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Uncertainty Avoidance

Uncertainty expresses the deficit that people tolerate ambiguous situations and need formal rules. Uncertainty is “the extent to which the members of a culture fell threatened by uncertain or unknown situations. One of the dimensions of national cultures (from weak to strong). ” To accomplish that they will create formal rules and believe in their correctness. They will avoid anything that doesn’t go along with the rules and regulations they were creating. Because of the fact that people don’t know what will happen on the next day, the future is expressed as uncertain and this uncertainty causes anxiety.

Anxiety is “a diffuse state of being uneasy or worried about what may happen. ” Anxiety is closely correlated with stress and nervousness. People get into stress when they feel pressured by time and/or uncertainty to accomplish a target or to solve a problem. That is the situation when people become nervous as close the dead line comes. But anxiety doesn’t have anything to do with fear which has an object and anxiety doesn’t have. The more cultures feel anxious the more they express their emotions by using their mimic and gestures.

To show emotions might be better in the way for health because aggressions and all stored emotions can be released. This can protect from heart diseases and helps to avoid typical stress symptoms. Richard Linn, an Irish psychologist, showed also that there is a connection between a higher alcohol consume and cultures who avoid uncertainty. In cultures with high uncertainty avoidance emotions are displayed in the way that everything different is dangerous. They resist in changes and worry about future. Cultures with a low degree of uncertainty avoidance are open for new things and changes.

They don’t have feelings of uncertainty about future. To prevent uncertainty societies set up laws and rules like companies do. Duties and rights (internal and external) are controlled by authorities. Some cultures need to have a strong uncertainty avoidance like France. In France many strict regulations are used and tasks are heavily centralized in companies. For meetings it is important to consider that. There will be a much higher demand for details when creating a contract. This is to avoid any circumstances which could cause any kind of uncertainty for French business people.

Organizing is therefore rather inflexible concerning changes which occur in business life. Germans and Finns who have a less but still strong level of uncertainty avoidance and a medium level of power distance have the need for clearly specified competence to avoid uncertainty. In case that problems would occur it is preferable to establish specific procedures and to distribute responsibilities to task forces. Those ones should orientate on the given instructions and rules. Uncertainty can be reduced then by clearly defined roles and procedures.

The co-ordination and control can be achieved through standardization and certification measurers. Americans and Chinese (Hong Kong) have a lower need for uncertainty avoidance and rather avoid too many rules and formalities. They are more likely to stimulate innovations and emphasize new ideas. They are more flexible and more acting than reacting on changes occurring inside and outside of business. In contrast cultures with very strong uncertainty avoidance display their emotions in the way that everything that is different, is dangerous. They resist in changes and worry about their future.

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Roy Adaptation Model

Nursing Theorist: Roy Adaptation Model Jeanette Ratliff, RN Chamberlain College of Nursing Course Number: Summer 2011 Nursing Theorist: Roy Adaptation Model Sister Callista Roy was not only a pioneer in the field of nursing, but also a leader. Her dedication to the health community is inarguable. As serving numerous roles as leader, her thoughts and visions touched many. One example of her mark in nursing is the Roy Adaptation Model. It is in this model that health is defined as a state of adaptation that occurs as a result of successfully adapting to stressors.

It is a positive response to an environmental change as well as coping successfully with stressors and environmental changes. Roy defines the environment in terms of individual’s external surroundings and influences that affect a person’s development. Adaptation can be applied to terms of health or illness. Because both health and illness are not concrete terms, a continuum of the two serve as an example of Roy’s model and it’s adaptability to abstract terms. Her model serves as a picture of reality.

Perhaps it is less important that our society sees change and self-concept as critical, and thus create a reality that makes the Roy Adaptation Model an effective conceptual model for nurses (Andrews and Roy, 1991). Major Concepts of the Theory Within the Roy Adaptation Model (RAM), there are four major concepts. The first concept places emphasis on humans as an adaptive system. Roy focuses on man as being an adaptive system which can function as an individual or within a group setting. By using a holistic approach to conceptualize the human system, George (2002) reiterates how Roy places emphasis on holism, and its overall core to her model.

Roy describes man as a feedback system that has inputs and outputs, as well as controls and feedback. It is in this component of the model that Roy defines the four modes of the human adaptive response as physiological, self-concept, role function, and interdependence mode. The second major concept of the Ram is the environment. Roy’s model focuses on the effects that the environment has on human adaptation. According to Roy, stimuli from both within and around the system are represented by the environment. The third concept of RAM is health.

George, (2002) notes that health according to Roy’s model is measured by man’s adaptability to change. Health is not simply the absence of disease, but a perspective by which one is experiencing, such as an emotional or physical state. The fourth and final concept of RAM is the goal of nursing. “Roy defines the goal of nursing as the promotion of adaptive responses in relation to the four adaptive modes: physiological-physical, self-concept-group identity, role function, and interdependency” (George, 2002, p308). Adaptive responses support the human adaptive system through actions which affect health in a positive manner.

Goals of nursing are to aid in reducing ineffective responses by supporting adaptive responses. The use of Roy’s model by nurses is to serve as a guide to help man and insure positive adaptation (George, 2002). Interrelationships of Concepts According to Andrews & Roy (1991), the RAM was inspired by pediatrics and bases on theorists Helson and Von Bertalanffy’s views. Helson stated adaptation as a process of responding positively to environmental changes and described three types of stimuli: focal, contextual, and residual.

The adaptation model is made up of four main concepts; person, health, environment, and nursing which involves a six step nursing process to carry out (Andrew & Roy, 1991). Roy believes that stressors are considered stimuli. These stimuli can be divided into classes which include focal, contextual, and residual. Focal stimuli are the stimulus which directly confronts a person. Contextual stimuli are noted as all other stimuli present with either a positive or negative impact on the situation. Residual stimuli are known as the external or internal factors with current effects that are unclear (George, 2002).

