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Self Negotiation Strategy

Reflecting on my Negotiation Skills Abstract Negotiation is an everyday fact of life and it is bound to occur whenever two parties have differing opinions and they need to seek a middle ground. Devoid of communication lines, there can be no negotiation. Communication competence can be gauged using five cognitions.

These, in their order of strength, are: planning cognitions, consequence cognitions, reflection cognitions, and presence cognitions. Areas for improvement include not letting my sincerity and straightforwardness to impede my ability to bluff, being more open to making compromises, and shifting my focus from trying to aggressively make big wins as this alienates the other party, destroying relationships.

Additional areas for improvement include: honing the skills needed to read other people’s reactions to my communication and those skills that increase my ability to perceive what is happening in the process; working on my negotiating skills to enable me to negotiate in one-on-one discussions compared to group discussions; and to work on my patience as it is a very important in using leverage to win in negotiations. Reflecting on my Communication Skills

Negotiation is an everyday fact of life and it is bound to occur whenever two parties have differing opinions and they need to seek a middle ground. Devoid of communication lines, there can be no negotiation. Therefore, this rule is essential. Lines of communication are the life-blood of a negotiation. Master negotiators foster their communication lines, and where lines are weak, they seek to develop new ones. Developing rapport with the other party eases the stress of negotiating and improves the likelihood of a successful outcome.

This is especially crucial in instances where the parties will have a long-term relationship after negotiations closure (Noble, 2001). This essay seeks to reflect on my own negotiation style from which I will develop a plan to improve my personal negotiation skills based on the type of negotiator that I am. My Communication Competence Planning Cognitions. This is cognition to expect, practice and monitor themes of conversation. It involves, among other things, the anticipation of the audience and planning what will be said in advance. This is my strongest cognition. Consequence Cognitions.

This gauges the awareness of the negotiator of the outcomes of a communication performance by, among others, thinking about how others might construe what has been said and understanding the impact of the communication on others, among other things. This ranks second in my cognitions. Reflection Cognitions. This gauges the tendency for the negotiator to cast a retrospective glance at a communication performance with the aim of improving one’s self presentation. I involves the act of reflecting on what was said, the past performance, what could have been said, among other things.

This cognition ranks third for me. Modeling Cognitions. This gauges the respondent’s cognizance of contextual variables that supply information on how to interact with the other party by, among others, “sizing up” the environment, and attending to how other people are reacting and responding. This cognition ranks as the second weakest for me. Presence Cognitions. This is the cognizance of the way the other party is reacting to a conversation and it involves, among other things, knowing when to recognize others negative reactions or resistance and change the subject.

This is my weakest cognition. Implications of My Communications Competence on My negotiation Skills Planning Cognitions. This ability helps me to be able to anticipate the characters that I am bound to encounter in the negotiation process. Personally, I like to be sincere in my negotiations. I tend to be apathetic in arguments and I push for my convictions, then putting the negotiation process behind me once it is over. Additionally, I love to hog power and to foster conflict; I believe conflict is healthy.

This cognition offers a mixed bag for me: Some of These traits are very useful when it comes to negotiating, but some of them serve to cripple the process. The fact that that I plan ahead for the issues of discussion and how to present my convictions to the other party serves to give me a negotiating advantage (Hufford, 1999). I maintain sincerity in my negotiations, and while this can be beneficial, it can also serve to weaken my portfolio of tactics that I can employ in the negotiation. Sincerity is important so as to maintain credibility during and after negotiations.

However, being overly sincere can limit one’s ability to subdue disadvantageous verbal and non-verbal cues, and where befitting, to send misleading cues so as to support a bluff. The ability to maintain levelheadedness in the negotiation is a big plus for me as a negotiator since emotions do not serve to cloud my involvement in the negotiation process (Hufford, 1999; Clarke, 1998). Consequence Cognitions. Generally, I do not have a strong preference for one-on-one discussions compared to group discussions.

I am mildly empathetic, and sharing of power does not auger well with me: I see it as a loss of advantage that would otherwise be presented to me during negotiations if I had the power all to myself. The awareness of the consequences of a negotiation is important for me. When it comes to winning, I like to do it big. This aggressive nature of negotiation style, while it may win in particular cases, destroys the future willingness for the other party to negotiate with me on other matters. Self-confidence and self-assertiveness, but without unnecessary aggressiveness, are desirable negotiating traits (Hufford, 1999; Clarke, 1998).

Reflection Cognitions. I love clear rules during negotiations and where possible, I find precedents to be useful in guiding the negotiation process. The reflecting upon a communication performance, with the objective being to improve one’s self presentation, makes me a better negotiator. I am incapable of lying effectively, but my good sense of humor is a great asset that compensates for my inability to lie by helping to break the ice. I am not much against criticism (depending on how it is framed), but ceding ground by giving up power is never an option.

This resistance to conceding ground may be counterproductive as it hinders my ability to compromise (Hufford, 1999). Modeling Cognitions. Gauging contextual variables to supply information on how to interact with the other party is important in negotiations so as to determine the offers and counteroffers that you can throw at the other party. This cognition ranks as the second weakest for me. I do not believe in going to extreme lengths to gain an insight into the other party and I do not like slow negotiations. Additionally, I face no difficulties in conveying my convictions and I do not hold grudges.

These attributes, save for my impatience during negotiations and handicap in sizing up the other party, mostly help me to become an efficient negotiator. The ability to rapidly measure the impact of variations and counter-proposals on the other party’s interests is crucial, as is patience and flexibility (Clarke, 1998). Presence Cognitions. Having the cognizance of the way the other party is reacting to a conversation is crucial in a negotiation. This is my weakest cognition. I do care how people perceive me and I am never about winning by slight margins.

I do not like to waste time persuading others and I go for the jugular so as to guarantee quick wins, Additionally, I can hardly call myself a principled person. The ability to perceive the other parties’ speech and body signals during negotiations and interpret them appropriately is a desirable trait in a negotiator (Clarke, 1998). Areas for Improvement While my sincerity and straightforwardness is an asset, the fact that I am incapable of effectively deploying smoke screens for my opponents means that I may not be reaping the maximum benefits from my negotiations as I cannot raise my standing using bluffs.

Additionally, it would be desirable for me to cede some ground when negotiating. This includes letting go of some of the power I may hold so as to make the other party to be able to participate in the process in a role that is not overly disadvantaged as this may leave them disgruntled and jeopardize the likelihood of meaningful future negotiations on other issues (Cohen, n. d. ). My emphasis on winning big and clobbering the opponent needs to be replaced with a less aggressive approach where I seek to be content with just winning.

One of the most common misstep that people make in negotiation is to take it as warfare or as a zero-sum game. This is not good as it is a fact that negotiations are highly likely to happen between the same people over and over about various issues. It is prudent to consider each negotiation as a part of an ongoing relationship (Cohen, n. d. ). It is also good to hone the skills needed to read other people’s reactions to my communication and those skills that increase my ability to perceive what is happening in the process.

This ability helps to correctly gauge when to cede ground, when you are gaining an upper hand, and when the negotiations are over (Conflict Resolution Network, n. d. ). I should also work on my negotiating skills to enable me to negotiate in one-on-one discussions compared to group discussions. Group discussions usually means negotiations within negotiations, since the members of each group have to negotiate an intra-consensus prior to giving a response to the other side.

If every single member of every group has to put in their point of view before a response to a proposal can be formulated, the process becomes slow and tedious. Despite the number of people involved in a negotiation, important decisions are usually made when no more than two people are involved (Noble, 2001). It is also necessary to work on my patience as it is a very important in using leverage to win in negotiations. The value of leverage is hinged on factors such as necessity, desire, competition, and time.

While hastening negotiations can serve to increase the punch that your leverage point holds, having the patience for holding out and dragging the negotiations may serve to soften the leverage points that the other party has (Noble, 2001). Conclusion Communication competence can be gauged using five cognitions. These, in their order of strength, are: planning cognitions, which is the cognition to expect, practice and monitor themes of conversation; consequence cognitions, which gauge the awareness of the negotiator of the outcomes of a negotiation; reflection cognitions, which gauges the tendency for the egotiator to cast a retrospective glance at a communication performance with the aim of improving one’s self presentation; modeling cognitions which gauges the respondent’s cognizance of contextual variables that supply information on how to interact with the other party; and presence cognitions, which is the cognizance of the way the other party is reacting to a conversation.

Areas for improvement include not letting my sincerity and straight forwardness to impede my ability to bluff, being more open to making compromises, and shifting my focus from trying to aggressively make big wins as this alienates the other party, destroying relationships.

Additional areas for improvement include: honing the skills needed to read other people’s reactions to my communication and those skills that increase my ability to perceive what is happening in the process; working on my negotiating skills to enable me to negotiate in one-on-one discussions compared to group discussions; and to work on my patience as it is a very important in using leverage to win in negotiations. References Clarke, R. (1998). Fundamentals of Negotiation. Retrieved August 30, 2011 from http://www. rogerclarke. com/SOS/FundasNeg. html Cohen, S. (n. d. ).

Fundamentals of Negotiation. Retrieved August 30, 2011 from http://www. negotiationskills. com/qafund. php Conflict Resolution Network. (n. d. ). CR Kit. Retrieved August 30, 2011 from http://www. crnhq. org/pages. php? pID=12#skill_3 Hufford, D. L. (1999). Fundamentals of Negotiation. Retrieved August 30, 2011 from http://www. usafp. org/Fac_Dev/Leadership_Management/ Negotiation%20Skills/Negotiation-Handout. htm Noble, T. (2001). Improving Negotiation Skills: Rules for Master Negotiators. Retrieved August 30, 2011 from http://library. findlaw. com/2001/Jan/1/130785. html

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Scientific Method/Molecules

Scientific Method/Molecules Unit 1 Saudat Adamson American Intercontinental University Antionett Grant-Hall August 28, 2011 Introduction: More people recognize the Ruby-Throated Hummingbird; one reason could be that it is usually disseminated throughout North America. The Ruby-Throated is the only type of hummingbird that roost in the eastern part of United States and is easily recognized among bird watchers because of the color of their feathers (Mayntz, M. , n. d. ). Even though they eat bugs, they also are nectar-eaters that drink through their long slim beaks.

They are drawn to nectar-producing plants and red blossom ones especially (Mayntz, M. , n. d. ). Hummingbirds practically have no sense of smell and are attracted to flowers, which have a slight smell, or no smell at all, which leads you to believe the color and how much nectar is produced is what attracts those (Attracting Hummingbirds, n. d. ). By planting different colored flowers in a yard, the hummingbirds will be pulled towards the red shaded ones (Venable, N. , 1999). Hypothesis: If ruby-throated hummingbirds are drawn to the color red then they should feed from red colored water feeders more than any other color water feeders.

Prediction: From my research I have found that Ruby-Throated Hummingbirds are drawn more to the color red; therefore, it is expected that more hummingbirds will be drawn to the red colored water feeders more than any other color water feeder. Controlled Experimental Method: • Five feeders of the same size with different colored water in each one. The same amount of sugar mixture in each. The colors will be red, green, blue, yellow, orange. They will be about 4 feet apart from each other. • The feeders will be watched and the amount of birds to each will be tallied. • All the information will be recorded at 12 noon each day. Results: Week One Day |Red |  Yellow |Green |Blue |Orange | |Monday |    49 |36 |  23 |19 |44 | | | | |  | | | |Tuesday |    53 |42 |22 |  20 |48 | |Wednesday |    60 |50 |29 |  25 |55 | |Thursday |    75 |49 |19 |  29 |70 | |Friday |    100 |60 |20 |  22      |72 | |Saturday |    110 |72 |25 |  26 |69 | |Sunday |    99 |75 |30 |24 |80 | |  |  |  |  |  |  | Week Two Day |Red |  Yellow |Green |Blue |Orange | |Monday |   144 |80 |   32 |22 |86 | | | | |  | | | |Tuesday |   145 |83 |   34 | 23 | 90 | |Wednesday |   150 |82 |   33 | 29 | 95 | |Thursday |   149 |83 |   35 | 30 | 100 | |Friday |   155 |99 |   40 | 25 | 99 | |Saturday |   150 |98 |   45 | 26 | 101 | |Sunday |   156 |110 |   42 | 25 | 108 | |  |   |  |  |  |  | Week Three Day |Red |  Yellow |Green |Blue |Orange | |Monday |   155 |111 |   |25 |106 | | | | |   45 | | | |Tuesday |   152 |110 |   42 | 24 | 107 | |Wednesday |   155 |109 |   45 | 25 | 108 | |Thursday |   150 |108 |   43 | 22 | 109 | |Friday |   154 |109 |   40 | 19 | 110 | |Saturday |   152 |110 |   45 | 23 | 110 | |Sunday |   153 |102 |   43 | 22 | 115 | |  |  |  |  |  |  | Week Four Day |Red |  Yellow |Green |Blue |Orange | |Monday |   150 | 103 |   45 |25 |111 | | | | |  | | | |Tuesday |    152 |  105 |   44 | 22 | 110 | |Wednesday |    155 |  102 |   43 | 24 | 109 | |Thursday |    154 |  104 |   46 | 19 | 116 | |Friday |    155 |  103 |   44 | 17 | 115 | |Saturday |    153 |  102 |   43 | 16 | 110 | |Sunday |    152 |  101 |   40 | 15 | 111 | |  |  |  |  |  |  | Week Five |Day |Red |  Yellow |Green |Blue |Orange | |Monday     150 |99 |39 |15 |111 | | | | |  | | | |Tuesday |     152 |106 |40 | 16 | 110 | |Wednesday |     153 |107 |41 | 14 | 115 | |Thursday |     155 |108 |38 | 12 | 116 | |Friday |     155 |108 |35 | 11 | 115 | |Saturday |     154 |110 |32 | 11 | 117 | |Sunday |     152 |112 |30 | 15 | 115 | |  |  |  |  |  |  | Observations: The birds seem to be drawn to the red colored water and the feeders which have orange and yellow colored water respectfully. Conclusion: From the results of my experiment, the conclusion is as follows: • The color red does attract the Ruby-throated hummingbirds • They tend to remember where they last feed from and more follow Therefore, the hypothesis, which states that the Ruby – Throated Hummingbird is drawn to the color of red, has been proven correct. The color red in different hades can also be place in different feeders to see if the birds will go to the darkest shade of red. Anyone concerned with having hummingbirds in their garden would benefit from knowing that hummingbirds are drawn to the color of red. Reference Attracting Hummingbirds (n. d. ). In Hummingbirds. net. Retrieved August 24, 2011, from http://www. hummingbirds. net/attract. html Mayntz, M. (n. d. ). Ruby-Throated Hummingbird. In About. com. Birding/Wild birds. Retrieved August 24, 2011, from http://birding. about. com/od/birdprofiles/p/rubythroatedhummingbird. htm? p=1 Venable, N. (1999). Attracting Ruby-Throated Hummingbirds. In WVU. edu. Retrieved August 19, 2011 from http://www. wvu. edu/~agexten/wildlife/hummer. htm

