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I Wondered Lonely as a Cloud

Abstract: William Wordsworth, as the leading figure of the English Romantic Movement in poetry, has made great contribution in poetic theory. His poetic beliefs and achievements have always been the focus of literary studies. In this paper, his most representative poem “ I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud” is closely examined to demonstrate how Wordsworth applies his poetic principles to his own creations, especially how Wordsworth realize the fusion of reality and  strong emotion in this poem by using his great imagination.

Key Words: William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud, poetic principles, language, imagination William Wordsworth is the leading figure of the English romantic poetry, the focal voice of the romantic period. The most important contribution he has made is in the field of poetic theory. He thinks that “all good poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling”, and poetry originates from “emotion recollected in tranquility”. His poetic principles are well illustrated in the preface to Lyrical Ballads (Wordsworth, p. 59):  “The principal object, then, which I proposed to myself in these poems was to choose incidents and situations from common life, and to relate or describe them, throughout, as far as possible, in a selection of language really used by men; and, at the same time, to throw over them a certain coloring of imagination, whereby ordinary things should be presented to the mind in an unusual way; and, further, and above all, to make these incidents and situations interesting by tracing in them, truly though not ostentatiously, the primary laws of our nature: chiefly, as far as regards the manner in which we associate ideas in a state of excitement. ” Here, we can see that Wordsworth actually sets the principles for poetic writing in three aspects: a) the raw material—the scenes and events of everyday life; b) the language—speech of ordinary people; and c) the creation process—using imagination to realize the fusion of the description of the scenes or events with expression of inward state of mind.

These principles help to crumble the theoretical foundations of the classical school of English poetry, rejecting the emphasis on the form and an intellectual approach that drained poetic writing of strong emotion, and also inspire a new generation of poets. Therefore, the preface to Lyrical Ballads is regarded as the manifestation of the English Romantic Movement in poetry, and Wordsworth the father of English modern poetry. Wordsworth, for the keen love of nature expressed in his poems, is also labeled as a “worshipper of nature” by many critics. He can penetrate to the heart of things and give the reader the very life of nature. “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud” is one of his masterpieces on nature, which can take us to the core of his poetic beliefs.

It is also one of the most anthologized poems in English literature. Thus, in the following, I will examine the poem in detail by reference to Wordsworth’s poetic principles. First, let’s look at the subject matter of this poem. “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud” is based on recollections of the Ullswater scene described by Dorothy Wordsworth, William Wordsworth’s sister, in April 1802. At that time, Dorothy, William and their friends went for a walk along the river. Then they saw a few daffodils close to the waterside, when they went along there were more and more, and at last, they saw a long belt of daffodils along the shore, “they looked so gay, ever glancing, ever changing.

There was here and there a little knot, and a few stragglers a few yards higher up; but they were so few as not to disturb the simplicity, unity and life of that one busy highway”. (Bloom, p. 276) They were all intoxicated at this scene. Then when returning home, Dorothy recorded this scene in her journal, while Wordsworth recollected the same scene in tranquility and wrote this poem a full two years afterwards. Therefore, it is clear that the raw matter of this poem is just a large bed of wild daffodils beside a lake, agitated by a strong, cold spring wind. And it is the very thing Wordsworth is interested, a very commonplace scene in human life,  Then we come to the language of this poem.

Except for a few literary or poetic words (“vales”, “jocund”, and “oft”), the poem is written throughout in plain language employed by ordinary people in their daily life, thus makes his poem easy to understand. This is also in accordance with his own poetic beliefs—to bring his language near to the real language of men. But one point should be pointed out that what Wordsworth means by stating that speech of ordinary people is preferred in poetic writing is not that writing a poem is to copy word by word the words uttered by the ordinary people. I think, Wordsworth’s statement is made just in view of lexical choice. As we all know, each type of poetry, whether it is a sonnet, or a blank verse, or an ode is restricted in form to a certain degree.

In addition, a good poetry attributes a lot to the high quality in its linguistic aspect, including not merely lexical choice, but also phonetic choice, rhetoric devices employed, choice of sentence structure, etc. , which exert a great influence on the information conveyance and the meter of a poem. Actually, Wordsworth has suggested this point in the above quoted passage by saying “a selection of language really used by men”. In other words, the language is selected not only from the speech of ordinary people, but also to fit the information conveyance and metrical arrangement of the poem. Then let’s see how Wordsworth fulfills this requirement in this poem.

This poem is written basically in iambic tetrameter. And it is divided into four stanzas with the rhyme scheme as: ababcc for each stanza. To be more specific, in each stanza, there are three rhyming couplets: the first line and the third line, the second line and the fourth line, and the last two lines, thus making the poem goes smoothly, harmoniously and rhythmically. In other words, the poem acquires aesthetic value in prosody. Besides this, in phonological level, there are other features contributing the excellence of this poem, such as the arrangement of the stress, and the phonetic choice. As above-mentioned, the poem is basically written in iambic tetrameter.

However, if the author is consistent throughout the poem in using this pattern, it may make the poem sound dull and solemn, thus not in keeping with the intention of the author to describe the brisk dancing of the daffodils. For this reason, the author makes some adjustments in certain places. For example, in the last line of the first stanza (“Fluttering and dancing in the breeze”), there are only three stressed syllables: /t /, /si / and /bri:/. And such adjustment in respect of the stress skillfully conveys the change in the poet’s state of mind: just when the poet wandered as a cloud solitarily, a bed of daffodils came into his view, make him enlivened and exhilarated. Another example comes from the last line of the second stanza (“Tossing their heads in sprightly dance”), here, the first foot turns to be a trochee.

And this variation reinforces the movement expressed by the verb, “toss”, delineates vividly the scene that the daffodils raise their heads gaily in the breeze, thus makes the whole sentence more expressive, and at the same time, conveys the uncontrolled passion of the author at that moment. In addition, in this poem, the author makes great efforts in the phonetic choice. For example, among the stressed syllables, in the first stanza, there are a lot of long vowels and diphthongs, thus making the tempo of the poem slow down; while in the second stanza, the short vowels assume a dominant position in the distribution of vowels, thus speeding up the pace of the poem.

This change, obviously, is in accordance with the change in the tone of the poem. In the first stanza, the poet wandered lonely as a cloud over the vales and hills, and came across suddenly a host of daffodils, so the movement is slowly and aimlessly, and the basic tone of this stanza is carelessness, or even lethargy. Thus the tempo should be slow. However, in the second stanza, the poet focuses on the description of the sprightly dancing daffodils in the wind, the basic tone is briskness and rapture, so the tempo now should be quickened. Therefore, it is clear that both metric arrangement and phonetic choice are important for the expression of the author’s personal feeling in the poem.

Actually, there are another important factor playing an indispensable role in information conveyance in poetry, namely, the syntactic structure. For example, the second line of stanza one begins with “when all at once”, the adverbial clause of a very long sentence running on in the four lines. In this way, the shift in the author’s attention is clearly expressed, and at the same time, the following description on the daffodils is made compact, thus can make a strong impression on the reader. In the second stanza, the adverbial (“Continuous as the stars that shine/ And twinkle on the milky way”) of the main clause “they stretched” is also put at the beginning. The purpose here is just to highlight the abundance and beauty of daffodils, which is the central task of this stanza.

Certainly, in most cases, the rhyme pattern of the whole poem may also influence the poet’s choice of sentence structureThen, we come to the punctuation marks of this poem. They also contribute to the success of the poem. Here is an example. In the fifth line of the third stanza (“I gazed –and gazed –but little thought”), two dashes in this line naturally slow down the tempo. Facing these beautiful daffodils, the poet is intoxicated and cannot help lingering his eyes on them, and simultaneously, he seems to be lost in thought, pondering over the true meaning of these daffodils to himself. These two actions, gaze and ponder, both continuous and time-consuming, so the tempo here should be slow.

And the employment of the dashes is just the proper way to achieve this effect. Finally, the use of rhetoric devices also adds beauty to the poem, especially the use of alliteration. Alliteration is a commonly used device in poetic writing, and it can make the poem more expressive and musical. In this poem, it is used in several places. For instance, in the fourth line of stanza one, “beside” and “beneath” form alliteration. It strengthens the connection between the two places, and moreover makes the whole line more compact by repeating the sound. Additionally, “stars” and “shine” in the first line of stanza two, and “dances” and “daffodils” in the last line of this poem, also form alliteration.

The above analysis reveals that Wordsworth really attaches great importance to and makes great efforts in the diction of the poem, whether in phonological level or in syntactic level. And he displays fully his exceptional skills in using the language freely in this poem. He deliberates on the selection of language, bearing the principle that employing the plain words in his mind, and ultimately makes his poem simple in language but graceful in style. At last, we come to the test of the third principle by examining this poem: In the creation process, imagination is needed to realize the fusion of the description of the scenes or events with expression of inward state of mind.

Perhaps, the most obvious point which shows Wordsworth’s imagination is to link the daffodils to other objects in nature—stars and waves, thus securing the extension in space, consequently stressing the abundance of the daffodils on the one hand, and on the other hand highlighting the beauty of the daffodils by virtue of simile and contrast. Then in the following, we intend to appreciate the poet’s great skills in employing imagination in poetic writing by examining the poem throughout carefully. At the beginning, the poet wandered lonely as a cloud. Here the symbol or image of “cloud” is introduced to us from the poet’s mind. And it may be regarded as the first fusion of reality and mind, though it bears no relation to the dominant thing in the passage, daffodils.

We say it is the fusion in that it makes it possible for us to assume that the poem at the beginning may be in the low spirit, or filled with joy, but a joy somewhat solemn, somewhat cold and remote. And it is the starting point of his later change in mood. Then the image of “daffodils” is presented directly. (“I saw a crowd / A host, of golden daffodils). The second stanza is ostensibly introduced merely to reinforce the idea of number (“continuous” echoing “crowd” and “host”), but of course there are other meaningful parallels. “Stars” looks back to “golden”, and “twinkle” echoes “fluttering”. Certainly, imagination plays a role here by reference to stars.

Then, the third stanza is obviously to reinforce the idea of dancing, but actually reinforces also the idea of number (waves are always numberless); and “sparkling” looks back to “twinkle”, and back of that to “fluttering”. The appearance of a new image “waves” also originates from the poet’s imagination. Here, the progress of fusion, or the progress toward explicit identification of the symbol is gradual. First we have “fluttering” (literal: the flowers are self-moved); then “tossing their heads in sprightly dance”. (The flowers are self-moved and having a wonderful time. “Dance” is the key word: you will have noticed that it occurs in either the last or the first line each of the four stanzas. ) Finally, but not until the third stanza is reached, we get the quite explicit series “glee”, “gay”, “jocund”, “pleasure”. Until now, the fusion is conspicuous.

