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National Unity

What does the caring for country mean to you and how exactly can this be achieve? Pressures, tension and stress are ubiquitous. People face trials and tribulations daily in the concrete forest and not a soul can deny that truth. Obviously this causes stress in people’s lives. It seems this Earth is a bane for all of us and this is made worse by ruthless and selfish people. Due to all these, people’s hearts seem to be torn and tattered. However their broken hearts can be healed. They can be healed if we all begin to strive for a caring society. So how exactly can this be achieve? Firstly, a campaign should be launched.

Not only that it should be launched as often as possible. A campaign can acts as a conduit to pass down the importance of caring society to the community. This can be done by giving a speech to the community and passing fliers of pamphlets around the community to make them aware that a caring society is nowadays imperative for all souls around the world. If this is not done, probably, the world will never be a better place to live in. Besides, religious leaders can bring a caring society into existence. It is indeed true that most religions teach people to be selfless, caring and sensitive to people needs.

These are all virtues which the world truly need. It is the constant craving of all the people in the world. So, if religious leaders do constantly remind people that God has asked everyone to be caring, hence, people will at least make an effort to inculcate that values and other virtues which the religious leaders have reminded them. That is not only what they can do. They must also practice those moral values and not only teach them so that they will be exemplary to the people so that people will manage to make those virtues to become their second nature.

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Classes of Information Resource Management

Three types of information systems: ? Information-Retrieval Systems (IR) ? ? Search large bodies of information which are not specifically formatted as formal data bases. ? Web search engine ? Keyword search of a text base Typically read-only Relatively small schema Large body of homogeneous data Minor or no deductive capability Extensive formal update capability Shared use for both read and write Relatively small body of heterogeneous information Significant deductive capability Typical use: support of an intelligent application. ? Database Management Systems (DBMS) ? ? ? ? ? ? Knowledge-Base Systems (KB S) ? ? ? 0061029: slides 1 of 12 Key DBMS issues: ? Efficiency issues: ? Databases can be very large. Efficient access must be provided despite the size. ? Simplicity issues: ? ? Many potential users are not sophisticated programmers, and so simple means of access must be available. Means of more sophisticated access must also be available. ? Multi-user issues: ? ? ? Concurrency ? Several users may have simultaneous access to the database. Access via views ? Each user has a limited “window” through which the appropriate part of the database is viewed. Authorization ? The access privileges of each user will be limited in a specific way. Robustness issues: ? ? Deadlock must be avoided. A means of recovery from crashes, with minimal loss of data, must be available. 20061029: slides 2 of 12 Data Model Evolution: Model File management Navigational models Relational model Devel. Use Properties Some data independence, but the model invites dependence. Requires procedural queries. Simple, easy to use for non-experts. Strong data independence. Standard nonprocedural query language (SQL). Excellent implementations exist. Limited expressive capability. Powerful expressive capability, but require substantial expertise for use. Popular in niche applications.

Standardization not imminent. Attempt to integrate the simplicity of the relational model with the advanced features of the objectoriented approach. A new standardized query language (SQL:1999) is available, with SQL:20xx on the way. Many “high-end” commercial relational systems embody object-relational features. Attempt to integrate data management with markup languages, principally via XML. Analogy Assembly language Procedural languages Declarative languages Object-oriented languages ? 1950’s – 1970’s 1950’s- Low-level interaction. No data independence. 1950’s – 1960’s1960’s 1970’s Late 1980’s 1990’s 1990’s –

Object-oriented models Object-relational models 1980’s 1990’s Semi-structured models 1990’s 2000’s – ? 20061029: slides 3 of 12 The course focuses on the relational model. Why? ? The relational model is very widely used. The relational model provides a flexible interface which has components appropriate for users at all levels. A standard query language, SQL, is used with virtually all commercial products. Thus, applications have a high degree of portability . The relational model provides strong data independence: the external product is relatively independent of the internal implementaton. The relational model is dominant on microcomputers running Windows operating systems: ? Office suites: ? Microsoft Office: Access ? Lotus SmartSuite: Approach ? Corel Suite: Paradox ? Other microcomputer products: ? dBase All have proprietary graphicalinterfaces, and provide programming-style queries as well. ? ? ? ? ? 20061029: slides 4 of 12 ? The relational model has also been dominant on mainframe database servers, including but not limited to UNIX systems. Recently, many of these systems have become available for the PC UNIX system Linux. (Some are free! ) ? Oracle ? Interbase 7 (Inprise, formerly Borland) ?

Sybase Adaptive Server Enterp rise ? Informix (now owned by IBM) ? IBM DB2 ? PostgreSQL 7. 4, 8. 1 (public domain, very good) There are even some products from Sweden: ? MySQL (GPL) ? Mimer SQL (Upright Database Technology) ? ? 20061029: slides 5 of 12 In the past, this course had used Microsoft Access. Since 2002, PostgreSQL has been be used. Why? ? ? ? The dialect of SQL which is supported under Access is much more limited than the dialects of comprehensive systems. PostgreSQL has matured greatly in the past few years. The Department of Computng Science has an i SQL server, which is administered by the support staff.

The following system will also be used: ? Leap ? A simple relational database system which uses the relational algebra as a query language. ? Although not of commercial importance, use of this alternate query language is very beneficial pedagogically. Students are still free to use Microsoft Access, although it will not be discussed in class. All final versions of SQL assignments must run under PostgreSQL. ? ? 20061029: slides 6 of 12 Database access models: ? SQL is the standard query language for the relational model. There are many access models which are built around SQL. ? ?

Direct SQL: Write and send SQL queries directly to the database system. Hosting SQL within a programming language: ? ? Embedded SQL: SQL statements are embedded in a host programming language, such as C. Generally requires preprocessing. Proprietary hosting languages: (e. g. , Oracle PL/SQL). Proprietary hosting systems: (e. g. , within Microsoft VBA). SQL / CLI ODBC: A vendor- and OSindependent call-interface system (in principle) for SQL. Embedding may be in any of a variety of languages (C, C++ are the most common. ) ? ? ? ? In this course, we will use both direct SQL and ODBC. 20061029: slides 7 of 12 A Rough Course Outline: Introduction to DBMS’ s Knowledge Representation for DBMS’s (10%) ? Entity-Relationship Modelling ? The Relational Model Query Processing and Constraints (40%) ? Query Languages ? Relational Algebra ? Relational Calculus ? SQL ? Views ? Database Programming and the CLI/ODBC Interface ? Dependencies and Normalization Implementation Issues (40%) ? Physical Database Design ? Database System Architecture ? Query Optimization ? Transaction Processing and Concurrency Control ? Recovery ? Security and Authorization Special Topics (10%) ? Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Approaches ? ? ? ? 20061029: slides 8 of 12

Database System Architecture: ? Early approach: one-level The user interacted directly with the storage model. Analogy: assembly-language programming Disadvantages: Impossible to use for non-experts. Difficult to use and error-prone even for experts. Evolution of storage model, or migration to a new architecture, requires a total rebuild of all application programs. ? ? ? ? ? ? 20061029: slides 9 of 12 A more modern approach: two-level External Data Model External/ Internal mapping Internal Storage Model ? Advantages: ? Internal model and/or target architect re may u be changed without requiring a rebuild of applications. Analogy: A high-level programming language. Disadvantages: ? There is a single external model for all. ? 20061029: slides 10 of 12 The ANSI/SPARC three-level architecture: External Data Model 1 … External/ Conceptual mapping Conceptual Data Model External Data Model n Conceptual/ Internal mapping Internal Storage Model ? Advantages: ? Provides two levels of independence: ? The internal storage model is isolated from the conceptual component, as in the two-level architecture. ? Many external views are possible. ? The conceptual model may be redesigned without requiring rebuilds of application programs. 0061029: slides 11 of 12 Data independence: ? Data independence refers to the idea that a more internal level of a database system may be reengineered, or moved to a different architecture, without requiring a total rebuild of the more external layers. The ANSI/SPARC architecture provides two levels of data independence. It is often, however, something of an ideal, even with the systems of today . Usually, in a relational system, both the conceptual schema and the external schemata are relational. Still, the conceptual schema is often designed using a more general tool than the relational model. ? ? ? ? 20061029: slides 12 of 12

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Turtles and Tortoise W

Turtles and Tortoise are different in many ways. Turtles and tortoises are reptiles, the only ones to have a shell. Their bodies are protected by a shell on top and underneath. Their backbone, breastbone and ribs have become part of the shell, so they cannot remove their shells. Like all other reptiles, turtles are cold blooded, which means their bodies are the same temperature as the surrounding air or water. They cannot remain active in cold weather. Most hibernate during winter, which means a kind of special sleep. Also like other reptiles, turtles shed their skin, usually in early spring.

