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Organisational Theories Via a Movie : Yes Man

I was at the cinema watching “Yes Man”, an American comedy, starring Jim Carrey. I found it hard to concentrate at the very end as three old, serious-looking men were deep in discussion. I was just about to ask them to be quiet when I realised that they were discussing the representation of bureaucracy portrayed in “Yes Man”. It is through the discussion of these three men : Max Weber a German sociologist and economist , Robert Merton an American economist and Michel Crozier a French sociologist that this essay will examine the characteristics of bureaucracy found in the movie “Yes Man”.

Since the seventies new organisational theories based on motivation and participation have emerged. However, a more traditional organisational system remains from the past : the bureaucracy system. This essay documents a hypothetical interaction between Weber, Merton and Crozier. Weber as the founder of the theory of bureaucracy and both Merton and Crozier as two of its renowned critics. This essay will explore the representation of bureaucracy through “Yes Man” and the life of the main character, Carl Dan.

Overall this essay will show the different points of view of Weber, Merton and Crozier about bureaucracy by pointing out and discussing scenes from the movie “Yes Man”. Weber, Merton and Crozier started their conversation about Carl’s depressed state. Indeed, Carl is melancholic and unhappy. He dislikes his job, he does not want to do anything or to go out with his friends, and would rather spend every night watching horror movies on his own. Robert Merton opened the conversation : “I believe that it is the repercussion of repetitive tasks that make this poor Carl depressed”.

In fact, Carl works in a Bank and his task is to accept or deny loans according to very strict, predetermined criteria. He does not have to take any personal initiative or have any innovation and he must always do things according to the book (Merton, R, 1957). Merton continued by adding : “I have noticed more than being not motivated that Carl has a tendency of being selfish as well (Merton, R, 1957). Carl does not care about anyone other than himself. He even missed his best friends engagement party which is a real pity”.

Carl lives as a recluse and the movie convinces the spectators that he did not used to act like that before finding his boring and repetitive job. Mr Crozier was following Merton’s point of view without taking part of the conversation. Again, Merton spoke : “As far as I am concerned, I believe that Carl acts selfishly and lacks motivation because of the rigid rules that a system of bureaucracy requires. He is stuck by those strict regulations and threatened by both routine and conformism. ” (Merton, R, 1957) Finally, Mr Weber replied with a self-assured voice. The written rules and detailed description of each task and action are one of the six reasons, that allow the efficiency of my organisational theory” (Johnston, K, B, August 17, 2010). This sentence was an electric shock for Crozier who asked with a very strong French accent: “I would be very interested to hear your other reasons why your organisational theory is, according to you, an efficient organisational system Mr Weber, Sir. ” At this point of the conversation Merton’s point of view and fears about the bureaucracy system were understood.

Furthermore, through Weber’s conversation we saw that written rules help the efficiency of the bureaucracy system. This essay will now relate the continuation of the conversation. Weber after a short minute of reflection exclaimed : “Dear Mr Crozier, I actually do believe that the bureaucracy system has the best technical efficiency out of all of the other theories. The phenomenon of Bureaucracy is irreversible because it is faster, more precise and more objective. It also allows problems, when they occur, to be solved without conflict. ” (Kilcullen, J, n. d. ).

Crozier looked surprised and asked Weber : “How can problems be solved without conflict ? It is impossible. The more people there are in an organisation, the more problems will arise. This just asks for conflict”. Weber smiled wryly and responded: “In “Yes Man”, as Merton said, Carl does not have to take any initiative. Indeed, he is following the written rules of his organisation and as you must have noticed Carl too, is following what his boss instructs him to do. Furthermore even Carl’s boss follows his own boss without even thinking or asking any questions.

We can see here three more traits of the reason why bureaucracy is the most efficient organisational system (Johnston, K, B, August 17, 2010). The first trait is the strict definition of the authority of each person. Without explaining to you my theory about the three types of authority, it will suffice for the conversation to say that it is a legal authority based on norms and impersonal procedures that bureaucracy exert. (Kilcullen, J, n. d. ) . Employees like Carl subject themselves to a dominant authority.

