retrieved 9 May 2011, . [15] Heller, L 2008, ‘Yakult targets military in US expansion efforts’, retrieved 9 May 2011, . 16] World Development Indicators Database, World Bank 2011,’gross national income per capita 2009, Altas method and PPP’, retrieved 9 May 2011, . [17] BestProbioticProducts. org 2011, ‘Yakult – Probiotic Product Review’, retrieved 9 May 2011, . [18] Bearden O. W. , Ingram N. T. & LaForge W. R. 2004, Marketing: Principle and Perspectives, 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill Education, New York. [19] Kerin A. R. & Peterson A. R. 1998, Strategic marketing problems: cases and comments, 8th Edition, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. [20] Keegan J. W. 1989, Global Marketing Management, 4th Edition, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. [21] Cravens W. D. & Piercy F. N. 2003, Strategic Marketing, 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill Education, New York.

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Activity to Protect the Ecosystem

ESSAY It was a delightful scene for many visitor, young and old, at Kampung Dek Permai, Selangor, on 18 August 2003. Armed with 20 000 young trees, these Malaysian volunteers were united by a task which was to plant trees on six hectares of land. Kampung Dek Permai was chosen as its environment had been damaged as a result of indiscriminate logging. The aim of this activity was to protect the ecosystem and, at the same time, allow future generations to live in a healthy environment. As this activity involved teamwork, it became a symbol of friendship and helped to created awareness of the importance of protecting the environment.

The organisers hoped that what the volunteers were going to do would set example for other. The happy participants, made up of 900 residents of Kampung Dek Permai and 600 schollchildren and teachers, cheerfully rolled up their sleeves and worked together. Those who attendant included the Deputy Minister of Agriculture and the headman of Kampung Dek Permai who spoke briefly at the opening ceremony. Before planting the trees, the participants were briefed by Ayub Musa from the Department of Agriculture, who had the crowd in stitches with his step-by-step guide to tree-planting.

The talk was informative as Ayub related in detail how a tree is planted. If you want to plant a tree, according to ayub, you will need to gather all the things you require: a young tree in a plastic bag, a large water container, a trowel, garden scissors and some mulch, which is a mass of dead leaved and bark, spread around a plant for protection or to enrich the soil. Ayub mentioned that the next step is to handel the young tree with tender loving care so that it can grow healthily. “Always hold the plant at the bottom, and never hold it by the stem.

You would never dream of carrying a baby that way! Feel free to stroke the plant gently as you handle it – it is a living thing that needs affection too! ” he added jokingly. “Next, while holding the young tree in the plastic bag, soak the entire plastic bag in a large container of water. Keep it under water and check that all the air bubbles are gone. Then use a trowel to dig a hole where you want the young tree to grow. Ensure that the hole is at the right depth to match the height of the plastic bag. It must not be too deep or too shallow.

This is very important. Carry the soaked young tree over to the hole. You are now at a very important stage of the process. Now cut through the plastic bag, making sure that the roots are not damaged. This may cause the plant to die. ” The next step, according to Ayub, is to place the young tree into the hole that has been prepared. “Remove the plastic bag completely. If the soil surrounding the roots breaks off while you are removing the plastic bag, do not panic! Just collect it and place it in the hole as neat as possible. ” he said. Do not forget to cover the hole with the soil that you have removed earlier, using the trowel or your hands. Press the soil down firmly, but not too hard or too lightly, as that may cause the plant to have problems in growing. ” Ayub added that the last step is to place wet mulch around the young tree. The mulch will provide protection as wll as nutrients for the roots. “ It must be wet and hold enough water for the plant to growth healthily over the next few months. ” Ayub emphasised. When the talk was over, the participants got down to work.

After a tiring two bouts, the whole aren was covered with young plants. By the end of the tree-planting activity, it was clear from the smiles all around that something lasthing had been sown in their hearts. It was the seed of a special friendship, very much like the young trees in the fertile ground of Kampung Dek Permai. Summary If you want to plant a tree you need to gather all the things you require. Besides that, the next step is to handle, the young tree with tander, loving care so that it can grow healthily.

Next, the entire plastic bag in a large coutainer of water then use a trowel of water then use a trowel to dig a hole carry the soaked young tree over to the hole. Now cut through the plastic bag. The next step, to place the young tree int the hoe that has been prepared. Press the soil down firmly. Place wet mulch around the young tree. Unfimiliar word 1. Indiscriminate 2. Soaked 3. Emphasised 4. Tiring 5. ceremony Meaning word 1. Indiscriminate -sembarangan atau tidak memilih 2. Soaked -terendam 3. Emphasised -tekanan atau ketegasan 4. Tiring -penat atau letih atau lelah 5. Ceremony -upacara atau istiadat

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Rubbish Theory

Outline the ways in which rubbish can be said to have value in a consumer society. A consumer society is increasingly organized around consumption of goods and leisure, rather than the production of materials and services. It rests on consuming material goods as a supreme characteristic of value. Therefore individuals who do not consume are viewed as undervalued. Peoples consumer choices (taste and style) are seen to be indicators of who they are as a person and of their moves within the games of class, prestige, status, hierarchy, fashionability (“Features of a Consumer Society” McGregor 2011).

Many spending and investments are committed to consuming, regardless of whether it is good for the environment and health, for example the publicity funds can be higher than the education budget. Consuming brings wasting. Customers are trapped in an ever changing new beginning of technology and have to dump their older equipments (Lemann, 2008 78-79). While people are fascinated to some artificial comfort and work a lot to achieve a measure of comfort, they are distracted from important political issues like freedom and tolerate authoritarian regimes.

Material Lives considers how the making of society involves not only relations between people, but also relations between people and things and their environments; how society shapes and is shaped not just by humans but by material objects and the environment; and some of the consequences of the fact that our lives are influenced by both the human and material worlds. This thread is throughout an examination of consumption and customer society, queries markets of and power, and issue of sustainability and waste.

Rubbish is commonly defined as a thing that has no worth; it is what nobody wants, it is disvalued, so it is worthless and has zero value. This seems straightforward, but ‘value’ is a complex term. Items don’t simply have value by virtue of their physical properties. Items have value because people value them, or rather values are given or assigned to items by people who value them. Similarly, if rubbish has no value, this is for the reason that people don’t give value to it (“Rubbish Society”, 2009 p. 105).

So rubbish is just as looking at objects of high value, can tell us a little about the social procedure that are concerned in worth or in this case, diminishing an item. Up to now the focus is on the idea that rubbish doesn’t have value. That is, rubbish has no value to the person who throws it away. (“Rubbish Society”, 2009 p. 118). It might still have negative value, in that disposing of it money and costs time. For example if a person has to take any of his household items for disposal then it will have negative value for him, considering transportation costs and the consumed time

But rubbish can potentially have value for others. As the old saying goes:“One man’s junk is another man’s treasure”. (Unknown). This is essential for defining how come there are businesses of rubbish. Rubbish allows them to make money by disposing it off in proper manner. These businesses turn rubbish into something of value. They make this possible by converting it into marketable products or by moving it away for dumping. (“Rubbish Society”, 2009 p. 119).

The growth in the recycling industry and people’s increased awareness and participation in recycling programs all over the world has also created an opening for larger organizations to operate recycling and disposal operations on an international level. The process of recycling can thus give value to rubbish and waste by producing outputs that have positive value; that is, positive prices. (“Rubbish Society”, 2009 p. 119). For example, in recent years there has been significant growth in recycling of paper, plastic and glass products, which are then sold for value that covers and exceeds the cost of recycling.

Many large corporations in the UK, like Marks&Spencers and Sainsbury’s have also started their own recycling schemes with a view to reduce waste to landfill by recycling the materials used in consumable items Rubbish or waste value can also be influenced by a number of social factors and can be redefined in and out of the category of usefulness. Michal Thompson’s “Rubbish Theory: The Creation and Destruction of Value“(2009) attempts a comprehensive theory of value through a focus on the biographies, movements and transformations of objects.

This paper has found that the Theory is useful to consumer researchers in three key ways. First it helps us to explore more fully the material dimensions of markets thus contributing to a ‘thingly turn’ in the study of consumption. Second it highlights the importance of thinking in terms of movement, flow and circulation and moves us away from means-end, supply-demand, and production-consumption linearities in thinking through the consumption process (Thompson, 1979 217-218). Third it suggests that value, rather than being an inbuilt property of an object, emerges through our ways of seeing and placing objects.

Most people are used to exploring the role of objects as resources in individual’s lives, trough their movement in and out of our field of vision. Further research would trace lives of objects, casting studies of consumption as one moment in the wider life of a thing. In particular further work might explore the role of institutions in influencing the valuation of a type of object asking how the category boundaries of rubbish and durable are policed in our contemporary culture.

Here people might see art critics and dealers, antique dealers, museum curators etc as working hard at the edges of the durable category to keep some objects inside and some firmly outside (Thompson, 1979 217-218). There is also more to be done on the relations between individual and collective valuations-what role is there for individuality (or perhaps eccentric evaluations)? Acknowledging the centrality of practice in the process of value creation moves researchers away from an over emphasis on semiotics and representation.

It requires an in-depth exploration of what consumers actually do with objects as they absorb them into their lives. Such a focus acknowledges that the creation and maintenance of value cannot be reduced to the moment of the economic transaction. It also highlights the creativity and resourcefulness of consumers particularly in translating objects from rubbish to durable. Rubbish and its disposal play an integral part of the consumption in a society. Analyzing rubbish has allowed us to inspect a number of the approaches by which objects move towards to be disvalued, undervalued, revalued and valued.

Rubbish, is normally treated as disvalued: it has no value to those who want to dispose of it. Yet people have also seen that rubbish can be revalued, or given new value, by recycling it or passing it on to others who have a use for it. Items considered as rubbish can also be revalued by changes in fashion or tastes for objects previously considered worthless. Ecological concerns also suggest that rubbish should be recycled, not thrown away as if of no value. In fact, disposing of rubbish imposes costs on society, so such rubbish really has negative value for society.

It has also seen that the analysis of environmental externalities suggests that the environment has been thoroughly undervalued. Instead of taking care of it as something plentiful – as a free good or something that itself has no value – humankind has to learn to revalue it and hence conserve it. Environmental analysis of the overconsumption of planet Earth suggests that this lesson needs to be learnt quickly. Here the social process of valuation can be examined in terms of supply and demand. (“Rubbish Society”, 2009 p. 42) Thompson’s rubbish theory shows a way of examining in which the class of rubbish can function as an intermediary in the conversion of transients into durables of value. References “Features of a Consumer Society”, McGregor Consulting http://www. consultmcgregor. com/documents/resources Brown, V. (2009) ‘Rubbish society: af? uence, waste and values’ in Taylor, S. , Hinchliffe, S. , Clarke, J. and Bromley, S. (eds) Making Social Lives,Milton Keynes, The Open University. Thompson,M. (1979). “Rubbish theory: the creation and destruction of value”. Oxford University Press.

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Foreign Market Entry and Diversification

Assignment #3 Foreign Market Entry and Diversification Daniel S. Carrera Dr. Kimberly Anthony Strategic Management – BUS 599 Strayer University – Newport News 4 August 2011 Abstract This paper will identify and discuss the trends in global beer markets. It will discuss how Modelo’s International expansion was made possible through strategic partnerships with experienced distributors in local markets. The paper will focus on how Modelo should enter in the foreign market and what is the best strategy. We will discuss various challenges Modelo will face from his competitors and whether he should diversify his business to promote growth.