Roy believes that a combined effect of stimuli will determine a person’s adaptation level. There is a zone which shows the correlation between adaptive response and the range of stimulation. When stimuli fall outside the zone, Roy points out that the individual is without effective coping skills. Therefore the individual is unable to respond positively. Coping mechanisms consist of regulator and cognator subsystems. The regulator subsystem is made up of automatic neural endocrine and chemical activity. The cognator subsystem consists of cognitive and emotive pathways.

These pathways involve information processing, learning, judgment, and emotions (George, 2002). In the final component of her model Roy address the goal of nursing is to promote adaptation in each of the four modes. By doing so, promotes a person’s health, quality of life, and dying and dignity. The four models according to Andrews and Roy, (1991) are physiological, self-concept, role function and interdependence. Roy’s model includes six steps in order to carry out the nursing process. These steps are assessment of behavior, assessment of stimuli, nursing diagnosis, goal setting, interventions, and evaluation.

To assess behavior, it is stressed that behavior is observed and compared to norms and considered either adaptive or ineffective. The assessment of stimuli involves classifying the stimuli into one of the three stimuli categories, focal, contextual, and residual, and assessing how the affects behavior. Nursing diagnosis note ineffective behaviors and identify the probable causes. Goal setting is focused on setting realistic and attainable goals and involves the person to follow through with the goal. In the intervention step, the stimuli are manipulated.

In the evaluation step, the changes are evaluated by observing the change in behavior. If it is found that the behavior is ineffective, then the interventions are revised (Andrews & Roy, 1991). Logic of the Theory Roy’s greatest emphases in her model, as mentioned earlier, are the adaptation properties of man, hence the title Roy Adaptation Model. The ability to adapt to external and internal stimuli is crucial to the survival of man. Developing on the adaptability of the individual, nursing practice should be directed to promote this process (Ramini, Brown, & Buckner, 2008).

Messner and Neff Smith, (1986) point out that Roy’s model provides guidelines for utilizing the nursing process to meet the needs of our patients. Messner also points out that as a multitude of stressors both physical and psychosocial begin to develop in the presence of suboptimal adaptation, and that these stressors precipitate the need for additional adaptation. It is within this model that Roy identifies that stimuli elicit a coping mechanism or adaptive response. This response is addressed as either effective or ineffective, using feedback to verify the results of the response (Andrews & Roy, 1991).

By carefully looking toward the individual, nurses can begin planning effective interventions to promote development as well as advocate the needs of that individual (Magee & Roy, 2008). As we begin to look toward others works, we can see how Roy’s model is embraced by others to validate their findings. Her concept of adaptation has been tested a number of times, proving to the nursing community reliability in her work. Looking back upon my career, working for a hospice agency in Clarksdale, MS. a particular patient was diagnosed with a terminal illness.

The patient was diagnosed with lung cancer which had metastasized throughout his body. Specialists had come and gone in recent days giving little hope for a distant future. The patient although quite ill remained optimistic. At this point in my career, I thought the patient was not realistic about his given situation. Family continued making their appearance throughout the days to come bringing food and supplies to help the day pass. Working in hospice, I found that rules and regulations were adapted to meet the individuals’ needs and to facilitate a positive outcome. One such request was to bring the family dog in for a visit.

To no surprise, the dog was well received by all including patients and staff. Time progressed and the patients’ condition remained constant. Family continued their trips and what was to be only a four to six week ordeal continued on for two months. The patent, gaining comfort with his condition went home on hospice with little change in his status. Throughout this time his attitude toward his diagnosis never faltered between both himself and his family. His ability to adapt to the given situation through the promotion of positive compliance is an excellent example of RAM.

The communication between the patient, family and staff to provide positive patient adaptation, without a doubt had an effect on the patients’ disease process. Conclusion In conclusion, because both health and illness are concrete terms, a continuum of the two serves as an example of Roy’s model and it adaptability to abstract terms. The four major concepts within the Roy Adaptation Model are adaptive system, environment, health and the goal of nursing. Roy believed that stressors are considered stimuli which can be divided into classes. Roy’s model included six steps to carry out the nursing process.

These steps are assessment of behavior, assessment of stimuli, nursing diagnosis, goal setting, interventions and evaluation. Roy’s greatest emphases in her model, as mentioned earlier, are the adaptation properties of man. References Andrews, H. & Roy, C. (1991). The adaptation model. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange. Boston-Based Adaptation Research in Nursing Society. (1999). Roy adaptation model based research: 25 years of contributions to nursing science. Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International.. George, J. B. (2002). Nursing theories: The base for professional nursing practice (5th ed. . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Jackson, D. A. (1990). Roy in the post anesthesia care unit. Journal of Post Anesthesia Nursing, 5(3), 143-148. Magee, T. & Roy, C. (2008). Predicting school-age behavior problems: The role early childhood risk factors. Pediatric Nursing, 34(I) 37-43. Messner, R. & Neff Smith, M. (1986) Neurofibromatosis, relinquishing the masks; a quest for quality of life. Journal of Advanced Nursing, (11) 459-464. Ramini, S. K. , Brown, R. , & Buckner, E. B. (2008). Embracing changes: Adaptation by adolescents with cancer.

Pediatric Nursing, 34(1) 72-79. Score Sheet for Draft Paper |Category |Possible Points|Points Earned |Comments | |Content: Use these as Headings | |Introduction |7 | |7 | |SinSingle paragraph clearly defines the key components (with | | | | | | |citations) and explains ontent to be covered | |Review of the Professional Nursing |30 |30 |33 | |Thorough literature review with key concepts of articles explained. |Literature | | | | |Minimum 3 professional sources reviewed | |Application of Clinical Example |20 | |20 | |Provided appropriate clinical example & thoroughly elaborated on | | | | | | |application (with appropriate citations) as directed in the topic | | | | | | |prompt. | |Conclusion |8 | |8 | |Briefly summarized and drew appropriate conclusions.