He is enlivened by the sensation of gaiety and lightheartedness represented by the dancing daffodils, yields to it, and finds it good. In the last stanza, he states clearly the wealth the memory of this emotional experience leaves to him: ever after he can derive refreshment from the memory, and it has become a kind of comfort for him. It is shown clearly in the above analysis that imagination is indeed an important ingredient to the popularity of the poem. Without imagination, those images cannot enter the poem; without the vivid and expressive images, the poem is certain to lose his flavor. In summary, the poem “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud” can serve as a good example to illustrate Wordsworth’s poetic beliefs and achievements.

The poet’s individual sensation of enjoyment, in this instance, is originated from the commonplace scene of dancing daffodils. And after a two-year period of tranquil contemplation, he transplants the feeling into the poem in a plain but deliberately-selected language. During the writing process, the fusion of reality and emotion is well realized by the use of imagination. And there lies the power of this poem, for in this way it gives an unexpected splendor to a familiar and commonplace scene from common life. Furthermore, his deliberate simplicity and refusal to decorate the truth of experience are really successful in producing a kind of pure and profound poetry which no other poet has ever equaled. Bibliography 1. Bloom, Harold, ed.

Romanticism and Consciousness. New York: Norton, 1970. 2. Gilpin, George H. Critical Essays on William Wordsworth. Boston, Mass. : G. K. Hall, 1990. 3. Pinion, F. B. A Wordsworth Companion. London: Macmillan, 1984. 4. Wordsworth, William. Preface to Lyrical Ballads, With Pastoral and Other Poems. In The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York: Norton, 1986. 5. ???. ??????????.?? :????? ,1990. 6. ????.????????????.?? :??????? ,1984. 7. ???. ????????. ?? :????????? ,2000. 8. ??? ,????. ?????????.?? :?????????? ,1987. 9. ??? ,???.????????.?? :??????? ,1998 ?:????? http://www. 11665. com/Foreignlanguage/others/201103 :????? ??? http://www. 11665. com/Foreignlanguage/

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The Role of Technical Teacher Education in the Realization of the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria

THE ROLE OF TECHNICAL TEACHER EDUCATION IN THE REALIZATION OF THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN NIGERIA By Ehud Yakubu Garba [email protected] com Federal College of Education (Technical) Potiskum, Yobe State Abstract Countries of the world are classified as developed or under developed based on the level of education of its citizenry and their ability to use knowledge, skill and attitude to translate scientific ideas in attending to the problems of mankind.

Technical education is the right kind of education that is capable of training individuals to translate ideas into products that will assist mankind to do things with ease. The teaching of technical subjects is conducted by the technical teacher. This paper is of the view that the technical teacher who is properly trained and is working under ideal environment can train younger generation that will be free of poverty, achieve universal basic education, empower women, reduce child mortality, combat HIV/AIDS and develop global partnership, thus achieving the MDGs target.

The paper made recommendations among which is for the MDGs to adopt the bottom to top mode of funding and the need for the MDGs to integrate provision of funds particularly for purchase of training tools, equipment and infrastructure for technical teacher training. Introduction Education is seen as an agent of development in any society of the world, that is why societies that are educated are looked at as developed societies and less educated as underdeveloped societies. This is so because the developed societies use education to develop things that will solve prevailing problems of mankind in the form of products of technology.

These products are developed by citizens of these countries using skills, knowledge and attitudes acquired through training in sciences and technical based subjects. It is in realization of these facts that the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2004) stressed that, science and technology shall continue to be taught in an integrated manner in the schools to promote in the students the appreciation of practical application of ideas. This type of education if acquired will provide students with sellable skills that can be used to generate job opportunities and alternatively reduce poverty.

It should however be noted that, training cannot take place unless there are teachers that are properly trained in technical teacher training institutions to impact the required skills, knowledge and attitudes in the students. That is why Olaitan (1986) sees the teacher as an agent of changing people attitudes, beliefs and values using the right technique. Similarly Adeoye (2008) noted that the teacher is the king-pin of quality in education and development of the society.

In the same light Garba (2002) posits that the success of technological development of any nation begins with the quality of technical teachers as no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers (FRN, 2004). The millennium development goals (MDGs) is a global strategy aimed at reducing poverty, hunger, insecurity, gender inequality, achieve universal basic education, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, ensure environmental sustainability and develop a global partnership for development.

This paper is of the opinion that the achievement of the MDGs can best be aimed at if the right quality and quantity of technical teachers are produced. The paper therefore discusses technical teachers preparation and production in Nigeria, the MDGs and the objective relating to education, the role of technical teacher education in realization of MDGs target, Factors affecting technical teacher education in realizing the goals of the MDGs and recommendation were offered. Technical Teacher Preparation and Production Programme in Nigeria.

There is always the need to create an awareness of the problems, which arise in a particular profession and to improve on the level of competencies for dealing with such problem (Adetunji and Victor (1997) that is why the National Policy on Education (2004), indicates that, teacher education shall continue to be given major emphasis in all educational planning and development, it further stated that teacher education shall be structured to take cognizance of changes in methodology and the curriculum, by ensuring that teachers are fully exposed to innovation in their profession.

This is most needed by the technical teacher because of the dynamic nature of the world of technology and its effect on the teaching of technical subjects. Ali (1992) stressed that with the advert of the 21st century technologies, the requisition of sound academic knowledge and professional skills are fundamental in the training of teachers, especially in the use of modern methods and technologies for teaching their subject area.

Foel and Fritz (1998) noted that teacher education is experiencing new formats that combine conventional (Traditional education delivery system) with evolving technology in order to transfer knowledge to students. That is why Goro (2000) call for a new look at the training of teachers, especially the technical teachers because the present educational system’s particular concern is that teachers must be oriented towards development of practical skills in the trainees.

The technical teacher is he who is a master of the trade, in the same manner is able to impart the correct and up-to-date skills (Olaitan 1986), in a similar view Dambe and Garba (2007) looked at the technical teacher as a teacher who posses practical and theoretical knowledge of his vocation, has clear understanding of the student he teachers, and ensures that he increases in the knowledge of his field at all time. The training process of a technical teacher therefore calls for a balance of theoretical and practical knowledge.

In a bid to train teachers that will posses the required knowledge that Ali (1992) looked at training the technical teacher, by using the concurrent cause approach, where professional trade skills and academic content are pursued in parallel. This mode of training is the most popular approach used for technical teacher training. However, another school of thought was that the technical teacher should first be practically skilled in that subject matter before embarking on pedagogical skill acquisition.

Goro (2000) shares the same view as he indicates a support for post graduate training in education after a professional training in trade. Whatever the approach, the emphasis should be on striking a balanced knowledge that will enable the teacher impart the required skills in an appropriate manner. This is necessary because the success or failure of technological development of a society begins with the quality of manpower (teachers) responsible for training the technology teachers.

Olaitan (1996) looked at the technical teacher training in Nigeria to include the formal and informal training. The informal is done at the home or family level, and the apprenticeship level, the graduates of which will be serving as masters to train others. However, the formal training of teachers is in three stages, the Nigeria certificate in education (NCE) which prepares teachers for teaching in junior secondary schools. There is also the graduate and postgraduate technical teacher education programme.

In the same view Abdullahi and Sa’i (1998) pointed out that technical teacher training is provided in three stages namely the postgraduate, the bachelor and the Nigerian Certificate in Education (Technical) levels. There are however two modes of preparing technical teachers at the NCE level for teaching in the junior secondary schools’ the two modes are in agreement with two vocational administrative theories of dual and single controls (Olaitan 1996).

Accordingly, the single control is a situation whereby technical teacher education is housed in institution that are offering purely technical teacher education courses e. g. Colleges of Education (Technical), whereas the dual control is when technical education Porgramme are run in the same institution with other courses like arts, social studies, history, pure science as obtains in conventional colleges of education.

Students of Technical Education Programmes at the NCE level are expected to take courses from general area in Technical/Vocational Education, general Education, Education and Entrepreneurship Education, and are later expected to specialize in one area before graduation. Students are further expected to spend twelve (12) weeks of industrial attachment (NCCE 2002) after graduation; the products are expected to teach introductory technology at the junior secondary school level. As of now there are twenty five (25) Colleges of Education offering NEC (Technical) courses in Nigeria. NCCE, 2007). At the graduate and post graduate levels, the training of vocational technical teachers take place in the Universities. As at now the five Universities of technology namely, Federal Universities of Technology, Akure, Bauchi, Minna, Owerri and Yola are running degree and postgraduate programmes in Technology Education and other Vocational areas. Other Unversities such as Ahmadu Bello Unversities Zaria, Benin, Calabar, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Uyo, and Ibadan run degree and postgraduate programmes in vocational technical education.

It should be noted however that, some colleges of education are currently running programmes leading to the award of a bachelor degree in Technical and vocational Education as affiliate colleges of Universities (NCCE 2002). The millennium Development Goals (MDGs) The vision of developers of the MDGs was on the general concern to do away with problems affecting the citizens of their nations. That is why they aimed at creating strategies towards reduction of poverty, hunger, diseases, increase access to education, health, housing and sustainable management of the environments resource.

In the development of the MDGs and strategies for achieving the goals, 189 countries of the world met in New York in September 2000, and signed the millennium declaration which has come to be globally known as the millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The primary goal of the leaders of these nations in developing the MDGs is to address the problems facing fellow men, women and children such as abject poverty and dehumanizing conditions to which more than a billion people across the world are subjected to. (Umar, Suleiman & Adamu, 2009).

Accordingly Dung-Gwon (2009), noted that the MDGs have 8 goals, each has one or more targets and several indicators. He further report that, in 2002, there were 18 targets and 48 indicators. In 2007, 4 more targets were added. To this effect, countries of the world have also added their own targets and indicators to meet their aspiration. This is so because the levels of development of various nations are not the same, so also prioties vary among nations. The MDGs is therefore, a general blue print for development of nations of the world.

Dung-Gwom (2009) states that the general MDGs goals statement across the nations are as follows: 1. Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achieving universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and women empowerment 4. Reducing child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDS 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop a global partnership The general goals of the MDGs have within it three that are education related. Iyortyer (2010) noted that, the three goals that mainly impacts on the education sector are:

Achieving Universal Basic Education (Goal 2) Promotion of gender parity or equality (Goal 3) Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases (Goal 6) Three goals out of eight focusing on education surely indicates that a priority to education is a step towards the attainment of other objectives, as stated by Iyortyer (2010) that education is an instrument for development of any nation, an antidote to poverty and the key for unlocking natural resources. In spite of these and the laudable goals and strategies towards achieving the MDGs in Nigeria, records still reveals that much is desired.

In line with this Ibrahim (2006) states that, Nigeria Millennium Development Goals Report for 2004 and 2005 shows that Nigeria is far off the mark in terms of implementation of many goals of the MDGs. Similarly Igbugo in Umar, Suleiman and Adamu (2009) asserted that, there is a serious doubt if Nigeria can achieve the MDGs by the target 2015. So also Igbuzor (2007) reported that even though Nigeria is a signatory to the MDGs, it is yet far from achieving the MDGs, furthermore he maintained that it is lack of political will that is the greatest stumbling block to the achievement of the MDGs, in Nigeria.