During the past five years, on a pure alcohol-equivalent basis, beer has increased its share of total alcohol consumption by more than 200 basis points (bps) to 41. 1% (Kaplan, 2003). In 2008 the trend slowed somewhat and beer’s year-on-year share of total alcohol consumption remained flat. In emerging markets, beer has generally shown higher growth than other alcohol categories as consumers gradually switch from local, generally high-alcohol, subsistence products towards attractively packaged, higher-quality, commercially produced beer.

In South and Central America, beer’s share of total alcohol consumption is now 51. 5% with increases in Colombia partly offset by recent declines in Mexico and Brazil (Karrenbrock, 1990). In Eastern Europe, beer has been gaining share from spirits for some time and now accounts for 48. 0% of alcohol consumption. The past five years have also seen consistent gains in Africa and Asia where beer’s share of commercially produced alcohol now stands at 49. 0% and 32. 8% respectively – thanks, partly, to a greater emphasis on quality and accessibility (Karrenbrock, 1990).

In more mature markets, a wider variety of alcohol products compete in a sophisticated marketing and retail environment. In North America, beer has been losing share as spirits have benefited from more extensive marketing and greater availability in certain states that said, beer’s share stabilized at 56. 3% during 2008 as the economy slowed and brewers introduced innovative products, new packs and marketing initiatives (Berndt, 1996). In Western Europe, where beer now claims 36. 8%, the wine category has increased its share as lower-cost offerings have become more widely available.

Over the past five years, the beer category has maintained a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 4. 8% globally (Narver, 1990). During this period, Eastern Europe saw a high single-digit CAGR as personal disposable incomes increased (Czinkota, 1997). In Western Europe, the prevalence of competitive categories and a shift in beer consumption away from on-premise outlets meant that CAGR was negative. Recently, consumer spending in Eastern Europe has also slowed – an indication, along with already high per capita consumption, that the beer category is maturing.

Central and South Africa grew at a CAGR of 6. 3% over the period while North America had modest growth at a 0. 5% CAGR. Africa shows strong levels of growth with a five-year CAGR of 6. 4%. Asia’s growth in beer over the past five years remains the highest of any region, averaging 8. 4%. China in particular has seen growth in beer averaging 10. 7% per year, fuelled by the growing economy and the increasing availability of beer. Looking forward, there is a significant opportunity for the beer category to grow at the expense of non-commercial forms of alcohol, particularly in Latin America, Africa and Asia.

In Africa, per capita levels are still relatively low but accelerating, and local players are expanding their portfolios in all segments. Asia, in general, is seeing rising incomes and higher levels of beer consumption. In parts of Latin America, efforts by brewers to transform the beer category should boost per capita consumption. Over the past five years, the beer industry has seen a trend towards consumers trading up to more expensive beers. As a result, premium beer has gained more than 40 bps and now constitutes 17. 9% of total beer sales.

For mainstream beer consumers, particularly in emerging markets, the most common trade-up proposition is to attractive, local, premium brands. In markets such as North America and Western Europe, premium beer’s share of total sales is already well above the global average. On the other hand, premium’s share of 10. 1% in Central and South Africa and 3. 0% in Africa shows the significant opportunity that still exists for premium beer sales in these regions. There is sizeable potential in Colombia and Brazil where premium beers respectively claim 3. 7% and 5. % of total sales (Karrenbrock, 1990). The trend towards premium beer consumption has slowed somewhat in the recent economic downturn; however, down-trading is limited and there are notable instances of consumers continuing to trade up, both into beer and, within the category, into premium products. Over the past decade, the beer industry has seen significant consolidation and this trend continued during 2008. On a pro forma basis, beer sales by the top 10 players now total approximately 65% of total global sales compared to less than 40% at the start of the century.

In recent major developments, the division of Scottish and Newcastle’s business between Carlsberg and Heineken was completed during the first half of 2008 while InBev acquired Anheuser-Busch in November 2008. The International Vice-presidency coordinates efforts to increase global sales and consolidate the company? s presence worldwide. Through offices located around the world we cover several markets in order to rapidly respond to importers, distributors and clients, as well as to position the Modelo products strategically. The international expansion of Modelo? products began in the south and southwest of the United States, where Mexican beer was widely accepted. Popularized with the slogan “Change your whole lattitude”, in the eighties Corona Extra became the imported beer with the largest growth in the history of the United States. Through the middle of the decade the business world noted the “Corona Phenomenon”. Later Corona Light started production and exportation exclusively for the US market. In 1985, Grupo Modelo started exploring other markets, first Canada and Japan, and later on Australia and New Zealand.

In 1989, they entered Europe when an office in Brussels was opened, later Russia, Africa and Latin America. Today, the Modelo brands are present in 159 countries. Corona Extra is currently the number one imported premium beer in the US, Modelo Especial is the third, Corona Light the sixth, Pacifico the fifteenth and Negra Modelo the nineteenth. In early 2006, Grupo Modelo unveiled the first Corona Extra and Corona Light billboard in Times Square in New York City, the world-known plaza where people from all over the world pass by.

It is the first time in the history that a Latin American brand presents such a prominent billboard in Times Square. That same year, a joint venture was formed with Constellation Brands, an international leader in the wine and liquor industry, which distributes Modelo’s beers in the western part of the United States through its subsidiary, Barton Beers. This new alliance, based in Chicago, is called Crown Imports LLC and began operations on January 2, 2007. It was developed in order for Grupo Modelo has only one importer for the entire United States.

In the same way, an agreement was signed to import and distribute the Chinese beer Tsingtao and the Danish beer Carlsberg. Marketing strategy is recognized to play a central role in an enterprise as it creates value for a firm’s chosen customers. Therefore, marketing strategy is designed to serve a firm in meeting consumer preferences and satisfying consumer needs and wants through a bundle of specific offerings (Bradley, 2002). Thus, a company has to define itself by the consumer benefit provided and sustain the process of creating and capturing value over time.

While authors argue about the position of marketing strategy in an organization, it can be suggested that marketing strategy bridges the gap between customer preferences, needs and perceptions and the value that companies deliver to consumers thus placing the customer in the foreground, in order to facilitate the marketer’s efforts to satisfy the consumer’s own needs and wants (Svensson, 2001). Hence, the marketing strategy can be defined as the issues that guide decisions impacting either directly or indirectly the market scope and the competitive advantage of a company.

The market scope is characterized by the segments of consumers, customer needs, products produced and the marketing mix employed by a firm. Those are underpinned by a company’s competitive advantage based on the assets, skills and resources a firm possesses and the positional advantages enabling the firm to achieve a superior performance. International marketing strategy is crucial to company success because optimizing the interface between consumer preferences and marketing resources and capabilities in international markets can increase revenue and enlarge market share (Yip 2003).

The strategic development of a firm in international markets is based on the recognition of existing consumer needs in markets other than the home one, and the skills and capabilities of the firm to deliver sustained value to the consumers in such markets. This is done through transferring products and services, packages of tangible and intangible assets or resources across national borders (Bradley 2002). Thus, consumer needs and wants, products produced and the skills and resources of a company to internationalize existing or modified offerings lie in the core of the international marketing strategy.

Companies internationalize proactively or reactively responding to internal and external pressures. In saturated markets, such as the beer brewing industry, the most important pressures originate in the home country (Karrenbrock, 1990). In addition, firms may exploit the opportunities of introducing or acquiring new products, spreading risk across country markets and segments, lowering production costs lured by large and fast growing foreign markets, growth aspirations of the firm and industry consolidation. Companies diversify for a host of reasons. In some cases, it’s a survival strategy.

For instance, if your company makes the bulk of its sales at a particular time of year, it makes sense to consider diversification (Day, 1988). By extending your portfolio of products or services you can ensure a regular revenue stream from January through to December. In other words, the canny ice cream seller will turn purveyor of hot soup come winter. However, there are plenty of other good reasons for diversification, not least by extending your range of goods or services you can either sell more products to your existing customers or reach out to new markets. This can supercharge your growth prospects.

And perhaps the biggest reason for doing it is to extend a brand reputation into other markets, with the knowledge that one ‘winner’ could be the drop of snow that starts the avalanche, making your business bigger than you ever imagined. NAFTA has fostered a positive environment for agro-industrial and agricultural producers in North America. Market access has encouraged producers to become more competitive and efficient. Under NAFTA, all quantitative restrictions and tariffs on covered agricultural trade between Mexico and its trading partners were eliminated after the scheduled 15 year phase-out.

Today, Mexico enjoys free access to and better prices for agricultural crops and agro-industrial machinery from the United States and Canada—a combination that has made Mexico’s agricultural industry more competitive. Modelo has fully taken advantage of the opportunities afforded by NAFTA, a measure that has contributed to the company becoming a trusted and leading producer of Mexican premium beers around the world. Since 1925, Modelo has been earning a strong reputation as a quality beer producer in Mexico, and now has become a commanding force in the highly competitive global alcohol beverage market.

In the United States, Modelo’s Corona ranks first among imported beers. As a result of NAFTA, the Mexican beer producer is able to import barley duty-free from the U. S. and Canada, meeting the high-quality product standards that serve as a complement to our supply of barley, which is predominantly sourced domestically. In fact, because of growing beer exports, domestic barley production has also increased significantly since NAFTA was enacted (Marinov, 2001). Modelo has also invested in a state-of-the-art malt plant in Idaho.

This facility helps supply the company’s needs for malted barley, benefiting regional growers with long-term supply contracts to help meet the yearly demand for 6. 5 million bushels of barley (Marinov, 1999). The NAFTA partnership is strengthening the supply chain to and from Modelo’s seven brewing plants in Mexico, which have a total annual installed capacity of 60 million hectoliters, and is pushing growers and producers to meet the needs of an increasingly sophisticated world beer market. Modelo’s expansion plans across North America include joint business opportunities with other industry leaders.

Besides its partnership with Anheuser-Busch, which has created a mutually beneficial gateway to access markets in both the United States and Mexico, in 2007 Modelo entered into a joint venture with Constellation Brands, one of the world’s largest international wine and liquor companies, to handle imports into the United States (Kay, 1993). Likewise, Modelo signed an agreement with Canadian brewery Molson to improve distribution in that country, making Modelo’s beers more easily available in all Canadian provinces and territories. Likewise, Modelo imports the Anheuser-Busch brands as well as Carlsberg beer into Mexico.

Modelo illustrates how further regional integration empowers companies to produce better foods and to position them as stronger competitors at the world scale. Currently, Modelo’s beers are exported to 154 countries; it is the seventh-largest beer producer in the world and is widely perceived as a global leader. In conclusion, this paper identified and discussed the trends in global beer markets. It discussed how Modelo’s International expansion was made possible through strategic partnerships with experienced distributors in local markets. The paper also focused on how Modelo should enter in the foreign market and what is the best strategy.

Lastly, we discussed various challenges Modelo faced from his competitors and whether he should diversify his business to promote growth. References Berndt, W. (1996) ‘A Clean State: Lessons about Branding from the World’ Newest Markets’, Vital Speeches of the Day, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 139-142. Bradley, F. (2002) International Marketing Strategy, Fourth Edition, Financial Times, Prentice Hall. Czinkota, M. , H. Gaisbauer and R. Springer (1997) ‘A Perspective on Marketing in Central and Eastern Europe’, The International Executive, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 831- 848. Day, G. and R.