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Indian Financial System

THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM – NATURE, EVOLUTION AND STRUCTURE A financial system is an integral part of a modern economy. An effective system of payment for goods and services enables huge production and the specialization of labor in the economy. The word „system? means an ordered, organized and comprehensive assemblage of facts, principles or components relating to a particular field and working for a specified purpose. But the word system in the term „financial system? represents a set of closely held financial institutions, financial services and financial instruments or claims.

Capital formation in any country is carried out through the various components of the economy. These components are different in their nature, role and functions but finally work as interrelated sub-parts of a structure for the development of the economy. This arrangement of financial institutions, markets and the instruments is called the financial system of a country. Hence, the financial system of a country can be defined as a set of organizations, instruments, markets, services and methods of operations, procedures that are closely interrelated with each other.

The financial system can also be explained as a methodical arrangement in the economy that helps to pool the resources from the surplus sectors and redistributes them to the deficit sectors. Some analysts say that the financial system is a group of various units that are continuously engaged in gathering the monetary resources in the economy to allocate them to the needful areas. Each and every entity in the system will address some specific issues and functions meeting the prescribed regulations. A well-developed financial system indicates a strong economy.

If the financial system is efficient the mobilization of savings and the allocation of collected resources is also efficient. Money, finance and the credit function are the main concerns of the financial system of any country. Money is a medium of exchange in the financial system. Finance is the aggregate resources of the economy, which are of monetary nature and include equity and debt funds of an individual, company, state or government. Credit represents the sum of money, which was taken from other economic units as a debt and is usually returned with interest.

In a macro sense the financial system can be described as a collection of markets, institutions, laws, regulations and techniques through which bonds, stocks and other securities are traded, interest rates determined and the financial services produced and delivered. The way the financial system of a country is tuned and developed has its own importance and effect on the manner in which it develops. Prerequisites of an Efficient Financial System The basic requirements for any financial system to be efficient are: Efficient monetary system; Facilities for the creation of the capital; and Efficient financial markets.

An efficient monetary system indicates an efficiency medium of exchange for goods and services. It is the unit of measurement in the economy. For the exchange function to be effective, there must be a unit of measurement and account for determining the prices. This must be acceptable in the international markets also. Proper means of payment should exist whatever be the volume of the transactions. Indian Financial System 3 The system should have the facilities to create capital to meet the demands of the economy.

The capital will be necessary to undertake the production activities. The financial system helps to meet such demands by mobilizing the savings of the surplus units to the demanding units. The third important feature of a financial system is the developed financial markets and methodologies, which facilitate the process of transfer of resources and the conversion of financial claims into money. Over years, the financial markets have manifested into round the clock global powerhouses that drive a country? economic progress by supplementing funds from a variety of sources. Today? s markets (in most developed countries) have achieved high level of sophistication in terms of trade, settlement and sale of financial instruments. The role of intermediaries has become all the more important in some areas while in others it has been diminishing (for example, individuals trading stocks). The markets that we see today have taken number of decades if not centuries, to develop and progress and reach the present stage.

Evolution of the Financial System Complexities in the functions of the financial system, especially when the requirements of the savers and those of the borrowers did not match, created a need to enhance the financial system and its functions. The main considerations of the savers were safety of funds, returns and liquidity. On the other hand, the needs of the borrowers were relatively diversified. Their concern related to the cost and the term for which the funds were available. These varied requirements of he lenders and the borrowers led to a mismatch in periods – lending period being different from the needs of the borrower. Similarly, the risk exposure and the corresponding returns did not suit the lender. These factors created a need to develop the financial system in such a way that it matched the requirements of the borrowers and lenders. This led to the evolution of the financial system thereby widening the scope of its operations. Proper allocation of funds is essential to transact business and develop the economy.

And to enable proper allocation of resources, various financial markets were developed. Accordingly, to match the transactions taking place in these financial markets, various financial instruments were created. Over a period of time, these developments made the operations of the financial system complex. Specialized services were offered in these markets with newer and better instruments, which further enhanced the necessity of specialized intermediaries to perform the various financial transactions. Thus, evolved the various market intermediaries.

Yet, another feature of the financial system that needs to be understood is the manner in which the funds flow. In an environment where the borrowers and lenders are easily accessible to each other, the financial system will be in a disintermediation stage i. e. , there will not be any intermediary involved for the funds to flow from the saver to the ultimate borrower. Contrary to such a situation will be the intermediation stage where the financial system will have a few specialized intermediaries enabling the transfer of funds from the savers to the borrowers.

However, now a days the financial requirements are so varied and large that the system generally operates through both the intermediation and the disintermediation mechanisms. Irrespective of how the transfer of funds takes place, it is the central bank of the country along with the government, which generally regulates the financial system by regulating the markets, instruments and players operating in it. With such revolutionary changes taking place in the financial system and with the broadening of its operations, the impact of the same on the economy will be tremendous.

This enhances the need for a closer examination of the network between the various financial markets, intermediaries and the financial assets available in these markets. Overview of Banking 4 The Indian financial system has undergone tremendous changes in its evolution to the present stage. The growth in the economy indicates the growth in the financial system. The efficiency of the financial system is a key indicator of, how the resources are being mobilized and used for the needy sector.

The evolution or the growth of the financial system in any economy can be classified into three major phases: Active government intervention, Partial liberalization, and Total liberalization. With a view to develop the economy the government actively controls the financial sector. This is the first phase, which began, in the Indian financial sector soon after the independence. This process involved tremendous growth in the financial sector with too many drawbacks and anomalies. This resulted into the second phase, which focused on reducing the complexity of the regulatory structure and rationalizing the system.

This second phase continued till the early nineties. The third stage of the process, called as the liberalization era, was started in the 1990s. Institutions were given more independence and autonomy to bring out the effective self-regulation. Segments of the Financial System The financial system can be segmented into two parts namely, the organized and the unorganized sector. The organized system represents the structure of nationalized banking, co-operative banks, and development banks set up by the government through various enactments and regulations. This includes the private sector also.

The government/Reserve Bank of India controls this sector. The unorganized sector comprises of individual moneylenders, bankers, pawnbrokers and traders, etc. The non-banking companies, which do not comply with the RBI regulations, also come under this classification. The financial system prevailing after the independence consisted of individual moneylenders. The money was provided from their own resources. Then followed a phase of chit funds and the indigenous bankers. Then came the co-operative banking system followed by the joint stock banks set up under the Companies Act.

The consolidation and the nationalization resulted in the emergence of commercial banking and subsequently the development banks and financial institutions. Now with the prudential regulations and liberalization, universal banking is set to takeover the financial sector. Thus the system is progressing towards the universal banking system from the ancient barter system. Many forces like industrialization, urbanization and liberalization have made this progress possible. Structure of a Financial System The structure of a typical financial system is shown in figure 1.

Figure 1: Structure of a Financial System Source: Supplement to Business Environment, ICMR. Indian Financial System 5 The main components of a financial system include the financial institutions, claims or instruments and financial services, shown here: Financial Institutions These include organizations like banks, finance companies, insurance companies, co-operative societies and other institutions, which help inculcate the habit of pooling the savings in the people. These institutions also provide credit or finance to the constituents of the economy. Different institutions have different responsibilities and activities.

The financial institutions can be classified based on the degree of specialization and the type of activities they are involved in. These financial institutions can be regulatory, non-regulatory, intermediaries, non- intermediaries and others. The financial institutions also can be classified into various categories based upon their creation and their customers. One of the classifications divides the institutions into banking and non-banking organizations. The major distinguishing feature between these two is that the banking institutions form part of the payment mechanism of the country.

They can create money through deposits that occupy a major portion in the economy? s money supply. By creating liabilities on their part banks can disburse credit to the people whereas the non-banking institutions can disburse the credit only through the resources made available to them by the savers. Commercial banks, co-operative banks, regional rural banks form the banking system in India. Examples of the banks are the various public, private and foreign banks like SBI, GTB, ABN Amro Bank, etc. Examples of non-banking organizations are UTI, LIC, GIC, etc.

Another classification views these financial institutions as intermediaries and non-intermediaries based upon their level of liaison between the savers and borrowers. Intermediaries are the institutions that form a proper channel within the financial system to ensure the transfer of funds from savers to borrowers. With the developments in the financial markets and whole system the scope of operations of the intermediaries has changed a lot from the traditional function of transferring the funds from borrowers to lenders.

The government through special Acts to serve specific purposes, which may not be fulfilled efficiently by the private institutions, creates non-intermediary institutions. IDBI, IFCI and NABARD are the examples of the non-intermediary institutions and all the commercial banks are intermediaries. THE FUNCTIONS OF FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES When we talk about the business institutions, we are referring to two types of the institutions, namely financial and non-financial institutions. The non-financial institutions engage in non-financial activities like manufacturing, utility provision, etc.

Whereas, the financial institutions are engaged in providing financial services which include other services like exchanging financial assets on behalf of the customers, providing investment advise, creating market opportunities for the issuers, etc. The intermediaries play an important role in stimulating the markets and providing the necessary impetus for their all round development. They form the crucial link between the issuer of financial claims and the party that assumes the risk. The financial intermediaries are institutions that assist both sides of the market by providing a host of services to facilitate the financial transactions.

The various services provided by the financial intermediaries include, providing assistance in evaluating investment proposals, offering diversified investments in large number of projects for their investors? or clients and monitoring such projects on an ongoing basis, helping businesses in raising finances by structuring a variety of instruments, providing consultancy and customized services, etc. Overview of Banking 6 Over the years, intermediaries have emerged as important players in the markets and many important deals cannot be finalized without them.

Sophistication has been brought in operations and many countries regulate operations in the best interests of their economies. The financial intermediaries offer their services both to the firms and as well as to the individual investors. The following characteristics broadly describe their way of approach and functioning: 1. Offering professional and individually tailored support and advising their clients on a variety of issues like taxation, money matters, etc. , with the help of specialists. 2. Extending global expertise to their clients in various countries. . Having access to sophisticated technologies and resources to undertake their functions and offering a range of comprehensive and integrated products and services. 4. Pro-active support and assistance at all stages of their client? s financial requirements. 5. Having an active presence on all the world? s key financial markets. 6. Providing security, discretion and high service quality. Types of Financial Intermediaries Financial intermediaries can be classified into two types namely, depository institutions and non-depository institutions.

The classification is significant in that it highlights the different roles played by these two sets of intermediaries and their importance in the financial markets. DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS 1. Commercial Banks. 2. Saving and Loans Institutions. 3. Credit Unions. NON-DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS 1. Finance Companies. 2. Mutual Funds. 3. Security Firms Investment Bankers, Brokers, and Dealers. 4. Pension Funds. 5. Insurance Companies. The Role of Depository Institutions These institutions play an important role in the development of the financial markets.

Depositories mainly include commercial banks, Savings and Loan Institutions (S&Ls), and credit unions. The depositories play a crucial role of channelizing savings into the economy and thereby provide scope for the economic growth of the country. Depository institutions play a key role in transmitting the monetary policy to the financial markets, borrowers and depositors, and ultimately to the real economy. Commercial banks and savings banks being constituents of this system hold a large share of the nation? money stock in the form of various types of deposits and provide for their transfer to effect the payments. Depository institutions directly lend these funds to consumers and businesses for a full range of purposes. They also lend them indirectly by investing in securities. Thus depository institutions provide funds to serve the interests of the society by safeguarding their monies and acting as an important source for the investment community. The extent to which the depository agencies are active propels the markets to great heights by providing other allied activities without any hindrance.

Indian Financial System 7 Keeping in view their importance, the depository institutions are highly regulated because of the important role they play in the country? s financial system. Demand deposit accounts are the principal means that individuals and business entities use for making payments and implementing the government monetary policy. Because of their important role, depository institutions are offered special privileges such as access to federal deposit insurance and to a government entity that provides funds for liquidity or emergency needs.