The other aspects of the bureaucracy’s efficiency showed in this example is the hierarchic structure that comes from this legal authority. Finally, the last features that support the efficiency of bureaucracy showed in this example is the rejection of personal preferences. As a matter of fact, employees do not do anything that relate to their preferences, they only follow written rules or that which is said by their boss. ” (Kilcullen, J, n. d. ) Merton replied, heatedly: “ Bureaucrats are hiding behind those rigid and strict directives and thus they forget the objective of their jobs. (Merton, R, 1957).

Carl, for instance denies a man who was begging with his wife and child for a loan without even feeling any pity. It is your theory, Mr Weber, that influences this kind of depersonalised behaviour. Employees, under bureaucracy, forget how to think and become mechanical. (Merton, R, 1957)” It was obvious that Weber was loosing his patience when he added : “Congratulations Merton, you have just touched on another important point that supports the efficiency of my theory. I would not have used the word “mechanical” as a metaphor out of respect but indeed, employees know very well how to perform their tasks efficiently. (Kilcullen, J, n. d. ) At this point of the discussion that this essay is documenting, Max Weber has explained the five features of his theory that were evident in “Yes Man” that make bureaucracy the most efficient organisational system. In summary, written rules, strict definition of the authority of each person, a strict hierarchic structure, the rejection of personal preferences and the fact that workers know the best way to perform their jobs are the five traits explained by Weber. Despite their different opinions, Weber, Merton and Crozier remain calm and civilised.

Finally, Michel Crozier began to speak: “I cannot disagree with Merton. As he said, bureaucracy evokes a routine and the frustration of employees. To this I would add bureaucracy complicates procedures. I sympathise with Weber the fact that bureaucracy is the rationalisation of collective activities (Crozier, M, 1964). Crozier was right about the very complicated procedure that bureaucracy involves. As we saw in “Yes Man” it is not simply a complication of procedures for customers but also a complication of procedures for employees. Carl was struggling to get anything such as a promotion.

He is like a drop of water in the ocean, he is a part of his organisation without being able to do anything. However, as everybody must follow complicated procedures people are treated equally and bureaucracy does not have any ethical problems. ” (Du Gay, P, 2005) Merton and Weber were both satisfied by Crozier’s speech, until Crozier added : “I will go further than you Weber, by saying that the more hierarchy and bureaucracy are developed into an organisation, the more efficient it becomes. However, the more the hierarchy prevails, the more the organisation suffers.

Indeed, because of this hierarchy, communication between services and departments within an organisation is harder and can lead to misunderstandings. This leads to the decisions that are made being maladapted to the situation and therefore decreases the efficiency of the organisation”. (Crozier, M, 1964) Crozier saw in Weber and Merton’s eyes that they were lost and continued giving examples from “Yes Man” : “When Carl was called by the head director of his bank, his boss told him that the purpose of the meeting was that he was going to be fired.

Carl believed him and was not surprised. However, it was Carl who got promoted and his boss who got fired. This is a classic example of misunderstanding between directors and employees due to strict hierarchic structure. These misunderstandings lead to a more centralised power that leads to the creation of more strict rules and procedures set up by the head of a bureaucratic organisation. An attempt to improve increases the centralisation of decisions and decreases the efficiency of an organisation. (Crozier, M, 1964) By relating the conversation this part of this essay showed Crozier’s point of view. By relating these gentlemen’s conversation about the movie “Yes Man” this essay has explored the representation of organisational life portrayed in the movie. This essay showed Max Weber’s theory and explained the criticisms of bureaucracy by Robert Merton and Michel Crozier. Through different scenes extracted from “Yes Man”, this essay has given the five features of bureaucracy found in the movie that for Weber allow an unrivalled efficiency with any other organisational theories.