No new | | | | | | |information was added. | |APA Format | | | | |Title Page |2 |2 |Correctly formatted Running head, page numbers, and short title in header. | | | | |Follows APA format for title, name, and affiliation. |Margins, font, spacing, headings |3 |3 |Correctly formatted margins, font, spacing, and headings. | |Citations |10 |10 |Content cited in the text appropriately with minimum to no errors. At | | | | |least one quote, but not more than 3 direct quotes. | |References |10 |10 |References begin on new page & are double spaced with hanging indent.

Each| | | | |reference is properly formatted based on type of resource. All in text | | | | |citations have references & vice versa. | |Professional Writing | | | | |Organization, clarity, structure, |5 |5 | |Organized logically, written clearly with good structure nd with | |paragraphing | | | |appropriate paragraphs. Evidence of original thought & analysis of | | | | | |topic. | |Spelling, apostrophe use, grammar, |5 |3 | |Written with combination of first and third person. Mostly used | |professional wording, and person | | | |professional language and tone. | |Total |100 |97 | |

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Nike Sweatshop Debate

“Nike: The Sweatshop Debate” Nike was established in 1972 by a Oregon State University track star Phil Knight and for as long as I can remember Nike has had the slogan of “Just Do it”. Is that Nike’s mind frame when it comes to working too? Do they tell their employees to Just do it, and stop complaining is that how Nike got tangled up in the Sweatshop Debate. Nike is a huge organization known most for making popular, fashionable sports gear. Over time Nike managed to become one of the largest sellers of sporting goods around the world with United States origins.

Like all large companies Nike has seen its share of bad publicity the most known bad fact of Nike is they have been accused of having sweats shops in poor developing countries. Nike was accused of have children working in hazardous conditions, with below-subsistence wages One thing I believe is important to point out that many people seem to overlook is Nike does not actually manufacturing anything, it simply designs and markets. But even if the employees are directly Nike employees should Nike be held responsible for working conditions in foreign factories owned by someone they contractor with.

Many believe they should. Nike is technically removed from responsibility in some parts but as a company doing business with another company they have a certain level of obligation as well. When Nike hired the sub-contractors they could have inquired about the pay and working conditions that the workers of subcontractors receive. Let’s face it Nike contracts would be large enough to argue the subcontractor may not exit if it wasn’t for the Nike business, why wouldn’t Nike executives want to take a look around do some fair investigating about who they are going into business with.

If Nike had done it’s due diligence they may have been a head of all the attacks and protesting by chosen to make improved working conditions a part of the arrangement, them those benefits may have been passed on to the workers. Let’s not forget that Nike is a publicly owned firm whose goal is to improve the wealth of its shareholders, so maybe no one asked the hard questions because they didn’t want to know the answers or even worse they knew they answers.

Part of the saddest part of the Nike sweatshop issue is the workers in these foreign countries were happy, even eager, to accept the conditions that were provided as a manufacturer of Nike. They also may know if Nike were to leave the country because of the pressures placed upon it, the workers would undoubtedly suffer greatly. But the workers finally united and protested, with a human rights groups. Wages were reported t be as low as $103. 00 a month.

This amount in appalling to anyone, but technically Indonesia, China and Vietnam all have minimum wage laws on record that Nike was successful appealed with the governments in the countries for years and their own government would agree to allowing Nike subcontractors to pay workers below the minimum wage standards set in the country. To make matters even worse In 1997 Nike would be workers an apprentice rate for several months, that’s right even less than $103. 00 a month. Nike is not investing in 3rd World countires. They had left the countries with a lower wage.

Although Nike has claimed that the employees who were exploited weren’t officially ‘Nike’s employee’ but were instead employees of other businesses that have a contract to source Nike’s shoes. Nike has taken many steps to counter protests, and did admit there were problems in “some” oversea factories, which they are committed to improving working conditions and pay. Reference Facts on Nike Sweatshop Retrieved from Facts About Nike Sweatshops | eHow. com http://www. ehow. com/about_5485125_nike-sweatshops. html#ixzz1NJvMD7pR The Big Mac Index retrieved from http://www. economist. com/markets/bigmac/about. cfm

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Individual Theories

Individual Theories CJS 240 Individual Theories There are several theories that examine the reason why some adolescents are motivated to commit crimes are, in some instances, “predisposed” to a life of crime, while other adolescences, in similar circumstances, are not. There are several theories that have been researched in regards to this matter. These theories are: 1). Routine Activities theory-The routine Activities Theory is largely based upon the fact that a certain amount of crime is the norm and depends upon the environment the adolescent was raised in.

In this theory, it is believed that if the reward for committing the crime is great enough, the crime will be committed, regardless of circumstance. 2). General Deterrence Theory-With the General Deterrence Theory, it is believed that a person who lacks self control or are weak as an individual, WILL commit some type of crime if given the opportunity. 3). Specific Deterrence Theory-

In specific deterrence Theory Specific deterrence this theory focuses on an individual basis and relies on the fact that if an individual is aware of the consequences for committing a crime they will be punishes and are war are of the consequences they must pay for committing said crime. 4). Biochemical Theory- This theory is based upon the fact that crimes could be committed due to a physical imbalance of vitamin intake, improper nutrition, hormonal imbalance (such as menopause),as well as certain reactions to food allergies. The major premise of the theory is that crime is a function of diet, vitamin intake, hormonal imbalance, or food allergies. -“ The strengths are that the theory explains irrational violence and shows how the environment interacts with personal traits to influence behavior. I can test that this theory is pretty accurate. I know when I haven’t eaten enough for the day, or the things I had eaten were just empty calories, I had MAJOR mood issues. I’d get emotional and angry easily. Think of how on edge anorexics and bulimics’ are. Some other interesting things: Major Contributions of biological trait theories: Brain chemistry and hormonal differences are related to aggression and violence. There is no relationship between sugar intake and crime. The male hormone testosterone is linked to criminality. Neurological impairments have been linked to crime. Violence-producing traits are passed from one generation to the next. ”( Retrieved, February from: http://www. enotalone. com/forum/showthread. php? t=272647&page=1 (Biological Theories). 5). Neurological Theory- In the neurological Theory, it is believed that brain dysfunction is the cause of the perpetrator committing crimes. 6). Genetic Theory-