Based on the MDGs report and personal observations of the indices it is clear that much is desired. This paper is of the opinion that provision of training that equip the individual with saleable skills will greatly lead Nigeria to the achievement of the MDGs. Role of Technical Teacher Education in Realization of the MDGs Technical teacher education programme is a programme that train teachers of technically based trades who are expected to teach in junior secondary schools and technical colleges. The product of which are the country futures engineers and inventors.

The role of technical teacher in the achievement of MDGs will be discussed in line with the eight MDGs as follows: 1. Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger. Even though report of MDGs 2005 shows slide decline in poverty from 65. 5% in 1996 to 54. 4% in 2004. Much is still desired as the 54. 4% is still high and should attract concern bearing in mind that Nigeria is a rich country with poor citizenry. With a technical teacher programme that is able to produce highly trained technical teachers. The teacher should be able to train future generation of students that will possess the required skill in various trades.

The skill acquired will create jobs that will make the individual either self employment or be employed by any employer of labour. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) indicates that, technical education is a means of preparing for occupational field and a means of alleviating poverty. 2. Achieve Universal Primary Education The MDGs report 2005, shows that there is great improvement in literacy level, however, Iyortyer (2010) revealed that the target of the MDGs indicators maintain that adult literacy rate for 15-24 years will improve to reach 89% in 2015.

While gender equity and equitable access to basic and continuing education for adult will be pursued towards meeting up the target. To achieve this target, there is the need for teacher that will be responsible for teaching of craft, poetry and the Basic technology. The teacher that is trained for such is the technical teacher. 3. Promote Gender Equality and Empowerment One of the targets of the MDGs is to ensure that gender disparity is eliminated, and equal access to education is same for both boys and girls. However Dung- Gwom (2009) indicates that the percentage of boys is 82% in 1990 and 79% in 2004.

This shows that boys still account for greater percentage of primary school pupils. Much is still desired, and it is one of the responsibilities of the teacher to sensitize parents as they live in the society with the parents and the pupils. 4. Reduce Child Mortality With more educated mothers who have acquired skills for employment, mortality rate of the child will be highly reduced, as most of the causes of child mortality are poverty related. Similarly with a generation of young talents equipped with technical skill, the skill can further be used in the rovision and maintenance of medical equipment that will be used in reduction of child mortality. 5. Improve Maternal Health The MDGs report 2004 shows that maternal mortality was 74 per 1000. This rate is high and can only be reduced if mothers are equipped with skill to earn a living. The skills of the technical teacher can be directed to the mothers for empowerment. 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other Diseases In Nigeria the incidence of HIV/AIDS has been on upward trend since the diseases was discovered in the country 1. 8% 1999, to 5. 8% in 2000 (Nigeria, MDG Report 2005).

A good number of the infected persons are equally, living under poverty, with no job and so they could not afford the feeding requirements even if the drugs are free. The situation would have not been the same if they have learnt technical skills to provide services for pay. 7. Ensure Environment Sustainability To sustain the environment, there is the need to have the knowledge, skills and attitude of doing such. Umar, Suleiman and Adamu (2009) reports that about 70% of the urban dwellers in Nigeria live below poverty bench mark and their condition is not bound to improve much between now and 2015.

This can be better if a good number of Nigerians are equipped with skills in technical trades such as Building maintenance, Design and plumbing, Vehicle maintenance etc 8. Develop a Global Partnership for Development The world is becoming a global village, this is much so because of the advent of technological product especially in the area of information and communication technology (ICT). With ICT information is obtained and utilized. However to do that one need the basic training to understand the technology and the kwon how of applying it. Challenges of Technical Teacher Education in Realizing the MDGs

Technical teacher education can do a lot in the realization of the MDGs, but the followings have stood as a barrier. 1. Lack of adequate funding Technical teacher education being a technical oriented programme requires tools equipment and infrastructure without which technical education cannot be said to be offered. It is however clear that general funding to education in Nigeria is far from the expected. Onyidoh (2006) noted that, the money allocated to education falls short of the UNESCO’s recommended 25% of annual budget; he further noted that the allocation from 2003 to date is barely in the range of 1. 3-5% allocation to education. This might surely not be enough to cater for the funding of institutions that are characterized by, leaking roofs, unpaved floors, unsanitized conditions and general picture of neglect. This situation cannot guarantee training of technical teachers with the needed skills for the training of younger generation in our junior secondary schools that are expected to pave way for the technological advancement of Nigeria 2. Administrator’s attitude.

Even with the low level of funding in the budget, other agencies such as the Education trust fund (ETF) do intervene. It is however regrettable that a lot of institutions of higher learning cannot accesses the fund due to stringent conditions for accessing the ETF money which does not give much room for diversion of the fund. And for the fact that most of these administrator are not there because they have interest in the system,. they prefer to forfeit the ETF than follow due process to access it.

Speaking on the administrator’s attitude Onyidoh (2010) noted that administrators have little interest in institution they are heading, because vice chancellors, provost and rectors appointed in Nigeria today are politicians in the academic robes. 3. MDGs approach to funding Due to corruption and non-commitment of leadership of institutions they have found the MDGs money easy to grab than the ETF, because the MDGs money do came directly to them in the name of so call desk officers who in most cases are the good boy and girls of the leaders of the institution.

That is why in many cases projects already financed through other means are tagged MDGs project and after inspection, tags can be replaced, that is the game as usual. 4. Absence of infrastructure Technical teacher education require infrastructure such as workshops, classrooms and the needed equipment. This infrastructure is absent or not enough in most of the institutions that are responsible for training the technical teachers. The situation will make the teacher unable to provide the right training to the junior secondary school students who are expected to be the future engineers, technician etc that will move Nigeria forward. . New Technologies The training to be given in junior secondary schools by technical teachers should be to introduce them to the world of technology and arose interest of the students in choice of vocation and to lead students to have intelligent understanding of the increasing complexity of technology (FRN, 2004). The continuous inventions of new technological products that most of the institutions teachers are not familiar with the operation principles of the new technologies.

For the training to be relevant, it must bear a direct relationship with that in the industries, firms or business required to enable students fit into their vocations after graduation (Aguisiobe, in Garba and Nuhu, 2007). The existing situation in institution is far from the state of art as some of the machines were in existence since the 1970s or 1980. They cannot provide any training on new technologies of whatever level. 6. In-sincerity of Nigerian leaders. Most policy statements in Nigeria sound good, but when it comes to implementation the problem arises.

This is so because as policies are implemented those in authorities will begin to skim for what to personally get out of it. Take for instance the issues of universal basic education programme, it has a policy that pupil will be provided meals during school hours and that primary school teachers salaries will be 5 times through 2015. At the beginning skeletal feeding was provided but as it is, the whole money targeted for that purpose are in peoples pocket or used for purchase of expensive vehicles. Secondly there is no record apart from the 27% increase which some states are even yet to pay that teacher have ever experienced.

But yet these governors and their agent are part of the agreement and receive much for such. Recommendations In order to address the challenges the following recommendations are provided. 1. There is the need for the MDGs to integrate provision of fund particularly for the provision of training tools, equipment and infrastructure. 2. The attitude of the administrators needs to be checked by the involvement of host communities and various trade unions in the execution of all MDGs projects through close monitoring and evaluation. 3.

MDGs approach to funding should adopt the bottom to top approach, just as is done by the ETF. This will reduce the rate of corruption. 4. There is the need to re-train the technical teachers on ground, in the area of new technologies, and the integration of the new technologies, such as phone repairs, computer circuit design etc in the curriculum of technical teacher training institutions by so doing the curriculum will be functional and relevant. 5. Leaders should be honest in handling issues to do with the MDGs target, for the programme to succeed. Conclusion

The paper was of the focus that, to achieve the MDGs in Nigeria, there is the needs to have a kind of education that will enable the learner acquire skills, attitude and knowledge that will lead to job creation. And that kind of education can be provided by the properly trained technical teacher. However challenges abound for the technical teacher training and the teaching of Basic technology at the junior secondary schools. REFERENCES Adullahi, M. L. & Sa’I, H. R (1998). Strategies for improving vocational and technical teacher Preparation in Nigeria.

A paper presented at the second annual National conference on Improving the quality of Vocation and Technical Education in Nigeria for sustainable Development: organized by the school Vocational and Technical Education, Federal College of Education: Kastina 25th May. Adetunji, O. & Victor, A (1997). Science technology and economics revitalization in the year 2000 A. D and beyond the role of teacher education in Nigeria: Proceedings of the conference of the Nigerian association of Teachers of Technology on “production approach to the teaching of concepts in technology for national development.

Ali, H. (1992). Teachers’ evaluation for instructional improvement. The Nigeria Teacher Today 1 (2) .14-19. Federal Republic of Nigeria. (2004). National policy on Education 4th ed Lagos. NERC. Foel, N. A. & Frit, R. L. (1998). The influences of technology on vocational teacher education, -e-Journal of vocational and technical education. Retrieved: 16/01/2009 http://scholar. lib. vt. edu/ejournals/ej-search. html. ,. Garba, E. Y. & Dambe, N. (2007). Reorganizing the NCE technical programme for effective skill acquisition.

Journal of issues in technical teacher education 4 (1). 119 -126. Goro,C. A. (2000). Technical teacher production and utilization in nigerian secondary education: relevance for developing skills of craftsmanship and humanistic discipline. Teacher production and turnover patterns in Nigeria; National commission for colleges of education; Kaduna. National Commission for Colleges of Education. (2002). Minimum standard for Nigeria certificate in education vocational and technical education 3rd edition Garki, Abuja,. Author. National Commission for Colleges of Education. 2006). National commission for colleges of education: Brochure. Abuja: Author. National Commission for Colleges of Education. (2007). National commission for colleges of education, Digest of statistics on colleges of education in Nigeria 2005/2004 and 2004/2005 vol. 8 Abuja: Author. Olaitan S. O. (1986). Vocational education and national manpower development constraints and strategies. Vocational education association journal 2 10-12. Olaitan,S. O. (1996). Vocational and technical education in Nigeria: Issues and analysis. Onitsha.

Noble Graphic Press. Olaitan, S. O. (1986). Vocational education and national manpower development Construct and Strategies. Vocational education association journal 2, 10-14 Umar, A. J. , Suleiman, H. J. & Adamu, A. M. (2009). Role of vocational and technical Education realization of the millennium development goals (MDGs) in Nigeria. A paper presented at the 2nd COEASU North-East zone annual Conference held at college of education jalingo. Dung-Gwon, J. Y. (2009). Vocational Technical Education and the millennium Development goals in Nigeria.