Merton and Crozier’s criticisms of Weber’s theory were explained and illustrated via different sequences of the movie “Yes Man”. This essay shows that Merton and Crozier, even if they are notorious for their criticisms of Weber’s theory, still found some good features such as the efficiency of the bureaucracy. Bureaucracy still remains in many organisations such as governments and universities as it the most efficient organisational theory. However, as this essay illustrated, the principal criticism of bureaucracy cannot be avoided.

Even if this theory allows maximum efficiency, I believe that it is the evolution of the mind-set of the people of the twenty first century that will reduce the number of bureaucracy systems that we have at present. Indeed, with the development of freedom and liberty that people are acquiring, the essence of bureaucracy will be questioned and evolution will force it to become out dated. References Crozier, M. (1964). The bureaucracy phenomenon. Chicago : University of chicago Press. Du Gay, P. (2005). The values of bureaucracy. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press. Freund, J. (1968). The sociology of Max Weber.

London, Penguin Press. Johnston, K, B. (August 17, 2010). Bureaucratie Form According to Max Weber — His Six Major Principles. In busting bureaucracy. Retrieved August 9, 2010, from http://www. bustingbureaucracy. com/excerpts/weber. htm. Kilcullen, J (n. d). Max Weber: On Bureaucracy. Retrieved from POL264 Modern Political Theory, Macquarie University, from http://www. humanities. mq. edu. au/Ockham/y64109. html Merton, R, (1957). Bureaucracy Structure and personality. Glencoe, IL: Free Press. (pp. 195-206), Retrieved from http://www. sociosite. net/topics/texts/merton_bureaucratic_structure. php.

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Teachers Day

Teacher’s Day In India Since times immemorial, Indians have respected and idolized their teachers. Earlier, we used to call our teachers ‘Guru’ and now it’s the contemporary ‘Sir’ or ‘Madam’. Nevertheless, the role of teachers has remained the same. They were, are and will continue to be our guiding light, creating conditions conducive to our overall development. We will always be thankful to them for their constructive support. It is as an expression of this gratitude only that we celebrate Teacher’s Day in India. Teacher’s Day is a tribute to the hard work and devotion of the teachers all year long, to educate a child.

In India, teacher’s day is celebrated on 5th of September every year. Indian Teacher’s Day is dedicated to Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, who was a zealous advocate of education and one of the greatest scholars and teachers of all times, apart from being the first Vice President and the second President of India. As a mark of respect to this phenomenal teacher, his birthday came to be observed as Teacher’s Day in the country. On Teacher’s day, students across India dress up as their teachers and take lectures in classes that are assigned to the teachers they represent.

Sometimes, teachers sit in their classes as students, trying to relive the time when they, themselves, were students. Also, functions are organized in schools on the special day, where students present dance performances, dramas, and various other programs to entertain their teachers. This day provides for a healthy interaction between teachers and students as well. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was one of the most distinguished diplomats, scholars and teachers of India, apart from being the first Vice President and the second President of the country.

As a tribute to this great teacher, his birthday is observed as Teacher’s Day across India. As a matter of fact, when his students and friends asked him for the permission to celebrate his birthday, it was he who asked them to celebrate the day as Teacher’s Day, honoring the efforts of teachers across the country. Birth & Education Dr. S Radhakrishnan was born on September 5, 1888, at Tiruttani, forty miles to the northeast of Chennai (then Madras), in South India. His early years were spent in Tiruttani and Tirupati, both famous as pilgrim centers.

He graduated with a Master’s Degree in Arts from Madras University. In April 1909, he was appointed to the Department of Philosophy, at the Madras Presidency College. From then onwards, he was engaged in a serious study of Indian philosophy and religion, and went on to become a teacher of Philosophy. Professional Life In 1918, Doctor Radha Krishnan was appointed as the Professor of Philosophy, in the University of Mysore. Three years later, he was appointed as a Professor to King George V Chair of Mental and Moral Science in the University of Calcutta. Dr.