Wensley (1988) ‘Assessing Advantage: A Framework for Diagnosing Competitive Superiority’, Journal of Marketing, vol. 52, pp. 1-20. Heracleus L. (2001) ‘When Local Beat Global: The Chinese Beer Industry’, Business Strategy Review, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 37-45. Kaplan, A. (2003) ‘Global Beer: Tapping into Growth’, Beverage World, February 15, pp. 24-29. Karrenbrock, J. (1990) ‘The Internationalization of the Beer Brewing Industry’, Report of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, November/December, pp. 3-19. Kay, J. (1993) Foundations of Corporate Success, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Komiski, A. and G. Yip (2000) Strategies for Central and Eastern Europe, Macmillan Business, London, New York. Marinov, M. A. and S. T. Marinova (1999) ‘Foreign Investor Strategy Development in the Context of Central and Eastern Europe’ Thunderbird International Business Review, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 107-130. Marinov, M. A. and S. T. Marinova (2001) ‘Foreign Direct Investment in the Emerging Markets of Central and Eastern Europe: Motives and Marketing Strategies’, Advances in International Marketing, Issue on Globalization, The Multinational Firm, and Emerging Economies, vol. 0, pp. 21-52. Narver, J. and S. Slater (1990) ‘The Effect of a Market Orientation on Business Profitability, Journal of Marketing, October, pp. 20-34. Robinson, C. (1996) ‘Asian Culture: The Marketing Consequences’, Journal of the Marketing Research Society, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 58-59. Rundh, B. (1994) The Process of Internationalization: A Study of the Swedish Manufacturing Industry, Research Report, Number 94, Department of Business Administration and Economics, University of Karlstad, Karlstad, Sweden. Schumacher, H. 2002) ‘The Global Beer Industry 2001 Review: Toto, We Are Not in Kansas Anymore’, Modern Beverage Age, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 7-9. Svensson, G. (2001) ‘Re-evaluating the Marketing Concept’, European Business Review, Vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 95-100. The Economist (2001) 20 January, p. 65. Vrontis D. (1998) ‘Strategic Assessment: The Importance of Branding in the European Beer Market’, British Food Journal, vol. 100, no. 2; pp. 76-84. Yip, G. (2003) Total Global Strategy II, Prentice Hall. Young, S. , J. Hamill, C. Weaver and J. R. Davies (1989) International Market Entry and Development, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

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Nature of Hrm

Nature of HRM (Human resources management) HRM is process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each are met. It tries to secure the best from people by winning their whole hearted cooperation. In short, it may be defined as the art of procuring developing and maintaining competent workforce to achieve the goals of an organization in an effective and efficient manner. It has the following features: Pervasive force: HRM in pervasive(omnipresent) in nature. It is present in all enterprises.

It permeates all levels of management in organizations Action oriented: HRM focuses attention on action, rather than on record keeping written procedures or rules. The problems of employees at work solved through rational policies. Individually oriented: It tries to help employees develop their potential fully. It encourages them to give their best to the organizations. It motivates employees through a systematic process of recruitment, selection, training and development coupled with fair wage policies. People oriented: HRM is all about people at work both as individuals and groups.

It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results. The resultant gains are used to reward people and motivate them toward further improvements in productivity. Future oriented: Effective HRM helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and well motivated employees. Development oriented: HRM intends to develop the full potential of employees. The reward structure is tuned to the needs of employees. Training is offered to sharpen and improve their skills.

Employees are rotated on various jobs so that they gain experience and exposure. Every attempt is made to use their talents fully in the service of organizational. Integrating mechanism: HRM tries to build and maintain cardinal relations between people working at various levels in the organization. In short it tries to integrate human assets (An asset is a resource controlled by the entity as a result of past events and from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the entity) in the best possible manner the service of an organization.

Comprehensive functions: HRM is to some extent concerned with any organizational decision which has an impact on the workforce or the potential workforce. The term workforce signifies people working at various levels, including workers, supervisors, middle and top managers. It is concerned with managing people at work. It covers all types of personnel. Personnel work may take different shapes an forms at each level in the organizational hierarchy but the basic objective of achieving organizational effectiveness through effective ad efficient utilization of human resources remains the same.

It is basically a method of developing potentialities of employees so that they get maximum satisfaction out of their work and give their best efforts to the organizations Auxiliary service: HR departments exist to assist an advice the line or operating managers to do their personnel work more effectively. HR manager is a specified advisor. It is staff function. Inter disciplinary function: HRM is a multi disciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology, sociology, economics etc.

To unravel the mystery surrounding the human brain managers, need to understand and appreciate the contributions of all such soft disciplines. Continuous functions: According to Terry, HRM is not a one shot deal. It cannot be practiced only one hour each day or one day a week. It requires a constant alertness and awareness of human relations and their importance in every day operations. Scope of HRM The scope of HRM is very wide.

Research in behavioral sciences, new trends in managing knowledge workers and advances in the field of training have expanded the scope of HR functions in recent years. The Indian Institute of personnel management has specified the scope of HRM thus: 1) Personnel aspect: This is concerned with manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, transfer promotion, training ad development lay off and retrenchment remuneration incentives productivity etc. ) Welfare aspect: It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteens, creches rest and lunch room housing transport medical assistance education , healthy and safety recreation facilities etc 3) Industrial relations aspects: This covers union management relations joint consultation collective bargaining grievances and disciplinary procedures settlement of disputes etc. Objectives and Importance of HRM The principal objectives of HRM may be listed thus: )To help the organization reach its goals: HR department like other departments in an organization exists to achieve the goals of the organization first and if it does not meet these purposes, HR department (or for that matter any other unit) will wither and die. 2)To employ the skills and abilities of the workforce efficiently: The primary purpose of HRM is to make people’s strengths productive and to benefit customers, Stockholders and employees. )To provide the organization with well trained and well motivated employees: HRM requires that employees are motivated to exert their maximum efforts that their performance be evaluated properly for results and that they be remunerated on the basis of their contributions to the organizations. 4)To increase to the fullest the employee’s job satisfaction and self actualization: It tries to prompt and stimulate every employee to realize his potential. To this end suitable programs have to be designed aimed at improving the quality of work life (QWL). )To develop and maintain quality of work life: it makes employment in the organization a desirable, personal and social situation. Without improvement in the quality of work life it is difficult to improve organizational performance. 6)To communicate HR policies to all employees: It is the responsibility of HRM to communicate in the fullest possible sense; tapping ideas, opinions and feelings of customers non customers regulators and other external public as well as understanding the views of internal human resources. )To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs of society: HRM must ensure that organizations manage human resource in an ethical and socially responsible manner through ensuring compliance with legal and ethical standards. People have always been central to organizations, but their strategic importance is growing in today’s knowledge based industries. An organization’s success increasingly depends on the knowledge skills and abilities (KSAs) of employees particularly as they help establish a set of core competencies that distinguish an organization from its competitors.

With appropriate HR policies and practices an organization can hire develop and utilizes best brains in the marketplace realize its professional goals and deliver results better than others. Human resources management helps an organization and its people to realize their respective goals thus: At the enterprise levels: 1) Good human resource practices can help in attracting and retaining the best people in the organization. Planning alerts the company to the types it will need in the short medium and long run. ) it helps in training people for challenging roles, developing right attitudes towards the job and the company promoting team spirit among employees and developing loyalty and commitment through appropriate reward schemes. At the individual level: Effective management of human resources helps employees thus: 1) it promotes team work and team spirit among employees. 2) It offers excellent growth opportunities to people who have the potential to rise. 3) It allows people to work with diligence and commitment.

At the society level: Society, as a whole is the major beneficiary of good human resources practices 1) Employment opportunities multiply. 2) Scarce talents are put to best use. Companies that pay and treat people well always race ahead of others and deliver excellent results At the national level: Effective use of human resources helps in exploitation of natural, physical and financial resources in a better way. People with right skills, proper attitudes and appropriate values help the nation to get ahead and compete with the best in the world leading to better standard. Importance of HRM

Good HR practices help: 1) attract and retain talent 2) train people for challenging roles 3) develop skills and competencies 4) promote team spirit 5) develop loyalty and commitment 6) increase productivity and profits 7) improve job satisfaction 8) enhance standard of living 9) Generate employment opportunities. Systems Approach to HRM A SYSTEM IS A SET OF INTERRELATED but separate elements or parts working towards a common goal. A university for example, is made up of students, teachers administrative and laboratory staff who relate to one another in an orderly manner.

What one group does have serious implications for others? So they are communicating with each other in order to achieve the overall goal for imparting education. The enterprise operations similarly must be viewed in terms of interacting and interdependent elements. The enterprises procure and transform inputs such as physical, financial and human resources into outputs such as products services and satisfactions offered to people at large. To carry out its operations each enterprise has certain departments known as subsystems such as production subsystem, finance subsystems, marketing subsystem, and HR subsystem etc .

Each consists of a number of other subsystems. For example the HR subsystem may have parts such as procurement, training compensation appraisal rewards etc If we were to view HR subsystem a crucial to organizational performance an organizations performance an organization presents itself thus: The various internal subsystems it should be noted here, of an organizational operate within the frame work of external environment consisting of potential social economic and technological forces operating within and outside a nation.

HRM and Competitive Advantage Competitive advantages refers to the ability of an organization formulate strategies to exploit rewarding opportunities thereby maximizing its return on investment. Competitive advantages occur if customers perceive that they receive value from their transaction with an organization. This requires single minded focus on customers’ needs and expectations. To achieve this, the organizations need to tune its policies in line with changing customer’s requirements.

The second principle of competitive advantage derives from offering a product or services that your competitor cannot easily imitate or copy. An organization should always try to be unique in its industry along dimensions that are widely valued by customers. For example Apple stresses its computers usability. Mercedes Benz stresses reliability and quality; Maruti emphasizes affordability of its lower end car Maruti 800. In order to enjoy the competitive advantage the firm should be a cost leader delivering value of money.

It must have a committed and competent workforce. Workers are most productive if (1) they are loyal to the company, informed about its mission, strategic and current levels of success, (2) involved in teams which collectively decide how things are to be done and (3) are trusted to take the right decisions rather tan be controlled at every stage by managers above them (Thompson). A good team of competent and c committed employees will deliver the goals if they are involved in all important activities and are encouraged to develop goals that they are supposed to achieve.

In recent years, a new line of thinking ha emerged to support this view known as strategic human resources management (SHRM). Competitive advantage through people: Organizations have come to realize over the years that improving technology and cutting costs enhance performance only up to a point. To move beyond that point, the organization’s people are its most important resources. In the end everything an organization does depends on people. Low cost and high quality cars like Toyota and Saturns are not just a product of sophisticated automated machines.

Instead they are the result of committed employees all working hard to produce the best cars that they can at the lowest possible cost (Dessler). To get the best out of people the organization must offer a healthy work climate where they can us their knowledge skills and abilities fully while organizational goals. There is where HR managers play a crucial role – that of bridging gaps between employee and organizational requirements by adopting appropriate Hr policies strategies and practices.

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Climate Change

Climate change Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions or the distribution of events around that average (e. g. , more or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change may be limited to a specific region or may occur across the whole Earth, such as global warming. Terminology The most general definition of climate change is a change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over long periods of time, regardless of cause. 1][2] Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as El Nino, do not represent climate change. The term sometimes is used to refer specifically to climate change caused by human activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earth’s natural processes. [3] In this latter sense, used especially in the context of environmental policy, the term climate change today is synonymous with anthropogenic global warming.