The shields, or scutes, of the shell lift and peel off, and skin from the head, neck, legs and tail flake off in pieces, to reveal new skin underneath. Turtles pull their legs, tails and heads into the shell for protection. Some turtles pull their necks into their shells in a shaped curve, and others pull the neck sideways into their shell. These side-necked turtles are only found in the southern hemisphere. Female turtles lay eggs after mating with a male. A female digs a hole on land and lays many eggs, then covers the hole and leaves the eggs. When the eggs hatch, the tiny hatchlings dig to the surface and fend for themselves.

Most turtles eat both plants and meat. Some kinds eat mostly plants, but other kinds eat mostly small animals. Some turtles live in the sea and others live in fresh water. Freshwater turtles stay in the water most of the time, and sometimes come onto land. They have long legs and webbed feet with claws. They are found in rivers, streams and lakes. Freshwater turtles hibernate deep in the warm mud in the bottom of a stream, pond or lake. Sea turtles live in the warmer oceans. Their legs have developed into flippers. Some kinds live almost entirely on land, and they are called tortoises.

Tortoises have stumpy legs. Most have a high dome-shaped shell. There are about 40 different kinds of tortoise. Some live in hot desert areas, others live in mountains or forests. When they hibernate, tortoises bury themselves in soil or under rotting plants. Some tortoises are very large. The largest is the Galapagos Tortoise, which grows to about one and a half meters long. It is found on the Galapagos Islands in the Pacific Ocean, and can live for about 200 years. One of the smallest tortoises is the African Speckled Tortoise which grows to about 10 cm long.

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Subliminal Advertising and Modern Day Brainwashing

The advertising industry, a prominent andpowerful industry, engages in deceptive subliminal advertising which most us are unaware of. By bypassing our unconscious mind using subliminal techniques, advertisers tap into the vulnerabilities surrounding our unconscious mind, manipulating and controlling us in many ways. Since the 1940’s subliminal advertising blossomed until now, when you can find subliminals in every major advertisement and magazine cover. Legislation against the advertisers has had no effect in curbing the use of subliminals. In this Information Age, it seems people are no longer in control of the people.

The ones in control are the ones with knowledge (as usual). In this case, the advertisers have it; you don’t. Until now. Foreword Advertisements bombard every minute of our lives. The advertising industry has penetrated into every aspect our this society. When I wake up in the morning, the first thing I hear is my radio blaring out the latest ad for Sears or the Penn State Bookstore. At night, the last thing I see is the latest peroxide innovation on the toothpaste tube. Most of us ignore these ads as we drive by the Marlboro billboard on the way to work or to the countryside on a lovely day.

However, most of us do not realize the mind games the advertisers has been playing on our subconscious minds for the past half century. It’s a scary thought, really, when you realize the advertisers has gained control of our lives without us even knowing it. Serendipity I stumbled onto this topic of subliminal messages in advertisements accidentally. Before I became familiar with this subject, I have heard of naked women in ice cubes floating on soft drinks. I have also heard of subliminal messages being flashed in theaters telling people to drink soda and eat popcorn.

In fact, I have experimented with flashing messages on the computer screen using a program I made at the beginning of my senior year in computer science class. The subject of a subconscious mind being influenced without a person’s knowledge greatly intrigues me. At a science symposium I have attended to present a research poster, I have listened to another presentation about the effects of subliminal stimuli on the left (logical) side of the brain. The presenter was off topic and was consequently marked by the judges. However, she has given me the impulse to further dwell on this topic.

Some questions I have asked as I entered this research was, “Are there really naked women in ice cubes? ” “If so, are they effective in influencing people? ” And finally, “How do the advertisers put these subliminal messages into their ads? ” With these objectives in mind, I have discovered the breadth of background knowledge I had to gather before I even attempt to analyze the ads. I had to learn about human perception, subconscious processing, advertising strategies, depth interviews, graphic design, and a plethora of sub-topics. Nonetheless, I have thoroughly enjoyed this research project.

In My Defense As I read through several of Dr. Wilson Bryan Key’s books on subliminal advertising, I was amazed and shocked at the amount of filth and porn in the advertisements. If they were targeted for the conscious mind, the collection of these ads would turn into your average amateur hard-core. As I tried to show and explain some of these advertisements to my colleagues, the first and predominant response I got was “You have a sick mind. ” In defense of myself and all of the researchers who have studied these ads, I must point out that it is the advertisers who printed the ads.

These researchers and I are simply bringing into your consciousness mind what your unconscious mind has absorbed already. It is easy to hide away and reject what we don’t understand, as the Roman Catholic Church did to Galileo’s theory of the universe. All that I ask is that you look into these ads and explanation with an open, even if skeptical mind. Research Biases The existence of a subconscious mind and subliminal perception is still a controversy today. There is vast evidence for the existence of both, but the evidence is based on a methodology that is by nature not pure scientific.

Despite the lack of conventional scientific evidence, I believe there exists a consciousness that lies outside of our normal awareness. Although I will later provide evidence, the paper assumes the existence of such a phenomenon. Introduction What is your favorite ad on TV or in a magazine? Why do you like it? Is it the dry humor? Or the dramatic irony? Advertisers use subliminal techniques to put hidden messages into their ads. By now, your subconscious mind has a full load of them, each expertly targeted by the advertisers.

Although the exact consequences are unknown, one can guess it is like being brainwashed every time you see an ad. Heaving Breasts Do advertisers really put subliminal messages on their ads? Let’s explore this topic. Go to the vending machine and buy a can of Diet Coke™. The can looks pretty ordinary–script letters on white bubbles floating on a silver can. Turn your attention now to the passion red glass on the lower left and hold the can arm’s-length away from you. Do you see them now? Almost everyone I have shown the can to readily perceived the sexual image.

Although this is the most blatant example of embedding I have discovered, Coca-Cola manages to get away with it by placing the image in an inconspicuous spot on the can, masked by the fizzing bubbles and bold print. Since Diet Coke is targeted at female consumers, it would seem illogical to embed female breasts onto the soda can. According to Dr. Wilson Bryan Key, “male genitalia in ads are usually directed to male audiences. Female genitalia are directed to females. ” I will explain later that subliminal images are most effective when associated with cultural taboos.

Subliminal Perception Apparently, subliminal perception is not a newly discovered physiological phenomenon used only by the advertising industry. Historical scholars such as Plato, Aristotle, and even texts such as the Bible have alluded to a subconscious phenomenon. Early artists, such as those in the Renaissance, have used subliminal techniques in their artwork. Aristotle first documented the relationship between dreams and the unconscious mind. Impulses occurring in the daytime, if they are not very great and powerful, pass unnoticed because of greater waking impulses.

But in the time of sleep the opposite takes what often happens in sleep; men think that it is lightning and thundering when there are only faint echoes in their ears, and that they are enjoying honey and sweet flowers, when only a drop of phlegm is slipping down their throats. Definition One of the controversies surrounding the existence of subliminal perception is its definition. Subliminal means “below threshold. ” An apple placed in complete darkness would be below the visual threshold for perception.

It is not until the lighting on the apple increases to a sufficient level for recognition is it considered “above threshold. ” The minimum stimulation necessary to detect a particular stimulus (not necessarily recognize), is called the absolute threshold. However, the required amount of lighting on the apple for identification is different for everyone, and therefore what may be subliminal to one person may not be subliminal to another. It is generally accepted that a perception is subliminal if a great majority of the audience can not perceive it consciously.

So what is perception? Perception is the brain’s reception of incoming stimuli. Dr. Key said perception is total and instantaneous, but only 1/1000th of this is consciously recognized and processed. The rest is either stored in subconscious memory or dumped as irrelevant information. Although we do not fully understand how the brain perceives the world, advertisers have no interest in the motor and gears of the brain. It only cares that the brain is influenced the most by visual stimulation and there are certain ways to stimulate the brain without its conscious awareness.

Dixon provides a good definition of subliminal perception, which he words as “subliminal reception. ” 1) The subject responds without awareness to stimulus. 2) Subject knows he is being stimulated, but doesn’t know what it is. For the rest of the paper, I will use the above definition for subliminal perception. Subliminal messages will therefore be the transmission of subliminal content using methods which the brain subconsciously perceives but is not consciously aware. Experimental Confirmation Since the 19th century researchers have been performing psychological tests to confirm the existence of subliminal perception.