Radhakrishnan even represented the University of Calcutta at the Congress of the Universities of the British Empire in June 1926 and the International Congress of Philosophy at the Harvard University in September 1926. In 1929, Dr. Radhakrishnan was invited to take the post vacated by Principal J. Estin Carpenter, in Manchester College, Oxford. In Oxford, Dr. Radhakrishnan lectured the students on Comparative Religion. From 1936-39, he served as the Spalding Professor of Eastern Religions and Ethic,s at Oxford University. In 1939, he was elected Fellow of the British Academy.

From 1939-48, he was the Vice-Chancellor of the Banaras Hindu University. He later held offices that dealt with India’s national and international affairs. He was the leader of the Indian delegation to UNESCO during 1946-52. Dr. Radhakrishnan served as the Ambassador of India to U. S. S. R. during 1949-52. He was also a member of the Constituent Assembly of India. His Works Dr. Radhakrishnan penned down a number of books during his lifetime, some of which are like The Hindu View of Life, The Idealist View of Life, Religion and Society, Eastern Religions and Western Thought and A Source Book in Indian Philosophy.

He had also written for some of the most reputed international journals. Presidency Of India Dr. Radhakrishnan was the Vice-President of India from 1952 to 1962 and the President, General Conference of UNESCO, from 1952 to 1954. He held the office of the Chancellor, University of Delhi, from 1953-62. In May 1962, Dr. Radhakrishnan became the President of India, a post he served till May 1967. He was honored with Bharat Ratna in 1954. He was also knighted by the British government in the year 1931, but, he used only his academic title ‘Doctor’ throughout his life.

Indian Teacher’s Day History India has been celebrating Teacher’s Day on 5th September, since 1962. The day commemorates the birthday of Dr Sarvepalli Radhakhrishnan, a philosopher and a teacher par excellence, and his contribution towards Indian education system. Dr Radhakhrishnan believed that “teachers should be the best minds in the country”. On this day, we gratefully remember the great educationist, apart from honoring all the teachers that have made our life much more knowledgeable and fulfilled, as serving as our beacons of light.

The birthday of Dr Sarvepalli Radhakhrishnan came to be celebrated as Teacher’s Day when, one day, some of his students and friends requested him to allow them to celebrate his birthday. In reply, Dr. Radhakrishnan said, “instead of celebrating my birthday separately, it would be my proud privilege if September 5th is observed as Teacher’s day”. From then onwards, Dr. Radhakrishnan’s birthday is observed as Teacher’s Day all across India. Teachers’ Day is very important for all the people in India, as the teachers act as foundation for creating responsible citizens and good human beings.

It is impossible to imagine our lives without teachers. They are the cornerstone of our future. We can never thank our teachers enough for their immense contribution in our life. Teacher’s Day is celebrated to show our acknowledgement and recognition of the hard work put in by our teachers towards our development. Schools all over India celebrate Teacher’s Day by allowing the senior students to pose as teachers for a day. It is a fun-filled activity, which is enjoyed by both the acting teachers and their junior students. On this day, students bring gifts for their most admired teachers as well.

It is an equally special day for teachers, as they get to know how much they are liked and appreciated by their students. Gifts to teachers include flowers, greeting cards and other items. Some students also write poems and messages for teachers. Students look forward to Teacher’s Day with a lot of anticipation, for the sheer spirit of the occasion. Acting as teachers, they get a fair idea of the responsibility, so efficiently burdened by their teachers. It requires a lot of hard work and dedication to be a good teacher and earn the fondness of the students at the same time.

Teachers, on this day, are reminded of their school days and feel nostalgic. All in all, it is celebration mode for everyone! “I am indeed very happy to be with you today, on the eve of Teachers’ Day. We celebrate 5th September, the birth anniversary of Dr Radhakrishnan, our former President, as Teachers’ Day all over the country to honour and to express our nation’s gratitude to all teachers for their dedicated service to the nation. Teachers’ Day is the ideal day of telling our teachers that we feel blessed because of their presence in our lives.