An overview. Unpublished lead paper presented At the 7th annual Conference of the Nigeria association of vocational And Technical Educators (NAVTED), at COE Akwanga, Nassarawa State,Nigeria. Iyortyer, M. T. (2010). MDG Needs Assessment: A paper presentation of MDGs costing Workshop held at Government House Internet base station, Yola, Adamawa state 22nd -24th March. Ibrahim, A. J. (2006). Progress on MDGs in Nigeria: Education Where are we? Unpublished paper presented at the 12th Annual Nigeria Economic Summit 7th-9th June. Igbuzor, O. 2007). Nigeria and the Millennium Development Goals. Proceedings of 20th Annual Conference, Nigeria Association of teacher of technology 53-54 The National Planning Commission,(2005). Nigeria Millennium Development Goals 2005 report. Garba, E. Y & Nuhu, D. (2007). Reorganizing the NCE technical programme for effective skill Acquisition. Journal of issues in technical teacher education 4 (1) 119-126 Onyidoh, H. (2010). The decline of the education system in Nigeria. Retrieved 6/07/2010. Htt://www. helium. com/knowledge/90654

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Strategic Marketing in Indonesia

Executive Summary Astro All Asia Broadcast is a satellite pay TV service operator formed in Malaysia in 1996. In mid 2006, through a joint venture with a local entity PT Direct Vision, Astro commenced its operation in Indonesia, with its initial offering of 48 channels. In this relatively untapped market, Astro seeks to gain a foothold in the industry. To date Astro Indonesia has garnered 216,000 subscribers, dominating 21% of the market. The Indonesian pay TV industry is a flourishing with revenues of USD9. 8 million.

The market remains untapped with a meagre 2% of the 31million households subscribing to pay TV. The industry is promising, with only 5 key players and the biggest being Indovision dominating 63% of the market share. Astro faces some key challenges in establishing a foothold in the Indonesian market. The preference for local freely available programming, extensive government regulation, piracy and low purchasing power are all barriers to growth. On the other spectrum, there is a significant unmet need in the market.

Pay TV operators, predominantly offer similar content as there is a lack of differentiation in the channels offered by the various pay TV operators. The key to survival in the market is financial strength or synergy in acquiring content that are sought after by the customers. Astro’s business strategy thrust is product differentiation through innovative content. This is achieved through its sustainable competitive advantage which resides in its synergy with AK vision, a premier production house in Indonesia and Astro Malaysia in developing and acquiring unique content..

In growing its business, driving subscriber acquisition is key in delivering the results. The success of this will depend on attracting prosperous Indonesian household from the upper and middle segment. This is achieved through market penetration strategies such as intense advertising and promotion to stimulate trial, development of unique distribution channels to effectively reach the market and outperforming the competition on customer service. To ensure successful implementation of its business strategy, it is pertinent to ensure that all business units are aligned.

Control measures using the balanced scorecard are key to ensure effectiveness of the strategies implemented. Together with continuous offering of uniquely distinctive content and an clear strategic direction and implementation of the business strategy, the concept of offering consumers a unique viewing experience will ensure that Astro achieves phenomenal growth in the Indonesian market. . 1. 0Background3 2. 0Strategic Marketing Plan Framework4 3. 0 External Analysis5 3. 1 Customer Analysis5 3. 2 Competitor Analysis 7 3. 3 Market Analysis12 3. Environmental Analysis16 4. 0Internal Analysis18 5. 0 SWOT Analysis20 6. 0Business Mission and Marketing Goals22 7. 0 Sustainable Competitive Advantage24 8. 0 Business Strategy25 9. 0 Generic Strategy 28 10. 0 Growth Strategy29 11. 0 Positioning Strategy30 12. 0 Strategic Marketing Mix33 13. 0 Assumptions and Contingency Plans34 14. 0 Sales Forecast and Financial Projections35 15. 0 Implementation36 16. 0 Reviewing strategies38 17. 0 Conclusion40 18. 0Appendices41 19. 0 Bibliography and References42 1. 0 Background

Astro All Asia Broadcast is a satellite pay TV service operator formed in Malaysia in 1996. Astro’s multi-channel TV service offers 110 multi-lingual, multi-genre channels. The Asian region continues to provide immense, relatively untapped opportunities. As domestic growth has reached plateau over the past year, Astro seeks to tap into large under-penetrated markets in the region in an effort to expand its market. In mid 2006, through a joint venture with a local entity PT Direct Vision, Astro commenced its operation in Indonesia, with its initial offering of 48 channels.

The business model and operation in Indonesia mirrors one of the domestic operations. To date, Astro Indonesia has garnered 164,850 subscribers or 21% of the total Indonesian TV homes. In this relatively untapped market, Astro seeks to gain a foothold in the industry. In view of this, a medium term strategic marketing plan has been developed to achieve this. 2. 0 Strategic Marketing Plan Framework A strategic Marketing Plan for Astro Indonesia from 2009 until 2011 will be established by adapting Aaker’s (2005) model as illustrated in Figure 2. 0 3. External Analysis 3. 1 Customer Analysis As illustrated by Aaker (2005), customer analysis can be usefully partitioned into an understanding of how the market segments, an analysis of customers motivations and an exploration of unmet needs. 3. 1. 1 Customer Segments The target market is segmented using the demographic and geographic variables. Demographic Segmentation – Income The key market comprise of consumers within the monthly income range of USD500 to USD900 which are classified in the A1, A2, B and C SES group as illustrated in Figure 3. 1. 1 below. SES |Household Expenditure (Rp million) | |A1 |> 3,000 | |A2 |2,000 – 3,000 | |B |1,500 – 2,000 | |C1 |1,000 – 1,500 | |C2 |700 – 1,000 | |D |500 – 700 | |E |< 500 | Source : Statistics Indonesia at www. bps. go. id Figure 3. 1. 1 : Indonesian population socio-economic groups Geographic segmentation The potential market consists of 10. 8 million TV households in 10 main cities as illustrated Figure 3. 1. 1(a). Source : AC Nielsen Research Consultants, 2007 TV Population Figure 3. 1. 1(a) : TV population in 10 main cities 2. Customer motivations The primary reason customers subscribe to pay TV service is the choice and control factor.

Apart form the wide range of programmes, pay TV offers customers the control to watch the programmes they want to watch at any given time. 3. 1. 3 Unmet Needs Pay TV operators, predominantly offer similar content as there is a lack of differentiation in the channels offered by the various pay TV operators. There is also a significant demand for local content and efficient customer service. 3. 2. Competitor Analysis 3. 2. 1 The Competitive Arena As illustrated in Figure 3. 2. 1, Astro competes with 5 key players in the pay TV industry . The competition comprise of Indovision, First Media, Telkomvision, IM2 and Oke Vision. Astro’s direct competitors are Indovision and First Media.

Indovision remains the market leader with 53% of the market share. Source : AC Nielsen Research Consultants, 2007 TV Population Figure 3. 2. 1 : Indonesian Pay TV market share a. Indovision Indovision has pioneered the pay TV industry with 56 channels on its platform and an entry price of Rp149. 000. Indovision’s customers predominantly reside in urban metropolitan cities in the Indonesian archipelago. Sales growth has been the prime objective for Indovision leading to intense promotional activities throughout the year to garner subscription. b. First Media First Media or previously known as Kablevision uses the cable infrastructure to transmit its content.

Due to this, coverage is limited to areas in Jakarta, Surabaya and Bandung. First Media offers 66 channels with the entry price of Rp 99. 000. The cable infrastructure also doubles up as a broadband connection, offering high speed internet access up to 3000Kbps. First media has used its broadband offering to drive subscription, bundling broadband with its pay TV services. 3. 2. 2 Strategic Groups As illustrated by Hooley, Saunders, Piercy (1998), understanding the dynamics of existing strategic groups can be productive to understanding future strategies of competitors. In understanding the competitive arena, 3 strategic groups are apparent as illustrated in Figure 3. 2. 2

Figure 3. 2. 2 : Strategic Group Map of Indonesian pay TV Industry As illustrated in the strategic group map in Figure 3. 2. 2, the Direct-to-Home players remains dominant as the service coverage spans across the Indonesian archipelago. This creates a larger customer base for this group. Group B and C operate with a smaller customer base as coverage is limited to prime regional areas. Expansion is limited due to the to large infrastructure investment to expand market coverage. As growth is limited, protecting the turf is critical and resorting to flanking strategies are likely if turf is violated. 3. 2. 3 Evaluating the competition Figure 3. 2. summarises the competition’s capabilities by evaluating the strength and weaknesses of Indovision and First Media based on the assets and competencies relevant to the industry success. |Competitor |Characteristics / Strategies |Strengths |Weakness | |Indovision |Overall market leader and pioneer in |Strong awareness and brand name |Inferior service – long cycle time| | |the industry |recognition due to pioneer status |from subscription to installation | | |Perceived as a trusted brand due to |Extensive sales force and |Lack of differentiated content. | | |pioneer image.

Positioned as the 1st |distribution with 13 retails outlets| | | |Indonesian Direct |and 130 authorised dealers outlets | | | |Commitment to sales growth and market |in shopping malls and electrical | | | |share |outlets. | | | |Targets key markets such as Jakarta. |Aggressive sales promotion | | | | |strategies to drive acquisition | | | | |Digital quality transmission | | |First Media |Slow sales growth despite 10 year |Digital transmission quality. Lack of brand recognition due to | | |existence in the market | |low marketing spends | | |Strong brand association with broadband| |Limited sales force and | | |offering | |distribution network | | |Product differentiation strategy via | | | | |its triple play service | | | | |Key markets are Jakarta, Surabaya and | | | | |Bandung | | | Source : Corporate website: www. firsmedia. com and www. indovision. tv Figure 3. 2. 3 : Characteristics, Strength and Weaknesses of competition 4. Benchmarking against competition

The competitive grid strength as illustrated in Figure 3. 2. 4 is used to benchmark Astro against the other players in the market based on their capabilities. |Assets & Competencies |Astro |IndoVision |First Media |Telkomvision |IM2 |Oke Vision | |Key For Success | | | | | | | |Financial Capability / Synergy | | |Households |53,662,646 | |Average HH size |4. | |TV Households |31,313,332 | |PAY TV Households Q1 2008 |785,000 | |PAY TV % penetration |2% | |No of Channels on PAY TV Platforms |150+ | |PAY TV ratings |Private (AGB NMR) | |PAY TV Adex | | |TV Panel Size (FTA Homes) |2080 | |Share of Viewing in Pay TV Homes |N/A | Source : Cable and Satellite Broadcasting Association (CASBAA) at www. casbaa. com Figure 3. 3. 1: Pay TV market size 3. 3. 2 Market Growth According to CASBAA (2008), with just 2% of approximately 31 million TV households, Indonesia’s pay-TV market penetration remains low compared with other Asian markets. Pay TV has found it difficult to establish a foothold in the Indonesian market. The preference for local freely available programming, piracy and lack of product differentiation and purchasing power are all barriers to growth.