The genetic Theory is based upon adoption studies and is believed that these adopted children were pre-disposed to commit a life of crime based upon the criminal histories if their biological parents. 7). Psychodynic Theory- In the Psychdynic Theory, it is believed that early psychological damages cause an imbalance in ones personality having lifelong effects. 8). Behavioral Therapy- Behavioral therapy is based upon a reward system, such as the Theory that is often used when training animals, when an individual is in their best behavior they are often rewarded for that behavior. ). Cognitive Therapy- This behavior is based upon the presumption that the elements of criminal behavior are caused by the inability of the perpetrator to accurately process information about the events’ that occurred in the past and are still re-living the events that occurred in the past in spite of being in a new environment. The cognitive Theory as approach is in place to primarily assist in persons with such mental disorders such as PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) as well as OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder).

I believe that all of these theories’ have relevance in the study of crimes and should all be considered as well-formed, valid studies to help relieve the recidivism of juvenile crimes as well as turning their lives around at an early age so that theory can be productive members of society. References- http://www. correctionsrising. com/Crime_Theories. html http://www. enotalone. com/forum/showthread. php? t=272647&page=1 (Biological Theories) http://gamebattles. com/forums/t/General-Deterrence-Theory-Criminal-Justice-4150373

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Amul Marketing Management

Introduction: In December 14, 1946 a great company came into origin which we know today as “AMUL”. The name has taken from the Sanskrit word “AMULYAM” which mean ‘priceless’. As per study we came to know that the name has been suggested by the quality control department of Amul in ‘Anand’. But, for some it seems that it is the acronym of the word ‘Amul’ as (Anand Milk Union Limited). During the late 40’s an awareness program took place in the Anand district of Gujarat by the farmers which took the shape of revolution. This revolution was known as the dairy revolution in India.

Though, this was a revolution it was well managed and channelized that led to the prosperity to India’s economic growth. It’s a co-operative organization which is being managed by the apex body, Gujarat Co-Operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. The organization is based in the Anand district of Gujarat and has set an example to the world that how well can a co-operative organization run in a long term. Amul in India has brought a white revolution and helped India to be the global leader in the production of milk. India ranks no. 1 in the world in milk production. It is also the no. 1 brand in manufacturing of vegetarian cheese in the world.

The organization is being owned by around 2. 41million milk producers of Gujarat. Amul has a variety of products in its product line of which some of are as follows amul butter, amul cheese, amul ghee, amul curd, amul chocolate, shrikhand, milk powder, paneer, gulabjamun, nutramul and other brands. Amul is one of the biggest and the largest food brand in India which has an annual turnover of US $ 1700 million in (2009-2010). At present it has 2. 9million milk producing members which help it to collect 9. 10million liters of milk daily and annually 3. 32billion liters. Amul not only operate in India it has its name outside India too.

Amul also exports its products to many countries and is regarded that amul is the largest exporter of the dairy products from India. It operates in many countries like USA, Singapore, Gulf countries and many other countries also. It also has received many awards from the government of India like APEDA award for 11consecutive years. [pic] Source: http://www. amul. com/products. html PESTLE ANALYSIS: MACRO ENVIRONMENT-PESTLE ANALYSIS: One of the useful ways of analyzing an organization external environment is by grouping external forces nearly into six areas using pestle analysis.

PESTLE: a. a )Political b. b) Economical c. c) Social d. d) Technological e. e) Legal f. f) Environmental ? Economic factor:Though the economic environment is influenced by domestic policies, it is also dependent upon world economic trends, rate of economic growth influences consumption patterns, income distribution inflation rates, unemployment price instability, exchange rates, energy prices and many other economic trends determines the nature of product and services required by consumer well as how difficult it becomes to supply them.

There is no doubt that the AMUL is making a big contribution in the economies of the foreign country as well as in their own country. ? Social factor: Social aspect of the analysis deals with the life styles of the consumer, demographic issues, education, immigration, religion issues, population in the country and the career attitude. The impact of the business in the society is really great because of it become sweeteners after every meal. AMUL recognizes the rights of the work force and valued the ideas they might contributes for their progress. Technological factor: It includes the technological developments, new product development, new places to sell, automation, impact on cost structure, new ideas and models and so on. Companies have the ability to sell their products over the internet there are different cost of AMUL in other countries. From the traditional crafting of AMUL, the company also recognizes the importance of technology. From the production, AMUL had incorporated into many types of machinery that make their production be a cost – efficient procedure. Environmental factor: The Company recognizes the certain impacts that they might bring in the environment. There are available strategies and continues inspection came from the local officials to ensure that the resources, as well as the environment is not exploited. ? Legal factor: The idea is of creating a specify taste to be available in the market. The competitor’s and the other companies making the same nature of business are unique. In terms of merging and acquiring businesses, the company recognizes the legal aspect that is the basis of right flow of the business. [pic][pic]

For any product right composition of ingredients is very important and amul did not give any less importance in that because of its standards. So it is for Amul Choco-Crunch which is a new product in amul’s product line. ? Total fat32% ? Cholesterol 2% ? Sodium 2% ? Carbohydrate 7% ? Dietary fiber 9% ? Vitamin A 2% ? Vitamin C 2% ? Calcium 8% ? Iron 4% Breaking the markets in sub-markets or smaller groups of market (i. e. customers) can be called as market segmentation. We can also call this kind of market as niche market or the specialty market.