I join you in remembering Dr Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, the great scholar, the great philosopher, the great teacher and above all a great educationist. Teaching has always been considered a noble profession. My own years as a teacher have been the most satisfying and fulfilling in my life. Through teachers flow the values and culture of a nation and its people. Teachers’ own value system, their character and their behaviour directly influence our children. But, misinformation and limited learning behaviours, that children sometimes internalize, can also be traced back to teachers’ lack of knowledge, poor understanding, or biases.

We must guard against these negative features. Teachers are invariably seen as front-line participants in educational reform, critical to successful quality schooling in our country. But, sadly, teachers are often excluded from policy-making, governance and management of our educational system as also from day-to-day instructional strategies and decision making. In our endeavour for educational reforms we must, therefore, emphasize the empowerment of teachers and that includes real opportunity for them to share policy perspectives and decision-making in pursuit of educational development and reforms.

It is my belief that all teachers are creative, talented people; teachers respond remarkably when they are respected and included in the decision-making integral to their work in the classroom. They gain a sense of ownership over their work and their classrooms, when they are involved in the development of the curriculum, designing of the syllabus, making and selecting of teaching materials and in training programmes leading to their own intellectual and professional development. One critical area that all teachers must reflect upon is equality and inclusiveness of our educational system.

Numerous programmes have been initiated in our country that focus on equality and inclusiveness paying particular attention to the girl child, or children from the scheduled caste or scheduled tribe or minority communities, or for differently-abled children with special needs and problems. Such programmes will result in an empowered youth and citizenship, only if their teachers are empowered supporters of equality and inclusiveness. If efforts to increase student access, learning and retention in elementary and secondary education are to succeed and make headway, relevant and empowering teacher education is of critical importance.

This is particularly true of women teachers who must serve as positive role models for our society at large. Our Government is committed to provide quality education to all. The Right to Education Act was passed by the Parliament last year. The Right to Education Act and Article 21-A of our Constitution guaranteeing elementary education as a Fundamental Right, have now become operational with effect from 1st April 2010. I compliment and pay tribute to my colleague Shri Kapil Sibal or the zeal, dedication and enthusiasm that he has brought to bear on the work of this most important ministry of Union Government, that Human Resource Development Ministry is. I had on that occasion addressed the nation and recounted my own childhood experience of studying in extremely difficult and adverse circumstances. Time has come for all of us to change this situation and ensure that every child in this country of ours has the opportunity to exercise his or her right to an education of equitable quality, and thereby making the Right to Education a grand national movement.

Today, you have both challenge and opportunity to provide good quality education to all our children. Through you, our nation aspires to build in our children a commitment to the values of democracy, and the values of equality, justice, freedom, secularism, respect for human dignity and human rights. I urge you to develop in our children independence of thought, action and capacity of carefully considered, decision making which is based on reason and understanding. Through you, our children must develop a sensitivity to others’ well- being and feelings.

Through you, our children must develop the ability to work and participate in economic and social processes and in processes of social change. These aspirations for our children necessarily mean that the school environment should be free from fear, trauma and anxiety. No child, irrespective of caste, gender or community to which he or she belongs should dread the thought of going to school. The RTE Act bans corporal punishment and mental harassment. It also bans detention and expulsion. These provisions have led many teachers to question how discipline will be maintained in the classroom.

The answer to this important issue was given by the well known philosopher Jiddu Krishnamurti: “Discipline is an easy way to control a child, but it does not help him to understand the problems involved in living… If the teacher can give full attention to each child, observing and helping him, then compulsion or domination or discipline in any form may be unnecessary”. The educational system in our country is at a very critical juncture. We have to maintain the fine balance between tradition and continuity, between radition and modernity on the one hand, and innovation and change on the other. As teachers, you are the most important nation builders, you constitute our nation’s most precious national resource, and we look to you to guide our children in their quest for knowledge, truth and in their capacity to lead a life of dignity and self respect. With these words, I congratulate each one of you – the distinguished Teacher Awardees – on winning this very prestigious national award. It is a small token of our nation’s gratitude to the great fraternity of teachers in our country.