N. F. Dixon has compiled over 500 studies on this topic and concluded in his book that subliminal perceptions exists beyond any reasonable doubt. He said, “It would seem that reports of percepts may be influenced by stimulation which the percipient is not aware. Certainly, it can be claimed that the having of a conscious percept does not exclude the possibility of subliminal effects. ” His book is held in such esteem one advertiser quoted “Dixon’s book is basic reading for our creative department. We think of it as an operational bible. Ironically, Dixon never guessed his work would be used for commercial exploitation. Dr. Hal C. Becker has patented a black box from 1962 to 1966 to pipe audio subliminal messages on top of another audio source. He has used this black box experimentally in stores to reduce theft and on weight reduction programs. In the case of the store, which a message such as “Don’t steal” was superimposed into background music, theft in the store dropped 37%. However, he has urged caution in the use of such device and keep an eye on “other uses. Since his device is in patent, any company can look up the design and build a similar device to influence the population. Who knows, they may already by using it at every TV broadcasting station. In 1983, an average class of Tucson eighth graders have taken a self esteem test on processed paper with subliminal messages on it. Students who have taken the test on paper printed with the subliminal message of “YOU ARE LOVED” have scored 15% higher than the students who have taken test on plain paper. The same test given to underachievers have produced even more remarkable results-the students scored 34. % higher on processed paper. Dana Osman, president of Osman-Kord, Ltd. , the company who printed the paper, claims that subliminal messages only work to influence minor decisions, and they are the most powerful when reinforcing an already made decision. Researchers have designed tests to quantitatively measure the physiological responses of the body while subjected to subliminal stimuli. The researchers connect sensitive instruments to the subject while they are asked to watch a blank screen periodically superimposed with emotional subliminal stimuli.

Tachistoscope projectors, which can flash words or images onto the screen with a duration of several milliseconds, are used to display the stimuli. Although the subject reports to having no awareness of the stimuli, researchers found they can alter the brain’s alpha and theta waves, detected using an electroencephalograph (EEG). Similarly, they can detect subtle variations in heart rate using EKG’s and higher electrical potentials on the skin using GSR’s. It is clear that humans can be affected by subliminal stimuli without their conscious awareness.

The understanding of the our brain is too limited to understand how or why this works. However, the advertisers don’t care about the inner workings of the brain. They only care that the population can be influenced and they have the resources to do the influencing. Physiological Feasibility While there are centuries of experimental proof to back the existence of subliminal perception, the argument could be made much stronger if there exists scientific theories of human physiology to support the case.

Unfortunately, our medical research has only begun to tap into the inner workings of the human brain. There are some theories which could provide support. From an evolutionary standpoint, our brains have not always had the same level of consciousness as we do now. It can be theorized from animals living today that their consciousness is controlled more from automatic responses and unconsciousness behavior. Dixon contends that when our brain has evolved from unconscious processing to conscious awareness, the brain has developed control mechanisms to filter most of the sensory input.

To fully utilize the limited consciousness, and to protect the brain from sensory overload, only a fraction of the sensory input is channeled into the conscious mind. The rest is processed by our unconscious mind. Dixon writes: It is contended that the principles of physiological summation, inhibition, and facilitation, the notion of interactions between specific and non-specific effects, and the existence of centrifugal-centripetal “gating” loops within the central nervous system, provide all that is necessary for a viable theory, without recourse to any concept that is anthropomorphic or supernatural.

In other words there is physiological basis for the possibility of subliminal perception, but the research is not thorough enough to prove its existence. Arguments Against As with every theory, there are people who argue against subliminal perception. Some are intellectuals, but curiously, the loudest and strongest voices come from the advertisers. The most often used argument against this phenomenon is that it is “inherently unlikely, anthropomorphic, unparsimonious, physiologically inexplicable, and based upon shaky methodology. ” There are many plausible reasons why people vehemently deny the existence this phenomenon.

According to Dixon, people instinctually fear what they do not know. We live in a country where personal freedom is one of the founding principles of this democratic society. To admit to an unconsciousness is to admit to the fact that there are areas of our brain that we can not control, but others can without our knowledge. The resistance is explicated. Human Psychology Before one can understand the subliminal techniques advertisers use to influence the audience, one must understand the vulnerabilities in humans they tap into. The human being is a complex creature.

The same complexity that gives us the ability to manipulate objects also makes us vulnerable to manipulation. Once the advertisers find these vulnerabilities (and they have done extensive research), there is little the public can do defend themselves against the onslaught. Consciousness It is generally accepted that we possess various levels of consciousness. For example, the state of consciousness while we dream is different from the state when we are awake. Packard has distinguished the consciousness into three levels. Conscious-rational level, where people know what is going on, and are able to tell why.

The second and lower level is called, variously, preconscious and subconscious but involves that area where a person may know in a vague way what is going on within his own feelings, sensations, and attitudes but would not be willing to tell why. This is the level of prejudices, assumptions, fears, emotional promptings and so on. Finally, the third level is where we not only are not aware of our true attitudes and feelings but would not discuss them if we could. Advertisers use subliminal techniques to influence the second and third level of consciousness.

They target the consumer’s fears and desires, manipulating them in ways never thought possible. On the other hand, advertisers present to the consumer on the conscious level a safe, neutral, naturally appealing ad to pacify the consumer’s resistance to subliminal advertising. While glancing through an ad, the average consumer block-reads paragraphs and barely notices an ad that they have seem many times. This is prime time in subliminal reception because the conscious mind is uninterested in the potentially offensive subliminal material. Key writes: To be effective, propaganda must constantly short circuit all thought and decisions.

It must operate on the individual at the level of the unconsciousness. Critical judgment disappears altogether. Perception As defined earlier, perception is the brain’s reception of incoming stimuli. Some of this perception is conscious, while most of it is unconscious. Key has said our primary sensory input is visual perception. There are over 130 million receptor rods and cones packed in less than one square inch of optic nerves in our retina. Key has said that the eyes do not edit perception and the retina transmits everything to the brain’s visual cortex for processing.

However, Meyers has claimed that “at the entry level, the retina’s neural layers encode and analyze the sensory information before routing it to the cortex. ” Whichever the case, advertisers had done extensive study on how our brains perceives input and has found that “most print advertising is designed for perceptual exposure time of less than one second. ” In other words, they are designed for the subconscious mind to absorb completely instantaneously while the conscious mind barely catches the headline. Not everyone perceives an image the same, however.

Different perceptions would ultimately affect each person’s level of subliminal receptivity. For example, “during a hypnotic trance, many subjects read quite fluently textual material presented to them upside down and even in mirror image-an impossible task for most people while awake. ” Key later concludes “it appears that individuals trained in linear reasoning, cognitively or quantitatively oriented, have higher [perception] thresholds and also appear more susceptible to substimuli. ” Advertisers take advantage of the fact that our society and its individual is sexually repressed in order to display sexually oriented subliminal messages.

This also partially explains why male genitalia is directed toward males in advertisements, and female genitalia toward females. Men would be more reserved in observing male genitalia while they would readily consciously perceive embedded female breasts. After the image is discovered on the Coke can (see Heaving Breasts), the viewer subsequently notices it every time he or she sees the can. Further, the viewer is usually repulsed by the image. This asserts Key’s claim that “artists do not hide anything, viewers do. ” Perceptual Defenses

The mechanism that blocks subliminal stimuli from our conscious awareness is part of the brain’s perceptual defense system. According to Key, this defense mechanism operates automatically and invisibly. It is a double edged sword. It prevents perceptual (sensory) overload, suppresses anxiety, erases bad memories, prevents disturbing conscious memory associations, and basically keeps you sane. Although it blocks these events from your consciousness, it redirects them to your unconscious mind and these events still influences your behavior. Key says the effects of perceptual defense echanisms at work include repression, isolation, regression, fantasy formation, sublimation, denial, projection, and introjection. He writes, “To avoid anxiety, overload, we construct perceptual defense mechanism to either limit or distort our perception of reality. ” Repression seems to be the central perceptual defense mechanism. R. D. Lang gives the definition of repression is when “we forget something, then we forget we have forgotten. ” Dixon writes, “[The] findings from the intensive study of perceptual defence [sic]… put the validity of subliminal perception beyond any reasonable doubt. Advertisers take advantage of our defense mechanisms to inject subliminal messages into our subconscious mind. By using cultural taboos, our defense mechanisms block sexually explicit images from our conscious mind but our unconscious mind still perceives the image. We associate the message with the product and when we see this product on the shelf at a later date, are subconscious mind would follow the purchasing command and consequently influencing our conscious mind to buy the product.