Non-depository Institutions FINANCE COMPANIES Finance companies cater to the wide and varied segments of society. They cater in multiple ways to both the business as well as to the consumer communities. In a way they are called as department stores of consumer and business credit. Finance companies handle a range of business, which include, automobile finance, purchase of business equipment, home appliances, etc. , either through their outlets or sale counters. Depending upon the segment they serve, finance companies can be classified as consumer finance companies, sales finance companies and commercial finance companies.

Although the differentiation is more or less theoretical, now-a-days every finance company has its presence in all the business segments. Let us briefly study the three types of finance companies. The consumer finance companies (for example, GE Countrywide) make personal cash loans to individuals. The majority of their loans are home equity loans to support the purchase of cars, home appliances, etc. With the advent of finance companies, loans are easily available to the consumers. In recent times consumer companies have identified new segments of business areas, which are growing at a rapid pace.

Some of the areas identified include, medical expenses, educational loans and loans for vacation. As consumer finance companies are aggressive in granting loans, bad debts are also an integral part of the business. Often loans granted by these companies are considered to be riskier than other consumer installment loans and therefore generally carry steeper charges than those assessed by most other lending institutions. Even the level of loan defaults in some finance companies is of alarming proportion.

Sales finance companies (for example, Bajaj Capital) make direct loans to consumers by purchasing installment paper from dealers selling automobiles and other consumer durables. Many of these firms are captive finance companies (for example, GM, Ford, Motorola, Bajaj) controlled by a dealer or a manufacturer. The main motive in establishing these finance companies is to promote sales of the sponsoring firm by providing credit on attractive terms. Commercial finance companies (for example, GE Capital) focus principally on extending credit to business firms.

Most of these companies provide accounts receivable financing and factoring services to small-or medium-sized manufacturers and wholesalers. In order to fund their operations, finance companies access finances through a variety of sources that include debt finance, loans borrowed from banks, commercial paper, debentures sold primarily to banks, insurance companies, and non-financial firms, capital contributed by the parent company, etc. The absence of a network of branch offices has put many finance companies at a disadvantage in reaching the household borrower thus hampering market penetration.

As a result, both banks and non-bank thrifts have been able to capture a larger share of the consumer loan market at the expense of finance companies due to their extensive branch network. Overview of Banking 8 MUTUAL FUNDS Mutual funds can be described as a single portfolio of stocks, bonds, and/or cash managed by an investment company on behalf of many investors. The investment company (AMC) is responsible for the management of the fund, and it sells shares in the fund to individual investors.

When an individual invests in a mutual fund, he or she becomes a part owner of a large investment portfolio, along with other shareholders of the fund. The fund managers? job is to regularly look into the performance of the investments made and bring about changes and invest new funds collected from investors. Everyday, the fund manager counts the value of all the fund? s holdings and figures out how many shares have been purchased by shareholders, and then calculates the Net Asset Value (NAV) of the mutual fund, the price of a single share of the fund on that day.

If the investor wants to buy shares, he should send the requisite money, and new shares will be issued at the most recent price. There are two types of mutual funds: open-end and closed-end mutual funds. Open and closed-end funds pool investor? s money and are managed by professionals to maximize diversification within a set strategy. The difference lies in how the fund is structured in terms of ownership. An open-end fund issues and redeems shares on demand, whenever investors put money into the fund or take it out.

The total assets of these types of funds grow and shrink as money flows in and out when investors buy or sell. A closed-end fund is different as it issues a set number of shares in an initial public offering and trades them on an exchange. Its share price is determined not by the total value of the assets it holds, but by investor demand for the fund, as these funds are traded in the open market. Depending upon the investment objectives, there are different kinds of mutual funds. Some mutual funds invest exclusively in equities, others in debt instruments.

Even within an asset class, there are funds with different objectives. If the fund invests exclusively in equities, then its main emphasis is on growth and capital gains. If it invests in debt the emphasis is on earning a steady return with least risk. If the emphasis of the fund is the combination of growth and income, then a balanced fund is the right choice. If the investor tries to achieve maximum diversification, the latest development is that of index funds, which mimic the underlying index they follow. Examples include Sensex Dependent Index Fund, etc.

If the importance is on the maturity and liquidity, then the Money Market Mutual Funds (MMMF) best suit the requirement. INSURANCE COMPANIES Insurance companies play an important role in the financial markets as non-depository institutions. Insurance companies basically make payment for a price (premium) if a certain event occurs to the policyholders or to their dependents. Insurance companies in other words provide the security and help to live freely without any tension by collecting small amounts in the form of premium with a promise to indemnify when loss or damage occurs.

There are two types of insurance companies – life insurance companies, and property and casualty insurance or general insurance companies. The principal business of life insurance companies is to insure the policyholder against death. When the policyholder dies, a life insurance company agrees to make either a lumpsum payment or a series of payments to the beneficiary. Life insurance is not the only type of insurance sold by these companies. Today a major proportion of the business of life insurance companies provides retirement benefits too.

In the case of the general insurance business, the insurance companies insure the policyholder against any loss sustained by him in daily course of life. Examples of general insurance are home insurance, fire insurance, automobile insurance, etc. General insurance contracts are for a short-term not extending beyond twelve months with some exceptions. Life insurance policies are long-term contracts extending to the entire life of the policyholder. Indian Financial System 9 The insurance companies have vast resources at their disposal in the form of premium amounts collected from the policyholders.

They play an active role in the financial markets by investing their assets in a variety of financial instruments. They play an active role in both the secondary and primary markets and are also active in bond markets. INVESTMENT BANKING Investment bankers are financial institutions and individuals who assist companies in raising capital, often through a private placement or public offering of company stock. Sometimes they are referred to as brokers or dealmakers. They market large amounts of new securities on behalf of governments, government agencies and companies.

Companies frequently use investment bankers to help identify available financing options and obtain introductions to funding sources. Some also look to investment bankers for assistance in building a business plan or prospectus to raise capital. Others seek up-to-date advice on the conditions of fund raising. Investment bankers also vary in quality, resources, experience and contacts. They are exposed to the company? s industry and the type of financing it needs, can often help it raise funds. If they are unfamiliar with the company? industry or the type of financing being sought, they may actually hinder a company? s financing efforts. As investment bankers have the ability to underwrite (or sell) the company? s stock their services become indispensable especially at the time of a public issue. Investment bankers charge for their services. Some charge fixed rates, others work on a percentage commission on the total capital raised by the company. Some of the world famous investment bankers are, Merrill Lynch, Salomon Brothers, Morgan Stanley Dean Witter, Nomura Securities, etc.

They specialize in the design and issuance of financial contracts. They often perform the brokerage function of bringing together buyers and sellers of securities. Apart from advising on how to raise finances, they intermediate in other services like, providing transaction services, financial advice, screening and certification, origination, issuance, and guaranteeing. Often when a new issue of securities involves substantial risk, several investment bankers come together to form a syndicate to bid for and market the issue, thus spreading the risk.

Investment bankers also give advice on the best terms and times to sell new securities and how to finance corporate mergers and acquisitions. Box 1: Merchant Bankers and NBFC Norms RBI clarified that merchant banking companies, which are registered with the SEBI, are exempted from meeting the recent RBI norms for NBFCs. It also exempted stock exchange and stock broking companies as they are registered with SEBI. These companies will be regulated by SEBI. This clarification follows the announcement from SEBI that companies, which carry activities as merchant bankers fall within the purview of RBI, are not eligible for registration under SEBI.

Conditions for availing this exemption are: 1. Such companies have to carry on the merchant banking in accordance with the SEBI guidelines. 2. They can acquire any securities only as part of their merchant banking business. 3. They do not carry on any other financial activity which falls under the RBI purview. 4. They do not accept/hold deposits. SEBI insisted on separating the fund based and fee based activities under separate companies rather than having one single company do both activities. Source: ICFAI Research Team.

Overview of Banking 10 SECURITY BROKERSBOX 3. 2: MERCHANT BANKERS AND NBFC NORMS RBI CLARIFIED THAT MERCHANT BANKING COMPANIES, WHICH ARE REGISTERED WITH THE SEBI, ARE EXEMPTED OF MEETING THE RECENT RBI NORMS FOR NBFCS. IT ALSO EXEMPTED STOCK EXCHANGE AND STOCK BROKING COMPANIES AS THEY ARE REGISTERED WITH SEBI. THESE COMPANIES WILL BE REGULATED BY SEBI. THIS CLARIFICATION FOLLOWS THE ANNOUNCEMENT FROM SEBI THAT COMPANIES, WHICH CARRY ACTIVITIES AS MERCHANT BANKERS FALL WITHIN THE PURVIEW OF RBI, ARE NOT ELIGIBLE FOR REGISTRATION UNDER SEBI.

CONDITIONS FOR AVAILING THIS EXEMPTION WILL BE: 1. SUCH COMPANIES HAVE TO CARRY ON THE MERCHANT BANKING IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SEBI GUIDELINES. 2. THEY CAN ACQUIRE ANY SECURITIES ONLY AS PART OF THEIR MERCHANT BANKING BUSINESS. 3. THEY DO NOT CARRY ON ANY OTHER FINANCIAL ACTIVITY WHICH FALLS UNDER THE RBI PURVIEW. 4. THEY DO NOT ACCEPT/HOLD DEPOSITS. SEBI INSISTED ON SEPARATING THE FUND BASED AND FEE BASED ACTIVITIES UNDER SEPARATE COMPANIES RATHER THAN HAVING ONE SINGLE COMPANY DO BOTH ACTIVITIES. SOURCE: ICFAI RESEARCH CENTER.

SECURITY BROKERS Security brokers or dealers are intermediaries who help companies and investors find one another. Many entrepreneurs hire brokers to help them raise money in the hope, that by doing so, they will reduce the amount of time they will have to spend in fund raising. In some cases, brokers can provide companies with valuable introductions that lead to financing. Some brokers can explain alternative sources of funding and help structure viable financing packages. Companies when entering into contracts with the stockbrokers should be careful.

They should make their agreements explicit and put them in writing. The agreements should define what the broker? s responsibilities are, when he is entitled to a commission, how much the commission will be, and when his assignment expires. Security brokers have different ways of charging like, some prefer to work on a contingency fee or other prearranged fee. LEASING COMPANIES Leasing represents a specialized financial institution that provides the access to productive assets such as airplanes, automobiles, machinery, etc.

The leased assets allow the businesses to use them at a lower cost than borrowing or owning them. Both the parties involved in the lease agreement will benefit through the arrangement. The party that gives assets on lease called as a lessor will get a regular stream of inflows in the form of lease rentals from the lessee and also tax benefits by depreciating the asset. The company or household which has taken the asset on lease benefits as a lessee by getting the asset at a lower cost than borrowing or owing it. Numerous independent leasing companies serve national, regional and local markets.

Competition is intense in this industry because of the entry of scores of banks and bank holding companies, insurance companies, manufacturing companies and firms that have either opened leasing departments or formed subsidiary leasing companies. Some of the advantages of leasing industry are summarized as shown below: a. Lower cost: Leasing conserves capital as the lease payments which are paid either on a monthly or quarterly or half-yearly basis are less than monthly purchase payments of the asset. FormattedFormatted Indian Financial System 11 b. Offers flexibility: Payments can be matched to budgetary levels.

Based on the business conditions, cash flow, equipment needs, tax situation etc. , the lease option can be exercised by the parties. c. Convenience: Leasing provides on-the-spot, one-stop financing for a total solution. Hardware, software, maintenance and asset management can be included in the lease. d. Eliminates risk: The equipment can be returned at the end of the lease without regard for its book value or the expense of proper disposal. Thus it eliminates the risk of obsolescence. e. Provides for off balance sheet services. f. Protects against inflation g.

Offers improved Return on Assets (ROA). MORTGAGE BANKS Mortgage bankers commit themselves to take on new mortgage loans used to fund the construction of homes, offices, buildings and other structures. They carry these loans for a short time until the mortgages can be sold to a long-term lender such as an insurance company or savings bank. As in the case with other dealer operations, the financial risks to the mortgage banker are substantial. An increase in interest rates sharply reduces the market value of the existing fixed rate mortgage banks to turn over their portfolio.

They arrange lines of credit from commercial banks to backstop their operations. These firms also service the mortgage loans they sell to other lenders, collecting loan payments and inspecting mortgaged property. PENSION FUNDS The funds that are dedicated to protecting individuals and families against loss of income in the retirement years by allowing them to set aside and invest a portion of their current income are called as pension funds. Due to increased life expectancy, the importance of pension funds has become all the more relevant.

These pension plans place the current savings of an employer in a portfolio of stocks, bonds and other assets in the expectation of building an even larger pool of funds in the future and paying him either in lump sum or on monthly basis when he retires. Thus pension plans bring in regularity into the life of an employer when he retires. In recent times pension funds have been growing most rapidly. Especially in developed markets like the US, Germany, the UK, etc. , pension funds play an important role in the financial markets.

Pension funds are long-term investments with limited need for liquidity. As the main contributors to these funds are employers who invest a fixed amount of their salary regularly they do not encounter any problem in supply of funds. Similarly the outflow to the investors is predefined in the contracts. Thus pension fund holders can accordingly plan their investments. With the kind of inflows and outflows the pension funds are bestowed with, investors feel encouraged to invest their monies in diverse sources like equities, long-term debt, real estate, etc.