On the occasion of the Teachers Day I extend my heartfelt warm greetings to all members of the teaching community and wish each one of you success and fulfillment in your personal life and vocation. ” Teacher’s Day Speech A true teacher is not someone who just teaches academic lessons to his/her students. Rather, he/she is like a guide, who helps the students in each and every sphere of life, by giving the right advice. They are future makers. None of the achievers in this world has attained a feat without the guidance of a teacher. Teacher’s Day seeks to acknowledge this very contribution of teachers.

If you want to make this day special for your teachers as well, try to deliver a speech in their honor, highlighting their importance on the life of students. In case you need some tips on Teacher’s Day speech, read on. Teachers Day Speech Tips • First, you need to decide on the duration of your Teacher’s Day speech. You can conclude it in as less time as five minutes or stretch it to as much as half an hour. However, it is the best to stick to a duration of 10 to 15 minutes, which gives you enough time to applaud your teacher, but doesn’t make the speech too long and boring. You can include the famous quotes and sayings on teachers, in your Teacher’s Day speech. However, do make sure that the quotes pertain to the particular train of thought that you are following in the speech and do not look as if they have been added just for the heck of it. So, be very careful while choosing the quotes and sayings that will form a part of your speech. • You also need to decide on the flow of your speech i. e. how will the quotes and sayings will be included in the speech, what will be the opening paragraph and how will your conclude the speech.

A good idea is to start the speech with a quote and end with it applause for the teachers and gratitude for the role that they play in a student’s life. • If you want, you can include in the speech a small description about your relationship with a particular teacher and quote an incident that you specifically remember, where your teacher came to your rescue. It will add a personal touch to the speech. • Though many people tend to overlook it, the speaker’s voice modulation and the speed at which he/she delivers the speech are also very important.

Remember, you need to maintain a moderate speed, where you speak neither too slow nor too fast. The pitch of your voice should be pleasing to the ears. Thank you Messages for Teachers Teachers are one of the greatest people whom you can across in your life. They are not only the selfless givers but also the mentors of your life. At every step of your life, you come cross teachers who devote their entire life in the enlightenment of students like you. For sure, teachers’ definition can’t be limited to a subject teacher because anyone who guides you in your life is a teacher.

Many a times in life, you feel like thanking your teacher but you do not find a proper occasion. So this teachers’ day commemorate your teachers’ efforts and thank him for being the guiding light in your life. You can express your gratitude for your teacher with the help of Teacher’s Day messages. They are a kind of “Thank You” messages for teachers. Read the following messages to thank teachers. Teachers’ Day Messages • You are the best Teacher in this world. Wherever I may go in my life, I will always remember that I had an excellent guide in the form of a teacher, you. •

I found guidance, friendship, discipline and love, everything, in one person. And that person is you (name of your teacher) • Without you, we would have been lost. Thank you teacher for guiding us, inspiring us and making us what we are today. • We will always be thankful to you for all the hard work and efforts you have put in, for educating us. • You are not only our teacher. Rather, you are friend, philosopher and guide, all molded into one person. We will always be grateful to you for your support. • I may not say it always. But, I mean it whenever I say it. Thank You Teacher for all the things you have done for us. You have been the mentor of life. Though I did not realize it earlier. Now it feels great to have someone who guided me to the right track in life. Happy Teacher’s Day! • Thanks for being my teacher and guiding me towards the right path of life. I am grateful to you teacher! • With a great teacher like you, I was sure that life would be a successful journey but I never knew you will also make the journey to success such a cakewalk. I can’t express my gratitude Sir! • You have been more than a teacher- a mentor, guide, and philosopher! Thanks for blessings me. • Success is your blessing, teacher.