Within scientific journals, however, global warming refers to surface temperature increases, while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing greenhouse gas amounts will affect. Climate Change is the emission of greenhouse gases like C02 and methane is the result of industrialization other improper practices, which result into their production. The ozone layer which protects life on earth from ultraviolet (UV) radiations is becoming thinner gradually due to these greenhouse gases. The greenhouse gas emissions adversely affect our environment and are the underlying cause of the global warming phenomenon.

There is a gradual shift in the patterns of climate observed over many years; it is therefore one of the global environmental issues. Understanding the different causes and factors associated with climate change is therefore important. Causes Climate changes in response to changes in the global energy balance. On the broadest scale, the rate at which energy is received from the sun and the rate at which it is lost to space determine the equilibrium temperature and climate of Earth. This energy is then distributed around the globe by winds, ocean currents, and other mechanisms to affect the climates of different regions.

Factors that can shape climate are called climate forcings or “forcing mechanisms”. [5] These include such processes as variations in solar radiation, deviations in the Earth’s orbit, mountain-building and continental drift, and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. There are a variety of climate change feedbacks that can either amplify or diminish the initial forcing. Some parts of the climate system, such as the oceans and ice caps, respond slowly in reaction to climate forcings, while others respond more quickly. Forcing mechanisms can be either “internal” or “external”.

Internal forcing mechanisms are natural processes within the climate system itself (e. g. , the meridional overturning circulation). External forcing mechanisms can be either natural (e. g. , changes in solar output) or anthropogenic (e. g. , increased emissions of greenhouse gases). Whether the initial forcing mechanism is internal or external, the response of the climate system might be fast (e. g. , a sudden cooling due to airborne volcanic ash reflecting sunlight), slow (e. g. thermal expansion of warming ocean water), or a combination (e. g. sudden loss of albedo in the arctic ocean as sea ice melts, followed by more gradual thermal expansion of the water). Therefore, the climate system can respond abruptly, but the full response to forcing mechanisms might not be fully developed for centuries or even longer. Climate is the general condition of the atmosphere over a large geographical area for a minimum period of thirty years. Thus naturally, change in climate of a particular region ought to be a gradual process if it happens at all. In fact, many people may not live to see a perceptible change in their lifetime.

Yet, nowadays we hear many reports of the global climate undergoing changes. Many reasons are attributed to these, primary being radiation from the Sun, deviation in the orbit of the Earth, continental drift and mountain building and changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases. The tectonic plates and their motions are responsible for the topographical condition of the planet. They decide the size, proportions, positions, etc of the landmass and the water bodies. Thus with their irregular movements, the current climatic distribution can change if the topographical map alters even a bit.

The main source of energy on earth is the solar radiation. But if the intensity of this radiation increases, then the overall temperature of the globe will increase. This is said to be happening now, in the name of global warming. It is said that three or four billion years ago, the Sun produced 70 percent of today’s amount of radiation. Since climate of any place is dependent on the temperature, the overall climatic conditions will also change. The slight variations in the orbit of the Earth have resulted in altered distribution of sun rays.

The places which did not use to get that much sunlight before get it now and vice versa. Apart from the natural causes, humans and their activities are also largely responsible for the change in the climatic conditions of the Earth today. Climate changes are usually long-term changes, in regular weather patterns which is usually over a specific region in a period of time which is irreversible. There are some major causes which causes climate to change. There are numbers of variation in the solar activity, which are getting observed through the years, studying the sunspots and the beryllium isotopes.

Sun provides the earth with high amount of heat energy, as the main part of climate. This solar variation triggers a phenomenon called global warming, which caused climatic change throughout the earth. The elliptical orbit which is taken by Earth around sun also plays an important role in distribution of the amount of sunrays, which reaches the surface of earth. This has a great impact on season change. Landmass on the earth is made of big plates called plate tectonics, which rub against each other and sometimes drift apart. Which then results tear and wear of mountains, carbon stored in the layers also increased glaciations.

The geysers and volcanic eruptions release a type of particulates into Earth’s atmosphere which also causes climate to change. Climate changes results to from atmosphere-ocean relationship. Climate fluctuations like Arctic oscillation and El Nino Southern oscillation, acts as huge heat-reservoirs inside the oceans. The Thermohaline circulation is redistribution of  heat in form of deep and slow oceanic currents. Direct or indirect causes influenced by the human activity. Direct factors like the release of the aerosols, combustion of fossil fuel and CO2 emissions causes climatic change.

Indirect causes, like increase in the greenhouse gasses, and increased level of water pollution and land pollution, also caused a great deal in climatic change. This climatic change causes rapid deterioration to the environment. Internal forcing mechanisms Natural changes in the components of earth’s climate system and their interactions are the cause of internal climate variability, or “internal forcings. ” Scientists generally define the five components of earth’s climate system to include Atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere (restricted to the surface soils, rocks, and sediments), and biosphere. [6][citation needed]

Ocean variability Pacific Decadal Oscillation 1925 to 2010 Main article: Thermohaline circulation The ocean is a fundamental part of the climate system, some changes in it occurring at longer timescales than in the atmosphere, massing hundreds of times more and having very high thermal inertia (such as the ocean depths still lagging today in temperature adjustment from the Little Ice Age). [7] Short-term fluctuations (years to a few decades) such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, the Pacific decadal oscillation, the North Atlantic oscillation, and the Arctic oscillation, represent climate variability rather than climate change.

On longer time scales, alterations to ocean processes such as thermohaline circulation play a key role in redistributing heat by carrying out a very slow and extremely deep movement of water, and the long-term redistribution of heat in the world’s oceans. A schematic of modern thermohaline circulation. Tens of millions of years ago, continental plate movement formed a land-free gap around Antarctica, allowing formation of the ACC which keeps warm waters away from Antarctica. External forcing mechanisms Increase in Atmospheric CO2 Levels Milankovitch cycles from 800,000 years ago in the past to 800,000 years in the future.

Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years Orbital variations Main article: Milankovitch cycles Slight variations in Earth’s orbit lead to changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface and how it is distributed across the globe. There is very little change to the area-averaged annually averaged sunshine; but there can be strong changes in the geographical and seasonal distribution. The three types of orbital variations are variations in Earth’s eccentricity, changes in the tilt angle of Earth’s axis of rotation, and precession of Earth’s axis.

Combined together, these produce Milankovitch cycles which have a large impact on climate and are notable for their correlation to glacial and interglacial periods,[8] their correlation with the advance and retreat of the Sahara,[8] and for their appearance in the stratigraphic record. [9] The IPCC notes that Milankovitch cycles drove the ice age cycles; CO2 followed temperature change “with a lag of some hundreds of years”; and that as a feedback amplified temperature change. [10] The depths of the ocean have a lag time in changing temperature (thermal inertia on such scale).

Upon seawater temperature change, the solubility of CO2 in the oceans changed, as well as other factors impacting air-sea CO2 exchange. [11] Solar output Main article: Solar variation Variations in solar activity during the last several centuries based on observations of sunspots and beryllium isotopes. The period of extraordinarily few sunspots in the late 17th century was the Maunder Minimum. The sun is the predominant source for energy input to the Earth. Both long- and short-term variations in solar intensity are known to affect global climate.

Three to four billion years ago the sun emitted only 70% as much power as it does today. If the atmospheric composition had been the same as today, liquid water should not have existed on Earth. However, there is evidence for the presence of water on the early Earth, in the Hadean[12][13] and Archean[14][12] eons, leading to what is known as the faint young sun paradox. [15] Hypothesized solutions to this paradox include a vastly different atmosphere, with much higher concentrations of greenhouse gases than currently exist. 16] Over the following approximately 4 billion years, the energy output of the sun increased and atmospheric composition changed. The oxygenation of the atmosphere around 2. 4 billion years ago was the most notable alteration. Over the next five billion years the sun’s ultimate death as it becomes a red giant and then a white dwarf will have large effects on climate, with the red giant phase possibly ending any life on Earth that survives until that time. Solar output also varies on shorter time scales, including the 11-year solar cycle[17] and longer-term modulations. 18] Solar intensity variations are considered to have been influential in triggering the Little Ice Age,[19] and some of the warming observed from 1900 to 1950. The cyclical nature of the sun’s energy output is not yet fully understood; it differs from the very slow change that is happening within the sun as it ages and evolves. Research indicates that solar variability has had effects including the Maunder Minimum from 1645 to 1715 A. D. , part of the Little Ice Age from 1550 to 1850 A. D. which was marked by relative cooling and greater glacier extent than the centuries before and afterward. 20][21] Some studies point toward solar radiation increases from cyclical sunspot activity affecting global warming, and climate may be influenced by the sum of all effects (solar variation, anthropogenic radiative forcings, etc. ). [22][23]. Interestingly, a 2010 study[24] suggests, “that the effects of solar variability on temperature throughout the atmosphere may be contrary to current expectations. ” In an Aug 2011 Press Release[25], CERN announced the publication in the Nature journal the initial results from its CLOUD experiment.

The results indicate that ionisation from cosmic rays significantly enhances aerosol formation in the presence of sulphuric acid and water, but in the lower atmosphere where ammonia is also required, this is insufficient to account for aerosol formation and additional trace vapours must be involved. The next step is to find more about these trace vapours, including whether thay are of natural or human origin. Volcanism In atmospheric temperature from 1979 to 2010, determined by MSU NASA satellites, effects appear from aerosols released by major volcanic eruptions (El Chichon and Pinatubo).

El Nino is a separate event, from ocean variability. Volcanic eruptions release gases and particulates into the atmosphere. Eruptions large enough to affect climate occur on average several times per century, and cause cooling (by partially blocking the transmission of solar radiation to the Earth’s surface) for a period of a few years. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991, the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century[26] (after the 1912 eruption of Novarupta[27]) affected the climate substantially.

Global temperatures decreased by about 0. 5 °C (0. 9 °F). The eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815 caused the Year Without a Summer. [28] Much larger eruptions, known as large igneous provinces, occur only a few times every hundred million years, but may cause global warming and mass extinctions. [29] Volcanoes are also part of the extended carbon cycle. Over very long (geological) time periods, they release carbon dioxide from the Earth’s crust and mantle, counteracting the uptake by sedimentary rocks and other geological carbon dioxide sinks.

The US Geological Survey estimates are that volcanic emissions are at a much lower level than than the effects of current human activities, which generate 100-300 times the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by volcanoes. [30] A review of published studies indicates that annual volcanic emissions of carbon dioxide, including amounts released from mid-ocean ridges, volcanic arcs, and hot spot volcanoes, are only the equivalent of 3 to 5 days of human caused output. The annual amount put out by human activities may be greater than the amount released by supererruptions, the most recent of which was the Toba eruption in Indonesia 74,000 years ago. 31] Although volcanoes are technically part of the lithosphere, which itself is part of the climate system, IPCC explicitly defines volcansim as an external forcing agent. [32] Plate tectonics Over the course of millions of years, the motion of tectonic plates reconfigures global land and ocean areas and generates topography. This can affect both global and local patterns of climate and atmosphere-ocean circulation. [33] The position of the continents determines the geometry of the oceans and therefore influences patterns of ocean circulation.

The locations of the seas are important in controlling the transfer of heat and moisture across the globe, and therefore, in determining global climate. A recent example of tectonic control on ocean circulation is the formation of the Isthmus of Panama about 5 million years ago, which shut off direct mixing between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This strongly affected the ocean dynamics of what is now the Gulf Stream and may have led to Northern Hemisphere ice cover. [34][35] During the Carboniferous period, about 300 to 360 million years ago, plate tectonics may have triggered large-scale storage of carbon nd increased glaciation. [36] Geologic evidence points to a “megamonsoonal” circulation pattern during the time of the supercontinent Pangaea, and climate modeling suggests that the existence of the supercontinent was conducive to the establishment of monsoons. [37] The size of continents is also important. Because of the stabilizing effect of the oceans on temperature, yearly temperature variations are generally lower in coastal areas than they are inland. A larger supercontinent will therefore have more area in which climate is strongly seasonal than will several smaller continents or islands.