The returns can also be earned by the funds in a decent manner without any rush to divest investments, as the maturity obligations are known previously. As performance of these funds and their solvency has many social implications many governments have taken keen interest to see that they make prudent investments and stringently follow the norms laid out by the regulators. Due to various regulations laid out especially in the US, during the last decade pension funds have received flak for their rather conservative investment policies resulting in low returns. Although existing regulations emphasize conservatism in Overview of Banking 12 nvestments, private pension funds have been under pressure both from the management and the employees of sponsoring companies to be more liberal in their investment policies. Thus some pension funds have been compelled to abandon their conservative investment policies and aim for better returns and invest in moderate to risky avenues or instruments. With the increasing popularity of pension funds, many players have shown keen interest to open new pension plans. A plan sponsor can do one of the following with the pension assets under its control. i. Use in-house staff to manage all the pension assets, or distribute the pension assets. i. Distribute the pension assets to one or more money management firms to manage or else combine the above two strategies. Other players, such as trust departments of commercial banks, insurance companies, private equity investment entities, are also into the business of running pension funds. Pension funds protect individuals and families against loss of income in their retirement years by allowing workers to set aside and invest a portion of their current income. A pension plan places current savings in a portfolio of stocks, bonds, and other assets in the expectation of building an even larger pool of funds in the future.

In this way, the pension plan member can balance planned consumption after retirement with the amount of savings set aside today. The pension funds operating in the US offer two types of plans to choose from. One is called „defined-contribution plan? and the other is called „defined-benefit plan?. In a defined-contribution plan, the plan sponsor is responsible only for making specified contributions to the plan on behalf of qualifying participants. The amount contributed is often a percentage of the employee? s salary or a percentage of profits.

The plan does not guarantee any specific amount at retirement. The other plan namely defined-benefit plan includes those in which the sponsor agrees to make certain specified amount to the qualifying employees at retirement or, in case of death, before retirement. In determining the payments to be made under this plan the pension funds consider the length of service and earnings of the employee. Along with life insurers, private pension funds accumulate the long-term liabilities that are capable of funding the durable assets so critical to real capital accumulation.

In addition, private pension funds, along with mutual funds, are the only two major financial intermediaries to have steadily growing market share since the early 1950s. This growth has caused pension funds to be called upon increasingly to play a role in corporate governance as representatives of their millions of beneficiaries. Historically, private pension funds have been passive investors, but over the years pension funds have started raising their voice when they invested substantial funds in corporate issues such as executive compensation, excessive management, „shirking and perking? and potential conflicts of interest of executives, etc. Pension funds are long-term investments with limited need for liquidity. Their incoming cash receipts are known with considerable accuracy because a fixed percentage of each employee? s salary is usually contributed to the fund. At the same time, cash outflows are not difficult to forecast, because the formula to figure benefit payments is stipulated in the contract between the fund and its members. Indian Financial System 13

This stipulation encourages pensioners to purchase common stock, long-term bonds, and real estate and to hold these assets on a permanent basis. In addition, interest income and capital gains from investments are exempt from federal income taxes, and pension plan members are not taxed on their contributions unless cash benefits are actually paid. Although favorable taxation and predictable cash flows favor longer-term, somewhat riskier investments, the pension fund industry is closely regulated in all its activities in many countries.

For example, in the US, the Employer Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) requires all the US private pension plans to be funded, which means that any asset held plus investment income must be adequate to cover all promised benefits. ERISA also requires all investments to be made in a “prudent” manner, usually interpreted to mean that they be invested in highly diversified holdings of high-grade common stock and government securities, and only limited real estate and speculative investments. In the US as of 1998, approximately 50% of private pension fund assets were invested in corporate stock.

Corporate bonds ranked a distant second with about 10%. Many of the largest pension funds also hold substantial real estate investments for asset diversification and as a hedge against inflation. The key financial intermediation services provided by pension funds include transaction services, screening and certification, and monitoring. Box 2: RBI Group Considers Setting up of Primary Regulator An Advisory Group constituted by the Reserve Bank of India has recommended that it should think about setting up of a primary regulator with clearly assigned roles and responsibilities to co-ordinate between different regulators in the country.

The group after examining the present practices has found that certain urgent changes are necessary in areas of corporate governance, internal control systems and management of risks. One of the important recommendations made by the group in respect to corporate governance was related to the constitution of bank boards and their accountability. There was some overlap in RBI? s role as owner/regulator/supervisor, which should be corrected, the group suggested. Discussions between management-boards on quality of internal controls should be institutionalized, the RBI group recommended.

The group said given the level of complexity and development of Indian banking sector, the level of compliance with the standards and codes was of a high order. On core principles, the advisory group said the apex bank should gradually move towards setting bank specific capital ratios based on their individual risk profiles. The public sector character of the banks remains an important consideration. The group added that the RBI should consider introduction of measures by which clear accountability could be fixed on individual directors and/or the board for non-performance and/or negligence of their duties.

Advanced risk management capabilities must be in place in all banks latest by March 31, 2003 and the apex bank may assist banks in hastening introduction of scientific risk management systems, it added. A more formal and rigorous assessment of boards? performance must be undertaken by the regulator, which should adopt rating of the boards? performance with the provision that if the rating falls below a certain specified level prompt corrective action should be triggered.

The group said RBI should consider moving over to a risk-based approach to supervision as early as possible and also introduce meeting with banks’ boards and external auditors. Source: ICFAI Research Team. Overview of Banking 14 FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS Financial assets/instruments represent the financial obligations that arise when the borrower raises funds in the financial market. In exchange for the funds lent, the supplier will have a claim on the income/wealth of the borrower who may be a corporate, a government body or a household.

This financial claim will be packaged in the form of a certificate, receipt or any other legal document. Financial assets play a key role in developing the financial markets in particular and the financial system in general. Their importance to the system can be understood while distinguishing financial assets from the real assets. All assets are financed by liabilities as advocated by the accounting concept. While the assets can be either financial or real the liabilities will be either in the form of savings or financial liabilities.

Financial assets represent the obligations on the part of their issuer. Hence, all financial assets will be equal to the financial liabilities. The assets will be funded either by using savings or by borrowings. Since borrowings represent financial liabilities, the accounting equation can be altered as: Assets = Liabilities Financial Assets + Real Assets = Financial Liabilities + Savings Since financial assets equal financial liabilities, the real assets will be financed by savings. This relationship has the following implicit assumptions. i.

There are no external borrowings in the system. ii. Financial liabilities include stock issued to the outsiders. From the above equation, it can be understood that the surplus funds of an economic unit will either be used by the saver to purchase a real asset or will be lent to other economic units to buy real assets. Thus, all real asset purchases within the system will be made from the savings in the system. An important aspect to be noted here is the process through which savings are transformed into real assets since they have an important bearing on the economic progress.

This can be explained by the fact that savings can be transformed into real assets for consumption purpose or they can also be transformed into real assets through the investment channel. Though these two activities, i. e. , consumption and investment are essential to the economy, using excess of savings for consumption purpose will be detrimental to the economic progress since it will result in scarcity of funds for the investment. While both demand and supply are necessary for economic growth, the deployment of savings should be such that it ensures equilibrium.

It thus implies that stimulation of savings into financial assets for ultimately purchasing real assets promotes the role of the financial markets in the system. Types of Financial Assets The majority of financial assets used worldwide are in the form of deposits, stocks and debt. DEPOSITS Deposits can be made either with banking or non-banking firms. In return, the lender will receive a certificate in case of a fixed deposit and a checking account in case of a savings/current deposit. These serve as a payment mechanism for the supplier of funds. Interest will be earned on such deposits except current deposits.

STOCKS Indian Financial System 15 When financial assets are in the form of stock, they represent ownership of the issuing company. Due to this right to ownership, the holder of the stocks will have a share in the firms? profits. DEBT Unlike the stocks, financial assets in the form of debt create an obligation on the borrower to repay the amount borrowed. The debt instrument will be a contract entered into by the borrower of funds with the lender of funds, to repay the amount borrowed after a predetermined period and at a certain rate of interest.

If an asset serves as a collateral to the borrowing, then the holder of the debt instrument will have a priority claim on the asset. Within this broad classification, financial innovations have brought about a variety of instruments. Stocks are thus preferred stocks and common stocks, with the latter having voting rights. In case of debt instruments, the classifications are much more varied depending on the issuer of securities and other terms and conditions present in the contract for example, gilt-edged securities are the debt instruments issued by the government.

Other classifications of the debt instruments are: fixed/floating rate bonds, negotiable/non-negotiable instruments, redeemable/ irredeemable bonds, convertible/non-convertible bonds, etc. Further, these instruments, both stock and debt, enable the issuer to raise funds in domestic and foreign currencies. There is a certain amount of uncertainty attached to future cash flows. This makes lending a risky business. To compensate for this risk and the uncertainty attached to future cash flows, suppliers of funds will be provided income in the form of dividends, interest, etc.

Thus, issuers of the financial assets can mobilize the requisite funds from the financial markets by promising future income to the subscribers of the financial assets. Designing of the Financial Products The ability of an issuer to fulfill the promise of future cash flows depends mainly on his inherent financial strength. The financial assets are rated to indicate the safety levels (levels of risk) by specialized rating agencies. Apart from the safety, suppliers of funds also expect to earn good returns. And since risk and return are positively correlated, financial assets having greater risk generally carry higher yields and vice versa.

With this basic understanding, the suppliers will deploy their funds into the financial markets by selecting the financial asset that matches their risk-return preferences. Liquidity is also an important criterion for asset selection. Suppliers of funds generally deploy their surplus funds into such financial assets until the time they are needed. And when the need arises, the lenders of funds should be able to liquidate the financial assets held by them whenever they intend to do so. These three basic features of the financial instruments – returns, risk and liquidity – have a major impact on the financial system.

Firstly, the variety of financial assets with varying risk-return profiles influence the interest rate structure of the economy. Secondly, the liquidity offered by these financial assets will influence the amount of funds that can be mobilized from the markets. In addition to these features, instruments are being designed with various other features to suit the issuer as well as to attract the investor. Listed below are the considerations of the issuer while designing the instrument and that of the investor while investing in the financial instrument.

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Aed 222 Week 7 Day 5 Appendix C

Axia College Material Appendix C Creating a Student Profile for Mock Case Study Apply the information you compiled in Appendix B to create a profile of a student with at least one exceptionality. Compile details about the student within this matrix. You will post the shaded portion in Week Eight for Discussion Question 1 and use the matrix in its entirety for your Final Project. Requirement |Details | |Name, age, and grade of child |Name: Lolita | | |Age: 5 | | |Grade: Kindergarten | |Detailed description of child’s |In Lolita’s home her parents speak fluent Spanish.

However, her big brother speaks both | |behavior and interactions at home |English and Spanish fluently. Lolita has become confused about which language she is | |and school |supposed to speak and doesn’t really talk much. In school Lolita points to things and | | |mumbles rather than using words or sentences. | |Strengths of child |She receives good grades on her drawings, colorings, and self expression. Lolita follows | | |directions easily and completes each task with success.

She is a great listener and | | |doesn’t fidget when being given instructions. She plays great with the other children in | | |her age group. | |Interests or affinities of child |Lolita is interested in making friends, drawing and coloring. | |Areas in need of improvement |However, she needs to improve on her sentence structure and pronunciation of words. | | | | |Definition and prevalence of |I believe a Mild Intellectual Disorder is what she has.

Students with this disorder have | |exceptionality or exceptionalities |IQ below 98% of the school-age population. The students lack in adaptive behavior skills | | |and tend to be below average. These behavior skills include practical, social and | | |conceptual skills that people learn in order to function in everyday society. | |Reasons for classification |Lolita is lacking the basic speech skills that are needed to communicate correctly. | |However, with the assistance of a speech therapist, Lolita would be able to overcome any | | |of her speech impediments. | |Possible management plan (associated|Speech therapy and a Preschool Program for Children with Disabilities. This would help | |effective educational practices, |Lolita develop her language skills at a level that she can handle. | |behavior management, assistive | | |technology, and accommodations) | |

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Shawshank

Shawshank Redemption Practice Essay Analyse how BOTH internal and external conflict were important to the text as a whole. Note: “internal conflict” means conflict within a character, and “external conflict” means conflict between a character and other individual(s) or group(s). Conflict is not rare (is prevalent or recurring? ) in the film ‘Shawshank Redemption’ directed by Frank Darabont. Throughout the film Darabont uses many effective film techniques and camera shots to portray the theme of corruption.

Darabont shows Andy Dufresne, a banker who spends nearly two decades in Shawshank State Prison for the murder of his wife and her lover, despite his claims of being innocent. During his time at the prison, Andy finds himself protected by the guards after the warden begins using him in his money laundering operation. External conflict is shown between the guards and prisoners constantly throughout the film. External conflict is also exposed during the film, between Norton – the warden, and Andy, also between Andy and Bogs, the prison ‘rapist’.

Internal conflict occurs also in Andy, when he first arrives at the prison. Both internal and external conflict is important to the film because they show how much little (just little? ) control Andy has over his life. This needs to link explicitly to the “conflict” in the question. State how it links. (External prison/prisoners or staff prisoners? – unclear. Stick with one or the other…) Near the beginning of the film, when the prisoners are arriving to Shawshank Prison, helicopter shots, and vertical shots are used when first introducing the prison.