I would always be thankful to you. • Best of me, reminds me of you. Happy Teachers’ Day! • Life is a journey and your words have been a guiding light throughout. Happy Teachers’ Day! • Teacher you have always shown us the right way. Whatever little we have achieved in your life is because of you only. Thanks for being our guide and mentor. Happy Teachers’ Day! •• Perfect Teacher • Teachers have a very special place in the society. They have the instinct to recognize talent and nurture it. They are the creators of responsible citizens, who contribute to the society in one way or the other.

Students, especially the small children, often consider their favorite teacher as the perfect person on earth. If you are also a disciple of that ‘perfect’ teacher, then take Teacher’s Day as the chance to appreciate him/her. You may dedicate a song, quote, speech or poetry. If you want to dedicate a cute poetry for that great teacher in your life, then check out our compilation of poems, in the following lines. Great Teachers’ Poems Perfect Teacher! A Teacher Is… Someone who is wise… Who cares about the students and wears no disguise. But is honest and open and shares from the heart.

Not just lessons from books, but life where you are. A teacher takes time to help and tutor. With English or math or on a computer. It’s (Teacher’ name) who’s patient, even in stress. Who never gives less than the very best! Not that I was the perfect student, But you were the perfect teacher for me! – Author Unknown A Special Teacher Teachers come and go But every so often one comes along That you’ll always remember One who makes learning an adventure… And who can still remember What it’s like to be young And growing up… The kind who can make you Want to be the very best you can be… Someone you can really talk to,

Who really cares What happens to you… That person is YOU! – Author Unknown To My Teacher A substitute for working moms, She comforts, pampers, soothes and calms. With all the love she has to share, She’s great to have when mom’s not there. She loves to rock a fussy child, Corrects the one who gets too wild. She hears her share of tearful pleas, And comforts those with skinned up knees. With little children she plays a peek, For bigger ones it’s hide-and-seek. She is an expert at each game, But somehow loses just the same She helps them learn the alphabet, And gives them hugs when they’re upset.

She is a true and trusted friend, Who helps them learn and play pretend. Although she’s paid, it’s plain to see, She serves them with a love that’s free – Author Unknown Thank you Messages for Teachers Teachers are one of the greatest people whom you can across in your life. They are not only the selfless givers but also the mentors of your life. At every step of your life, you come cross teachers who devote their entire life in the enlightenment of students like you. For sure, teachers’ definition can’t be limited to a subject teacher because anyone who guides you in your life is a teacher.

Many a times in life, you feel like thanking your teacher but you do not find a proper occasion. So this teachers’ day commemorate your teachers’ efforts and thank him for being the guiding light in your life. You can express your gratitude for your teacher with the help of Teacher’s Day messages. They are a kind of “Thank You” messages for teachers. Read the following messages to thank teachers. Teachers’ Day Messages • You are the best Teacher in this world. Wherever I may go in my life, I will always remember that I had an excellent guide in the form of a teacher, you. I found guidance, friendship, discipline and love, everything, in one person. And that person is you (name of your teacher) • Without you, we would have been lost. Thank you teacher for guiding us, inspiring us and making us what we are today. • We will always be thankful to you for all the hard work and efforts you have put in, for educating us. • You are not only our teacher. Rather, you are friend, philosopher and guide, all molded into one person. We will always be grateful to you for your support. • I may not say it always. But, I mean it whenever I say it.

Thank You Teacher for all the things you have done for us. • You have been the mentor of life. Though I did not realize it earlier. Now it feels great to have someone who guided me to the right track in life. Happy Teacher’s Day! • Thanks for being my teacher and guiding me towards the right path of life. I am grateful to you teacher! • With a great teacher like you, I was sure that life would be a successful journey but I never knew you will also make the journey to success such a cakewalk. I can’t express my gratitude Sir! • You have been more than a teacher- a mentor, guide, and philosopher!