In the case of repression, the subliminal command hides away in unconscious memory until an event, like the sight of the product on the shelf, triggers it. Memory Memory, the mental capacity or faculty of retaining or recalling facts, events, impressions, or previous experiences, is one of the defining elements in being human. Without it, we would be in perpetual infancy, and probably would be living in a class lower than most mammals. However, we do possess this ability to use as a tool and to be manipulated without our awareness.

Meyers defines memory recall as “the ability to retrieve information not in conscious awareness. ” Retrieval cues, such as pneumonic devices, facilitate the recall of information. Since we can perceive subliminal information, we must also have the ability to subconsciously store this information in memory. Like conscious perception to subconscious perception, conscious memory is very limited, while subconscious memory has an enormous capacity but lacks the ability to intellectually synthesize and interpret information.

The more emotionalized the data, for example sex and death, the more likely it is to be retained in subconscious memory. Dr. Wilder Renfield, a Montreal neurosurgeon, first empirically determined the existence of a subconscious memory mechanism during a brain surgery more than 40 years ago. He also theorized the brain retains every perception it receives. Poetzl supported this theory by performing dream experiments and demonstrated that subliminal messages could trigger conscious behavior from hours do months after exposure.

From a business standpoint, this could be very useful in influencing consumers to buy their products. The sexually loaded subliminal message works its way into the buyers’ subconscious memory and days later when the buyer goes into a store, the retrieval cues activate the command to influence the buyer. This is why the most influential ads are the ones you don’t remember consciously. Key states: Ads that were recalled consciously was a loser. An advertisement is to motivate a purchase decision-days, weeks, or even months after it has been perceived for even an instant.

The job of an ad is to sell-not to be recalled. Knowing this, advertisers will employ every technique in the book to tempt your drives and desires while provoking your fears. Drives and Fears We live in a complex society where our safety and well-being is mostly protected. Most of us feel safe driving down to the local supermarket and back, knowing that we will not be assaulted on the way and that our kids and home is safe from harm. What if our society is taken away, or we are taken away from society. If a group of us is dropped on a remote island, it is likely that some of us will survive and procreate.

Coded into our genetic structure are instincts that will assure the continuation of mankind if we are faced with such a situation. Drives such as thirst, hunger, and sex, will propel us to take whatever actions necessary to survive. Meyers has said, “Sexual motivation is nature’s clever way of making people procreate, thus enabling our specie’s survival. The pleasure of sex is our genes’ way of preserving and spreading themselves. ” Fear of death, pain, and suffering will warn us from dangerous situations. Since we live in a sheltered society, our primal drives and fears have been altered to fit ther forms. These diametrical extremes-the beginning and the end, have been molded into desire for attention, reassurance, acceptance, immortality, and the fear of financial hardship, sexual insecurity, and loss of power. Few of us worry about when our next meal is, and whether we will be living tomorrow. If we are ever thirsty, we approach the nearest water fountain or the vending machine. Despite the fact that our drives and fears are subdued and domesticated, they still exist within us. Advertisers take advantage of this to tempt our deepest drives and scare our morbid fears.

Dixon has said that since drives exist at such a fundamental level within us, it is prime target for subliminal stimuli. In linking the more psychopathological aspects of subjective affective states, with their relevance to drive schema, subliminal stimuli seem more effective and supraliminal stimuli, presumably because they bypass the “censoring” and restrictive role of consciousness. There are experiments supporting the greater influence of subliminal stimuli on drives. Key says that “once primed by drive excitation, an individual is more susceptible to substimuli. For example, Gorden and Spence, in 1966, has shown that hungry subjects are more subjective to subliminal stimulation. To prime our sexual drives, advertisers will frequently embed the word “SEX” into their ads . Although our drive for physical sustenance has been greatly alleviated, our drive for sexual satisfaction is at its peak. Therefore, sex is the common denominator for all advertisements. Carl Moog claims that “no other type of psychological imagery hits people close to where they live. ” Remember, we are in a sexually repressed society.

Sex appeals to both the conscious and subconscious mind by attracting attention and influencing their behavior through drive control. Advertisers not only projects how their product enhances the sexual experience, but simply gives permission to the public for sexual promiscuity. Moog writes: Some of the most pervasive, sexual imagery in advertising is more symbolic than blatant, although the connotations are far from subtle. The imagery sends a message to the unconscious, granting permission to fulfill sexual wishes and points the way to an attractor that can facilitate the encounter.

Advertiser’s Arsenal Armed with limitless resources, advertisers spend millions of dollars on researching exactly how to make you buy their product. Knowing that you have crave sex and fear death, Merit would want to know how their cigarettes appeal to you. Schlitz Brewing Company spends 10 million dollars annually to research how you drink beer. The consumer really doesn’t know what they want to buy in the mass market. Since mass production has taken over, the difference in quality and effectiveness between one product and another of a similar price is nonexistent.

Some advertisers still boast the quality of their products, but most have turned to more effective means of advertising-subliminal advertising. In order to do this, they must do some background research. After they find your vulnerabilities, they target specific these areas and fire their shots of subliminal messages. Motivational Research Advertisers use motivational analysis or research (MR) to find the hidden needs of the consumer. Old techniques such is polls did not provide the depth and accuracy of knowledge advertisers required to create ads. This research method gained momentum in the late 40’s and early 50’s.

Louis Cheskin, director of the Color Research Institute of America, and Ernest Dichter, president of the Institute for Motivational Research, Inc. , claim to be the founding fathers of MR. Dichter says that the successful ad agency “manipulates human motivations and desires and develops a need for goods with which the public has at one time been unfamiliar-perhaps even undesirous of purchasing. ” Psychology not only holds promise for understanding people by “ultimately controlling their behavior. ” One of the research techniques advertisers used is depth interviews, either in individuals or groups.

The researcher would gather a group of people and discuss a topic, like in an Alcoholics Anonymous meeting. The psychologist would lead and direct the discussion so people would reveal their fears and desires. For example, an alcoholic might say something about having nightmares after trying to stop drinking. The researcher would then ask exactly what the alcoholic was dreaming about, and then use his dreams as subliminal images on advertisements. Devious indeed. Another method researchers use is the Rorschach Ink-blot test, developed by Hermann Rorschach. The subjects are asked to stare into formless ink blots and describe what they see.

Supposedly, the subjects will reveal their hidden needs by seeing what they want to see. Some more commonly used techniques are Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), hypnosis, cartoon bubble filling, and Szondi test. The TAT is similar to the ink blot test, except real images and potential advertisements are used. Researchers might hypnotize a subject and ask him to tell secrets he would never openly reveal. In the cartoon test, the subject is shown an emotional cartoon with the dialogue bubbles blank, and the subject is asked to fill it in. Finally, the in Szondi test, researchers begin with the assumption that everyone is a little crazy.

They show their subjects pictures of people and ask them who they would most likely to sit next to and least likely to sit next to. Each picture, however, shows someone who has a psychiatric disorder: paranoid, depressed, etc. In all of these tests, the subject is asked to project himself. After the advertisers find what appeals most to the consumer, they send the ideas to their graphic design artists to include it subliminal in their ads. Subliminal Strategies Graphic design artists have a wealth of tools at their hands to expertly embed subliminal messages into their pictures.

At the dawn of subliminal advertising, graphic artists painted on photographs. That was very difficult to do without ruining the picture. Later, with bigger budgets and better equipment, graphic artists used airbrushes to craft their design onto billboards and then take a picture of it. Now, everything is done digitally on the computer with perfection. Key has said there are six general subliminal strategies: figure-ground reversals, embedding, double entendre, low-intensity light and low-volume sound, tachistoscopic displays, lighting and background sound.

Graphic artists can take advantage of multiple techniques to produce the desired effects. To protect the brain from sensory overload, our perceptual defense mechanism distinguishes every perception into figure (foreground, subject) and ground (background, environment). We consciously notice the figure, while the ground floats around it unless something there brings it to the foreground. Perceptual psychologist Dr. E. Rubin created his famous Rubin’s Profiles that can be found in almost every psychology text book today. His profiles, the faces and vases, old women and young women, duck and rabbit, are syncretistic (two sided) illusions.

Noticing one set of features, you see one thing, while noticing another set of features, you see something else. Advertisers take advantage of this to paint subliminal messages into the picture’s background. They are usually cultural taboos, making it even harder for the audience to perceive it. Microsoft uses syncretistic illusions in the Windows 95 startup splash screen. It’s the perfect place to put subliminal messages-most of us ignore it. Furthermore, if we ever stared into it, we are constantly distracted by the scrolling bar on the bottom of the screen.