This is to show the expanse of the prison and how small and restricted the prisoners are. Mid shots and close ups are used constantly at the beginning of the film to show the emotion on the prisoners faces to the audience. Dark lighting is regularly used behind Norton, and the prison guards, to show power and authority. In the prison and when Andy is arriving in the prison bus, the lighting is nearly always harsh, and the light is coming from outside, showing that freedom is in the past. When Andy is in his cell, dim, grey lighting is used to show loneliness.

Continuously throughout the film, swearing and profanity is shown by the guards towards the prisoners. Language like ‘you eat when we say you eat, you shit when you say we shit, and you piss when we say you piss’ shows the guards have immediate control over the prisoners. This external conflict between? is very important to the text as a whole as it shows an instantaneous hierarchy in the prison to the audience – where Norton has put himself on top. (“Your ass belongs to me…”) Again – what other conflict are you now about to discuss?…

Introduce it…This paragraph is retelling, not analysis of conflict… When Norton – the prison warden, see’s Andy as a smart man – he seizes the opportunity to use him to his aid his biggest weakness, corruption. Norton is extremely hypocritical, he believes in following the Bible, although he himself does not follow his own rules. After months of earning some sort of ‘trust’ in the prison among the guards and Norton, Andy disrespects himself and the warden, by breaking the rules and losing his praise when he locks himself and a guard in the warden’s office.

When Tommy Williams, A young convict arrives at Shawshank, Andy’s life changes. Tommy, has been at many prisons before Shawshank, and knows of a man who really killed Andy’s wife and lover. When the warden hears about this, he knows Andy is innocent, but he cannot let Andy go, as he is too valuable and there is the risk he would let slip that Norton is breaking the law. Money is very important to Norton; and this is shown by his actions when Andy confronts him about his wealth. Norton sends Andy to the ‘hole’ for 2 months for this – which portrays his anger over money and how it affects his attitude.

Lighting techniques are used to show his frustration over money, mostly midshots and close ups were used on Norton, to show his facial expression and minimal surroundings. This external conflict (1st mention of relevance to question) between Norton and Andy is important to the text as a whole because it shows power is not everything – in this case. The warden needs Andy to help him, but Andy doesn’t need the warden to survive in prison. He does not need him at all. Bogs is the prison rapist, he is also the leader of the ‘gang’ ‘The Sisters’, where they beat up and rape other prisoners.

Andy was Bogs’ target when he first arrived, and for two years, Andy fought them every time they came looking for him. This conflict between these two characters shows strength, both Andy and Bogs are fighting for what they want, Andy wants to be free of this burden –having to hide and continuously fight off the gang. But Bogs wants Andy, he likes that he plays ‘hard to get’ and will not stop until he gets him. The warden eventually finds out and Bogs is only sent to the ‘hole’ for a week or two. This is a short amount of time for an act such as this, but in the prison – like RED says, it’s to be ‘expected’.

You need film techniques here – otherwise you are discussing conflict but without detailed evidence… Internal conflict is experienced throughout the entire film by Andy. He is forced into new surroundings, and is unaware of what to do with himself. For over a month Andy talks to nobody, and just wanders around the prison, lost and alone. This is shown by the camera and lighting techniques Darabont uses when filming Andy. Using a dark surrounding and light foreground shows hope is in Andy – Also, the close ups and long shots show emotion and surrounding.

Andy, unlike the other prisoners, believed in Hope. When he comes back from being sent to the ‘hole’ for playing opera music in the warden’s office, he said it was the easiest 2 weeks he had ever done. However, RED, believes ‘ Hope is a dangerous thing, it can kill a man’. You might want to discuss the external conflict between Red and Andy plus the internal conflict that each prisoner has/used to have – that of hope. Red has given up, Andy believes in hope and your last quote shows. In conclusion, conflict, both internal and external is one of the main themes in the film ‘Shawshank Redemption’.

Frank Darabont uses the example of Andy Dufresne, a used-to-be successful banker, to show to the audience that redemption can be found in the darkest of corners. ‘Get busy living or get busy dying’. Potential here – you need to link each paragraph (the first sentence of each) to the question to show that you are being relevant and not just telling the story. I’d say this will pass with the recommended changes. It needs to be restructured slightly and refer directly to the question to reach Merit and above. Well done – have a good weekend. Miss Needham

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Explain the Reasons Why Australia Became Involved in the Vietnam War

Explain the reasons why Australia became involved in the Vietnam War Australia had multiple reasons which led to her involvement in the Vietnam War. Australia’s involvement consisted of four critical reasons that made young Australians to go to war in Vietnam. The fact that communism was in Australia gave many Australian citizens an internal fear. This brought Australians to resist communism in Vietnam and support the War. Australia became enthusiastic to support their alliances, where they requested for Australia to be involved in the War.

All these reasons show Australia’s commitment to be involved in the Vietnam War. To begin with Australia had an internal fear of communism which led to Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War. Due to the acts of the CPA (communist party of Australia) it made many Australians oppose communism. Furthermore the Petrov affair showed Australia that communism is a threat to Australians and the country itself. To sum up because of these reasons it made it the more likely for Australia to be involved in the Vietnam War.

Moreover, the spread of communism and its control overseas brought Australia to be involved in the Vietnam War. Before the Vietnam War, Australia went to war in Korea (Korean War) to fight against communism in Korea where the communist completely dominated the North Korean Region. Additionally Vietnam is a ‘key domino’ to knocking down Australia in the Domino Theory and as a result PM Menzies brought forth Forward Defence to Vietnam. Overall, it shows that Australian would be involved in the Vietnam War to fend off and stop the spread of communism.

Another reason Australia became involved in the Vietnam War is her alliances with other countries. During World War Two Australia experienced difficulties fighting against the Japanese and the United States came and assisted Australia, as a result Australia thought of the U. S as a bigger brother. To increase support from America, Australia were the first to put their hand up to help aid the U. S in the Vietnam War and set up ANZUS ( Australia, New Zealand ,United States).

This shows that Australia is eager to improve their alliances and be involved in the Vietnam War. Finally and foremost, a request for Australia from the South Vietnamese Government made it the more probable that Australia will be involved in the Vietnam War. Prime Minister Menzies states that the SVG (South Vietnamese Government) requested for Australia to come to South Vietnam and fight off of the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army. Australia immediately prepared and sent advisors and troops to Vietnam to fulfil the request.

All in all, Australia’s loyalty to their big brother, ‘United States’ brought forth a stronger alliance and supported the SVG to be involved in the Vietnam War. Additionally Australia’s internal fear of communism and the threat of it overseas made it more expected for Australians to go to War in Vietnam and fight against Communism. To sum up, these reasons revolved around communism and therefore created the high interest of Australia to be involved in the Vietnam War.

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Naeyc Code of Ethics

The Code of Ethics define the core values of the field and provides guidance for what professionals should do when they encounter conflicting obligations or responsibilities in their work. In this essay I will be comparing four different codes of ethics and also reflecting their differences. The four codes involved are the NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct, the Nursing Code of ethics, the National Education Association-Code of Ethics in Education Profession, and the Psychology Code of Ethics. I will talk about each code separately, as they are the same, and as they are different.

I will start with the NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct. This code offers guidelines for responsible behavior and sets forth a common basis for resolving the principle ethical dilemmas encountered in early childhood care and education. This code includes core values, ideals, and principles. It is broken down into four main sections. The first section refers to ethical responsibilities to children. It explains how we as early childhood educators are dedicated to support children’s development, growth, and learning. We have to be very committed to the fact that childhood is a very unique and valuable stage in the human life cycle.

The second section talks about ethical responsibilities to families. Because families are of primary importance in children’s development and the early childhood practitioner has a common interest in the child’s well-being, we develop relationships of mutual trust with the families we serve. The NAEYC code then goes on to section three, it talks about ethical responsibilities to colleagues. The code refers to colleagues as co-workers, employers, and employees. It states that a caring, cooperative workplace sustains positive relationships.

Human dignity should be respected and professional satisfactory shall be promoted. Lastly but not least, section four that talks about our ethical responsibilities to our community. It says that our responsibilities to the community are to provide programs that meet the diverse needs of families, cooperate with agencies and professionals that share the responsibility for children, to assist families in gaining access to professionals, and to assist in the development of community programs that are needed. Next on the list, the Nursing Code of Ethics.

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Supply and Demand and Key Question

McConnell, Brue, Barbiero 11th Canadian edition Microeconomics ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER AND APPENDIX QUESTIONS Chapter 1 1-3(Key Question) Cite three examples of recent decisions that you made in which you, at least implicitly, weighed marginal costs and marginal benefits. Student answers will vary, but may include the decision to come to class, to skip breakfast to get a few extra minutes of sleep, to attend college or university, or to make a purchase. Marginal benefits of attending class may include the acquisition of knowledge, participation in discussion, and better preparation for an upcoming examination.

Marginal costs may include lost opportunities for sleep, meals, or studying for other classes. In evaluating the discussion of marginal benefits and marginal costs, be careful to watch for sunk costs offered as a rationale for marginal decisions. . 1-5(Key Question) Indicate whether each of the following statements applies to microeconomics or macroeconomics: a. The unemployment rate in Canada was 7. 0 percent in January 2005. b. A Canadian software firm discharged 15 workers last month and transferred the work to India. c.

An unexpected freeze in central Florida reduced the citrus crop and caused the price of oranges to rise. d. Canadian output, adjusted for inflation, grew by 3. 0 percent in 2004. e. Last week the Scotia Bank lowered its interest rate on business loans by one-half of 1 percentage point. f. The consumer price index rose by 2. 2 percent in 2005. Macroeconomics: (a), (d), and (f) Microeconomics: (b), (c), and (e) 1-7(Key Question)Suppose you won $15 on a Lotto Canada ticket at the local 7-Eleven and decided to spend all the winnings on candy bars and bags of peanuts.

The price of candy bars is $. 75 and the price of peanuts is $1. 50. a. Construct a table showing the alternative combinations of the two products that are available. b. Plot the data in your table as a budget line in a graph. What is the slope of the budget line? What is the opportunity cost of one more candy bar? Of one more bag of peanuts? Do these opportunity costs rise, fall, or remain constant as each additional unit of the product is purchased. c. How, in general, would you decide which of the available combinations of candy bars and bags of peanuts to buy? . Suppose that you had won $30 on your ticket, not $15. Show the $30 budget line in your diagram. Why would this budget line be preferable to the old one? (a)Consumption alternatives |Goods |A |B |C |D |E |F | |Candy bars |0 |4 |8 |12 |16 |20 | |Bags of peanuts |10 |8 |6 |4 |2 |0 | (b) [pic] The slope for the budget line above, with candy bars on the horizontal axis, is -0. 5 (= -Pcb/Pbp).

Note that the figure could also be drawn with bags of peanuts on the horizontal axis. The slope of that budget line would be -2. The opportunity cost of one more candy bar is ? of a bag of peanuts. The opportunity cost of one more bag of peanuts is 2 candy bars. These opportunity costs are constant. They can be found by comparing any two of the consumption alternatives for the two goods. (c)The decision of how much of each to buy would involve weighing the marginal benefits and marginal costs of the various alternatives.

If, for example, the marginal benefits of moving from alternative C to alternative D are greater than the marginal costs, then this consumer should move to D (and then compare again with E, and so forth, until MB=MC is attained). (d) [pic] The budget line at $30 would be preferable because it would allow greater consumption of both goods. 1-10(Key Question)Below is a production possibilities table for consumer goods (automobiles) and capital goods (forklifts): Type of Production |Production Alternatives | | | | | | | | | |A |B |C |D |E | | | | | | | | |Automobiles |0 |2 |4 |6 |8 | |Forklifts |30 |27 |21 |12 |0 | | | | | | | | a. Show these data graphically. Upon what specific assumptions is this production possibilities curve based? b. If the economy is at point C, what is the cost of one more automobile?

Of one more forklift? Explain how the production possibilities curve reflects the law of increasing opportunity costs. c. If the economy characterized by this production possibilities table and curve were producing 3 automobiles and 20 fork lifts, what could you conclude about its use of available resources? d. What would production at a point outside the production possibilities curve indicate? What must occur before the economy can attain such a level of production? a) See curve EDCBA. The assumptions are full employment, fixed supplies of resources, fixed technology and two goods. [pic] (b)4. 5 forklifts; . 33 automobiles, as determined from the table.

Increasing opportunity costs are reflected in the concave-from-the-origin shape of the curve. This means the economy must give up larger and larger amounts of rockets to get constant added amounts of automobiles—and vice versa. (c)The economy is underutilizing its available resources. The assumption of full employment has been violated. (d)Production outside the curve cannot occur (consumption outside the curve could occur through foreign trade). To produce beyond the current production possibilities curve this economy must realize an increase in its available resources and/or technology. . 1-11(Key Question)Specify and explain the typical shapes of the marginal-benefit and marginal-cost curves.

How are these curves used to determine the optimal allocation of resources to a particular product? If current output is such that marginal cost exceeds marginal benefit, should more or fewer resources be allocated to this product? Explain. The marginal benefit curve is downward sloping, MB falls as more of a product is consumed because additional units of a good yield less satisfaction than previous units. The marginal cost curve is upward sloping, MC increases as more of a product is produced since additional units require the use of increasingly unsuitable resource. The optimal amount of a particular product occurs where MB equals MC. If MC exceeds MB, fewer resources should be allocated to this use.