Human influences Main article: Global warming In the context of climate variation, anthropogenic factors are human activities which affect the climate. The scientific consensus on climate change is “that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by human activities,”[38] and it “is largely irreversible. “[39] “Science has made enormous inroads in understanding climate change and its causes, and is beginning to help develop a strong understanding of current and potential impacts that will affect people today and in coming decades.

This understanding is crucial because it allows decision makers to place climate change in the context of other large challenges facing the nation and the world. There are still some uncertainties, and there always will be in understanding a complex system like Earth’s climate. Nevertheless, there is a strong, credible body of evidence, based on multiple lines of research, documenting that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by human activities.

While much remains to be learned, the core phenomenon, scientific questions, and hypotheses have been examined thoroughly and have stood firm in the face of serious scientific debate and careful evaluation of alternative explanations. ” — United States National Research Council, Advancing the Science of Climate Change Consequently, the debate is shifting onto ways to reduce further human impact and to find ways to adapt to change that has already occurred [40] and is anticipated to occur in the future. [41]

Of most concern in these anthropogenic factors is the increase in CO2 levels due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion, followed by aerosols (particulate matter in the atmosphere) and cement manufacture. Other factors, including land use, ozone depletion, animal agriculture[42] and deforestation, are also of concern in the roles they play – both separately and in conjunction with other factors – in affecting climate, microclimate, and measures of climate variables. Physical evidence for and examples of climatic change Comparisons between Asian Monsoons from 200 A. D. o 2000 A. D. (staying in the background on other plots), Northern Hemisphere temperature, Alpine glacier extent (vertically inverted as marked), and human history as noted by the U. S. NSF. Arctic temperature anomalies over a 100 year period as estimated by NASA. Typical high monthly variance can be seen, while longer-term averages highlight trends. Evidence for climatic change is taken from a variety of sources that can be used to reconstruct past climates. Reasonably complete global records of surface temperature are available beginning from the mid-late 19th century.

For earlier periods, most of the evidence is indirect—climatic changes are inferred from changes in proxies, indicators that reflect climate, such as vegetation, ice cores,[43] dendrochronology, sea level change, and glacial geology. Earth’s climates have changed throughout the history. Satellites which go round the earth and technological advanced equipments enabled a scientist to watch a bigger picture, thus collecting various information regarding earth and its climatic change across the globe.

Studying these data which is collected over the years shows evidence for the changing climate. There are various evidences for the change in climate, over the years. Thel sea level had risen about 17 6. 7 inches in the last 100 years. In the previus10 years the rate was nearly the double of last century. All 3 global surface temperature reconstruction show that earth had warmed up since the year 1880. Most of the warming had occurred in the 1970s. Though people had tried to their best, the temperature is rising day by day.

The oceans absorbed the increased heat, with its top, which is about 2,300 feet of ocean shows warming of water up to 0. 302 degrees F, since the year 1969. The Antarctic and Greenland sheets of ice have decreased, in mass. According to” NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment show”, Greenland lost around 150 to 250 cubic km, of ice every year, between, the years 2002 and 2006; on the other hand, Antarctica lost over 152 cubic km of ice, within, the years 2002 and 2006. The thickness and extent, of the Arctic sea, ice has rapidly declined over the previous 10 years.

Glaciers started retreating everywhere around world — including the Alps, Andes, Himalayas, Africa Rockies and Alaska. The CO2 content of  oceans is increasing since the year 1750, it has currently increased to up to two billion tons every year, which has increased the ocean acidity up to 30%. The numbers of high record temperature event, in U S is increasing, while the numbers of low temperature record events, is decreasing, since the year 1950. The numbers of rainfall events are also increasing in the US. Temperature measurements and proxies

The instrumental temperature record from surface stations was supplemented by radiosonde balloons, extensive atmospheric monitoring by the mid-20th century, and, from the 1970s on, with global satellite data as well. The 18O/16O ratio in calcite and ice core samples used to deduce ocean temperature in the distant past is an example of a temperature proxy method, as are other climate metrics noted in subsequent categories. Historical and archaeological evidence Main article: Historical impacts of climate change Climate change in the recent past may be detected by corresponding changes in settlement and agricultural patterns. 44] Archaeological evidence, oral history and historical documents can offer insights into past changes in the climate. Climate change effects have been linked to the collapse of various civilizations. [44] Decline in thickness of glaciers worldwide over the past half-century Glaciers Glaciers are considered among the most sensitive indicators of climate change. [45] Their size is determined by a mass balance between snow input and melt output. As temperatures warm, glaciers retreat unless snow precipitation increases to make up for the additional melt; the converse is also true.

Glaciers grow and shrink due both to natural variability and external forcings. Variability in temperature, precipitation, and englacial and subglacial hydrology can strongly determine the evolution of a glacier in a particular season. Therefore, one must average over a decadal or longer time-scale and/or over a many individual glaciers to smooth out the local short-term variability and obtain a glacier history that is related to climate. A world glacier inventory has been compiled since the 1970s, initially based mainly on aerial photographs and maps but now relying more on satellites.

This compilation tracks more than 100,000 glaciers covering a total area of approximately 240,000 km2, and preliminary estimates indicate that the remaining ice cover is around 445,000 km2. The World Glacier Monitoring Service collects data annually on glacier retreat and glacier mass balance From this data, glaciers worldwide have been found to be shrinking significantly, with strong glacier retreats in the 1940s, stable or growing conditions during the 1920s and 1970s, and again retreating from the mid 1980s to present. [46]

The most significant climate processes since the middle to late Pliocene (approximately 3 million years ago) are the glacial and interglacial cycles. The present interglacial period (the Holocene) has lasted about 11,700 years. [47] Shaped by orbital variations, responses such as the rise and fall of continental ice sheets and significant sea-level changes helped create the climate. Other changes, including Heinrich events, Dansgaard–Oeschger events and the Younger Dryas, however, illustrate how glacial variations may also influence climate without the orbital forcing.

Glaciers leave behind moraines that contain a wealth of material—including organic matter, quartz, and potassium that may be dated—recording the periods in which a glacier advanced and retreated. Similarly, by tephrochronological techniques, the lack of glacier cover can be identified by the presence of soil or volcanic tephra horizons whose date of deposit may also be ascertained. This time series, based on satellite data, shows the annual Arctic sea ice minimum since 1979. The September 2010 extent was the third lowest in the satellite record. Arctic sea ice loss

Main articles: Polar ice packs and Climate change in the Arctic The decline in Arctic sea ice, both in extent and thickness, over the last several decades is further evidence for rapid climate change. [48] Sea ice is frozen seawater that floats on the ocean surface. It covers millions of square miles in the polar regions, varying with the seasons. In the Arctic, some sea ice remains year after year, whereas almost all Southern Ocean or Antarctic sea ice melts away and reforms annually. Satellite observations show that Arctic sea ice is now declining at a rate of 11. percent per decade, relative to the 1979 to 2000 average. [49] Vegetation A change in the type, distribution and coverage of vegetation may occur given a change in the climate. Some changes in climate may result in increased precipitation and warmth, resulting in improved plant growth and the subsequent sequestration of airborne CO2. Larger, faster or more radical changes, however, may result in vegetation stress, rapid plant loss and desertification in certain circumstances. [50][51] An example of this occurred during the Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse (CRC), an extinction event 300 million years ago.

At this time vast rainforests covered the equatorial region of Europe and America. Climate change devastated these tropical rainforests, abruptly fragmenting the habitat into isolated ‘islands’ and causing the extinction of many plant and animal species. [50] Satellite data available in recent decades indicates that global terrestrial net primary production increased by 6% from 1982 to 1999, with the largest portion of that increase in tropical ecosystems, then decreased by 1% from 2000 to 2009. [52][53] Food Safety And Climate Change

Climatic change has various aspects and does not refer to increased average global temperature only. Other effects include effects on rainfall, trends towards storms and arid periods. All these changes can affect food safety and food production. Crop production can be severely affected by climatic change. A change in the climate is rather likely, to reduce the yields and damage crops. However, effects might vary in various regions of the world. Even a small change in distribution of the rainfall can severely affect agriculture, particularly in tropical areas.

A big increase in temperature would shift the limits of regions where crops grow pole-ward. However, a big increase in mean temperature of about 2°C could increase potential evaporation by 10%, leading ahead to drying up of crops and more requirements for water. Increases in temperature will accelerate the crop growth, shortening its growth period and leading for reduced yield. Climatic change affects the pests and also the microbial population present in soil. All these affect crop yield. Climatic change affects animal productions. Heat stress can affect health, reproduction and growth of livestock.

Change in the availability of livestock forage and feeds can also have an effect and such changes is rather likely to be more dramatic especially in the temperate regions. Ensuring safety of food during such global climate changes can be a complex task. Safety of Food hazards can possibly arise at any stage of food production. Assuring safety of food requires a good understanding of possible changes which may occur ensuring that the world is prepared for those changes. It also involves implementation of better agricultural practices. Pollen analysis

Palynology is the study of contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen. Palynology is used to infer the geographical distribution of plant species, which vary under different climate conditions. Different groups of plants have pollen with distinctive shapes and surface textures, and since the outer surface of pollen is composed of a very resilient material, they resist decay. Changes in the type of pollen found in different layers of sediment in lakes, bogs, or river deltas indicate changes in plant communities. These changes are often a sign of a changing climate. 54][55] As an example, palynological studies have been used to track changing vegetation patterns throughout the Quaternary glaciations[56] and especially since the last glacial maximum. [57] Top: Arid ice age climate Middle: Atlantic Period, warm and wet Bottom: Potential vegetation in climate now if not for human effects like agriculture. [58] Precipitation Past precipitation can be estimated in the modern era with the global network of precipitation gauges. Surface coverage over oceans and remote areas is relatively sparse, but, reducing reliance on interpolation, satellite data has been available since the 1970s. 59] Quantification of climatologically variation of precipitation in prior centuries and epochs is less complete but approximated using proxies such as marine sediments, ice cores, cave stalagmites, and tree rings. [60] Climatologically temperatures substantially affect precipitation. For instance, during the Last Glacial Maximum of 18,000 years ago, thermal-driven evaporation from the oceans onto continental landmasses was low, causing large areas of extreme desert, including polar deserts (cold but with low rates of precipitation). 58] In contrast, the world’s climate was wetter than today near the start of the warm Atlantic Period of 8000 years ago. [58] Estimated global land precipitation increased by approximately 2% over the course of the 20th century, though the calculated trend varies if different time endpoints are chosen, complicated by ENSO and other oscillations, including greater global land precipitation in the 1950s and 1970s than the later 1980s and 1990s despite the positive trend over the century overall. 59][61][62] Similar slight overall increase in global river runoff and in average soil moisture has been perceived. [61] Dendroclimatology Dendroclimatology is the analysis of tree ring growth patterns to determine past climate variations. [63] Wide and thick rings indicate a fertile, well-watered growing period, whilst thin, narrow rings indicate a time of lower rainfall and less-than-ideal growing conditions. Ice cores Analysis of ice in a core drilled from a ice sheet such as the Antarctic ice sheet, can be used to show a link between temperature and global sea level variations.