However, pay TV growth in Indonesia has been brisk over the past 12 months with legitimate pay TV subscriptions doubling to 785,000 in the first quarter of 2008. The market continues to grow at an average rate of 30% annually as illustrated in Figure 3. 3. 2. * Projected for Year 2009 Source : Cable & Satellite Broadcasting Association (CASBAA) at www. casbaa. com Figure 3. 3. 2: Pay TV industry revenue growth The market remains promising. According to The Jakarta Post (2009), only about 7 percent of the potential market has been penetrated, the potential market for the industry is around 10 million users, while only 700,000 of them have subscribed to pay TV. 3. 3. 3 Factors Affecting Sales Level Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world with a population size of 230 million.

It’s population is growing, the number of nuclear families is increasing rapidly and those households are becoming wealthier through the fruits of a booming economy. GDP is projected to grow by and average of 5. 5% per annum over the coming decade. Over time, growth in the Indonesian economy will raise income levels and create greater affordability for the service. 3. 3. 4 Key Success Factors The key success factor for the industry are financial strength or synergy in procuring or developing content that are unique. Content costs, primarily first release or exclusive content are relatively high. Thus financial strength in securing exclusive content is the path to success in the pay TV industry.

Brand name recognition are also pertinent as consumers tend to gravitate towards brand names that they are familiar with. Apart from that, quality broadcast transmission and quality service are key to success in the industry. 3. 3. 5 Competitive Forces Porter (1985) illustrated that the basic idea is that the attractiveness of an industry of market as measured by the long term return on investment of the average firm depends largely on the five factors that influence profitability. These 5 forces are analysed to understand the industry profitability. 1. Rivalry among existing firms Astro competes in a pure competition environment where products offered are almost parity.

Being a late entrant, in a relatively mature industry, Astro faces aggressive competition from Indovision, the pioneer player in the industry and First Media. 2. Threat of new entrants Likelihood of new entrants entering the market are low as broadcasting licenses are controlled and regulated by the government. Compounding this, barriers of entry are high due to the exorbitant capital expenditure cost. 3. Threat of substitute products There’s a strong broadcasting tradition, with 12 free to air (FTA) stations that have exposed viewers to an extremely wide variety of programming produced both domestically and internationally. Compounding this, the relatively low price of DVDs (approximately USD1) and high levels of piracy has reduced the need for pay TV. 4.

Bargaining power of suppliers Programme suppliers and technology vendors have high buying power. Channel partners offer content to all operators in the industry and decide the level of support given to the various pay TV operators. Often the operators with the higher number of subscribers are given the preference. Astro has a significant buying power from technology vendors and programme suppliers because of the strength of what they’ve achieved in Malaysia. 5. Bargaining power of buyers As product / content are parity across all players, consumers have a choice from the 5 key players to choose from. Hence, there is high bargaining power of buyers.

In analysing the competitive forces, the market outlook remains attractive and extremely promising with potential long term profitability. 3. 4. 1 Environmental Analysis Political and Legal Environment Astro operates in an industry that is subject to extensive regulation and supervision by relevant authorities. Issuance of broadcasting licenses are controlled by the government. The conditions of ASTRO’s licenses to provide direct-to-home (DTH) satellite TV services in Indonesia could be varied, modified or revoked at anytime. The operations in Indonesia are conducted with partners through joint-ventures where under local laws require majority shareholding of the local entity.

This limits Astro’s control of the management of the operations and performance of these ventures and consequently decreases their ability to manage risks and costs. Economic environment Indonesia has comparatively low income levels. Per capita GDP in Indonesia is only a third that of Malaysia with an average household monthly income of USD500 as compared to Malaysia which stands at US840. Affordability of the service will be a major barrier of adoption. Demographic Environment Indonesia’s population is growing, the number of nuclear families is increasing rapidly and those households are becoming wealthier through the fruits of a booming economy.

GDP is projected to grow by an average of 5. 5% per annum over the coming decade. Over time, growth in the Indonesian economy will raise income levels and create greater affordability. Technology Technology in the satellite TV and media industry is slowly evolving, along with new applications and innovations. New technologies such as IPTV and mobile broadcasting are emerging in Indonesia. This change may require Astro to make investment in untested products or greater-than-expected capital expenditures in order to avoid obsolescence and remain competitive. Competitive environment Astro faces competition within the industry as well as from other leisure ctivities competing for the customers’ wallets. Piracy is emerging as a major problem. According to CASBAA (2008), there are 1 million homes receiving illegal pay television. Although the Broadcast Law and Copyright Law of 2002 provide a degree of protection for broadcast signals, enforcement to date, however has been virtually non-existent. 4. 0 Internal Analysis Internal analysis seeks an in depth understanding of the organisation. The Performance analysis framework by Aker (2005) is used to evaluate the current performance, strength, weaknesses and capabilities of Astro. 4. 1 Performance analysis Figure 4. 1 below illustrates the current performance of Astro. Financial Performance – Sales and Profitability | |Sales |Subscriber base has grown from 35,000 in 2006 to 164,840 in 2008. A 78% increase in sales| | |posting USD2,307,760 in revenue | |Market Share |Ranked second in the market with 21% market share | |Performance Measurement – Current Performance | |Customer Satisfaction |Low churn rate of 2% indication high levels of customer satisfaction. |Product / Service Quality |Content are clearly differentiated against competition with high level of professionalism| | |in service | |Brand Associations |Strong association with exclusive local and sports content | |New Product Activity |Continuous development and production of new programmes, channels and packages. | |Manager / Employee Capability and |Pool of experienced human resource that have sound knowledge in the business due to | |Performance |secondment from Malaysian operations. | Figure 4. 1 : Performance Analysis of Astro 4. 2 Determinants of Strategic Options Using the framework illustrated by Aker (2005) , determinants of strategic options are described in Figure 4. 2. Past and current strategies |Strong positioning as the provider of exclusive content primarily | | |local content. | | |Heavy investment in building the brand to enhance brand recognition. | | |High emphasis on customer service efficiency | |Organisation Capabilities / Constraints |Synergy with AK Vision production house and Astro Malaysia in | | |developing and acquisition of exclusive content. | |Financial Resources and Constraints |Strong financial resources due to backing from Astro Malaysia. |Organisational strength and weakness |Strength reside primarily the superior content differentiation, | | |quality workforce, strong financial backing by parent company | | |,customer base with strong brand loyalty, high brand awareness and | | |recognition and superior customer service. | | |Weakness stem predominantly on its technological capabilities. | 5. 0 SWOT Analysis Strength a.

Special propriety channels / Exclusive content Astro has 12 special propriety channels which are available only on the Astro platform. Astro also owns exclusive rights to big tickets content such as the British Premier League (BPL) and the World Cup which has been the key driver in subscriber acquisition. b. Strong local content Through synergy with AK Vision production house (a business unit of Astro), Astro produces five Astro-branded, Indonesian language channels, some of which are most watched channels among Indonesian households. In a country that craves for quality local content, this has set Astro apart from its competitors. c. Competent human resource capital

In recognizing the relative importance of customer service, Astro has invested and developed a competent team of sales force, installation team and customer service personnel. Apart from this, there are 38 retail outlets around the country to service customer needs with installation time shortened to 1 week. d. Strong buying power leverage Astro has a significant buying power from and programme suppliers because of the strength of what they’ve achieved in Malaysia. Weakness a. Technological capabilities Astro’s Ku band transmission provide digital quality broadcast but it is susceptible to rain fade. Although it only happens 0. 3% in a year, this has been an area of attack by Indovision through various campaigns. There is lack of R in enhancing its technological capabilities in search of new applications.

There is a threat of technological obsolescence in the long term. b. Limited distribution Astro’s distribution network is limited to 8 retail outlets nationwide and 30 authorised dealers, inferior to the wide cast network of Indovision. Opportunities a. Regional Untapped markets The Indonesian market is still relatively stagnant and untapped, despite the large presence of pay-TV operators. The existing pay-TV companies mainly operate in the capital and big cities in the Jabodetabek area. Second level metros such as Bandung, Semarang and Medan where entertainment options are limited remains untapped and poses tremendous potential. b.

Demand for exclusive and differentiated content In a highly commoditised environment, there is little or no differentiation of content offered. There is a high demand for quality local content and exclusive content that are not available on the FTA platform. Threats a. Lack of education on the product category Current pay TV operators have promoted themselves without promoting the category. They have not convinced people of the value and benefits of pay TV resulting low adoption rate as people do not see the need for pay TV. b. Free-to-air (FTA) 12 free-to-air (FTA) stations have exposed viewers to an extremely wide variety of programming, reducing the need for pay TV. c.

Emerging piracy Piracy is emerging as a major problem. There are around one million homes receiving illegal pay TV broadcast. d. Emerging new technologies Emerging new technologies in the industry such as IPTV threatening the obsolescence of DTH technology. 6. Business Mission and Marketing Objectives 6. 1 Business Mission Hooley, Cox and Adams (1992) discuss the elements that go to make up an effective statement of mission. This is illustrated in Figure 6. 0 [pic] Source : Hooley, J. G. , Piercy, N. F. (1998). Marketing Strategy & Competitive Positioning (Second Edition). Prentice Hall Europe Figure 6. 1 : Components of a business mission

Astro isn’t selling a box, or a dish, a channel portfolio or even about watching TV. It’s about providing entertainment, education and enlightenment: an everyday window to an extraordinary world. In summary Astro’s mission statement can be illustrated as follows: Astro strives to be the provider of entertainment, education and enlightenment / inspiration to every Indonesian household through unparalled distinctive content. 6. 2 Marketing Objectives The marketing objectives are as follows a. To increase market share from 21% to 50% by end 2011 b. To grow customer base from 164,000 to 500,000 by end 2011 c. To grow sales revenue from USD2,296,000 to USD7,000,000 7. Sustainable Competitive Advantage According to Aker (2005), synergy between business units can provide SCA that is truly sustainable because it is based on the characteristics of a firm that are probably unique. In the case of Astro, its sustainable competitive advantage resides in the synergy between AK Vision and Astro Malaysia. AK Vision is a premier production house in Indonesia known for its quality local programmes. AK Vision produces content for Astro which are not made available on other platforms. Astro Malaysia has a strong leverage in securing broadcast rights to big tickets sporting events (BPL, Olympics, World cup) and new programme releases.

These synergies contribute to production and acquisition of distinctive much sought after programmes. 8. 0 Business Strategy Alternatives 8. 1 Business Strategy Figure 8. 1 by Aker (2005) identifies the four dimensions that define a business strategy. Source : Aker, D. A. Strategic Market Management. John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 2005 Figure 8. 0 : A Business Strategy 8. 2. Strategic Options In developing the business strategy, the following strategic options have been identified : a . Product Differentiation through innovative content Apart from its ability to gain exclusive rights to big ticket events, Astro also offers more local content than any broadcaster.