The resources are more valuable in some alternative use (as reflected in the higher MC) than in this use (as reflected in the lower MB). 1-13(Key Question) Suppose improvement occurs in the technology of producing forklifts but not in the technology of producing automobiles. Draw the new production possibilities curve. Now assume that a technological advance occurs in producing automobiles but not in producing forklifts. Draw the new production possibilities curve. Now draw a production possibilities curve that reflects technological improvement in the production of both products. See the graph for question 1-10. PPC1 shows improved forklift technology. PPC2 shows improved auto technology. PPC3 shows improved technology in producing both products. -14(Key Question) On average, households in China save 40 percent of their annual income each year, whereas households in the Canada save less than 5 percent. Production possibilities are growing at roughly 9 percent annually in China and 3. 5 percent in Canada. Use graphical analysis of “present goods” versus “future goods” to explain the differences in growth rates. Figure 1. 6 on page 20 depicts this situation. Canada would be represented by Figure 1. 6a (“Presentville”), producing primarily goods for the present. China’s situation is depicted by Figure 1. 6b (“Futureville”), where emphasis on goods for the future leads to a greater expansion of production possibilities.

Chapter 1 – Appendix 1A-2(Key Appendix Question) Indicate how each of the following might affect the data shown in the table and graph in Figure 2 of this appendix: a. IU’s athletic director schedules higher-quality opponents. b. An NBA team locates in the city where IU plays. c. IU contracts to have all its home games televised. (a)More tickets are bought at each price; the line shifts to the right. (b)Fewer tickets are bought at each price, the line shifts to the left. (c)Fewer tickets are bought at each price, the line shifts to the left. 1A-3(Key Appendix Question) The following table contains data on the relationship between saving and income.

Rearrange these data into a meaningful order and graph them on the accompanying grid. What is the slope of the line? The vertical intercept? Interpret the meaning of both the slope and the intercept. Write the equation which represents this line. What would you predict saving to be at the $12,500 level of income? | | | |Income |Saving | |(per year)` |(per year) | | | | | | | |$15,000 |$1,000 | |0 |-500 | |10,000 |500 | |5,000 |0 | 20,000 |1,500 | Income column: $0; $5,000; $10,000, $15,000; $20,000. Saving column: $-500; 0; $500; $1,000; $1,500. Slope = 0. 1 (= $1,000 – $500)/($15,000 – $10,000). Vertical intercept = $-500. The slope shows the amount saving will increase for every $1 increase in income; the intercept shows the amount of saving (dissaving) occurring when income is zero. Equation: S = $-500 + 0. 1Y (where S is saving and Y is income). Saving will be $750 at the $12,500 income level. 1A-7(Key Appendix Question) The accompanying graph shows curve XX and tangents at points A, B, and C. Calculate the slope of the curve at these three points.

Slopes: at A = +4; at B = 0; at C = -4. ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS Chapter 2 2-8(Key Question) With current technology, suppose a firm is producing 400 loaves of banana bread daily. Also, assume that the least-cost combination of resources in producing those loaves is 5 units of labour, 7 units of land, 2 units of capital, and 1 unit of entrepreneurial ability, selling at prices of $40, $60, $60, and $20, respectively. If the firm can sell these 400 units at $2 per unit, will it continue to produce banana bread? If this firm’s situation is typical for the other makers of banana bread, will resources flow to or away from this bakery good?

The firm will continue to produce as it is earning economic profits of $40 (Total revenue of $800 minus total cost of $760). If this firm is typical, more resources will flow toward banana bread as other potential firms are attracted to the economic profits. 2-9(Key Question) Some large hardware stores such as Canadian Tire boast of carrying as many as 20,000 different products in each store. What motivated the producers of those individuals to make them and offer them for sale? How did producers decide on the best combinations of resources to use? Who made these resources available, and why? Who decides whether these particular hardware products should continue to be produced and offered for sale?

The quest for profit led firms to produce these goods. Producers looked for and found the least-cost combination of resources in producing their output. Resource suppliers, seeking income, made these resources available. Consumers, through their dollar votes, ultimately decide on what will continue to be produced. 2-10What is meant by the term “creative destruction”? How does the emergence of MP3 (iPod) technology relate to this idea? Creative destruction refers to the process by which the creation of new products and production techniques destroys the market positions of firms committed to producing only existing products or using outdated methods.

The ability to download and store a large number of songs, and the superior quality of MP3 is causing a decline in the CD industry, just as CDs once replaced cassette tapes, which had previously replaced phonographs (records). 2-11In a sentence, describe the meaning of the phrase “invisible hand. ” Market prices act as an “invisible hand,” coordinating an economy by rationing what is scarce, and providing incentives to produce the most desired goods and services. 2-14(Key Question) What are the two characteristics of public goods? Explain the significance of each for public provision as opposed to private provision. What is the free-rider problem as it relates to public goods? Is the Canadian border patrol a public good or a private good? Why? How about satellite TV? Explain.

Public goods are non-rival (one person’s consumption does not prevent consumption by another) and non-excludable (once the goods are produced nobody—including free riders—can be excluded from the goods’ benefits). If goods are non-rival, there is less incentive for private firms to produce them – those purchasing the good could simply allow others the use without compensation. Similarly, if goods are non-excludable, private firms are unlikely to produce them as the potential for profit is low. The free-rider problem occurs when people benefit from the public good without contributing to the cost (tax revenue proportionate to the benefit received). The Canadian border patrol is a public good – my use and benefit does not prevent yours.

Satellite TV is a private good – if the dish, receiver, and service go to my residence it can’t go to my neighbors. The fact that I could invite my neighbor over to watch does not change its status from being a private good. 2-15(Key Question) Draw a production possibilities curve with public goods on the vertical axis and private goods on the horizontal axis. Assuming the economy is initially operating on the curve, indicate how the production of public goods might be increased. How might the output of public goods be increased if the economy is initially operating at a point inside the curve? On the curve, the only way to obtain more public goods is to reduce the production of private goods (from C to B).

An economy operating inside the curve can expand the production of public goods without sacrificing private goods (say, from A to B) by making use of unemployed resources. [pic] ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS Chapter 3 3-3(Key Question) What effect will each of the following have on the demand for small automobiles such as the Mini Cooper and Smart car? a. Small automobiles become more fashionable. b. The price of large automobiles rises (with the price of small autos remaining the same). c. Income declines and small autos are an inferior good. d. Consumers anticipate the price of small autos will greatly come down in the near future. e.

The price of gasoline substantially drops. Demand increases in (a), (b), and (c); decreases in (d). The last one (e) is ambiguous. As autos and gas are complements, one could argue that the decrease in gas prices would stimulate demand for all cars, including small ones. However, one could also argue that small cars are attractive to consumers because of fuel efficiency, and that a decrease in gas prices effectively reduces the price of the “gas guzzling” substitutes. That would encourage consumers to switch from smaller to larger cars (SUVs), and demand for small automobiles would fall. [This presents a good illustration of the complexity of many of these changes. 3-6(Key Question) What effect will each of the following have on the supply of automobile tires? a. A technological advance in the methods of producing tires. b. A decline in the number of firms in the tire industry. c. An increase in the price of rubber used in the production of tires. d. The expectation that the equilibrium price of auto tires will be lower in the future than it is currently. e. A decline in the price of large tires used for semi-trucks and earth hauling rigs (with no change in the price of auto tires). f. The levying of a per-unit tax in each auto tire sold. g. The granting of a 50-cent-per-unit subsidy for each auto tire produced. Supply increases in (a), (d), (e), and (g); decreases in (b), (c), and (f). -8(Key Question) Suppose the total demand for wheat and the total supply of wheat per month in the Kansas City grain market are as follows: |Thousands |Price |Thousand |Surplus (+) | |of bushels |per |of bushels |or | |demanded |bushel |supplied |shortage (-) | | | | | |85 |$3. 40 |72 |_____ | |80 |3. 70 |73 |_____ | |75 |4. 0 |75 |_____ | |70 |4. 30 |77 |_____ | |65 |4. 60 |79 |_____ | |60 |4. 90 |81 |_____ | a. What is the equilibrium price? What is the equilibrium quantity? Fill in the surplus-shortage column and use it to explain why your answers are correct. b. Graph the demand for wheat and the supply of wheat. Be sure to label the axes of your graph correctly. Label equilibrium price P and the equilibrium quantity Q. c. Why will $3. 40 not be the equilibrium price in this market? Why not $4. 90? Surpluses drive prices up; shortages drive them down. ” Do you agree? Data from top to bottom: -13; -7; 0; +7; +14; and +21. [pic] (a)Pe = $4. 00; Qe = 75,000. Equilibrium occurs where there is neither a shortage nor surplus of wheat. At the immediately lower price of $3. 70, there is a shortage of 7,000 bushels. At the immediately higher price of $4. 30, there is a surplus of 7,000 bushels. (See graph above). (b)See graph above. (c) Because at $3. 40 there will be a 13,000 bushel shortage which will drive price up. Because at $4. 90 there will be a 21,000 bushel surplus which will drive the price down. Quotation is incorrect; just the opposite is true. -9(Key Question) How will each of the following changes in demand and/or supply affect equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity in a competitive market; that is do price and quantity rise, fall, remain unchanged, or are the answers indeterminate because they depend on the magnitudes of the shifts? Use supply and demand diagrams to verify your answers. a. Supply decreases and demand is constant. b. Demand decreases and supply is constant. c. Supply increases and demand is constant. d. Demand increases and supply increases. e. Demand increases and supply is constant. f. Supply increases and demand decreases. g. Demand increases and supply decreases. h.

Demand decreases and supply decreases. (a)Price up; quantity down; (b)Price down; quantity down; (c)Price down; quantity up; (d) Price indeterminate; quantity up; (e)Price up; quantity up; (f)Price down; quantity indeterminate; (g)Price up, quantity indeterminate; (h)Price indeterminate and quantity down. 3-12(Key Question) Refer to the table in question 8. Suppose that the government establishes a price ceiling of $3. 70 for wheat. What might prompt the government to establish this price ceiling? Explain carefully the main effects. Demonstrate your answer graphically. Next, suppose that the government establishes a price floor of $4. 60 for wheat.

What will be the main effects of this price floor? Demonstrate your answer graphically. At a price of $3. 70, buyers will wish to purchase 80,000 bushels, but sellers will only offer 73,000 bushels to the market. The result is a shortage of 7,000 bushels. The ceiling prevents the price from rising to encourage greater production, discourage consumption, and relieve the shortage. See the graph below. [pic] At a price of $4. 60, buyers only want to purchase 65,000 bushels, but sellers want to sell 79,000 bushels, resulting in a surplus of 14,000 bushels. The floor prevents the price from falling to eliminate the surplus. See the graph below. [pic] ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS Chapter 4 -2(Key Question) Graph the accompanying demand data and then use the midpoints formula for Ed to determine price elasticity of demand for each of the four possible $1 price changes. What can you conclude about the relationship between the slope of a curve and its elasticity? Explain in a non-technical way why demand is elastic in the northwest segment of the demand curve and inelastic in the southeast segment. | | | |Product |Quantity | |price |demanded | | | | | | | | | |$5 | |1 | 4 | |2 | |3 | |3 | |2 | |4 | |1 | |5 | | | | | See the graph accompanying the answer to 4-4. Elasticities, top to bottom: 3; 1. 4; . 714; . 333. Slope does not measure elasticity. This demand curve has a constant slope of -1 (= -1/1), but elasticity declines as we move down the curve. When the initial price is high and initial quantity is low, a unit change in price is a low percentage while a unit change in quantity is a high percentage change.

The percentage change in quantity exceeds the percentage change in price, making demand elastic. When the initial price is low and initial quantity is high, a unit change in price is a high percentage change while a unit change in quantity is a low percentage change. The percentage change in quantity is less than the percentage change in price, making demand inelastic. 4-4(Key Question) Calculate total-revenue data from the demand schedule in question 2. Graph total revenue below your demand curve. Generalize on the relationship between price elasticity and total revenue. See the graph. Total revenue data, top to bottom: $5; $8; $9; $8; $5. When demand is elastic, price and total revenue move in the opposite direction.

When demand is inelastic, price and total revenue move in the same direction. [pic] 4-5(Key Question) How would the following changes in price affect total revenue. That is, would total revenue increase, decline, or remain unchanged? a. Price falls and demand is inelastic. b. Price rises and demand is elastic. c. Price rises and supply is elastic. d. Price rises and supply is inelastic. e. Price rises and demand is inelastic. f. Price falls and demand is elastic. g. Price falls and demand is of unit elasticity. Total revenue would increase in (c), (d), (e), and (f); decrease in (a) and (b); and remain the same in (g). 4-8(Key Question) What are the major determinants of price elasticity of demand?