The air trapped in bubbles in the ice can also reveal the CO2 variations of the atmosphere from the distant past, well before modern environmental influences. The study of these ice cores has been a significant indicator of the changes in CO2 over many millennia, and continues to provide valuable information about the differences between ancient and modern atmospheric conditions. Animals Remains of beetles are common in freshwater and land sediments. Different species of beetles tend to be found under different climatic conditions. Given the extensive lineage of beetles whose genetic makeup has not altered ignificantly over the millennia, knowledge of the present climatic range of the different species, and the age of the sediments in which remains are found, past climatic conditions may be inferred. [ Variation in Pacific salmon catch over the 20th century and correlation with a climate-related Atmospheric Circulation Index (ACI) as estimated by the U. N. FAO. Similarly, the historical abundance of various fish species has been found to have a substantial relationships with observed climatic conditions. Changes in the primary productivity of autotrophs in the oceans can affect marine food webs. [ Sea level change

Main articles: Sea level and Current sea level rise Global sea level change for much of the last century has generally been estimated using tide gauge measurements collated over long periods of time to give a long-term average. More recently, altimeter measurements — in combination with accurately determined satellite orbits — have provided an improved measurement of global sea level change. To measure sea levels prior to instrumental measurements, scientists have dated coral reefs that grow near the surface of the ocean, coastal sediments, marine terraces, ooids in limestone, and near shore archaeological remains.

The predominant dating methods used are uranium series and radiocarbon, with cosmogenic radionuclides being sometimes used to date terraces that have experienced relative sea level fall. Climate Change Bill Summary Also called “the Climate Change Bill” and “the Waxman-Markey Bill (after the name of its authors, Henry A. Waxman & Edward J. Markey), “the American Clean Energy and Security Act” (2009) is a bill tabled in 111th US Congress. It proposed a system, where the government is set an upper limit to the amount of different greenhouse gases (for example: carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons) which usually gets emitted per year.

Called the “cap and trade system”, this bill would set a limit on total emissions of greenhouse gases during the period 2012 to 2050. The limit would gradually be reduced over time to lower emissions of greenhouse gases. Thus companies would need to buy special permits to emit these gases (especially for carbon dioxide) and companies who emit more gases would have to pay more. This would provide an incentive to lower emissions. Other elements in the bill include: A “renewable electricity standard” under which companies producing electricity who supply over 4 million MWh , which produce  around 20% of the electricity through renewable sources of energy by 2020. * Consumers would be protected from the energy price rises. * Emissions of the greenhouse gases like methane and carbon dioxide should be reduced by 17% from the year 2005, levels by the year 2020. Overall, this could lead to an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emission by the US by 2050. * Techniques for development of “clean energy technologies and energy efficiency” would be subsidized with $90 billion, in subsidies by the year 2025.

This would include subsidies for carbon capture, vehicles powered by electricity and other sources of energy and scientific research for development of alternative sources of energy. How Climate Change Affects Society? After decades of battle, scientists and experts have now become successful in making people see that changes in the climate around them s actually happening. They are also working to make all of us aware of all the factors associated with it, the causes behind this change and the probable steps that we can take to prevent it from worsening further.

If the climate continues to change in the present rate, it would not be long before the world sees a drastic change in all the ecological, natural and social spheres of the world. We shall discuss about the effects climatic changes can bring about in the society in this article. By society, we mean the human beings along with their habitat, in this topic. If the predictions regarding the differences the world will experience in the near future in terms of the climate surrounding them come true, then it would not be long before a large mass of the Earth sinks below the sea level.

This is because will rapid increase in temperature of the world, the ice caps and glaciers have started to melt. This has resulted in a small but significant increase in the level of water on the planet. Now if this continues, the low lying coastal areas would be the first type of human habitat to be affected. This would bring down the population in those areas disastrously. Now, the present human health is adapted to a particular climate depending on the place of inhabitance of a particular human being. But with the sudden changes in the climatic conditions, the health of the humans may not get adjusted to it so quickly.

That would also affect the human population to a certain extent. Now if the population of our race becomes affected, automatically our society falls under the risk of getting disintegrated. How Did Climate Change Start ? Change in climate is a very slow process as it involves a huge geographical area and a lot of time, stretching to even millions of years. Even though it might have started way before but scientifically, change in climate has been discovered in the nineteenth century. At this time, paleoclimatic changes were suspected and the effects of natural greenhouse gases were first noticed.

Later in that century, scientist began to wonder whether emission of greenhouse gases by the human beings could contribute to the climatic changes or not. By the 1980s, experts understood that humans and their activities are the main causes behind the warming up of the climate. This led to the beginning of the global warming science, as summarized by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Before the 18th century, scientists did not differentiate prehistoric climate from the modern one. Geologists, later that century, found evidences supporting geological age’s succession with respect to climatic changes.

In the year 1819, Jean-Pierre Perraudin suspected that glaciers might be the reason behind the huge boulders of alpine valleys. Despite meeting with initial rejection, this theory went to the ears of Louis Agassiz, an influential scientist, who then came up with the concept of Ice Age. In 1824, another scientist named Joseph Fourier came up with the idea that the atmosphere of the earth kept it warmer as compared to vacuum. He first identified the transmission of visible light waves through the atmosphere to the earth.

Finally, in 1988, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change was established which till date, continues to address the issues of global warming and climatic changes on earth. The Impacts of Global Warming And Climate Change Global warming and climatic changes are the hot topics of discussion of the modern world. This is because the world is now experiencing significant changes in the global temperature and climate conditions. At first, many people and even big organizations were neglecting the reports of changes in the world climatic conditions.

But as the years are progressing, the people also are taking notice about the alterations that are taking place around them. If neglected beyond this point, global warming and change in climate can produce adverse results. Global warming, for example, can produce far-reaching effects in the social, ecological and natural systems. The glaciers at the north and south poles of the Earth are reportedly melting at a steady pace. If this continues for a few more years, the average sea level of the world would rise to such a level that it would submerge many of the largely inhabited places in the planet.

Statistics say that the global sea level may increase by 0. 18 m to 0. 59 m by the end of the 21st century. Change in the conditions of the climate can result in affecting tundra, coral reef and mangroves ecosystem adversely. This will be due to increase in carbon dioxide levels due to increase in overall temperature of the regions. This may lead to many species being extinct from the world. As far as the social system is concerned, climatic changes can affect the low lying coastal areas largely. This is because these areas run the most risk of getting submerged due to increased sea level.

This will affect the human population there. Moreover, health of the humans may not get adapted so quickly to the new climatic conditions. So that might affect the overall status of the race to Copenhagen Climate Change Treaty The Copenhagen Climate Change treaty got drafted by the US, India, China, South Africa and Brazil, at the 15th session, of Conference of the Parties in 2009. It is still not legally bound on any country. The treaty has the following provisions: * It recommends continuation of Kyoto Protocol. It points out that the climate change is the greatest of all the challenges facing the world and a political will is urgently needed to combat it. * It endorses that “the increase in global temperature should be below 2 degrees Celsius” in order that it combats the change in climate. * It endorses that serious cuts in the global emissions, that are required and a low emission strategy needs to be employed for sustainable development. * It recognizes that forests play an important role in removing greenhouse gases and forest degradation and deforestation play a role in controlling emissions. It recognizes that “enhanced action and international cooperation on adaptation is urgently required” so it provides resilience particularly in the developing countries * It sets a target for our world to raise about $100 billion every year by the year 2020 from various sources to help countries cut down on carbon emissions. * It calls for assessments of the implementations of the Accord which is to be completed by the year 2015”. * Till date, countries producing over 80 percent global emissions have signed Copenhagen Accord. Global Solution For Climate Change Change in climatic condition is happening all around the globe today.

Several factors, both natural and artificial are found to be behind this phenomenon. Now, the consequences of this phenomenon are also understood to be quite far-reaching. The temperature all around the planet is seen to be increasing because of increased intensity of solar radiation. Due to this sudden heating up, the glaciers at both the poles of the earth have started to melt. This made the global sea level to rise up significantly, causing concern to people staying in low-lying (submergible) areas everywhere. Scientists are calling this phenomenon of increase in temperature all around the world as global warming.

And it is not a good sign. Thus all the nations in the world should put their thoughts together to find a solution to curb this problem as it will affect the whole human race if neglected from now on. Already 192 nations including the US have participated in the annual meet of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to address this problem. But more needs to be done. More people should be made aware of the problems we are facing now. Sadly, there are many organizations rubbishing the reports of global climatic changes as rumors and thus creating a false sense of security.

This should be stopped and more people should be involved in coming up with some answers to this problem. At this stage, we, as human beings can at least control the man-made factors affecting this global climatic condition. That will bring about some change in the initial stage before a better solution is thought of. Reaction (Reflection) I would be more concerned if we didn’t have climate change than if we did. If it wasn’t for climate change we’d still be in the last ice age! The Earth’s climate goes through cycles since the Earth has had an atmosphere, it doesn’t care if the species on the planet can adapt to it, it just changes.

Those that adapt survive those that cannot go extinct… survival of the fittest. Do we have a moral obligation to help people should climate change cause a threat to humanity, yes… but should we go all chicken little because our models are predicting a temperature increase… no. We can only give an educated guess of what will occur, but I am pretty sure humans will adapt to climate change because we are a resilient species and we have the technology to survive. References 1. ^ “Glossary – Climate Change”. Education Center – Arctic Climatology and Meteorology.

NSIDC National Snow and Ice Data Center. http://nsidc. org/arcticmet/glossary/climate_change. html. 2. ^ Houghton, John Theodore, ed (2001). “Appendix I – Glossary”. Climate change 2001: the scientific basis: contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80767-0. http://www. ipcc. ch/ipccreports/tar/wg1/518. htm. 3. ^ “The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change”. 21 March 1994. http://unfccc. int/essential_background/convention/background/items/1349. php. Climate change means a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods. ”  4. ^ “What’s in a Name? Global Warming vs. Climate Change”. NASA. http://www. nasa. gov/topics/earth/features/climate_by_any_other_name. html. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 5. ^ US EPA. Glossary of climate change terms. http://www. epa. gov/climatechange/glossary. html#F. 6. ^ “Glossary”. NASA Earth Observatory. 2011. http://earthobservatory. nasa. gov/Glossary/index. hp? mode=alpha&seg=b&segend=d. Retrieved 8 July 2011. “Climate System: The five physical components (atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere) that are responsible for the climate and its variations. ”  7. ^ Kirk Bryan, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. Man’s Great Geophysical Experiment. U. S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 8. ^ a b “Milankovitch Cycles and Glaciation”. University of Montana. http://www. homepage. montana. edu/~geol445/hyperglac/time1/milankov. htm. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 9. ^ Gale, Andrew S. (1989). “A Milankovitch scale for Cenomanian time”.