The intended audience are network administrators, corporate advisors, and home users in the power of buying this software-middle age men in their late forties. The slogan for Windows 95 is “Where do you want to go today? ” It implies freedom, power, and control. Taken all this into account, you will find a hippie rocker (Woodstock), black stallion, and an eagle painted in the sky. The most prominent image is of course sex, displayed as the classic male dominant side profile of him kissing the female below. No wonder Windows 95 is so popular among zombies. Embedding is the processing of hiding one image in the form of another.

This is a difficulty process but if successful, very influential. Key writes, “Embeds enhance perceptual experience of the picture… Emotionalized, repressed information remains in the memory system for long periods, perhaps for a lifetime. ” Genitalia is one of the most often used images for embedding. The female torso in the Diet Coke can described earlier is an example of embedding. For alcohol or soft drink ads, advertisers like to depict their drink in either the bottle or a glass, half filled ice cubes and half with the drink, with condensation drops oozing down the sides of the glass.

Graphic artists has gotten a lot of expertise at embedding objects in these pictures. The advertisers’ favorite image to put in here are skulls and screaming contorted faces. Key has analyzed such an ad and found that these are the nightmares alcoholics have in their sleep. Using a similar technique, I also found a dozen or so screaming faces, skulls, and animal faces in a Seagram’s Extra Dry Gin ad. If I only found one face in one ad, it could have come from my imagination. The multitude of similar images in several alcohol ads shows that advertisers must have intentionally put it in.

Many images, phrases, and slogans have hidden double meanings behind them. This is called double entendre. Symbolism can also go into this category. Often, their hidden meanings have sexual connotations. For example Microsoft’s “Where do you want to go today? ” and American Express’ “Do more,” when taken out of context, could have sexual implications. Key writes: Double meanings appear to enrich significance in virtually any symbolic stimuli. Unconsciously perceived information of this taboo nature ensures a deep, meaningful emotional response, and continued memory.

Another example of advertiser’s exploitation of double entendre is Crown Royal’s holiday whiskey ad. The whiskey bottle is completely wrapped in a purple bag, with a card that says “To: Dad” on it. At the bottom of the page, big bold letters say “Papa’s Got a Brand New Bag. ” Below this in smaller letters there is the phrase, “Those who appreciate quality enjoy it responsibly. ” The double meaning behind this ad is the call for Dad to have sex. During the holidays, Dad will open the bag (condom) uncovering his masculinity and consequently enjoys sex even more.

There is a plethora of other symbolic imagery that advertisers take advantage of. Advertisers often use lemon and oranges to portray fertility and women. Ties are a common phallic symbol. Through these symbolic images, can present a seemingly harmless ad while entrenching your subconscious mind with deeper meanings. Moog writes about symbolic imagery: Symbolic communications bypass the layers of logic and cultural appropriateness and head straight for the unconscious, which is then free to find an equivalence between what is symbolized, in this case sexual arousal…

Another technique advertisers is low-intensity light and its auditory equivalent low-volume sound. Graphic artists paint faint subliminal images below the conscious threshold of perception but above the unconscious perception threshold. By far the most commonly embedded image is the word SEX. Key have said that “advertisers have indiscriminately sexualized virtually everything they publish or broadcast with subliminal SEXes. ” Often, graphic artists mosaic SEXes onto textured surfaces or in edges, shadows, and highlights. Just pick up any major magazine, relax, and stare into it for a couple of minutes.

You will soon find these SEXes popping out at you. Other commonly used words are FUCK, DIE, and KILL, among other emotionally loaded four letter words. Such subliminal instructions are dangerous indeed. Dixon writes, “It may be impossible to resist instructions which are not consciously experienced. ” The final two techniques, tachistoscopic display and lighting and background sound, are used in film and video advertisers. As mentioned earlier, tachistoscopic displays flash images onto the screen in fractions of a second not perceivable by the conscious mind.

Another method tachistoscopic displays can use is superimposing the image onto existing image just below the conscious perception level, as Dr. Becker has done. Lighting and background sound adjust the mood of the scenery. In most cases, it reinforces the conscious perception. Using these research and subliminal techniques, advertisers have great control on the consumer. With motivational research, they have found eight hidden needs in the human psyche: emotional security, reassurance of worth, ego-gratification, creative outlets, love objects, sense of power, sense of roots, and immortality.

Also, advertisers found ten areas of behavior they can subliminal influence: conscious perception, emotional response, drive-related behaviors, adaptation levels, verbal formulations, memory, perceptual defenses, dreams, psychopathology, and purchasing and consumption behavior. Anyone has the potential to influence all ten behaviors, but advertisers of course are concerned with purchasing and consumption behaviors. With their billion dollar budgets, advertisers can use this knowledge to break down any consumer barriers. Legal Issues

It is obvious that by tapping into the consumer’s unconscious mind without their knowledge, the advertisers are engaging in deceptive practices. It is also an invasion of privacy. But, is this legal? The answer is no. There are numerous legislation that prohibit advertisers from using subliminal messages in their ads. The FTC (Federal Trade Commission) Act Sec 5 – “prohibits unfair or deceptive acts or practices in interstate commerce. ” They also claim they “have primary responsibility for regulation of advertising in this country. However, Key writes that “there appears to be nothing here that would provoke the FTC into a charge of deceptive advertising. ” The TV Code of the National Association of Broadcasters (IV, 14) states: “Any technique whereby an attempt is made to convey information to the viewer by transmitting messages below the threshold of normal awareness is not permitted. ” Unfortunately, these laws are vaguely stated yet greatly limited. The most potentially effective regulation is made by the U. S. Treasury Department, Division of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF). It states:

Subliminals are inherently deceptive because the consumer does not perceive them at a normal level of awareness, and thus is given no choice whether to accept or reject the message, as is the case with normal advertising. ATF holds that this type of advertising technique is false and deceptive, and is prohibited by law. The problem in this legal fight is not legislation, unfortunately. It is the proof. Because of its nature, subliminal messages are nearly impossible to prove. How do you prove to the judge there is a naked women in the Diet Coke can? How do you prove to the jury there are screaming faces hidden ice cubes?

In this legal system, you can’t. The evidence would be considered circumstantial. Advertisers would of course deny any such activity and claim that if you stare into anything long enough, you will find it. The most substantial evidence is they spending billions annually on research and subliminal advertising. Therefore, it must work?!? Another crutch against us is that no one, including the advertisers, know how the brain works. They just know that it does. Until we can scientifically prove subliminal perception, this quest may be in vain. Key writes: “The rules prohibiting repressed media content have been ignored.

None of the regulations have ever been enforced. ” It seems like we are on losing grounds in this legal battle. Conclusions Advertisers have taken a firm hold on our daily lives. Half of their dominating influence can be attributed to their use of subliminal advertising. They take advantage of the vulnerabilities in our subconscious minds. Using the latest computer technology, they have unparalleled resources to manipulate each image to target a specific weakness in us. Key claims that “subliminal indoctrination may prove more dangerous than nuclear weapons. [Our] present odds appear to favor total devastation. Also, he writes that “once the group or collective unconscious is programmed into what has been called culture, virtually any bill of good scan be sold at conscious levels. ” Although the first statement is rather bleak and melodramatic, his second point is a good one. Congressmen or private companies can use subliminal messages on TV shows to sway votes one way or the other. The military can muffle outcries against war. The potential for control of the American people is enormous. What can you do to protect yourself? Knowledge. Knowledge that advertisers are trying to influence and control you, and that you can fight back.

The next time you make a purchasing decision, ask yourself, “Why am I choosing this product? ” Buy a product because of its taste, its quality, and its price. Never buy a product because its packaging looks good or because it is a name brand. Remember, it is the major companies that have the resources to do subliminal advertising. Also, harass your congressmen to make and enforce laws against subliminal broadcasting and printing. Write letters of complaint and gather signatures to send to the advertiser. Eventually, it will work. Despite all this, it really is entertaining trying to see through

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Effects of Unemployment on Crime

Term Project Report: The effect of unemployment of crime Table of Contents Background3-4 Regression Analysis5-6 Conclusion7 References8 Data9 What affects do the unemployment rates have on crime level? 1. Purpose Statement The purpose of this project is to determine how the rate of criminal activity (CRIME) is affected by the rate of unemployment (UNEMP), while also considering the affects of the fluctuation of Consumer Price Index (CPI).

This study uses a time-series analysis with 30 annual observations, from 1969 to 2009. The information was taken from several sources; considering mainly: The Bureau of Labor Statistics and The Bureau of Justice web site. The model is: CRIME = UNEMP+CPI 2. Definition of Variables The dependent variable is defined as the Crime Rate (CRIME). This will take into account the annual rate of both violent and property crimes committed during a measurable time period, of 1970 to 2001.