Use these determinants and your own reasoning in judging whether demand for each of the following products is elastic or inelastic: (a) bottled water, (b) tooth paste; (c) Crest toothpaste; (d) ketchup, (e) diamond bracelets; (f) Microsoft Windows operating system. Substitutability, proportion of income; luxury versus necessity, and time. Elastic: (a), (c), (e). Inelastic: (b), (d), and (f). 4-11(Key Question) What is the formula for measuring the price elasticity of supply? Suppose the price of apples goes up from $20 to $22 a box. In direct response, Goldsboro Farms supplies 1200 boxes of apples instead of 1000 boxes. Compute the coefficient of price elasticity (midpoints approach) for Goldsboro’s supply. It its supply elastic, or is it inelastic? Es = percentage change in quantity supplied / percentage change in price. Using the midpoint formula, Es = 1. 1 {= (200/[(1000+1200)/2] / 2/[(20+22)/2]} Supply is price elastic (Es>1). 4-12(Key Question) Suppose the cross elasticity of demand for products A and B is +3. 6 and for products C and D it is -5. 4. What can you conclude about how products A and B are related? Products C and D? A and B are substitutes; C and D are complements. 4-13(Key Question) The income elasticities of demand for movies, dental services, and clothing have been estimated to be +3. 4, +1. 0, and +0. 5 respectively. Interpret these coefficients. What does it mean if the income elasticity coefficient is negative? All are normal goods—income and quantity demanded move in the same direction.

These coefficients reveal that a 1 percent increase in income will increase the quantity of movies demanded by 3. 4 percent, of dental services by 1. 0 percent, and of clothing by 0. 5 percent. A negative coefficient indicates an inferior good—income and quantity demanded move in the opposite direction. 4-15(Key Question) What is the incidence of a tax when demand is highly inelastic? Elastic? What effect does the elasticity have on the incidence of a tax? The incidence of a tax is likely to be primarily on consumers when demand is highly inelastic and primarily on producers when demand is elastic. The more elastic the supply, the greater the incidence of an excise tax on consumers and less on producers. -16(Key Question) Why is it desirable for ceiling prices to be accompanied by government rationing? And for price floors to be accompanied by programs that purchase surpluses, restrict output, or increase demand? Show graphically why price ceilings entail shortages and price floors result in surpluses. What effect, if any, does elasticity of demand and supply have on the size of these shortages and surpluses? Explain. A ceiling price that is set below the equilibrium price necessarily results in the quantity demanded being greater than the quantity supplied. To ensure that the restricted supply may be shared fairly among all those desiring it, government rationing is necessary.

A floor price that is set above the equilibrium price necessarily results in the quantity supplied being greater than the quantity demanded. This creates a surplus. The government must purchase the surplus (and store it and/or sell it abroad), or restrict supply to the quantity that will be bought at the floor price, or develop new uses for the product. If the elasticity of demand and/or supply were inelastic, the shortage or surplus created by the government-set price will be less than if the demand and/or supply were elastic. 4-20(Key Question) Use the ideas of consumer surplus and producer surplus to explain why economists say competitive markets are efficient.

Why are below- or above-equilibrium levels of output inefficient, according to these two sets of ideas? When the consumers’ utility exceeds the price paid, consumer surplus is generated. Likewise, when producers receive a price greater than marginal cost, producer surplus is created. By producing up to the point where MB = MC, the maximum potential consumer surplus and producer surplus is generated. Producing less than the equilibrium level means that potential surplus is left unrealized. Overproduction subtracts from the surplus because society values the use of the additional resources in other pursuits more than it values them in consumption of that good.

ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS Chapter 5 5-1(Key Question) Complete the following table and answer the questions below: | | | | |Units consumed |Total utility |Marginal utility | | | | | | | | | | | | | |0 |0 | | | | |1 |10 |10 | | |2 |___ | |8 | | |3 |25 | |___ | | |4 |30 | |___ | | |5 |___ | |3 | | |6 |34 | |___ | | a. At which rate is total utility increasing: a constant rate, a decreasing rate, or an increasing rate? How do you know? b. “A rational consumer will purchase only 1 unit of the product represented by these data, since that amount maximizes marginal utility. ” Do you agree? Explain why or why not. c. “It is possible that a rational consumer will not purchase any units of the product represented by these data. ” Do you agree? Explain why or why not. Missing total utility data top – bottom: 18; 33.

Missing marginal utility data, top – bottom: 7; 5; 1. (a)A decreasing rate; because marginal utility is declining. (b)Disagree. The marginal utility of a unit beyond the first may be sufficiently great (relative to product price) to make it a worthwhile purchase. Consumers are interested in maximizing total utility, not marginal utility. (c)Agree. This product’s price could be so high relative to the first unit’s marginal utility that the consumer would buy none of it. 5-3(Key Question) Columns 1 through 4 of the accompanying table show the marginal utility, measured in utils, that Ricardo would get by purchasing various amounts of products A, B, C, and D.

Column 5 shows the marginal utility Ricardo gets from saving. Assume that the prices of A, B, C, and D are $18, $6, $4, and $24, respectively, and that Ricardo has an income of $106. | | | | | | |Column 1 |Column 2 |Column 3 |Column 4 |Column 5 | |Units | |Units | |Units | |Units | |No. of | | |of A |MU |of B |MU |of C |MU |of D |MU |$ saved |MU | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |1 |72 |1 |24 |1 | 15 |1 |36 |1 |5 | |2 |54 |2 |15 |2 |12 |2 |30 |2 |4 | |3 |45 |3 |12 |3 |8 |3 |24 |3 |3 | |4 |36 |4 |9 |4 |7 |4 |18 |4 |2 | |5 |27 |5 |7 |5 |5 |5 |13 |5 |1 | |6 |18 |6 |5 |6 |4 |6 |7 |6 |1/2 | |7 |15 |7 |2 |7 |3. |7 |4 |7 |1/4 | |8 |12 |8 |1 |8 |3 |8 |2 |8 |1/8 | | | | | | | | | | | | a. What quantities of A, B, C, and D will Ricardo purchase in maximizing his utility? b. How many dollars will Ricardo choose to save? c. Check your answers by substituting them into the algebraic statement of the utility-maximizing rule. (a)4 units of A; 3 units of B; 3 units of C, and 0 units of D. (b)Save $4. (c)36/$18 = 12/$6 = 8/$4 = 2/$1. The marginal utility per dollar of the last unit of each product purchased is 2. -4(Key Question) You are choosing between two goods, X and Y, and your marginal utility from each is as shown below. If your income is $9 and the prices of X and Y are $2 and $1 respectively, what quantities of each will you purchase to maximize utility? What total utility will you realize? Assume that, other things remaining unchanged, the price of X falls to $1. What quantities of X and Y will you now purchase? Using the two prices and quantities for X, derive a demand schedule (price-quantity-demanded table) for X. | | | | | |Units of X |MUx |Units of Y |MUy | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 1 |10 |1 | | |8 | |2 |8 |2 | | |7 | |3 |6 |3 | | |6 | |4 |4 |4 | | |5 | |5 |3 |5 | | |4 | |6 |2 |6 | | |3 | | | | | | | | Buy 2 units of X and 5 units of Y. Marginal utility of last dollar spent will be equal at 4 (= 8/$2 for X and 4/$1 for Y) and the $9 income will be spent. Total utility = 48 (= 10 + 8 for X plus 8 + 7 + 6 + 5 + 4 for Y). When the price of X falls to $1, the quantity of X demanded increases from 2 to 4 (income effect). Total utility is now 58 (= 10 + 8 + 6 + 4 for X plus 8 + 7 + 6 + 5 + 4 for Y). Demand schedule for X: P = $2; Q = 2. P = $1; Q = 4. Chapter 5-Appendix Questions A-3(Key Appendix Question) Using Figure A5-4, explain why the point of tangency of the budget line with an indifference curve is the consumer’s equilibrium position. Explain why any point where the budget line intersects an indifference curve will not be equilibrium. Explain: “The consumer is in equilibrium where MRS = PB/PA. ” The tangency point places the consumer on the highest attainable indifference curve; it identifies the combination of goods yielding the highest total utility. All intersection points place the consumer on a lower indifference curve. MRS is the slope of the indifference curve; PB/PA is the slope of the budge line. Only at the tangency point are these two slopes equal.

If MRS > PB/PA or MRS < PB/PA, adjustments in the combination of products can be made to increase total utility (get to a higher indifference curve). ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS Chapter 6 6-2(Key Question) What are the major legal forms of business organization? Briefly state the advantages and disadvantages of each. How do you account for the dominant role of corporations in the Canadian economy? The legal forms of business organizations are: sole proprietorship, partnership, and corporation. Proprietorship advantages: easy to start and provides maximum freedom for the proprietor to do what she/he thinks best. Proprietorship disadvantages: limited financial resources; the owner must be a Jack-or-Jill-of-all-trades; unlimited liability.

Partnership advantages: easy to organize; greater specialization of management; and greater financial resources. Disadvantages: financial resources are still limited; unlimited liability; possibility of disagreement among the partners; and precarious continuity. Corporation advantages: can raise large amounts of money by issuing stocks and bonds; limited liability; continuity. Corporation disadvantages: red tape and expense in incorporating; potential for abuse of stockholder and bondholder funds; double taxation of profits; separation of ownership and control. The dominant role of corporations stems from the advantages cited, particularly unlimited liability and the ability to raise money. 6-4(Key Question) Gomez runs a small pottery firm.

He hires one helper at $12,000 per year, pays annual rent of $5,000 for his shop, and materials cost $20,000 per year. Gomez has $40,000 of his own funds invested in equipment (pottery wheels, kilns, and so forth) that could earn him $4,000 per year if alternatively invested. Gomez has been offered $15,000 per year to work as a potter for a competitor. He estimates his entrepreneurial talents are worth $3,000 per year. Total annual revenue from pottery sales is $72,000. Calculate accounting profits and economic profits for Gomez’s pottery. Explicit costs: $37,000 (= $12,000 for the helper + $5,000 of rent + $20,000 of materials). Implicit costs: $22,000 (= $4,000 of forgone interest + $15,000 of forgone salary + $3,000 of entrepreneurship).

Accounting profit = $35,000 (= $72,000 of revenue – $37,000 of explicit costs); Economic profit = $13,000 (= $72,000 – $37,000 of explicit costs – $22,000 of implicit costs). 6-6 (Key Question) Complete the following table by calculating marginal product and average product from the data given. Plot total, marginal, and average product and explain in detail the relationship between each pair of curves. Explain why marginal product first rises, then declines, and ultimately becomes negative. What bearing does the law of diminishing returns have on short-run costs? Be specific. “When marginal product is rising, marginal cost is falling. And when marginal product is diminishing, marginal cost is rising. ” Illustrate and explain graphically. | | | | |Inputs of |Total |Marginal |Average | |labour |product |product |product | | | | | | | | | | | | | |0 |0 | |____ |____ | |1 |15 | |____ |____ | |2 |34 | |____ |____ | |3 |51 | |____ |____ | |4 |65 | |____ |____ | |5 |74 | |____ |____ | |6 |80 | |____ |____ | |7 |83 | |____ |____ | |8 |82 | |____ |____ | Marginal product data, top to bottom: 15; 19; 17; 14; 9; 6; 3; -1. Average product data, top to bottom: 15; 17; 17; 16. 25; 14. 8; 13. 33; 11. 86; 10. 25.

Your diagram should have the same general characteristics as text Figure 6-2. MP is the slope—the rate of change—of the TP curve. When TP is rising at an increasing rate, MP is positive and rising. When TP is rising at a diminishing rate, MP is positive but falling. When TP is falling, MP is negative and falling. AP rises when MP is above it; AP falls when MP is below it. MP first rises because the fixed capital gets used more productively as added workers are employed. Each added worker contributes more to output than the previous worker because the firm is better able to use its fixed plant and equipment. As still more labour is added, the law of diminishing returns takes hold.

Labour becomes so abundant relative to the fixed capital that congestion occurs and marginal product falls. At the extreme, the addition of labour so overcrowds the plant that the marginal product of still more labour is negative—total output falls. Illustrated by Figure 6-6. Because labour is the only variable input and its price (its wage rate) is constant, MC is found by dividing the wage rate by MP. When MP is rising, MC is falling; when MP reaches its maximum, MC is at its minimum; when MP is falling, MC is rising. 6-9(Key Question) A firm has fixed costs of $60 and variable costs as indicated in the table below. Complete the table. When finished, check your calculations by referring to question 4 at the end of Chapter 7. | | | | | | | | | |Total |Total variable | |Average |Average |Average | | |Total |fixed cost |cost |Total cost |fixed |variable |total |Marginal | |product | | | |cost |cost |cost |cost | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |0 |$_____ |$ 0 |$_____ |$_____ |$_____ |$_____ | _____ | |1 |_____ |45 |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ | |2 |_____ |85 |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ | |3 |_____ |120 |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ | |4 |_____ |150 |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ | |5 |_____ |185 |_____ _____ |_____ |_____ |_____ | |6 |_____ |225 |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ | |7 |_____ |270 |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ | |8 |_____ |325 |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ | |9 |_____ |390 |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ | |10 |_____ |465 |_____ |_____ |_____ |_____ | | a. Graph total fixed cost, total variable cost, and total cost. Explain how the law of diminishing returns influences the shapes of the total variable-cost and total-cost curves. b. Graph AFC, AVC, ATC, and MC. Explain the derivation and shape of each of these four curves and their relationships to one another.

Specifically, explain in non-technical terms why the MC curve intersects both the AVC and ATC curves at their minimum points. c. Explain how the locations of each of the four curves graphed in question 6-9b would be altered if (1) total fixed cost had been $100 rather than $60, and (2) total variable cost had been $10 less at each level of output. The total fixed costs are all $60. The total costs are all $60 more than the total variable cost. The other columns are shown in Question 4 in Chapter 8. a) See the graph. Over the 0 to 4 range of output, the TVC and TC curves slope upward at a decreasing rate because of increasing marginal returns.