These markets are almost similar in nature and act similarly as the customers may have similar kind of taste and preferences, likes-dislikes ideas etc. They might also think that the strategy behind all the segmentation is same regarding the product mix, pricing, distribution and promotion. The reason why all the marketers give more impotence in segmentation is because that it give an idea to them that who are their potential customers. How they can get maximum revenue from their limited source of fund. Market Segmentation of Amul CHOCO CRUNCH • It should have similarity within the segment Heterogeneity between segments • The segments must have feature like identification and can be measured. • Segments must be accessible and actionable. • Segments must be large so that maximum profit can be made. The segmentation process can be defined by the wordSADAM: • S Substantial: It means the segment should be large enough to rip maximum profit. • A Accessible: The product should reach the customer efficiently. • D Differential: The product should act differently in different markets. • AActionable: There should be a product for all segments to act. • MMeasurable: The size and the purchasing power must e given due importance. After the segmentation process is completed the company should look which is the most profitable target market and which market should be targeted. But in this course organizations should not blindly target the market which gives maximum revenue in short term and loss in long term. So, for this organizations follow the four different processes before targeting any new market. AGE GROUP TARGETED [pic] Source: www. amul. com The four activities used by Amul while targeting are:- ? What are the abilities and the resources required to enter the market. Examine their competitors in field of resource and skills ? Compare the abilities of the company with that of the competitors. ? Finally, decide the actual target market. The above three points are described from the point of competitors and how to analyze the competitors. The final decision on to zero down to an actual target market is the result of the analysis made from the above points and how the competitors will react on it. After a detail analysis the company has a list of segments near them and they have to choose among them which the best target is for them and which can give them the maximum returns.

The process of targeting can only be started on if the management knows the segments and it is predefined to them; also they should analyze the segments as well as the competitors of those segments. After the targeting process gets over the market should be selected, but the marketing strategy to be used in this markets are yet not decided. So, to decide the marketing strategy the knowledge of segments and the advantages of segments should be known properly. These are the following four major categories which can help marketing management to take decisions: ? PRODUCT ? PRICE PLACE ? PROMOTION These variables are popularly known as marketing mix of 4 P’s of marketing. With the help of these important variables marketing managers can control their customer’s needs and wants in the targeted market. The process of marketing mix can be better understood by the following diagram: Marketing Mix The organization likes to have a proper blend of all this four important variables so that it can generate the maximum profit from the targeted customer’s. So, now let’s take a look of marketing mix of the new product CHOCO-CRUNCH and how these four variables i. product, price, place and promotion are being used. [pic] The organization can choose several pricing policies. They can select value based pricing, cost based pricing and competition based pricing. But in the case of Amul’s Choco Crunch they should follow the competition based Pricing strategy, Because of customer having so many option for same product. Competition Based Pricing In Competition Based Pricing, price setting is based upon competitor’s products. Company may charge the less or more price than the competitor or the same price.

Companies marketing Managers made some different assumptions for making pricing decision and they selected three type pricing strategies for Amul’s Choco Crunch :- 1) Product is having more distinctiveness when comparing with competitor’s product. In this situation we can assume:- a) Price elasticity of the product is very low. b) Cross elasticity of the product also very low. c) Product demand will increase. 2) The product crying perishable distinctiveness comparing to their competitor’s product, we can make an assumption the feature of the products are medium distinctiveness. ) Product is having less distinctiveness when comparing with competitor’s product, the assumption will be a) High price elasticity for the product b) High cross elasticity for the product c) Demand expectation of the product is not predictable Competition based pricing approach helped Amul to beat out all other chocolate in the competition like Cadbury. Pricing of Amuls products are quite cheaper and giving the same quality as compares its competitors such as Cadbury. These factors are customer preferring Amuls products over all other competitor’s product.

The Amul’s Milk product price ranges between Rs. 20 and Rs. 35. [pic] Communication is playing a big role for the success of a product or service, if a product or services clearly communicated to the targeted market what benefit customer gets from the product or services then only that product will have a success life cycle. Organizations promotional strategy or communication mixes consist of:- Advertising: Advertising can communicate a massage to a mass audience all over the world at a low cost per person reached. Public relations:

Public relations means create a positive relationship with public through the media. Public relationship and publicity (it’s the subset of PR) can bring high credibility through news stories, lobbing, and providing information to customer. If there is good public relationship organization can able to handle their negative part. . Sales promotion: Sales promotion includes a variety of short term incentives at promoting purchase of product or services. This includes coupons, premiums, and contests. Promotion Budget Cost sheet Schedule ‘A’ PARTICULARS |Rate |Total Cost | |Mascot (Mooh) |100/day |10,000 | |Television Advertisements | |90,000 | |Radio Jingles | |6,045. 5 | |Banners and Hoardings | |58,000 | |Print Advertisements (Newspapers) | |60,000 | |Print Advertisements(Magazines) | |45,500 | |World Cup Promotional Activity | |-Nil | |Payment to brand ambassador | |3,50,000 | Comparing Prices Of AMUL and CADBURY: |Product |AMUL |CADBURY | | |(Rs. ) |(Rs. ) | |Dry fruit Choco Crunch (pack of 10pcs) |40 |50 | Source: www. amul. com

By comparing these two (Amul and Cadbury) product prices, Cadbury offered higher price than Amul’s product, they are targeting rich people like professionals, working couple and high class families. Amul organization did a market research on this who all are willing to pay higher prices? And who all are not? So Amul set a price below competitor’s product which people can afford. Amul’s Targeting customers are between the age of age 6 to age 50 years. So it shows that Amul targeting all age category include children’s, teenagers, youngsters and aged people’s or its all comes under upper middle class or middle class families, people who all comfortable with these prices. Pull promotion strategy and push promotion strategy