The independent variables are: • UNEMP (Unemployment Rate) This variable was chosen because when the lack of available opportunity exists to provide income and the means to provide for ones self and/or a family, it puts a negative pressure on an individual to resort to basic survival. We will look at the corresponding annual rate of unemployment over a period of time, from 1970 to 2001. • CPI is Consumer Price Index, which measures changes through time in the rice level of consumer goods and services purchased by households. This variable was chosen because it is a determinant for the level of prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services, which turns signifies how out of reach basic goods and services might be for those without resources of income. We will look at the corresponding annual consumer price index over a period of time, from 1970 to 2001.

The relationship between CRIME and the independent variables should be a positive one because when the unemployment rate and the consumer price index decreases, it increase the ability of the households to obtain goods and services, as mentioned before, puts reduces the pressure on the individual to resort to criminal activity. 3. Data Description The data obtained for the purpose of this report was compiled by obtaining a sample of 30 years and obtaining an annual rate for CRIME, which includes both violent and property crimes.

These statistics were obtained from the Bureau of Justice and the online data collection. In addition, the independent variables data obtained include the rate of unemployment and consumer price index for each year selected, which was obtained from the U. S. Bureau of Labor. 4. Regression Analysis The model was calculated using one period = 1 year for the CRIME variable. The results are shown in the table below: Crime = UNEMP(138. 371725) +CPI (2. 291143153) Table 1 Regression Statistics |  |  |  |  | | |R Square |0. 383040391 | | | | | |Adjusted R Square |0. 340491453 | | | | | |Standard Error |251. 18294 | | | | | |Observations |32 | | | | | |ANOVA |df |SS |MS |F |Significance F | |Residual |29 |1836041 |63311. 7 | | | |Total |31 |2975950 | | | | |Results |Coefficients |Standard Error |t Stat |P-value | | |Unemployment Rate |138. 3717525 |33. 31553 |4. 15037 |0. 000266 | | |Consumer Price Index |2. 291143153 |1. 06965 |1. 6965 |0. 040725 | | The results of the regression analysis were close to expectations. As projected, there is a positive relationship between CRIME and the independent variables UNEMP and CPI. This indicates that as the rate of UNEMP and CPI (cost of goods) increases, the rate of CRIME will increase. We can also see that there is a stronger statistical significance for the relationship between CRIME and the variable UNEMP, while a weak statistical relationship between CRIME and the variables CPI exist.

In addition, there is a little to no correlation between the independent variables. Table 2 |  |Average Crime Rate |Unemployment Rate |Consumer Price Index | |Average Crime Rate |1 | | | |UNEMP |0. 534259935 |1 | | |CPI |0. 128746083 |-0. 14181485 |1 | We can also see through the meaning of t and/or “P-Value” how important the independent variables are to the dependent variable. In this case, the rate of UNEMP shows that the independent variable is very significant. While on the other hand, CPI could be considered a less significant independent variable. The value of Adjusted R2 of 0. 3405 indicates that approximately 34. 1% of the total variation in the dependent variable has been accounted for by the independent variables.

Due to the level of significance of the independent variable, CPI, a second regression calculation was performed in which only CRIME (dependent) and UNEMP (independent) were recorded. The results are as follows: Crime = UNEMP(115. 8516423) Table 3 |Regression Statistics |  |  |  |  | | |R Square |0. 285433679 | | | | | |Adjusted R Square |0. 61614801 | | | | | |Standard Error |266. 240114 | | | | | |Observations |32 | | | | | |ANOVA |df |SS |MS |F |Significance F | |Residual |30 |2126513. 49 |70883. 79831 | | | |Total |31 |2975950. 427 | | | | |Results |Coefficients |Standard Error |t Stat |P-value | | |Unemployment Rate |115. 8516423 |33. 46649509 |3. 461720206 |0. 001634512 | |

In this regression where only the variable UNEMP was recorded, the coefficients and the t are positive, which still indicates that as the rat of UNEMP increases, the rate of CRIME will increase respectively. The significance of t tells us that the independent variable does have significance to the dependent variable. However, the value for Adjusted R2 using the single variable decreased to 0. 2616, which shows that only 26. 2% of the total variation in the dependent variable has been accounted for by the independent variable.

This reduction in this value indicates that the single variable might not fit the model as well as with the original two independent variables. 5. Conclusion After evaluating the results of the two regressions, I arrived at the following conclusions: 1. The results on the first regression should not be improved. Despite the fact that both outputs show a positive relationship between the independent and dependent variable, the positive relationship of the variables as well as the Adjusted R2 did not improve at all in the second regression. 2.

In fact the Adjusted R2 actually decreases significantly in the second regression, indicating that the data does not fit the function as well. 3. A positive correlation between the rate of CRIME and UNEMP and CPI existed according to the results on the first regression even though CPI seemed to have less significance over the dependent variable. So, it might not affect the rate of the CRIME as much as the variable UNEMP does. 4. While the low R-Square value indicates additional variables could be added to strengthen the model we can assert that the rate of CRIME is influenced by the rate of Unemployment and the Price of Goods. . Works Cited Page 1. Economic Report of the President 2010 pages 371-410. Retrieved on September 15, 2010 from: http://www. whitehouse. gov/sites/default/files/microsites/economic-report-president. pdf 2. Historical US Unemployment and Consumer Price Index Data Table Retrieved on September 9, 2010 from: http://www. bls. gov/data/ 3. Historical US Crime Rate Data Table Retrieved on September 9, 2010 from: http://bjs. ojp. usdoj. gov/dataonline/ 4. Raphael, S. & Winter-Ebmer R. [2001]. “Identifying the Effect of Unemployment on Crime. ” Journal of Law and Economics 7. Data (see attached worksheet) [pic]

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Seagate Case Study

Seagate Case Study Effective Global Strategic Resourcing Analysis The key to a successful supply chain and its integration with customers and supplies lies in its ability to communicate wants, needs, and realities. Seagate has taken communication to its highest level by creating visibility at every level of its supply chain. This visibility is the Holy Grail for Seagate because it is a form of communication that breeds trust and transparency throughout every level of its supply chain.

This visibility has been bred through heavy investments in IT infrastructure, employee, supplier, subcontractor, and customer education, capital expenditures on research and development, and even bucking supply chain trends through vertical integration with subcontractors. Karl Chicca is quoted as saying, “Electronic connectivity gives us the visibility up and down the supply chain, so we don’t have to generate new capacity every time there is a request for more product. (Cohen & Roussel, 2005) This key concept of visibility both up and down the supply chain keeps the manufacturing process and the inventory allocation the flexibility it needs to react quickly to market changes. Seagate has worked to combine legacy systems and multiple ERP’s acquired over the years into just two systems, with a focus on further refinement to one system for all ERP needs. They have made this a core requirement and thus have excelled and created a core competency within the organization.

This visibility and higher form communication is what enables Seagate to achieve real-time demand management, and lower reliance on demand forecasts. As stated by Cohen and Roussel (2005), “Seagate’s ambitious goal is to ship to real-time changes in demand – not to plans or forecasts. This means that the company has to monitor the economy, the high-tech industry, and the information technology subset of the industry to get a sense of which way demand is flowing. Economists, compliance officers, IT professionals, and engineers must be employed to keep the supply chain relevant and are just as important to the process as the manufacturing line. While some suppliers have been resistant to the changes of Seagate they have tried to mitigate risks through investing in what it calls “factory of the future” alliance. (Cohen & Roussel, 2005) This investment has created a fully automated production line(s) that can manufacture any drive at any time on any line.

Visibility backed by technology has helped keep flexibility and absorb some of the risks associated with real-time demand supply pulls. With such a vast network of suppliers, subcontractors, and VMI hubs around the globe, Seagate has many compliance issues to consider and deal with daily. Along with social and governmental compliance comes ethical compliance and considerations. Seagate faces customs duties and must stay abreast of any changes to governing laws of each nation it imports and exports to; this simple requirement could involve an entire department of personnel devoted to research and classification.

In the US alone you have government bodies like the CBP (Customs and Border Patrol), FTC (Federal Trade Commission), FCC (Federal Communications Commission), DHS (Department of Homeland Security), and many others, but this is only the US. Many countries have their own versions of these organizations and Seagate must remain compliant with them all to avoid fines and levies. Seagate could do this for their selves or hire out a third party contractor to handle these requirements.