The slopes of the curves then increase at an increasing rate as diminishing marginal returns occur. b) See the graph. AFC (= TFC/Q) falls continuously since a fixed amount of capital cost is spread over more units of output. The MC (= change in TC/change in Q), AVC (= TVC/Q), and ATC (= TC/Q) curves are U-shaped, reflecting the influence of first increasing and then diminishing returns. The ATC curve sums AFC and AVC vertically. The ATC curve falls when the MC curve is below it; the ATC curve rises when the MC curve is above it. This means the MC curve must intersect the ATC curve at its lowest point. The same logic holds for the minimum point of the AVC curve. pic] [pic] (c1)If TFC has been $100 instead of $60, the AFC and ATC curves would be higher—by an amount equal to $40 divided by the specific output. Example: at 4 units, AVC = $25. 00 [= ($60 + $40)/4]; and ATC = $62. 50 [= ($210 + $40)/4]. The AVC and MC curves are not affected by changes in fixed costs. (c2)If TVC has been $10 less at each output, MC would be $10 lower for the first unit of output but remain the same for the remaining output. The AVC and ATC curves would also be lower—by an amount equal to $10 divided by the specific output. Example: at 4 units of output, AVC = $35. 00 [= $150 – $10)/4], ATC = $50 [= ($210 – $10)/4].

The AFC curve would not be affected by the change in variable costs. 6-12(Key Question) Use the concepts of economies and diseconomies of scale to explain the shape of a firm’s long-run ATC curve. What is the concept of minimum efficient scale? What bearing may the exact shape of the long-run ATC curve have on the structure of an industry? The long-run ATC curve is U-shaped. At first, long-run ATC falls as the firm expands and realizes economies of scale from labour and managerial specialization and the use of more efficient capital. The long-run ATC curve later turns upward when the enlarged firm experiences diseconomies of scale, usually resulting from managerial inefficiencies.

The MES (minimum efficient scale) is the smallest level of output needed to attain all economies of scale and minimum long-run ATC. If long-run ATC drops quickly to its minimum cost which then extends over a long range of output, the industry will likely be composed of both large and small firms. If long-run ATC descends slowly to its minimum cost over a long range of output, the industry will likely be composed of a few large firms. If long-run ATC drops quickly to its minimum point and then rises abruptly, the industry will likely be composed of many small firms. ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS Chapter 7 7-3(Key Question) Use the following demand schedule to determine total and arginal revenues for each possible level of sales: |Product Price ($) |Quantity Demanded |Total Revenue ($) |Marginal Revenue ($) | |2 |0 | | | |2 |1 | | | |2 |2 | | | |2 |3 | | | |2 |4 | | | |2 |5 | | | a. What can you conclude about the structure of the industry in which this firm is operating? Explain. b. Graph the demand, total-revenue, and marginal-revenue curves for this firm. c. Why do the demand and marginal-revenue curves coincide? d. “Marginal revenue is the change in total revenue. ” Explain verbally and graphically, using the data in the table. Total revenue, top to bottom: 0; $2; $4; $6; $8; $10.

Marginal revenue, top to bottom: $2, throughout. (a)The industry is perfectly competitive—this firm is a “price taker. ” The firm is so small relative to the size of the market that it can change its level of output without affecting the market price. b) See graph. (c)The firm’s demand curve is perfectly elastic; MR is constant and equal to P. [pic] (d)Yes. Table: When output (quantity demanded) increases by 1 unit, total revenue increases by $2. This $2 increase is the marginal revenue. Figure: The change in TR is measured by the slope of the TR line, 2 (= $2/1 unit). 7-4(Key Question) Assume the following unit-cost data are for a perfectly competitive producer: | | | | | | |Average |Average |Average | | |Total |fixed |variable |total |Marginal | |Product |cost |cost |cost |cost | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |0 | | | | | | |$45 | | |1 |$60. 00 | |$45. 00 | |$105. 00 | |40 | | |2 |30. 00 | |42. 50 | |72. 50 | |35 | | |3 |20. 00 | |40. 00 | |60. 00 | |30 | | |4 |15. 00 | |37. 50 | |52. 0 | |35 | | |5 |12. 00 | |37. 00 | |49. 00 | |40 | | |6 |10. 00 | |37. 50 | |47. 50 | |45 | | |7 |8. 57 | |38. 57 | |47. 14 | |55 | | |8 |7. 50 | |40. 63 | |48. 13 | |65 | | |9 |6. 67 | |43. 33 | |50. 00 | |75 | | |10 |6. 00 | |46. 50 | |52. 0 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | a. At a product price of $56, will this firm produce in the short run? Why, or why not? If it does produce, what will be the profit-maximizing or loss-minimizing output? Explain. What economic profit or loss will the firm realize per unit of output. b. Answer the questions of 4a assuming that product price is $41. c. Answer the questions of 4a assuming that product price is $32. d. In the table below, complete the short-run supply schedule for the firm (columns 1 to 3) and indicate the profit or loss incurred at each output (column 3). | | | | |(1) |(2) |(3) |(4) | | |Quantity | |Quantity | | |supplied, |Profit (+) |supplied, | |Price |single firm |or loss (l) |1500 firms | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |$26 | |____ |$____ |____ | | |32 | |____ |____ |____ | | |38 | |____ |____ |____ | | |41 | |____ |____ |____ | | |46 | |____ |____ |____ | | |56 | |____ |____ |____ | | |66 | |____ |____ |____ | | | | | | | | e.

Explain: “That segment of a competitive firm’s marginal-cost curve which lies above its average-variable-cost curve constitutes the short-run supply curve for the firm. ” Illustrate graphically. f. Now assume there are 1500 identical firms in this competitive industry; that is, there are 1500 firms, each of which has the same cost data as shown here. Calculate the industry supply schedule (column 4). g. Suppose the market demand data for the product are as follows: | | | | |Total | | |quantity | |Price |demanded | | | | | | | | | | | |$26 | |17,000 | | 32 | |15,000 | | |38 | |13,500 | | |41 | |12,000 | | |41 | |10,500 | | |56 | |9,500 | | |66 | |8,000 | | | | | | | What will equilibrium price be? What will equilibrium output be for the industry? For each firm? What will profit or loss be per unit? Per firm? Will this industry expand or contract in the long run? (a)Yes, $56 exceeds AVC (and ATC) at the loss—minimizing output. Using the MR = MC rule it will produce 8 units. Profits per unit = $7. 87 (= $56 – $48. 13); total profit = $62. 96. b)Yes, $41 exceeds AVC at the loss—minimizing output. Using the MR = MC rule it will produce 6 units. Loss per unit or output is $6. 50 (= $41 – $47. 50). Total loss = $39 (= 6 €? $6. 50), which is less than its total fixed cost of $60. (c)No, because $32 is always less than AVC. If it did produce, its output would be 4—found by expanding output until MR no longer exceeds MC. By producing 4 units, it would lose $82 [= 4 ($32 – $52. 50)]. By not producing, it would lose only its total fixed cost of $60. (d)Column (2) data, top to bottom: 0; 0; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9, Column (3) data, top to bottom in dollars: -60; -60; -55; -39; -8; +63; +144. (e)The firm will not produce if P < AVC.

When P > AVC, the firm will produce in the short run at the quantity where P (= MR) is equal to its increasing MC. Therefore, the MC curve above the AVC curve is the firm’s short-run supply curve, it shows the quantity of output the firm will supply at each price level. See Figure 7-6 for a graphical illustration. (f)Column (4) data, top to bottom: 0; 0; 7,500; 9,000; 10,500; 12,000; 13,500. (g)Equilibrium price = $46; equilibrium output = 10,500. Each firm will produce 7 units. Loss per unit = $1. 14, or $8 per firm. The industry will contract in the long run. 7-6(Key Question) Using diagrams for both the industry and representative firm, illustrate competitive long-run equilibrium.

Assuming constant costs, employ these diagrams to show how (a) an increase and (b) a decrease in market demand will upset this long-run equilibrium. Trace graphically and describe verbally the adjustment processes by which long-run equilibrium is restored. Now rework your analysis for increasing- and decreasing-cost industries and compare the three long-run supply curves. See Figures 7-8 and 7-9 and their legends. See figure 7-11 for the supply curve for an increasing cost industry. The supply curve for a decreasing cost industry is below. [pic] 7-7(Key Question) In long-run equilibrium, P = minimum ATC = MC. Of what significance for economic efficiency is the equality of P and minimum ATC?

The equality of P and MC? Distinguish between productive efficiency and allocative efficiency in your answer. The equality of P and minimum ATC means the firms is achieving productive efficiency; it is using the most efficient technology and employing the least costly combination of resources. The equality of P and MC means the firms is achieving allocative efficiency; the industry is producing the right product in the right amount based on society’s valuation of that product and other products. ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS Chapter 8 8-4 (Key Question) Use the demand schedule that follows to calculate total revenue and marginal revenue at each quantity.

Plot the demand, total-revenue, and marginal-revenue curves and explain the relationships between them. Explain why the marginal revenue of the fourth unit of output is $3. 50, even though its price is $5. 00. Use Chapter 5’s total-revenue test for price elasticity to designate the elastic and inelastic segments of your graphed demand curve. What generalization can you make regarding the relationship between marginal revenue and elasticity of demand? Suppose that somehow the marginal cost of successive units of output were zero. What output would the profit-seeking firm produce? Finally, use your analysis to explain why a monopolist would never produce in the inelastic region of demand. | | | | | |Quantity | |Quantity | |Price |Demanded |Price |Demanded | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |$7. 00 | |0 |$4. 50 | |5 | |6. 50 | |1 |4. 00 | |6 | |6. 00 | |2 |3. 50 | |7 | |5. 50 | |3 |3. 00 | |8 | |5. 00 | |4 |2. 0 | |9 | | | | | | | | Total revenue, in order from Q = 0: 0; $6. 50; $12. 00; $16. 50; $20. 00; $22. 50; $10-00; $10-50; $10-00; $22. 50. Marginal revenue in order from Q = 1: $6. 50; $5. 50; $4. 50; $3. 50; $2. 50; $1. 50; $. 50; -$1. 50. See the accompanying graph. Because TR is increasing at a diminishing rate, MR is declining. When TR turns downward, MR becomes negative. Marginal revenue is below D because to sell an extra unit, the monopolist must lower the price on the marginal unit as well as on each of the preceding units sold. Four units sell for $5. 00 each, but three of these four could have been sold for $5. 0 had the monopolist been satisfied to sell only three. Having decided to sell four, the monopolist had to lower the price of the first three from $5. 50 to $5. 00, sacrificing $. 50 on each for a total of $1. 50. This “loss” of $1. 50 explains the difference between the $5. 00 price obtained on the fourth unit of output and its marginal revenue of $3. 50. Demand is elastic from P = $6. 50 to P = $3. 50, a range where TR is rising. The curve is of unitary elasticity at P = $3. 50, where TR is at its maximum. The curve is inelastic from then on as the price continues to decrease and TR is falling. When MR is positive, demand is elastic. When MR is zero, demand is of unitary elasticity.

When MR is negative, demand is inelastic. If MC is zero, the monopolist should produce 7 units where MR is also zero. It would never produce where demand is inelastic because MR is negative there while MC is positive. [pic] 8-5(Key Question) Suppose a monopolist is faced with the demand schedule shown below and the same cost data as the competitive producer discussed in question 4 at the end of Chapter 8. Calculate the missing total- and marginal-revenue amounts, and determine the profit-maximizing price and output for this monopolist. What is the monopolist’s profit? Verify your answer graphically and by comparing total revenue and total cost. | | | | | |Quantity |total |Marginal | |Price |demanded |revenue |revenue | | | | | | | | | | | | | |$115 | |0 |$____ |$____ | |100 | |1 |$____ |$____ | |83 | |2 |$____ |$____ | |71 | |3 |$____ |$____ | |63 | |4 |$____ |$____ | |55 | |5 |$____ |$____ | |48 | |6 |$____ |$____ | |42 | |7 |$____ |$____ | |37 | |8 |$____ |$____ | |33 | |9 |$____ |$____ | |29 | |10 |$____ | | | | | | | Total revenue data, top to bottom, in dollars: 0: 100; 166; 213; 252; 275; 288; 294; 296; 297; 290. Marginal revenue data, top to bottom, in dollars: 100; 66; 47; 39; 23; 13; 6; 2; 1; -7. Price = $63; output = 4; profit = $42 [= 4($63 – 52. 50)].

Your graph should have the same general appearance as Figure 10-4. At Q =4, TR = $252 and TC = $210 [= 4($52. 50)]. 8-6(Key Question) Suppose that a price discriminating monopolist has segregated its market into two groups of buyers, the first group described by the demand and revenue data that you developed for question 5. The demand and revenue data for the second group of buyers is shown in the accompanying table. Assume that MC is $13 in both markets and MC = ATC at all output levels. What price will the firm charge in each market? Based solely on these two prices, what can you conclude about the relative elasticities of demand in the two markets? What will be this monopolist’s total economic profit? Price |Quantity demanded |Total revenue |Marginal revenue | |$71 |0 |$0 | | | | | |$63 | |63 |1 |63 | | | | | |47 | |55 |2 |110 | | | | | |34 | |48 |3 |144 | | | | | |24 | |42