These are the two basic promotion mix strategies most used in business 1)Push promotion or pushing product moving through the channels of distribution to the final consumers. Personal selling and trade promotions are the primary efforts of the marketing. 2) Pull promotion or direct marketing efforts to the final consumer in order to create the demand for the product. Advertising and consumer promotions are the primarily uses by pull promotion. The philosophy of pull promotion is that when the consumer demands the product from the retailer, then he will demands from wholesaler, wholesaler will demands from the producer. So consumer pulls the demand of product through the channel. [pic] Cost |A strong emphasis is given on the target costing, cost for designing, value engineering, and the cost for | | |manufacturability. Minimum variety in product. Significant manufacturing and accounting involvement in | | |development. In the process of development suppliers are well integrated. For manufacturing high volume | | |oriented and automated machines are used. | |Quality / Reliability / |A high level and a rigorous product development process are being followed. Products are made according to | |Dependability |the needs of the customer and which can satisfy them. The methods and techniques like FMEA, FTA, FRACAS, | | DOE, Taguchi Methods, poke-yoke, are used for reliability prediction. Heavy emphasis is given on testing | | |and qualification. | |Time-to-Market | Continuous survey of the marketplace and understanding of customer needs are done. Company follows a | | |well-defined development processes which is based on tightly integrated design automation tools. All the | | |programs are well defined and the responsibilities given to employees are well executed. Process | | |equipment’s are used to handle wide range of employees. |

Company’s marketplace can be better understood and be defined from the first point, customer needs and competition. Based on the above assessment, the company’s primary objectives can be selected and a strategy can be develop and enhance these primary objectives. Once all the above activities are done then product process and design can be processed and can be implemented. SWOT ANAYLSIS: Strengths: ? parents support ? strong distribution network Weakness: ? raw material supply-volatile prices ? chocolates-comparatively small business unit Opportunities: ? Low penetration, consumption ? Scope of launching new variants and extensions Threats: ? foreign multinationals [pic]

When the target market is made or selected, then a company starts on deciding on marketing there product mix or marketing mix. But before that an important thing for the marketers is to decide how to create a positive image in the minds of the customers. Each segment is different from each other and the taste and preferences of the customers in this segments are also different so the company have to position differently in the minds of different customers. The Process Of Positioning The Product Of A Company: 1. Positioning helps to identify and differentiate between the segments. 2. It help’s in deciding which part of the segment to be positioned.

With the help of positioning the company impacts the targeted customers. The process-data model shows all the concepts of positioning and how this positioning strategy is useful in positioning of a product. The model also helps to analyze how those predefined models helps in positioning. To create a good positioning strategy all the analysis like market analysis, competitors and the abilities of the company should be taken in consideration. References: www. amul. com Marketing Management, Philip Kotler, 12th edition, 2007. http://www. amul. com/products. html [pic][pic] ———————– History of Amul Product Line AMUL CHOCO-CRUNCH COMPOSITION Market Segmentation Market Targeting MARKETING MIX

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1)What factors contributed to EuroDisney’s poor performance during its first year of operation? What factors contributed to Hong Kong Disney’s poor performance during its first year? The factors that contributed to EuroDisney’s poor performance during its first year of operation were their lack of knowledge of their target market and the fact that they did not realize that the target market consisted of more than one culture. Disney tried to force feed American culture with a mixture of what they thought the Europeans would enjoy.

By using American characters and the American attitude on ideas such as design, price and experience they were bound to fail; At Hong Kong Disney failed the first year due to their ignorance of the culture again and the fact that they didn’t introduce the American characters to the Chinese. Disney also didn’t seem to put much work into their creation of Hong Kong Disney, giving them only “16 rides compared to Disneyland Paris’s 52 rides. ” 2)To what degree do you consider that these factors were (a) foreseeable and (b) controllable by EuroDisney, Hong Kong Disney, or the parent company, Disney.

These factors should’ve been foreseeable to everybody else except the owner of Disney because he was starting to believe that everything he touched was a masterpiece. These factors were definitely controllable if they would’ve research and received help from an outside source with knowledge about different cultures. 3)What role does ethnocentrism play in the story of EuroDisney’s launch? In EuroDisney’s launch Disney attempted to create another Disneyland through the belief that Europe wanted their very own piece of “Americana” without respecting European cultures.

Disney should have been more versatile, and asked the consumers what they wanted and needed. 4)How do you assess the cross-cultural marketing skills of Disney? The cross-cultural marketing skills of Disney were lacking. They weren’t sensitive to the French, innovative with the Chinese nor did they acknowledge the needs of the other cultures in Europe. They just assumed what everybody needed through their own personal understanding of other cultures. 5)Why did success in Tokyo predispose Disney management to be too optimistic in their expectations of success in France?

In China? Discuss. In Tokyo the biggest generation consist of young adults that continue to embrace the American culture full heartedly, so giving them their own version of American right next door was one of the best things to happen for them. This also gave Disney a false representation of how the European cultures would view them and left them vulnerable to the idea that detailed research wasn’t necessary. 6)Why do you think the experience in France didn’t help Disney avoid some of the problems in Hong Kong?

It didn’t help because they have different cultures therefore they needed different things from Disney plus they didn’t take the problems that they had already encountered and learn from their mistakes. 7)Now that Hong Kong Disney is up and running, will the Shanghai development benefit from the Hong Kong experience? Yes, because by now Disney has perfected their marketing plans and targets individual’s cultures instead of targeting the country that individual resides in. 8)Now that Disney has opened Hong Kong Disney and begun work on the Shanghai location, where and when should it go next?

Assume you are a consultant hired to give Disney advice on the issue of where and when to go next. Pick three locations and select the one you think will be the best new location for “Disneyland X. ” Discuss. My three options are Brazil, Australia and Canada. However, the best option would be Canada because Canada is one of the world’s wealthiest nations, with numerous amounts of land to occupy. Since it is a western European nation Disney would not have to change its marketing plan too much. )Given your choice of locale X for the newest Disneyland, what are the operational implications of the history of EuroDisney and Disney Hong Kong for the new park? Basically, I would learn what not to do in terms of marketing due to EuroDisney. I would not just assume that the Canadians are anything like Americans and try to see if there are different cultures that I could target. I wouldn’t base my judgments on stereotypes and conduct thorough research. From the Hong Kong experience, I would learn that sometimes a target market needs to be more focused on a particular generation rather than a culture.