Its alliance with AKV (a local production house) has allowed Astro to produce quality local content which are exclusive to Astro’s platform. This will differentiate its offering from the competition. a. Customer Intimacy The multi-channel market has been available for some time, but has failed to connect with the wider audience. Pay TV operators have commonly only expressed the functional benefits. Astro has created and experience that connects the offering to the customer on a more involved and passionate level through high level customer service and promotional campaigns that has created a beyond TV experience. Figure 7. 1 specifies the business strategy components based on the identified strategic options. Product– market investment decision |Astro competes in the Direct-to-Home market, offering superior content to Indonesian | | |households. | |Functional strategies |Procurement strategy of securing big ticket programmes. | | |CRM strategies to enhance brand loyalty and consumer experience. | |Assets and competencies |CRM, e-subscription and billing system leading to shorter lead time from subscription to | | |installation. | | |Extensive and competent, customer service and installation team | | |Synergy with production in the development of exclusive local content. | |Leveraging on buying power of parent company (Astro Malaysia) in securing exclusive rights to| | |content. | |Value proposition |Astro offers superior choice and content to Indonesian households that seek a unique viewing | | |experience. | Figure 8. 1 : Astro’s business strategy components 9. 0 Strategic Thrusts In deciding on a strategic thrusts using Porter (1980) generic strategies, 2 possibilities remain plausible: a. Cost Leadership The cost leadership approach entails Astro to compete on price.

Lower prices will allow Astro to increase sales and further penetrate the existing market leading to an increase in market share. However the feasibility of this strategy is limited as lower prices will lead to a pricing war amongst tiger competitors such as Indovision, lowering overall profitability. b. Differentiation The differentiation strategy entails emphasis to a particular element that is seen by customers to be important and that as a result provides a meaningful basis for competitive advantage as illustrated by Wilson, Gilligan (1997). In this case, Astro’s superior content is key to the differentiation strategy. In selecting the key strategy, differentiation is the most plausible strategy. This strategy is the current strategy pursued by Astro and is the est approach due to the following reasons: a. Creates a major competitive advantage in a market which products are the most part physically indistinguishable. b. Reduces customers’ bargaining power as competitor’s offerings are less attractive. This allows prices to be increased in due time once Astro has gained a foothold in the market. c. Creates a higher entry barriers for potential competitors. 10. 0 Growth Strategy 10. 1 Ansoff Strategy Market penetration strategy is selected based on this matrix (Ansoff, 1965). In pursuing this strategy the marketing actions include. a. Stimulating demand by continuous launch of new content, packages and channels. b.

Intensive sales promotions such as discounts on subscription to encourage trial. Sales promotions such as free 3 month’s subscription directed to competition’s subscribers to encourage switching. c. Outspend the competition on advertising and promotion to create more visibility in the market, enhance brand recognition and awareness. Advertising to stress product’s superiority. d. Building unique distribution channels to more effectively reach customers such as SMS and online subscription. e. Outperform competition on customer service such as shorten lead time from subscription to installation through usage of electronic order processing. f. Increase usage of current customers through up sell of new packages.

Marketing efforts to be skewed to untapped markets such as the regional market centers of Medan, Semarang, Bandung, Surabaya, Makasar, Palembang and Yogyakarta. 11. 0 Positioning Strategy 11. 1. Target Market Selection Astro’s marketing objective is to garner 500,000 subscribers by end 2011, The success of this will depend on attracting prosperous Indonesian home owners to its service that will help deliver growth as their propensity to buy will be high. Thus, affordability of the service will be the key determinant in the target market selection. As illustrated in section 2. 0, income levels will be the basis for segmentation. The market segments are illustrated in Figure 10. 1 below.

In most markets, subscription costs account for 1. 5 percent of the household income. The diagram below illustrates the affordability level of the service among the socio-economic groups. |SES Group |Household Expenditure (monthly) |Estimated Household Income (monthly) |US$10 Astro Subscription Cost as % of | | | | |Income | |A1 |US $225+ |US $900+ |1. 1% | |A2 |US $172-225 |US $700-900 |1. % | |B |US $ 125-175 |US $500-700 |1. 7% | |C1 |US $80-125 |US $ 320-500 |2. 4% | |C2 |US $60-80 |US $240-320 |3. 6% | |D |US $40-60 |US $160-240 |5% | |E |US $40 less |US $160 less |6. 3% | Source : AC Nielsen, TV Population 2007 Figure 11. : Estimate of subscription costs as a percentage of household income by socio-economic group in Indonesia SES Group A1, A2, B and C1 have the best affordability level, indicating the key target segment for Astro. In looking at the geographic segmentation, 10 main cities remain the key target for Astro as illustrated in Figure 11. 2. Total A, B, and C1 households in these 10 cities amount to 5. 95 million households as portrayed in Appendix 18. 1. The breakdown of target market are illustrated in Figure 11. 2. Source: AC Nielsen Research Consultants, 2007 TV Population Figure 11. 2 : Total A,B, C1 TV households in 10 main cities Concentrated Marketing

In directing is marketing efforts, a concentrated marketing strategy is chosen where segment A is the prime target. As illustrated by Wilson, Gilligan (1997) this will help control costs by advertising and distributing only to the primary market. Hence achieving the intended revenue and profitability. 11. 2 Positioning According to Cravens, Piercy (2006), positioning concepts may be functional, symbolic or experiential. Astro is a significant improvement of the current offer in terms of customer service and content differentiation The perceptual map illustrated in Figure 12. 2, shows the ideal positioning strategy which are unchartered territories by the competition.

Other pay TV operators, sit on the right quadrant where products offered are parity and undifferentiated. There left quadrant remains unchartered and the ideal space for Astro that offers unparralled choice and exclusive / differentiated content. Figure 12. 2 Perceptual map of Indonesian pay TV operators 12. 0 Strategic Marketing Mix Product Astro’s channels offerings are value added with differentiated content including local and exclusive content such as British Premier League which are not available on any other platform. The 12 special proprietary channels bearing exclusive local and international content are to be the key point of differentiation. Price

Entry pricing to be comparable to Indovision. Prices to be increase in the long run once Astro has gained a foothold in the market. Place The objective is the is to make Astro easily accessible. The key strategy are as follows: a. Increase the retail outlets from 15 to 21. Outlets to be skewed in prime locations such as Jakarta, Medan, Semarang and Surabaya b. Expansion of the distribution channel via strategic alliances with electrical outlets nationwide where consumers can opt to subscribe via this outlet. c. Ease the subscription process, via e-subscription and SMS subscription to allow customers to subscribe online or via SMS Promotions

Print, TV and radio advertising will be used to promote the content, sales promotions to drive acquisition and on-ground events will be used to create off-air experiences. Detailed marketing action programmes and timeline are further illustrated in Appendix 18. 2 and 18. 3 13. 0 Assumptions and Contingency plans Indonesia’s GDP is projected to grow by an average of 5. 5% per annum over the coming decade. There is a possibility that the global market slump will have a direct effect on this figure. In the light of this circumstance, Astro needs to direct its effort in increasing the ARPU of the existing subscriber to achieve its financial projections. 14. Sales Forecast and Financial Projections A Profit and Loss statement is tabulated as illustrated in Figure 13. 0 for the current FY2008 and the projected Fy2009 until FY2011 (Birt, e. al. , 2008). This statement is parallel with the objectives illustrated earlier. Here are some projected key results: 15. 0 Implementation Phillip Kotler (2003), a great marketing strategy can be sabotaged by poor implementation. Thus it is important that the all business units are aligned to achieve the organizational goal. The McKinsey 7-S Framework by Peters and Waterman (1982) are used to illustrate the implementation strategy as portrayed in Figure 15. 0. Strategy |Product differentiation through procurement of exclusive content | | |Unparalled customer service | |Structure |A matrix structure with decentralised decision making to foster employee empowerment and | | |cross-fertilisation of ideas | |System |Implementation of the following systems to increase effectiveness. | | |CRM system for customer acquisition, retention, database management and churn modeling. | | |Programme procurement system to monitor, develop and procure latest key content. | | |E-processing to reduce subscription to installation cycle time. |Style |Egalitarianism culture to encourage sharing of ideas | |Staff |Training and development of frontliners primarily sales force, customer service personnel and | | |installation team. | | |Usage of HR consultants in hiring key personnel such in the research, customer service and programming | | |planning team | |Skills |Skills set and competence to be centered around the following key functional areas. | |Research – consumer and programme research to study channels preferred by consumers. | | |Programming – strategic planning of types of programme to procure and develop | | |Distribution – planning of the distribution strategy or routes to market. | | |Customer service | |Shared Values |Always original and entertaining in a way things are done. | | |Always innovating, always bringing new content and new ideas to the market. | | |Always looking for out for each other and looking after the customers . | Figure 15. : McKinsey 7-S Framework for Astro’s implementation strategy 16. 0 Reviewing Strategies According to Cravens and Piercy (2008), a strategic marketing plan needs to be responsive to changing conditions. The strategic marketing plan also needs information from continuous monitoring and assessment of performance. Thus, this will ensure that the strategies are on track to the goals and demonstrate when any adjustments are needed. There are 4 key steps in initiating a strategic control and evaluation program for Astro as portrayed in Figure 16. 0. Source: Cravens, D. W. & Piercy, N. F. (2008). Strategic Marketing. (9th ed). McGraw Hill. Singapore. pp. 482 – 487. Figure 16. Strategic Marketing Plan Evaluation and Control for Astro 16. 1 Balanced Scorecard In evaluating the performance, the Balanced Scorecard as illustrated in Figure 15. 0 will be used as a benchmark. | |Strategic Objectives |Measurements |Targets | | | | |Year 1 |Year 2 |Year 3 | |Finance |To increase total sales revenue |US Dollar | | | | | | | | | | | |To achieve cost per unit | | | | | | | |US Dollar | | | | | |To increase gross margin | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Percentage | | | | |Customer |To improve customer satisfaction |(1-10) 10 being the best customer |7 |8 |9 | | | |satisfaction index | | | | | |To increase brand loyalty | | | | | | | |Percentage of churn |5 |13 |1 | | |To increase Take-up of add on | | | | | | |packages |Average Revenue Per Unit (ARPU) | | | | | | | |14 |18 |20 | |Internal |To shorten subscription to |No of days |7 |6 |5 | |Process |installation process | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Increase distribution efficiency |No of outlets |17 |19 |21 | | | | | | | | | |Increase procurement and production | | | | | | |efficiency |Percentage |85% |88% |91% | |Leading & |Employee turnover |Percentage |3. 5% |2. 5% |1. % | |Growth | | | | | | | |Marketing effectiveness |ROI Percentage |80% |85% |90% | | | | | | | | | |Sales force and customer service | | | | | | |competency |Training hours |40hours |50hours |60hours | Figure 15. 0 : Balanced Scorecard for Astro 17. 0 Conclusion