Customs brokers are common, as are companies like ITS (Intertek Testing Services) who handle material compliance and product testing. ITS also does audits for social compliance; this would help Seagate keep up with changing labor landscapes like China, where major changes to labor laws have taken place over the past 12-18 months. Social compliance brings up ethics questions and staying compliant with emerging regulations like the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

The FCP Act tracks corruption and tries to mandate fair trade and ethical business from country to country by reducing bribes and unfair, often illegal forms of payment. (Brannen, 2008) Acts like these can create situations of heavy fines and judgments against an organization if the regulations are not kept up on by the organization. These laws and governing rules evolve daily and the US is not the only nation with such regulations. The EU (European Union) has regulations that are far reaching in Europe and affect every nation that is a member of the EU.

As visibility increases with Seagate and all parties of its supply chain, so regulatory compliance should be easier to manage and maintain between parties. Visibility breeds accountability as actions are seen by all levels of the supply chain process. References Brannen, L. (2008). Steering Clear of Foreign Corruption. Business Finance, 14(1), 7. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Cohen, S. , & Roussel, J. (2005). Strategic Supply Chain Management: The 5 disciplines for top performance. New York. McGraw-Hill.

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Supply Chain of Iron Ore

SUPPLY CHAIN OF IRON ORE With the increasing demand in iron ore due to rapid industrialisation and increase in demand of steel, the need for a proper distribution network or a supply chain has been realised. The following section takes into account the supply chain system of iron ore with some examples quoted from the Australia-China supply chain, which is one of the most important supply chains due to Australia being the largest exporter and China being the largest importer of iron ore. Logistic System: The iron ore logistic chain is comparatively simpler as compared to some other commodities.

Ore is transferred directly from the mine site to the steel plant refinery through various transportation sources like rail, sea or road and conveyors. The transport of iron ore forms 15-45% of the total cost of the exported ore and more than 60% of the cost of domestic consumption of coal. Iron ore’s high density and large volumes make the transportation and handling more expensive and time consuming. Hence, the efficiency of the total supply chain of iron ore is very important for the overall profitability of a mining operation.

The basic supply chain of iron ore can be depicted as follows: Fig. 1 International supply chain for iron ore Fig. 2 Domestic/inland supply chain for iron ore 1. Mine Site: A mine site is an area from where the iron ore is mined in it’s most basic and natural form and is not ready to be used in the steel industry or refinery. The ore is extracted from open cut mines using drilling and blasting techniques. There are three main types of iron ore deposits. a) Magmatic Magnetite ore deposits: It is the most magnetic of all the elements present on the earth surface.

Some iron ore deposits in Chile, formed from volcanic flows are known to have magnetite ore deposits in them. Metamorphic accumulations of the ore at Tasmania also are a rich source of magnetite form of iron ore. b) Hematite ore: This ore is found on every continent except for Antarctica, with great intensity in South America, Australia and Asia. Although rarer to find, it is cheaper to process as it does not require any beneficiation process. But being harder than magnetite they require more energy for crushing. ) Banded Iron Formation (BIF): These are metamorphosed sedimentary rocks composed of thinly blended iron minerals and silica. The mining involves moving tremendous amounts of ore and waste. The waste comes in two forms, bedrock in the mine (mullock) that isn’t ore, and unwanted minerals which are an intrinsic part of the ore rock itself (gangue). The mullock is mined and piled in waste dumps, and the gangue is separated during the beneficiation process and is removed as tailings. Taconite tailings are mostly the mineral quartz, which is chemically inert. This material is stored in large, -regulated water settling ponds.

The key economic parameters for magnetite ore being economic are the crystallinity of the magnetite, the grade of the iron within the BIF host rock, and the contaminant elements which exist within the magnetite concentrate. The size and strip ratio of most magnetite resources is irrelevant as BIF formations can be hundreds of metres thick, with hundreds of kilometers of strike, and can easily come to more than 3,000 million or more, tonnes of contained ore. 2. Stockpiling and Blending: After the impure ore is extracted from the mine, it is stored on a plot which may be on the same place as the mine or away from it.

To transfer the ore to the plot, road transportation is used. The stored ore for purification undergoes beneficiation. It is the process of separating the mineral from the unwanted waste or gangue. The mineral is then transported further in the supply chain. The gangue is mainly dumped as it of no use. A recent technical breakthrough in the mining industry has made the beneficiation process much cheaper as compared to before. The new technology, ESS, not only is useful for the extracted iron ore but also for the iron ore obtained as a by-product from copper production.

This moves the iron ore directly into the semi-processed higher value market. The technology is basically a low-cost furnace that works on self-regulating basis to produce pig iron from the iron ore. The grades of iron that are available and required for the purpose of production are: a) Low grade iron: 45-50% iron content b) Medium-grade iron: 50-55% iron content c) High-grade iron: 55-65% iron content The semi-processed iron is then passed on to the next stage 3. Rail/Road Transportation: – Most of the mines have a direct rail connection. For those who have a rail connection near-by, the material is transported using trucks or conveyors.

Trains are indexed into the loading point automatically one or two wagons a time. The material is then transported to the desired port in case of an international transfer or a steel refinery or a nearby rail station for a domestic transfer. After reaching the port, the ore is stockpiled again and lower quality of ore is treated with that of higher level to attain a consistent desired level. This is the second level of blending. 4. Ship loading and Sea Journey: When ready to be exported, the ore is collected from the stockpile by a reclaimer. This is controlled from ship loader and manoeuvres about on rail.

The ore travels to the ship loader via a conveyer. The loader is located on the wharf which is several hundred metres from the reclaimer. Direct loading or the DSO have three types of loaders: * Fixed pedestal i. e. the least expensive, but limited range due to fixed pivot. The ship needs to move during the loading process. * Quadrant/linear quadrant consist of a fixed point at the rear of the loader and a rail at the wharf face. A bridge spans between the pivot and the rail, supporting a shuttle, luffing ship loader. It can only serve a single berth. Travelling(linear)/long travel type: Most versatile but also most expensive. It can travel along the wharf and perpendicular to the wharf. Length of travel is only is only limited by the length of the rail on the wharf. It’s capacity is 16000 tonnes/hour. At ports that are shallow (and not economical to dredge) and the export volumes are relatively low, a transhipment method may be used. A smaller vessel of about 60,000t capacity will ferry loads out to a capesize vessel up to 12 nautical miles out of the sea. The loaded ore is then shipped to the destination port in vessels. The essels are supplied under one of the four different types of contractual arrangements: 1. Voyage charter: Transport for specific load from source port to the destination port for a fixed price on a specific day. 2. Contract of Affreightment: Series of cargoes between the two ports( source and destination)at a fixed price rate. The ship owner/operator is able to plan the use of their ships in the most efficient manner. 3. Time Charter: Charter has operational control of the vessel over a fixed period. 4. Bare boat Charter: Charter has complete operational control over the vessel. Shipping cost and Global Competitiveness:

As discussed earlier, one of the major cost for extraction of iron and delivering it to the steel industries is the transportation cost with shipping cost being one of the major contributors to this cost. Thus, the shipping cost plays a vital role in determining the final price of the output and also decides the global competitiveness of the mining firm or the country in the market. Let’s take the example of shipping iron ore from Brazil and Australia (the two major exporters of iron ore) to China (the major importer of iron ore). The country having a lower landing cost for the same grade of iron ore would be preferred over the other.

Landed cost of iron ore to China in 1999 Landed cost of iron ore to China in 2004 The difference of the landing cost of Brazil and Australia in China in the year 1999 was around 7. 5 million USD, while that in the year 2004 was 13. 5 million USD. Although the FOB cost in both the years was less for Brazil as for Australia, but the freight costs for Brazil-China was much more than that for Australia-China because of the distance between the two countries. While looking at the production of iron ore, Brazil can produce it at a much lower price as compared to Australia.

But the shipping cost of ore from Brazil to China is much more than that from Australia to China. Thus, with the inclusion of shipping costs, not only does Australia’s ore become more competitive but also the difference is quite large. The extent of the difference is dependent on the shipping rates. Due to this difference in landing price of the iron ore in the Chinese market, BHP Billiton, an Australian mining company, in March 2010, negotiated with Chinese steel makers to sell ore for a ‘landed price’. This gave the Australian mining companies a further advantage over the Brazilian corporations.

The concept of bulk shipping market in 2011 is quite different from that in 2004. During the commodity boom from 2004 to 2008, many new capsize ships were ordered which are all coming online now. In other words, the orders made during those four years are impacting the bulk shipping market now. According to Blas, 307 capsizes are due for completion in the year 2011, one in every 29 hours. Also, due to the low scrapping rates of older ships, it would lead to lower freight rates. These freight rates are expected to lower the ever increasing rate of iron ore to an extent of 10%-20%. 5.