Terra Nova 1 (5): 420. doi:10. 1111/j. 1365-3121. 1989. tb00403. x. 10. ^ Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. FAQ 6. 1 What Caused the Ice Ages and Other Important Climate Changes Before the Industrial Era?. 11. ^ Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Box 6. 2: What Caused the Low Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations During Glacial Times?. 2. ^ a b Marty, B. (2006). “Water in the Early Earth”. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 62: 421. doi:10. 2138/rmg. 2006. 62. 18. 13. ^ Watson, Eb; Harrison, Tm (May 2005). “Zircon thermometer reveals minimum melting conditions on earliest Earth”. Science 308 (5723): 841–4. Bibcode 2005Sci… 308.. 841W. doi:10. 1126/science. 1110873. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 15879213. 14. ^ Hagemann, Steffen G. ; Gebre-Mariam, Musie; Groves, David I. (1994). “Surface-water influx in shallow-level Archean lode-gold deposits in Western, Australia”. Geology 22 (12): 1067. Bibcode 1994Geo…. 22. 1067H. doi:10. 130/0091-7613(1994)0222. 3. CO;2. 15. ^ Sagan, C. ; G. Mullen (1972). Earth and Mars: Evolution of Atmospheres and Surface Temperatures. http://www. sciencemag. org/cgi/content/abstract/177/4043/52? ck=nck. 16. ^ Sagan, C. ; Chyba, C (1997). “The Early Faint Sun Paradox: Organic Shielding of Ultraviolet-Labile Greenhouse Gases”. Science 276 (5316): 1217–21. Bibcode 1997Sci… 276. 1217S. doi:10. 1126/science. 276. 5316. 1217. PMID 11536805. 17. ^ Willson, Richard C. ; Hugh S. Hudson (1991-05-02). “The Sun’s luminosity over a complete solar cycle”. Nature 351 (6321): 42–44. Bibcode 1991Natur. 351… 42W. oi:10. 1038/351042a0. http://www. nature. com/nature/journal/v351/n6321/abs/351042a0. html. 18. ^ Willson, Richard C. ; Alexander V. Mordvinov (2003). “Secular total solar irradiance trend during solar cycles 21–23”. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30 (5): 1199. Bibcode 2003GeoRL.. 30e… 3W. doi:10. 1029/2002GL016038. http://www. agu. org/pubs/crossref/2003/2002GL016038. shtml. 19. ^ “Solar Irradiance Changes and the Relatively Recent Climate”. Solar influences on global change. Washington, D. C: National Academy Press. 1994. p. 36. ISBN 0-309-05148-7. http://books. nap. edu/openbook. php? record_id=4778=36. 20. ^

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Presentation Skills – Short Report

Presentation Skills Gaurav Arora PGDM, FORE School of Management, New Delhi – 110016 1. Introduction Management is the art of getting things done. A Presentation is a fast and potentially effective method of getting things done through other people. In managing any project, presentations are used as a formal method for bringing people together to plan, monitor and review its progress. Now, the question is : what can a presentation do for you? Firstly; it puts you on display.

Your staff needs to see evidence of decisive planning and leadership so that they are confident in your position as their manager. They need to be motivated and inspired to undertaking the tasks, which you are presenting. Project leaders from other sections need to be persuaded of the merits of your project and to provide any necessary support. Your skill and ability should impress senior management so that they provide the resources so that you and your team can get the job done. Secondly; it allows you to ask questions and to initiate discussion.

It may not be suitable within the presentation formats of your company to hold a discussion during the presentation itself but it does allow you to raise the issues, present the problems and at least to establish who amongst the audience could provide valuable input to your decision making. Finally; presentations can be fun. They are your chance to speak your mind, to strut your stuff and to tell the people what the world is really like. While you hold the stage, the audience is bound by good manners to sit still and watch the performance. 2. The Objectives

The objective of communication is to make your message understood and remembered. The main problem with this objective is, of course, the people to whom you are talking. The average human being has a very short attention span and a million other things to think about. Your job in the presentation is to reach through this mental fog and to hold the attention long enough to make your point. The starting point in planning any speech is to formulate a precise objective. This should take the form of a simple, concise statement of intent. For example, the purpose of your speech may be to obtain funds, o evaluate a proposal, or to motivate your team. No two objectives will be served equally well by the same presentation; and if you are not sure at the onset what you are trying to do, it is unlikely that your plan will achieve it. One question is how many different objectives can you achieve, in say, 30 minutes – and the answer:not many. In the end it is far more productive to achieve one goal than to blunder over several. The best approach is to isolate the essential objective and to list at most two others, which can be addressed providing they do not distract from the main one.

Focus is key. If you do not focus upon your objective, it is unlikely that the audience will. Identify the Audience The next task is to consider the audience to determine how best to achieve your objectives in the context of these people. Essentially this is done by identifying their aims and objectives while attending your presentation. If you can somehow convince them they are achieving those aims while at the same time achieving your own, you will find a helpful and receptive audience.

For instance, if you are seeking approval for a new product plan from senior management it is useful to know and understand their main objectives. If they are currently worried that their product range is out of date and old fashioned, you would emphasise the innovative aspects of your new product; if they were fearful about product diversification you would then emphasise how well your new product fits within the existing catalogue. This principal of matching the audience aims, however, goes beyond the simple salesmanship f an idea – it is the simplest and most effective manner of obtaining their attention at the beginning. If your opening remarks imply that you understand their problem and that you have a solution, then they will be flattered at your attention and attentive to your every word. 3. Structure All speeches should have a definite structure or format; a talk without a structure is a mess. If you do not order your thoughts into a structured manner, the audience will not be able to follow them. Having established the aim of your presentation you should choose the most appropriate structure to chieve it. However, the structure must not get in the way of the main message. If it is too complex or too convoluted or simply too noticeable the audience will be distracted. If a section is unnecessary to the achievement of your fundamental objectives, pluck it out. Pyramid In a newspaper, the story is introduced in its entirety in a catchy first paragraph. The next few paragraphs repeat the same information only giving further details to each point. The next section repeats the entire story again, but developing certain themes within each of the sub-points and again adding more information.

This is repeated until the reporter runs out of story. The editor then simply decides upon the newsworthiness of the report and cuts from the bottom to the appropriate number of column inches. There are two main advantages to this style for presentations. Firstly, it can increase the audience’s receptiveness to the main ideas. Since at every stage of the pyramid they have already become familiar with the ideas and indeed know what to expect next. This sense of deja vu can falsely give the impression that what they are hearing are their own ideas.

The second advantage is that cutting the talk in exactly the same way as the newspaper editor might have done to the news story can easily alter the duration of the talk. This degree of flexibility may be useful if the same presentation is to be used several times in different situations. The Meaty Sandwich The simplest and most direct format remains the meaty sandwich. This is the simple beginning-middle-end format in which the main meat of the exposition is contained in the middle and is proceeded by an introduction and followed by a summary and conclusion.

This is really the appropriate format for all small sub-sections in all the previous structures. If the talk is short enough, or the topic simple enough, it can indeed form the entirety of the presentation. a) The Beginning It is imperative to plan your beginning carefully; there are five main elements: Get their attention Too often in a speech, the first few minutes of the presentation are lost while people adjust their coats, drift in with coffee and finish the conversation they were having with the person next to them. You only have a limited time and every minute is precious to you so, from the beginning, make sure they pay attention.

Establish a theme Basically, you need to start the audience thinking about the subject matter of your presentation. A statement of your main objective can do this, unless for some reason you wish to keep it hidden. They will each has some experience or opinions on this and at the beginning you must make them bring that experience into their own minds. Present a structure If you explain briefly at the beginning of a talk how it is to proceed, then the audience will know what to expect. This can help to establish the theme and also provide something concrete to hold their attention.

Ultimately, it provides a sense of security in the promise that this speech too will end. Create rapport If you can win the audience over in the first minute, you will keep them for the remainder. You should plan exactly how you wish to appear to them and use the beginning to establish that relationship. You may be presenting yourself as their friend, as an expert, perhaps even as a judge, but whatever role you choose you must establish it at the very beginning. Administration When planning your speech you should make a note to find out if there are any dministrative details, which need to be announced at the beginning of your speech. This is not simply to make yourself popular with the people organising the session but also because if these details are over looked the audience may become distracted as they wonder what is going to happen next. b) The Middle Or The Body Content. What information should you give in your speech? All your information should support your purpose. In most cases you will have to limit the content, as time is Usually precious! Quantity How much information should you give? It should be enough to clearly develop your ideas.

Don’t forget to illustrate through examples. Sequencing your ideas. Here are a few possibilities for organizing your ideas: logical; chronological Order; from general to specific; from known to unknown; from accepted to Controversial; cause/effect; problem/solution. Whatever sequencing you choose, the Headings should be all of the same grammatical form. Keeping the audience’s attention The beginning and the end or the first and last parts of a talk are what listeners will remember best. Think of ways you can keep the audience’s attention throughout the rest of the speech. ) The Ending The final impression you make on the audience is the one they will remember. Thus it is worth planning your last few sentences with extreme care. As with the beginning, it is necessary first to get their attention, which will have wandered. This requires a change of pace, a new visual aid or perhaps the introduction of one final culminating idea. In some formats the ending will be a summary of the main points of the talk. One of the greatest mistakes is to tell the audience that this is going to be a summary because at that moment they simply switch off.

Indeed it is best that the ending comes unexpectedly with that final vital phrase left hanging in the air and ringing round their memories. Alternatively the ending can be a flourish, with the pace and voice leading the audience through the final crescendo to the inevitable conclusion. 4. Visual Aids Most people expect visual reinforcement for any verbal message being delivered. While it would be unfair to blame television entirely for this, it is useful to understand what the audience is accustomed to, for two reasons.

Firstly, you can meet their expectations using the overhead projector, a slide show, or even a video presentation. Secondly, if you depart from the framework of a square picture flashed before their eyes, and use a different format, then that novelty will be most arresting. For instance, if you are describing the four functions of a project manager then display the four “hats” he/she must wear. Guidelines for the use of visual aids:Flipcharts/whiteboards should be readable from the back row of the audience.

Don’t use too many, or overload them with information. Restrict slides with bullets to 4-5 points. Don’t read them out – the audience can do that for themselves. Don’t stand between the audience and your visual aids. Don’t turn your back on the audience to look at the visual aids whilst you are speaking. If you have a complicated diagram, don’t reproduce it on a slide unless you are sure that it can be magnified sufficiently for all to see. Otherwise give it as a handout at the beginning of the presentation so that the audience can refer to it.

Normally give out handouts after the presentation – your audience will read them as soon as they are given out and they cannot read and listen to you at the same time. If you have samples, show them and then suggest that the audience have a closer look at the end of the presentation. Check all the equipment before the presentation if you can. 5. The Delivery “The human body is truly fascinating – there are some I could watch all day” – Anon Whatever you say and whatever you show; it is you, yourself which will remain the focus of the audience’s attention.

If you strut and fret your hour upon the stage and then are gone, no one will remember what you said. The presenter has the power both to kill the message and to enhance it a hundred times beyond it’s worth. Your job as a manager is to use the potential of the presentation to ensure that the audience is motivated and inspired rather than disconcerted or distracted. There are five key facets of the human body, which deserve attention in presentation skills: the eyes, the voice, the expression, the appearance, and how you stand. a) The Eyes

The eyes are said to be the key to the soul and are therefore the first and most effective weapon in convincing the audience of your honesty, openness and confidence in the objectives of your presentation. This impression may of course be totally false, but here is how to convey it. Even when in casual conversation, your feelings of friendship and intimacy can be evaluated by the intensity and duration of eye contact. During the presentation you should use this to enhance your rapport with the audience by establishing eye contact with each and every member of the audience as often as possible.

For small groups this is clearly possible but it can also be achieved in large auditoriums since the further the audience is away from the presenter the harder it is to tell precisely where he or she is looking. Thus by simply staring at a group of people at the back of a lecture theatre it is possible to convince each of them individually that he or she is the object of your attention. During presentations, try to hold your gaze fixed in specific directions for five or six seconds at a time. Shortly after each change in position, a slight smile will convince people in that direction that you have seen and acknowledged them. ) The Voice After the eyes comes the voice, and the two most important aspects of the voice for the public speaker are projection and variation. It is important to realise from the onset that few people can take their ordinary conversation voice and put it on stage. If you can, then perhaps you should move to Hollywood. The main difference comes in the degree of feedback, which you can expect, from the person to whom you are talking. In ordinary conversation you can see from the expression, perhaps a subtle movement of the eye, when a word or phrase has been missed or misunderstood.