Together with continuous offering of uniquely distinctive content and an clear strategic direction and implementation of the business strategy, the concept of offering consumers a unique viewing experience will ensure that Astro achieves phenomenal growth in the Indonesian market. 18. 0 Appendices 18. 1 TV Population in 10 main cities 19. 0 Bibliography and References Aker, D. A. (2005). Strategic Market Management. John Wiley and Sons, Inc Ansoff, H. I. (1965), Corporate Strategy. McGraw-Hill, New York. Asia Media News Daily (2009). Indonesia : Pay TV Operators feeling good for 2009 despite adverse global economic conditions. The Jakarta Post, 30 January 2009 Birt J. , Chalmers, K. Beal, D. Brooks, A. Byrne, S. Oliver J. (2008). Accounting: Business Strategy Reporting for Decision Making (2nd edition). John Wiley & Sons, Australia pp196-205 Cravens, D. W. & Piercy, N. F. 2006) . Strategic Marketing Eight Edition. McGraw Hill Education (Asia) Cravens, D. W. & Piercy, N. F. (2008). Strategic Marketing. (9th ed). McGraw Hill. Singapore. pp. 482 – 487. Hooley, G. J. Cox, A. J. and Adams A. (1992). Our five year mission – to boldly go where no man has gone before. Journal of marketing Management, 8 (1) 35-48 Kotler, P . (2003). Marketing Management Eleventh Edition, International Edition. Prentice Hall Peters, T. J. , Waterman J, R. H. (1982). In search of Excellence: Lessons from America’s Best Run Companies. HarperCollins Publishers, Inc Porter, M. E. (1985). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior

Performance. , New York: The Free Press Wilson, R. M. S. , Gilligan, C. (1997) Strategic Marketing Management . Planning, Implementation and Control. Butterworth-Heinemann Online References Cable & Satellite Broadcasting Association of Asia. Indonesia in View. Viewed through the internet on 2 March 2009 at : http://www. casbaa. com/publication. aspx? id=publication10 First Media corporate website. Viewed through the internet on 5 March 2009 at : www. firstmedia. com Indovision corporate website. Viewed through the internet on 5 March 2009 at : www. indovision. tv Statistic Indonesia (2007) . Indonesian 2007 Population Census. Viewed through he internet on 2 March 2009 at : http://www. bps. go. id/pubs/Population_and_Manpower/index. html ———————– STRATEGIC ANALYSIS External Analysis ? Customer Analysis ? Competitor Analysis ? Market Analysis ? Environmental Analysis Internal Analysis ? Performance Analysis ? Determinants of strategic options e. g. organizational capabilities etc STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OUTPUT (SWOT) Opportunities, threats, trends and strategic uncertainties Strength, Weaknesses, problems, constraints STRATEGY INDENTIFICATION, SELECTION AND IMPLEMENTATION ? Identify business strategy alternatives – Product-market investment strategies – Customer value proposition Assets, competencies and synergies – Functional strategies and programs ? Select strategy ? Implement the operating plan ? Review strategies Source : Aaker, D. A. (2005). Strategic Market Management. John Wiley and Sons, Inc, Figure 2. 0 : Strategic Marketing Plan Framework Major Cities Narrowline Broadband & Pay TV Service) Broadline Broadband, Movie Pay TV Services) [pic] [pic] A – Satellite (Direct to Home (DTH)) : Indovision, Astro, Oke Vision B – Cable : First Media, IM2 C – Combination (DTH & Cable) : Telkomvision komvision Limited Pay TV Service National Satellite Towns TABLE OF CONTENTS A0 C Coverage B Sales (USD) ‘ooo 15,400 16,000 14,000 12,000 005 – 2,100,000 2006 – 3,934,000 2007 – 6,300,000 2008 – 9,800,000 2009* – 15,400,000 2,100 3,934 6,300 9,800 2009 2008 2006 2005 2007 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 Market Definition Customer Targets Company Values Guiding Principles Competitive Positioning Differential Advantage Distinctive Competencies Core Skills Mission Objectives & Strategy Strategic Intent Vision of what you want to be First Media Setup balance score card criteria using KPI to evaluate performance criteria on a monthly and daily basis in order to meet financial and marketing objectives in 2011. Assess KPI performance and take necessary action to rectify the gap.

Obtain and analyse the financial and marketing information starting from the budgeting stage to monthly stage until quarter one 2012. Conduct Strategic Marketing Audit in Sales & Marketing distribution and customer service on a bi-monthly basis for 2009 and a quarterly basis for 2010 and 2011 IndoVision ASTRO Telkomvision Differentiated / Extensive Content Undifferentiated / Generic Content IM2 Oke Vision Limited Choice 3 – Above Average 2 – Average 1 – Below Average [pic] Where to Compete The product-market investment decision How to Compete Value proposition Assets & CompetenciesFunctional area strategies & programs A BUSINESS STRATEGY Source : AC Nielsen Research Consultants, 2007 TV Population

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Green Banking and Its Sustainability

“ The supreme reality of our time is….. the vulnerability of our planet “ -John. F. Kennedy Climate change is perhaps the most controversial and complicated issue facing the world. The world has seen much focus on economic progress and mankind has made gaint steps in its journey through time. The side effects of the development process have however also been equally enormous – loss of bio-diversity, environmental damage etc. The warming effect of certain man made gas emissions such as carbon-di-oxide, methane, nitrous oxide and hydro fluoro carbons are found responsible for distortion in climate change.

As environmental issues gain greater attention, pressure is placed on all industries including financial services to implement green initiatives. There is a growing awareness amoung banks and financial institutions to protect the environment and thereby to save the mother planet. As Banks are responsible corporate citizens they believe that every small green step taken today would go a long way in building a greener future. Banks are committing funds on a sustainable basis in responsible banking. They are shifting forward from profit to people and now more importantly, to create a better future for all.

INTRO TO GREEN BANKING A Green Bank is a bank that promotes environmental and social responsibility but operates as a traditional community bank and provides excellent services to investors and clients. Its progressive approach to the community and the earth sets it apart from other banks. Green Banking is a general term which can cover a multitude of areas from a bank being environmentally friendly to how and also where their money is invested. It is not just another corporate social responsibility (CSR) activity. Green Banking which considers all the social and environmental factors is also called ethical banking.

Ethical banks are started with the aim of protecting the environment. Green banking, compared to normal banking gives more weight to environmental factors. It checks out all the factors before considering a loan – whether the project is environment friendly and has any implications for future. A loan would be sanctioned only when all the environmental safety standards are followed. BANKING AND SUSTAINABILITY Sustainable development denotes the development that does not reduce the possibilities and choices for the future generations, at the same time ensures continuity of economic progress for the present generation.

It requires that decisions taken today do not comprise options for the future – this issue is central to any serious commitment to sustainability. Sustainable development transcends matters of ethics, corporate and social responsibility and the environment although they are all related. The process of sustainable development involves all sectors in the economy – Government, NGOs, corporates, citizens and of course the financial sector. Banking is often associated with formal and rigid approaches and the sector generally perceives itself as environmentally neutral.

The context in which banking operates is however continuously changing. Although banks themselves are generally environment friendly and do not impact the environment much through their own internal operations, in view of the relationship between the banking sector and the firms who are users of bank’s products, the external impact on the environment through these entities is substantial. Banks that are serious about sustainable development put principles at the heart of decision-making.

This includes fundamental issues, such as how deals are done and loans are made in searching proactively for opportunities and even in establishing and adhering to policy frameworks that deliberately preclude involvement in certain investments. For example, an investment in a factory that pollutes heavily (and passes on the costs to the society at large) will generally have a higher financial rate of return than a factory that invests in expensive pollution control technology, as a result showing a lower rate of return.

How will banks assess the two and which one of the two will be considered first for lending although the second case will clearly be a better investment option in the long run?. Environmental issues highlights both risks as well as opportunities. While on the risk side there is pollution, soil degradation etc. on the opportunity side there are investment possibilities through highly successful sustainable funds or green funds in which there is apparently no dearth of investors. Banks, as financial intermediaries are seen as efficient assessors of risk.

The investors who themselves do not have the wherewithal to assess the risk in projects or companies, prefer to invest in the banks offering environment of sustainability linked products. Driving forces for sustainability come from all the stakeholders of the company – the investors, shareholders, employees, board of directors, customers etc. With the market for investment in sustainable investment funds growing, a win-win situation has been created both for a banker and an investor. Its is true that a bank in such case does not aim for the highest financial return, but the highest sustainable return and being profitable in the long run.

IMPERATIVES OF GREEN BANKING Green Banking is very important in mitigating the following risks involving the banking sector : Credit Risk : Due to climatic change and global warming, there have been direct as well as indirect costs to banks. It has been observed that due to global warming there have been extreme weather conditions which affect the economic assets financed by the banks, thus leading to high incidence of credit default. Credit risk can also arise when banks lead companies whose businesses are adversely affected due to changes in environmental regulation.

Legal Risk : Banks, like other business entities face legal risk if they do not comply with relevant environmental regulation. They may also face risk of direct lender liability for cleanup costs or claims for damages in case they actually take possession of pollution causing assets. Reputation Risk : Due to increasing environmental awareness, banks are more prone to reputation risk if their direct or indirect action viewed as socially and environmentally damaging. ROLE OF GREEN BANKING IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

Many banks in India have implemented green banking initiatives to help customers, reduce their impact on the environment and to better protect the natural resources. Most of India’s Banks are pushing for clean technology in their separate ways including : Online Banking Services: The environment and banking industry can both benefit when more customers use the online banking services. Benefits of online banking includes less paperwork, less mail, less driving to branch office by bank customers which all have a positive impact on the environment.

Online banking helps banks in lowering their own costs that results from paper overload and bulk mailing fees when more of their customers use online banking. Carbon Footprint Reduction : Green banks reduce their carbon footprints by building more efficient branches, implements more energy-efficient operational procedures, offers transportation services for their employees and carefully screens their lending in environment sensitive industries. These banks also support eco-friendly groups, green lending and raise money for local environment initiatives.

Power saving equipments : Banks directly contribute to control climate change and they initiate campaigns to replace electronic devices by purchasing energy star rated computers, equipments and appliances. Green Loans for home improvements : For a major home improvement project, if the project can be done in an eco-friendly manner a green loan would be sanctioned. Green loans are perfect for an energy saving project around the house. Green checking accounts : Customers check their accounts on ATM or special touch screens in banks.

A green checking account helps the environment by utilizing more online banking services online bill payments , debit cards and online statements. Green Credit Cards : Some of the banks have introduced green credit cards. The benefit of using a green credit card is that banks will donate funds to an environment- friendly non profit organization from every money spent from an individual’s credit card to a worthwhile cause of environmental protection.

Mobile Banking : Mobile banking is tricky. On one hand it is great to have the ability to check balances, transfer funds and pay bills. On the other hand this paper less facility saves time and enery of the customers. Social responsibility services : As a part of green banking strategies banks also initiate various social responsibility services such as tree plantation camps, maintenance of parks, pollution check-up camps etc. AT THE END

Green banking creates awareness around business people about environmental and social responsibility, enabling them to adopt environment friendly business practices, and follows environmental standards for lending. In addition to mitigating risks, green banking opens up new markets and avenues for product differentiation. Not only green banking ensures the greening of the industries but it also facilitates in improving the asset quality of the banks in future. Overall, green banking is a good way for people to be aware of global warming. Thanks to green banking.