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Wal Mart Case Study

Background Introduction to Wall Mart We will be dealing with the issue being faced by Wall mart in China in this analysis. Wall mart has tried to implement its strategy which were a huge success in USA in to china but has tilled now failed to make a dent in the Chinese retail market. When wall market started in USA; it grew and flourished under the radar of big retailers and never came into direct competition with these big retailers as it would have easily destroyed the new company.

Wall mart followed some very innovative practices in China like everyday low prices; focus on customer, relentless cost control followed by the firm, the love-hate relationship with suppliers and the legendary logistics and supply chain management practices which were followed by Wall Mart. These strategies have been described in the next section. These were the strategies which led to Wall-Mart becoming a huge success and it became the largest retailer in the world solely on the basis of its US operations. The next logical step for Wal- Mart was to expand the business internationally.

It targeted the billion plus Chinese people. The retail market in China had been recently opened to foreign players. Before this retail in China was a central government controlled activity. China is facing many issues in China such as income disparity, local protectionism, infrastructural deficiencies, regulatory restrictions, lack of IT which made its supply chain so effective in USA and the completely different consumer behavior of Chinese as compared to USAir has been 10 years since Wal-Mart opened business in China but it has not been able to make profits in the Chinese markets.

We will be discussing the issues faced by Wal-Mart in this country and what can be the solution to these issues being faced by the company in China. . Wal-Mart Strategies of Success. 1) Everyday Low prices –Wal-Mart distinguished itself from all other retailers in USA who used to offer discounts sporadically by declaring this policy. It claimed that Wal-Mart customers will be able to shop from the retailer at prices which were lesser than the competition on every day. The important thing in this strategy was that Wal-Mart always kept its promise even if it had to sell the goods on a loss.

This builds immense reputation among the customers. 2) Customer is No. 1 – Customer has been the focus of the world of Wal-Mart’s employees. This legacy was provided by the founder of Wal-Mart -Sam Walton who used to constantly train his employees to treat the customer respectfully. Sam’s ten rules of customer service are still being followed by Wal-Mart in order to ensure customer satisfaction and great customer service. 3) Small Town Locations – During the initial growth phase, Wal-Mart grew under the competition’s radar.

They operated in these towns which were considered as unviable by big retailers at that time. 4) Relentless Cost Control – Saving was given as much importance in Wal-Mart as was creating a sale. Wal-Mart relentlessly tried to cut costs to pass on the benefits to the customer. 5) Partnership With Suppliers – Wal-Mart provided big volumes to its suppliers but extracted a lot from them. It was always trying to push them to cut costs. Many processes being followed by suppliers were modified by Wal-Mart in order to reduce costs. )Unrivalled Distribution and Logistics Management – The IT infrastructure of Wal-Mart was connected with its suppliers in order to ensure that constant update on inventory requirements reach the customer. It followed Just in time approach and utilized cross docking method to reduce inventory of its stores. Issues faced by Wal-Mart in China. 1) Immediate Issues. A) Market Segmentation ? Large amount of income disparities in China. The coastal regions have very high per capita income of 2117 $ where the inner and western regions have significantly less purchasing power. China is not one market likes USA – it is a country where different market segments exist because of the uneven economic growth that the country has faced. So Wal-Mart cannot adopt the pan-country policy which it had adopted in USA to succeed. . B) Local Protectionism ? The State Council of China declared all forms of local protectionism as illegal in 2001 but the effective implementation of the same remains a large concern for Wall-Mart. ? It has to decide whether it wants to continue fighting the local governments which oppose it as it does not pay taxes to them or collude with them like its major competitor Carrefour has done.

C) Financial Control ? Wall-Mart has always worked on the basis of strict financial control from the central level. ? Local Protectionism makes this form of financial control very difficult to handle. ? Local governments do not like the fact that Wall-Mart functions in their area and pays taxes only in Shenzhen where its headquarters are located. D) Employee Morale ? Wall-Mart has never been known to be a good employer in terms of the salary it gives to its employees. ? However employees in US have stock options which compensate for their low incomes.