In front of an audience you have to make sure that this never happens. The simple advice is to slow down and to take your time. Remember the audience is constrained by good manners not to interrupt you so there is no need to maintain a constant flow of sound. A safe style is to be slightly louder and slightly slower than a fireside chat with slightly deaf aunt. As you get used to the sound, you can adjust it by watching the audience. A monotone speech is both boring and so porific, so it is important to try to vary the pitch and speed of your presentation.

At the very least, each new sub-section should be proceeded by a pause and a change in tone to emphasise the delineation. If tonal variation does not come to you naturally try making use of rhetorical questions throughout your speech, since most British accents rise naturally at the end of a question. c) Expression The audience watches your face. If you are looking listless or distracted then they will be listless and distracted; if you are smiling, they will be wondering why and listen to find out. In normal conversation your meaning is enhanced by facial reinforcement.

Thus in a speech you must compensate both for stage nerves and for the distance between yourself and the audience. The message is quite simply: make sure that your facial expressions are natural, only more so. d) Appearance There are many guides to management and presentation styles which lay heavy emphasis upon the way you dress and in the last analysis this is a matter of personal choice. That choice should however be deliberately made. When you are giving a presentation you must dress for the audience, not for yourself; if they think you look out of place, then you are.

As an aside, it is my personal opinion that there exists a code of conduct among engineers, which emphasizes the scruffy look and that in many organisations this tends to set the engineer apart, especially from management. It conveys the subliminal message that the engineer and the manager are not part of the same group and so hinders communication. 6. The Techniques of Speech Every speaker has a set of “tricks of the trade” which he or she holds dear – the following are a short selection of such advice taken from various sources. ) Make an impression: The average audience is very busy: they have husbands and wives, schedules and slippage, cars and mortgages; and although they will be trying very hard to concentrate on your speech, their minds will inevitably stray. Your job is to do something, anything, which captures their attention and makes a lasting impression upon them. Once you have planned your speech and honed it down to its few salient points, isolate the most important and devise some method to make it stick. b) Repeat, Repeat :

The average audience is very busy: they have husbands or wives etc, etc – but repetition makes them hear. The average audience is easily distracted, and their attention will slip during the most important message of your speech – so repeat it. You don’t necessarily have to use the resonant tonal sounds of the repeated phrase, but simply make the point again and again and again with different explanations and in different ways. The classic advice of the Sergeant Major is: “First you tell ’em what you are going to tell ’em, then you tell ’em, then you tell ’em what you told ’em! ” c) Draw a Sign :

Research into teaching has yielded the following observation: “We found that students who failed to get the point did so because they were not looking for it”. If the audience knows when to listen, they will. So tell them: the important point is….. d) Draw a Picture : The human brain is used to dealing with images, and this ability can be used to make the message more memorable. This means using metaphors or analogies to express your message. Thus a phrase like “we need to increase the market penetration before there will be sufficient profits for a pay related bonus” becomes “we need a bigger slice of the cake before the feast”. ) Jokes The set piece joke can work very well, but it can also lead to disaster. You must choose a joke, which is apt, and one, which will not offend any member of the audience. This advice tends to rule out all racist, sexist or generally rude jokes. If this seems to rule out all the jokes you can think of, then you should avoid jokes in a speech. Amusing asides are also useful in maintaining the attention of the audience, and for relieving the tension of the speech.

If this comes naturally to you, then it is a useful tool for pacing your delivery to allow periods of relaxation in between your sign-posted major points. f) Short and Sweet One way to polish the presentation of the main point of your speech is to consider it thus. The day before your presentation, you are called to the office of the divisional vice-president; there you are introduced to the managing director and a representative of the company’s major share holder; “OK” says the vice president “we hear you have got something to say, we’ll give you 30 seconds, GO”. Can you do it?

If you can crystallise your thoughts and combine your main message with some memorable phrase or imagery, and present them both in 30 seconds then you have either the perfect ending or the basis for a fine presentation. g) The Narrative Everyone loves a story and stories can both instruct and convey a message: Zen Philosophy is recorded in its stories, and Christianity was originally taught in parables. If you can weave your message into a story or a personal anecdote, then you can have them wanting to hear your every word – even if you have to make it up. h) Rehearsal There is no substitute for rehearsal.

You can do it in front of a mirror, or to an empty theatre. In both cases, you should accentuate your gestures and vocal projection so that you get used to the sound and sight of yourself. Do not be put off by the mirror – remember: you see a lot less of yourself than your friends do. i) Relaxation If you get nervous just before the show, either concentrate on controlling your breathing or welcome the extra adrenaline. The good news is that the audience will never notice your nerves nearly as much as you think. Similarly, if you dry-up in the middle – smile, look at your notes, and take your time.

The silence will seem long to you, but less so to the audience. Conclusion Once the speech is over and you have calmed down, you should try to honestly evaluate your performance. Either alone, or with the help of a friend in the audience, decide what was the least successful aspect of your presentation and resolve to concentrate on it in the next talk you give. If it is a problem associated with the preparation, then deal with it there; if it is a problem with your delivery, write yourself a reminder note and put it in front of you at the next talk.

Practice is only productive when you make a positive effort to improve. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Careers & Employability Service,Manchester Metropolitan University,Presentation skills , 2009 Patricia H. Hamm,Teaching and Persuasive Communication: Class Presentation Skills, 2006 Dilum Bandara , How to do an effective presentation , 2006 Emergency Field Coordination Training , Presentation Skills, 2005 Gerard M Blair, Presentation Skills for Emergent Managers , 2004 Carl Storz et al. Institut national de telecommunications, EVRY FRANCE Oral Presentation Skills, 2002 Booher, Dianna. 67 Presentation Secrets to Wow Any Audience: Your Guide to Clear, Concise, Persuasive Presentations. Lakewood Books. Speak with Confidence. Powerful Presentations that Inform, Inspire and Persuade. Mc Graw-Hill. Frank, Milo. How to Get Your Point Across in 30 Seconds or Less. Simon Schuster. Glickstein, Lee. Be Heard Now! How to Compel Rapt Attention Every Time You Speak. Leeway Press. Koegel, Timothy J. The Exceptional Presenter: A Proven Formula to Open Up and Own the Room.

Greenleaf Book Group. Austin, Tx. Morrisey, George J, Thomas Sechrest and Wendy Warman. Loud and Clear: How to Deliver Effective Business and Technical Presentations. Addison Wesley Longman Publisher. Slutsky, Jeff, and Michael Aun. The Toastmasters International Guide to Successful Speaking. Dearborn Financial Publishing. (This resource has sections on using humor and how to make a good presentation great. ) Walter, Lilly. What to Say When…You’re Dying on the Platform. Mc-Graw-Hill. (Ideas for dealing with every conceivable situation) Wilder, Claudyne and Rotondo, Jennifer.

Point, Click and WOW! A Quick Guide to Brilliant Laptop Presentations. Buzan, Tony with Barry Buzan. The Mind-Map‚ Book: How to Use Radient Thinking to Maximize Your Brain’s Untapped Potential,New York: Penguin Group, 1996. Cooper, Pamela J. Speech Communication for the Classroom Teacher, 4th ed. Scottsdale: Gorsuch Scarisbrick, Publishers, 1991. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Napaporn Ngamwilaipong , Speaking and Presentation Skills. 20. Mary Ann Kmetyk, Effective Presentation skills , SLA Presentation Skills Program.

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Unfair Promotion at the Food Chain

I. Case Study Joel Reyes, the newly hired officer at the Food Chain, Inc. was jolted by the conversation he just had with Ria Tolentino, an employee at the counter. Ria complained that female employees were being passed over for promotion in favor of male employees who had less experience and seniority. She explained she had been passed over promotion twice since she started working at the Food Chain. After Ria left his office, Joel began to immediately investigate her complaints, only to find out that for the fast two year or three years, more than 90% of the employees were promoted are male.

Further investigations revealed that the supervisor made promotion recommendations and decisions. The company felt that the supervisor was in the best position to judge whether or not an employee was promotable. There was no system for employees to apply for promotions. Written performance evaluations were limited to office employees and by store managers. A: Main Problem: The main problem in the case was that female employees were being passed over for promotion in the favor of male employees who had less experience and seniority.

B: Point of View of the: Student C: Alternative Courses of Action (3 ACAs. Possible actions to solve the problem) ACA1: HR manager may simply put the decisions on his department with regards to the conflict between the promotion of the female and male employees. Advantage: Fair judgment Disadvantage: It will only show that HR manager doesn’t have any capabilities handling his staff. ACA2: Ria should personally talk with Supervisor, Line managers and the Board of Directors; have a closed door meeting with her regarding her concerns with promotion.

Advantage: Ria could voice out everything with her supervisor regarding her work concerns. Disadvantage: Ria, doesn’t have much competence handling such task because she herself doesn’t have much background with performance evaluation. ACA3: HR Manager should redesign a performance evaluation criteria or system that would cover all the necessary things like the performance itself of the female and male employees, attendance, productivity, relation with other workers, staff and with the superiors, stay in the company and so on.

Advantage: A more detailed performance evaluation system could prove that the company is fair when it comes to promotions. Disadvantage: Another cost with the company since improvement of the old system would require a meeting between the Human Resources and Management and the newly hired HR officers concerned. D: Best alternative course of action: The best alternative course action is ACA3. II. As the newly hired HR officer of the Food Chain, how will you avoid problems similar to this in the future?

As the newly hired HR officer of the Food Chain and as part of the strategic role, HR managers are often seen as responsible for expanding the capabilities of the human resources in an organization. Currently, considerable emphasis is being focused on the competencies that the employees in the organization have and will need for the organization to grow in the future to avoid problems similar in this case. HR management must lead in developing the competencies that employees have in several ways.

First, the needed capabilities must be identified and linked to the work done in the organization. This identification often requires active cooperation between HR professionals and operating managers. Next, the capabilities of each employee much be assessed. This approach requires that the competencies and depth of those competencies be identified. For example, in a firm with 100 employees, the HR director is developing career plans and succession charts to determine if the firm has sufficient human resources to operate and manage the 70% growth it expects over the upcoming four years.

Once the comparison of the gap between capabilities needed in the organization and those existing in employees is identified then training and development activities must be designed. The focus throughout is providing guidance to employees and creating awareness of career growth possibilities within the organization. Promotion may imply a fact that the company really cares for the employee thus following what do the Labor code states. Art. 3. Declaration of basic policy.

The State shall afford protection to labor, promote full employment, ensure equal work opportunities regardless of sex, race or creed and regulate the relations between workers and employers. The State shall assure the rights of workers to self-organization, collective bargaining, security of tenure, and just and humane conditions of work. For many individuals, continuing to enhance their capabilities and knowing that there are growth opportunities in the organization may lead to greater job satisfaction and longer employment with that organization.

In that implementation of the management the problem between in the newly hired manager and employees due to promotion will solve immediately knowing they have their right being employee. South Mansfield College Muntinlupa city BS Hotel Restaurant and Management Unfair Promotion at the Food Chain Case Study In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in IHRM103 F/2:00-5:00/301 Ma. Lourdes G. Bernabe HRM Student Prof. Nadia Krishna Palacol Professor August 2011