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Eid Ul Fitr Celebration in Saudia Arabia

Eid al-Fitr is celebrated by Muslims after fasting the month of Ramadan as a matter of thanks and gratitude to Allah. It takes place on the first day of Shawwal, the tenth month of the lunar calendar. Eid al-Fitr is a happy celebration when people dress new clothes, visit their lovers, and go out for fun. People dress traditional clothes Thobe and Ghutra. Before Eid’s day, people go to tailors to sew new Thobe and buy a new Ghutra. The thobe is a loose, long-sleeved, and ankle-length garment.

Thobe worn in summer is generally white and made of cotton. While in winter, it is generally darker in color and made of wool. The Ghutra is a square scarf, made of cotton or silk, which is worn folded across the head. It’s usually red and white or pure white in color. In the morning of the Eid’s day, people start visiting their relatives and friends. The host shows the most welcomed hospitality. He stands at the door to welcome his guests warmly and wish them a happy Eid.

Drinks and foods serve to guests after asking them about their health and family. Host usually serves Arabic coffee with some dates. Then, a cup of tea with biscuits served too. After that, the host and his guests start chatting about general things or how they will spend the Eid’s vacation. When the guests excuse to leave, the host offers to them to have a lunch after Alduhur prayer and wish them a happy Eid again. Most people plan to go out and have fun. Some of them go with their kids to the corniche.

The kids play with others while their parents are walking along the sea. Then, having a dinner in their favourite restaurant. While others go for picnic in the desert. Staring at the sky, doing BBQ, and spending an enjoyable long night. People in Saudi Arabia doing wonderful activities during Eid al-Fitr. They are good looking and their skins refreshed with new clothes. They communicate together and visit each other. They change the routine and have a great time outside home.

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Religion and Irish Mythology in the Ballad of Father Gilligan

RELIGION AND IRISH MYTHOLOGY IN THE BALLAD OF FATHER GILLIGAN This poem takes a ballad form – a traditional form, usually sung, with regular, short stanzas that tell a story. It has a more overtly religious content than most of Yeats’s poems. As a protestant who turned to theosophy and mysticism, Yeats usually stays away from Catholic themes. Yeats also usually stays away from the Irish language, which he uses in this poem when he writes, “mavrone! ” which is the Irish, “Mo bhron,” a cry of grief.

Thus making ‘religion’ and ‘Irish mythology’ the main theme of the poem. RELIGION The poem not only speaks to the poverty of rural Ireland, but also to their extreme religiosity. The priest is horrified by the fact that he did not make it to the bedside of the sick man before he died because no one performed the rites of extreme unction, meaning in the Catholic tradition that the man did not die in a state of grace, and therefore cannot go to heaven. The divine intervention which caused this not to be the case is an affirmation of a loving, kind God.

In the Bible it talks about how God knows if even one sparrow dies. This poem’s theme is the same as the idea that is in that quote. In this poem, Father Gilligan is worn out emotionally and physically. So when he tries to pray for the “poor man” who sent for him, he falls asleep. When he wakes up the next morning very early, he goes to the poor man’s house and finds that an angel in his own form had already been there. The angel helped the man die happy. Gilligan says this shows that God cares even for him and the poor man . IRISH MYTHOLOGY W. B.

Yeats, poet and playwright, was born in Dublin Ireland on 13th June 1865, but moved to Chis wick London in 1867 due to his father’s career as a lawyer and did not return to Ireland until 1881, where he studied at the Metropolitan School of Art, it was here that he met fellow poet George Russell who shared his interest in mysticism The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branch and the Historical Cycle.

There are also a number of extant mythological texts that do not fit into any of the cycles. Additionally, there are a small number of recorded folk tales that while not strictly mythological, feature personages from one or more of these nine cycles. Mythology operates as a theme in this collection in a number of ways. First and foremost it separates Yeats’ poetry from British writing. British writers drew on Roman and Greek mythology – the mythology, in fact, of other (albeit ancient) imperialists.

In choosing Irish mythology as his source of allusions and subjects, Yeats creates poetry distinct from that of Ireland’s long-time oppressors. This compliments Yeats’ desire to cultivate a poetic language suitable to Ireland alone. Moreover, Yeats’ use of Irish mythological subjects allows him to avoid the political climate of his own day. Yeats, a moderate compared to his beloved Maud Gonne, found his political beliefs to be a burden in his pursuit of love.

In treating legendary figures, Yeats avoids the problem of referencing the complicated political environment that so tormented him. Ireland’s long history is riddled with ancient mythology and folklore. Ireland’s ancient societies, the Druids and the Celtics, believed in the power of magic and many of these beliefs spread to modern day legends told again and again across the country. Stories of warriors with all the knowledge of the world, fairies playing pranks on farm owners and leprechauns hiding their gold at the end of a rainbow add to the mysterious appeal of Ireland.

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Rapid Recall of Microbial Contamination of Proctor and Gamble’s Oral-B

Just last month of this year, July 13 to 20, news all over the world has announced that Proctor and Gamble, one of the top companies in the world recalled Oral-B mouthwash over microbial contamination. Microbial Contamination is the presence or growth of one or more bacteria or fungi, harmful microorganisms, other toxins or side-effects that could negatively affect a product or the consumers’ health and their safety. Oral-B mouthwash particularly Oral-B tooth and gum care alcohol free mouth rinse and Oral-B tooth and gum care mouth rinse (350ml and 500ml) are required to be removed from the market shelves.

A bacterium called Burkholderia Anthinia is detected to be an ingredient in Oral-B mouthwash which is naturally found in soil and water. P & G said that by using these products, no risk to healthy people will happen. However, people with severely weak immune systems or people with cystic fibrosis might be affected by the contamination. According to different articles posted in the internet, possible microbial contamination was detected in these two types of Oral-B mouthwash in Canada, South America, Vietnam, China, and even here in the Philippines as well as other parts of Asia.

The company had started recalling Oral-B mouthwash in the market and has informed each country’s respective health departments and institutions about this issue. Each branch of Proctor and Gamble in every country that are affected due to microbial contamination that Oral-B has advised customers to stop using the product and contact P & G for refunds, and its customer services will handle the refund. According to Yahoo! News, “Shares of the Cincinnati-based company closed at $64. 64 on Wednesday on the New York Stock Exchange”.

In China, P & G is recalling almost 36,000 bottles of Oral-B, 600,000 in Mexico alone and all countries are as well advised to call P & G’s hotline. According to the company’s spokesperson, “Whilst the safety risk is extremely low, out of an abundance of caution, we are recalling the product. ” therefore it is just right to withdraw Oral-B products containing microbial contamination. Taking the “precautionary step” and with safety and product quality as the company’s number one priority, Proctor and Gamble indeed made the right decision of taking out defective products.

Companies test and research their products extensively before distributing them to the market and make sure that no damaged or defected goods are allocated to the different firms. However, mistakes are possibly done as production volume increases. Proctor and Gamble considering consumers as their top priority, they thought of their health as well as the people’s value of their products. Focusing more on the wellness of the consumer and the issue regarding P&G’s Oral-B having microbial contamination, the company, pulled out all of Oral-B mouthwash products.

If I were in the position of the marketing manager or even the CEO of Proctor and Gamble, I would do the same thing. I would rather throw away these defective products than risk the health of my buyers just to sell our company’s goods. Losing all the money spent of our company is a better option than being liable for making wrong decisions as well as making the sales of our company decrease and having a bad reputation the different consumers around the globe.

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Disrupting the Status Quo

ELM 8100 Segment 2 The Logic of “Disrupting the Status Quo” Action research is known by many other names, including participatory research, collaborative inquiry, emancipatory research, action learning, and contextural action research, but all are variations on a theme. Put simply, action research is “learning by doing” – a group of people identify a problem, do something to resolve it, see how successful their efforts were, and if not satisfied, try again. While this is the essence of the approach, there are other key attributes of action research that differentiate it from common problem-solving activities that we all engage in every day.

A more succinct definition is, “Action research aims to contribute both to the practical concerns of people in an immediate problematic situation and to further the goals of social science simultaneously. Thus, there is a dual commitment in action research to study a system and concurrently to collaborate with members of the system in changing it in what is together regarded as a desirable direction. Accomplishing this twin goal requires the active collaboration of researcher and client, and thus it stresses the importance of co-learning as a primary aspect of the research process. (Gilmore, Krantz, & Ramirez, 2002). The main purpose of this article is to bring forth the notion of using effective action research in the educational arena in correlation with the Ed. D doctoral program and learners. The key question the authors pose for discussion is how the current design of action research can be incorporated in the Ed. D program that will effectively enhance the educational learners experiences as it pertains to the direct correlation to the design of action research and how the Ed.

D doctoral program and action research link together. The main inferences in the article is that transformation theory and its product, transformative learning, aids leaders in understanding and developing the necessary skills and processes which encourage them to challenge the status quo. In essence, transformative learning helps leaders to deconstruct conformity to the many social and cultural canons which have permeated U. S. public schools to the detriment of many of our students.

Quality educational practitioners understand that to maintain the status quo (of the existing social and cultural canons) is to “impede development of a sense of responsible agency” (Mezirow 1991, p. 8). The Key concept that must be understood about this article is that action research must be based on a sound and appropriate research methodology. Action researchers operate within a critical perspective grounded in the understanding that the action that is involved in some way transforms practice in the organization (Grogan, Donaldson, & Simmons, 2007).

If we take this line of reasoning used in the article seriously, it is thought that educational leaders will be able to identify and solve any issues within their organizations (Grogan, Donaldson, & Simmons, 2007), and if we fail to take this line of reasoning seriously it is thought that educational leaders will not become the change agents and will not be prepared to handle issues and the status quo want change. (Grogan, Donaldson, & Simmons, 2007).

The main point of view presented in this article is that action research’s primary goal focuses on turning the people involved into researchers, people learn best, and more willingly apply what they have learned, when they do it themselves. It also has a social dimension the research takes place in real-world situations, and aims to solve real problems. Finally, the initiating researcher, unlike in other disciplines, makes no attempt to remain objective, but openly acknowledges their bias to the other participants (Gilmore, Krantz, & Ramirez, 2002).

References Gilmore, Thomas, Jim Krantz, and Rafael Ramirez. “Action Based Modes of Inquiry and the Host-Researcher Relationship. ” Consultation 5. 3: 160-76. Grogan, M. , Donaldosn, J. , & Simmons, J. (2007). Disrupting the status quo: The action research dissertation as a transformative strategy. Retrieved April 22, 2011 from the Connexions web site: http://cnx. org/content/m14529/1. 2/ Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.