The employees of Wal-Mart China do not have that option at their behalf. 2) Basic Issues A) Infrastructure ? Wal-Mart faces the problem of under developed national highways in China; proper infrastructure support is essential for its model of supply chain network. ? Wal-Mart can do little to improve the infrastructure of the country; it needs to find ways of meeting its strategic objective by adapting to the local conditions. B) Chinese Consumer Behaviour ? Wal-Mart’s EDLP (every day low pricing) was based on the fact that US consumers make fewer visits to the store but purchase in large amounts. Chinese Consumers are completely different in this respect, they may visit the store a large number of times but they may purchase very less amount. Some of them might visit the supermarket just to hang out and get away from their homes for some amount of time and may even purchase nothing. ? Wal-Mart also has to deal with large amount of theft in China. Store thefts may lead to loss of sales to the volume of 5 % of sales revenue. C) Lack of IT Infrastructure. ? The major problem that Wal-Mart is facing in mainland China is lack of IT infrastructure. This makes connectivity with suppliers difficult. Constant update through IT system f the articles that have been purchased and inventory was one of the major features which allowed Wal-Mart to keep inventory low by following JIT(Just in time ) and cross-docking. D) Government Legislations ? Chinese retail had long been centrally controlled by the government with steep hierarchical structure. ? The sector was opened up in phases by the government to foreign competition. Options for Wall Mart At this point of time Wal-Mart has the following options to undertake in China – ) Continue its present policy of operations which is based on the belief that customers all over the world are same and want good products at cheap prices – try to attain cost leadership in China. 2) Localize according to Chinese customers in order to give them personalized service which will be moving away from business strategy being followed in USA and world-wide. This will require abandoning the cost leadership philosophy and adopting differentiation philosophy. 3) Keep the basic strategy and philosophy of the parent company of attaining cost leadership in the market but localize and achieve cost leadership ccording to Chinese norms and cultures and not force their own methods of doing business on the Chinese. 4) Create a mix of cost leadership and differentiation according to the geographical needs of Chinese market depending on the per capita income of the particular area. Recommendations Decision Criteria 1) Market share 2) Profit / ROI 3) Competitive advantage 4) Cultural Sensitivity 5) Employee Morale & Productivity 6) Corporate Image Assessment of options. |Alternative |Market Share |Profit/ROI |Competitive advantage |Cultural Sensitivity|Productivity of Employees|Corporate Image | |1) |? – |+ |- |- |+ | |2) |+ |+ |- |+ |+ |- | |3) |+ |+ |? |+ |+ |+ | |4) |+ |+ |0 |+ |+ |0 | + )—-> Alternative will have a positive effect on the decision criteria. (-)——>Alternative will have a negative impact on the decision criteria. (0)—-( No effect expected on the decision criteria. (? )—(Effect cannot be gauged on the decision criteria. Preferred Alternative. From the above alternative assessment table we can conclude that Wal-Mart should go for alternative 4 i. e. segment the market according to spending power f the buyers and adopt different strategies for each market i. e. ost leadership or differentiation depending on the market. Next Steps 1) The market should be divided in three segments according to the geographical disparity in income of china. 2) The affluent region of China – the coastal region should be targeted for Cost leadership strategy. Wal-Mart should treat the coastal region strategically same as USA but culturally different. 3) A series of retail chains, supermarkets and distributors should be developed in this region to achieve economies of scale and thus drive the cost lower for Wal-Mart. )As after 2005 ; retail companies can fully own logistics in China Wal-Mart should take majority stake in some of its suppliers ; improve their IT infrastructure and make it compatible with Wal-Mart’s system. Help the suppliers in implementation of IT infrastructure and reward the ones who implement the required practices for achieving supply chain efficiencies. 5) Centralize procurement and supply chain which will allow economies of scale and drive the cost lower. 6) However decentralize the financial accounting for each store; prepare a separate balance sheet for each store .

This will eliminate local government’s opposition to store being opened in their area and taxes being paid in some other area. 7) In order to win over local population and to get the know-how of how the local population behaves in buying staff the store only with local population; even the retail store’s manager should be from the local population. They should be given thorough training on Wal-Mart’s value system and way of doing business. However they will be able to come up with better solutions to increase sales. Decentralize marketing and promotional expenditure to store manager level. ) Use technology to deal with the high level of thefts in stores. RFID tags can easily detect a customer who is trying to move out of the shop without paying the bill. 9)This cost leadership strategy should be adopted only in the coastal region because the number of customers in this region will be large enough to give Wal-Mart economies of scale in this region and allow the strategy to materialize. 10) The interior region & the western region do not have enough affluent customers to give Wal-Mart economies of scale in order to achieve cost leadership. Here they should go for differentiation strategy. 1) Their stores should target special needs of customer which cannot be met by the local market. They may even cater only to the business customers in this area. 12) The stores should be few and small in size. Return on Investment should be the main criteria for evaluation of store in these regions. Bibliography Rugman, A. M. & Collinson, S. C. , (2009). International Business. (5th edition), Prentice Hall. Robbins Stephens (2009) Organizational Behaviour (Twelfth Edition), Prentice Hall Asia Research Centre, Case Study on Wall Mart Stores: Everyday low prices in China

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Extraordinary Measures

Former businessman John Crowley faced incredible opposition from all sides as he walks away from his job to find a cure for Pompe. After a near death experience with Megan, his daughter, Crowley decided that he couldn’t just keep waiting for a cure to be found. He corners Dr. Robert Stonehill, a theorist who has an idea for a solution, and enlists his help in making it a reality. Along the way, the scientific community helps and hinders him, providing him with minds and hands to speed up the process as well as disapproval in the execution of the experiment.

One of his biggest opponents had been Dr. Stonehill himself, and trying to work with his unconventional methods. Their two differing views of science are one of the things that strain their relationship. John Crowley views science as a means to an end, the way to save his kids. He will compromise and cut corners to get there. His views are completely subjective since he is guided by emotion, and cares only for the well-being of his children. His partner, Dr.

Stonehill, doesn’t care what the rules or the cause is, if he is hired, then he wants to do things his way. Unlike Crowley, he will not compromise, and spends more time with theories than results because of that. Though he seems to be “light years ahead of everyone,” he’s had little scientific recognition because of his inability to work with others and put his theories to test. Personally, I feel that I relate most to Dr. Stonehill. While I’m not making any scientific breakthroughs, I tend to looking at situations more logically and objectively.

I also prefer to do things my way, or a way I know well, rather than bending to do what others tell me. I, like Stonehill, have little patience for rules if I feel there’s not a good enough reason to follow them, and I never compromise with the enemy. While I admire Crowley’s love for his children, I don’t like kids much myself, and I don’t think I would have walked away from my job to pursue what could have been a wild goose chase. Contrary to Stonehill’s preferences, much of the conflicts involved following protocol and the scientific method.

After Stonehill explained his hypothesis for a cure, a team of scientists had to test it. Four groups formed their own cure and put each to test, and analyzed the resulting data to figure out which cure worked the best. Finally, the results were communicated as the cure was distributed to other Pompe children. The development of the cure was all done in steps of the scientific method, as they could not know which cure will work until all had been tested under the same conditions.

It was also important for them to keep the entire experiment subjective, even though Crowley violated that need when he introduced the team to another Pompe family and tried to put his kids in the trial. This movie showed the accomplishments of two men who both took risks to save lives, fighting conventional methods in the scientific community so they could save two children in time. While it does show how following procedures can hinder a process, it also displays its necessity.