Post-shipment processes: After the vessels reach the destination port, the iron ore is again transported to the nearby plots for beneficiation and storing. This is the third level of beneficiation (if required) and the higher grade of ore is treated with the lower grade to attain a consistent desired grade again. The ore is then stored in these plots till it is not required for the steel refinery. These days, using ESS the iron obtained here is pig iron and can be used directly for steel refinery. In many cases, by this time the ownership of the goods lies with the client and also does the risk.

The process of unloading is generally similar to that of loading at the source port. The unloaded goods are then either loaded onto a conveyor or truck, if the rail network lies away from the port or directly to the rails if it lies near to it. The rail/road network then carries forward the goods to the steel refinery for it to be used there. SUPPLY CHAIN OF FORTESCUE METAL GOURP LTD. : A Case Study Fortescue Metal Groups Ltd. (FMG) is the fourth largest exporter and producer of iron ore in the world. Ever since it’s first export to China in 2008, it has become the third largest producer and exporter in Australia.

A study of FMG’s supply chain would help us understand better the working of the distribution and transport of iron ore. 1. Mine site and mining: Mining at Fortescue’s first minesite, Cloudbreak, began in 2008 with more than 28 million tonnes of iron ore mined in the first full year of production. Since then, mining and processing at Cloudbreak has increased to more than 100,000 tonnes of ore each day. Fortescue has also established it’s second minesite, Christmas Creek, which is 50 kilometres east of Cloudbreak. Together, the two mines make up the Chichester Hub.

In 2010, Fortescue will extend its rail line through to Christmas Creek and construct a second ore processing facility at the site. FMG Mining Sites, Current Scenario Mining Breakthroughs Overburden Removal The ore at Cloudbreak sits below a layer of overburden with an average thickness of around 20m (starting at 0m and reaching more that 60m in depth). Initial overburden removal consists of a conventional truck and shovel stripping method. A substantial reduction in the use of conventional methods will occur when the overburden removal system is introduced, however, conventional methods will always form part of the process.

Fortescue has teamed with FLSmidth Rahco to design, engineer and fabricate an overburden removal system that takes existing technology to another level. The revolutionary system, capable of removing 50 million tonnes of overburden per year, will deliver true continuous removal of overburden with costs below other less-efficient methods. The system’s design affords the mine team exceptional control over the repositioning of overburden, allowing them to mimic the natural form of the landscape and begin the work of environmental restoration almost immediately.

Being able to create an extremely flat bench of stripped overburden means that the top soil is far less likely to wash away, making revegetation more successful and allowing cattle to eventually return to the area. Overburden Removal System Mining the Ore The flat lying nature of the deposit has led Fortescue to elect to use a fleet of Wirtgen surface miners rather than traditional drill-blast-excavate mining techniques. Wirtgen 2500 surface miners weigh over 100 tonnes and have over 1000 horsepower, which gives some idea about the size of the operation.

Surface miners have been used for a quarter of a century in soft rocks such as coal and salt and in hard rocks such as limestone and granite that are up to 10 times harder than the average ore at Cloudbreak. Results using this innovative technique have been very encouraging and the benefits of using surface miners on this particular deposit are numerous. 2. Rail Transport: FMG operate one of the heaviest trains and use wagons carrying up to 137 tonnes or ore with each wagon having an axle load of 34 tonne, the highest axle loads of any railway in the world.

Between 2006 and 2008, FMG built a completely new port facility on 2 million sq. metres of reclaimed land AT Anderson Point. Here all the facilities are centrally located and include: train unloading, ore blending and ship loading. After a fully laden train arrives at a port, a rack and a pinion indexer takes control of each loaded rake of FMG wagons and pushes it into the train unloader cell two cars at a time. The tippler works by rotating each car by 150 degrees, tipping the ore onto hydraulically operated apron feeders 20 metres below the cells.

The apron feeders control the delivery of iron ore onto a tunnel conveyor travelling to the stockpile. FMG train wagon unloader 3. Stockpiling and Blending: Following unloading from the train , conveyor belts transport the ore at 5. 5m/s to the stackers. The stackers build the ore into stockpiles. The FMG tracker has an operational design of capacity of 11,080t/hr. FMG’s stockyard contains 12 stockpiles typically designed to hold 5-10% of the total annual throughput volume of the port. Each individual stockpile is usually quivalent to a typical capsize ship load of 180,000-200,000t). These stackers are capable enough to traverse the width of the stockpile and are rail mounted. FMG Iron Ore Stockyard 4. Ship logistics: Shipping began at Fortescue’s port in Port Hedland on schedule on 15 May 2008. Since then, the rate has steadily increased in line with Company targets. The port infrastructure consists of train unloading, ore blending and ship loading facilities, centrally located within the port. The port was engineered for scale and expandability.

The greenfields site means that both the present and the future can be accommodated in one low cost, high tech design because the ‘bolt on’ design of the facility allows future expansion to proceed without hindrance to the existing operations. Since operations began a second berth has been constructed and commissioned and a second stacker installed. The site also has the capacity for huge increases in the amount of stockpiled materials. Trains arriving at this facility from the mines are unloaded using a rotary dumper, which unloads a pair of wagons at a time, in a continuous process.

The ore passes from the dumper via a conveyor to a transfer point, then to a travelling stacker for stock pile blending and quality analysis. The product stockpile configuration and equipment proposed will allow the maximum flexibility in the manner in which ore product is arranged in stock piles and reclaimed. Chevron stacking, together with a bucket wheel reclaimer, provides the best blending capabilities at this time, however other modes of stacking, such as wind rowing, can be adopted to improve blending control and flexibility should this be required. FMG capesizes 5. Unloading in China: Shen Yang

Shen Yang is one of the most important cities in China due to it having many of the steel refineries. But it is land-locked and thus direct unloading of iron ore from Australia isn’t possible. It has to source it’s iron ore from three main ports namely Qinhuangdao , which is the largest dry port in China , Dalian and Bayuquan. Connection with key ports Steel companies in this region are faced with different delivery times, issues and costs depending upon which port are used. Quinhuandago, although the port itself has adequate capacity, is some distance from the steel plants.

The rail journey requires an hour long stop and a crew change. It also passes through two rail jurisdictions making a continuous trip difficult. The railway lines serving the port are heavily congested . The available capacity of coal trains is only one-third of the demand and also the transportation costs are $11. 40/t. Dalian is slightly closer to the industry hub, but has a heavily congested port and the rail connections are saturated with passenger traffic. It is within the same province as Shen Yang so the scheduling of trains is made easier.

The transport costs are at a low of $7. 35/t Bayquan is the closest port but it lacks a rail connection and is of limited capacity. The port charges are higher but better priority is offered for iron ore shipments. Steel manufacturers use company owned trucks to keep the costs down. The transport costs are less with $7. 15/t. This shows that rail transport may always never be an answer to the land transportation. Shen Yang also shows that various factors need to be taken into account while investigating alternative supply chains like regulatory issues and human factors.

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Describe the Factors to Consider When Promoting Effective Communication

You need to consider a number of factors: Verbal communication: Tone and pitch of your voice, does it suit the situation or topic? A louder more direct communication maybe required if trying to get the attention of a group of children to come back inside. However this would not be suitable in a situation whereby a child is upset say for example if they have wet themselves and are embarrassed, this would need a quieter and understanding tone to reassure them.

Use of language is important, when talking to children you need to keep things simpler than if you were walking to an adult, however if you talking to an adult using very simple instructions this may be deemed as patronising, so it is important to choose your language carefully. The speed in which you talk is also key. When talking to children I tend to get down to their level and talk to them at a relatively slow speed, this way they are more likely to understand me more than if I was walking round above them talking as though I would talk to adults.

Non-verbal communication: Facial and hand gestures, again this needs to be tailored to the situation or topic. In the example above, a smile and perhaps a hand on their shoulder is sufficient to the situation. Whereby frowning and waving arms as if annoyed would be detrimental to the feelings of the child. Eye contact is an important factor as this engages the audience, keeping them focused on what you are discussing.

By making eye contact you are directing your conversation at that specific person, demonstrating that you are devoting your time and are not able to be distracted as if you would by looking around. Body language plays an important part, for example folded arms can indicate you are being defensive or not open to suggestions, whereas slouching, hands on hips, rolling of eyes and huffing can seem rude and disrespectful. It is always advisable to evaluate a number of factors before communicating information:

What is the information I need to communicate? Who is my audience? Is written or verbal the best form of communication? What is the best time of day, at morning drop off or should I book some time in with the parent? Where should the communication take place, would it be appropriate to talk within ear reach of others or is the matter sensitive, therefore needing privacy. By considering the above, you are demonstrating professionalism and considering the needs of others.