Thanks for blessings me. • Success is your blessing, teacher. I would always be thankful to you. • Best of me, reminds me of you. Happy Teachers’ Day! • Life is a journey and your words have been a guiding light throughout. Happy Teachers’ Day! • Teacher you have always shown us the right way. Whatever little we have achieved in your life is because of you only. Thanks for being our guide and mentor. Happy Teachers’ Day! World Teacher’s Day Since the last fifteen years, almost 100 countries around the world have been celebrating World Teacher’s Day on 5th October.

UNESCO inaugurated the said date as World Teacher’s Day in 1994. The efforts of Education International (the global union federation that represents education professionals worldwide) and its 348 member organizations have contributed to the wide spread recognition of World Teachers Day. Every year, Education International launches a public awareness campaign to highlight the contributions of the teaching profession. World Teacher’s Day is celebrated to convey an appreciation of the contribution, dedication and devotion of the teachers.

Teachers are essential, rather indispensable, for the effective working of our educational system. They help in the development of a child, not only academically, but also socially and emotionally. They expand our horizons and encourage us to explore our potentialities to the maximum possible extent. As our age progresses, we come out of their shadows, but their footprints remain etched on our life paths. Teachers hold an important position in the society. They help in the development of the society, by building a better- educated and more tolerant community, thus contributing to the prosperity of the nation.

By dedicating a day to the teachers, we recognize the importance of having competent, qualified and motivated educators across the world. This day, certainly, will be mentioned in golden letters in the annals of history and observed by generations to come, with the same enthusiasm as us. World Teacher’s Day is celebrated across the world on 5th October, with great verve and enthusiasm. Ever since the importance of teachers has been recognized by UNESCO, by adopting the “Recommendation concerning the status of teachers”, World Teacher’s Day has been celebrated annually.

This includes celebrations to honor the teachers for their special contribution in a particular field area or the community in general. In some countries, World Teacher’s Day is celebrated by organizing conferences focused on the importance of teachers and learning. In many countries, extra training sessions for teachers, recruitment drives for the teaching profession (among university students or other suitably qualified professionals) and events to increase the profile of teachers and the role they play in the media, are undertaken. Teacher’s Organizations In The World

Trade unions or other professional organizations that represent teachers play an important role in organizing World Teachers’ Day events in many countries. These organizations include: • The Australian Education Union. • The Canadian Teachers’ Federation. • The Elementary Teachers’ Federation of Ontario (Canada). • The All India Secondary Teachers’ Federation. • The Japan Teachers’ Union. • The Teachers Council (New Zealand). • The National Union of Teachers (United Kingdom). • The National Association of Schoolmasters Union of Women Teachers (United Kingdom). •

The National Education Association (United States). Besides, international organizations such as TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) and Education International organize international, national and local events, as a tribute to all the teachers in the world. In some areas, posters are displayed and pupils and ex-pupils are encouraged to send e-cards or letters of appreciation to teachers who made a special or memorable contribution to their education. World Teacher’s Day History World Teacher’s Day is celebrated all across the globe on 5th October, every year.

The day came to be celebrated for the first time in the year 1994 and since then, it has been observed by 100 countries in the world. On this day, teachers are honored for their immense contribution towards the education and development of children. It is celebrated by over 100 countries in the world aided by the efforts of Education International to appreciate the efforts of teachers and express gratitude towards them. World Teacher’s days aims to mobiles support for the teachers across the world and ensure that the needs of future generations are efficiently met by them.

The day seeks to acknowledge the dedication and commitment of the teachers of the world towards their profession. It origin is associated with the adoption of “Recommendation concerning the status of teachers”. The day came into existence due to the concerted efforts of Education International, a global union federation of teachers’ trade unions. On 5th October 1966, the teachers of the world took a giant leap forward. A Special Intergovernmental Conference adopted the UNESCO/ILO “Recommendation concerning the Status of Teachers”.

This Recommendation, for the first time ever, gave teachers, throughout the world, an instrument that defined their responsibilities and asserted their rights. On 5th October 1994, UNESCO inaugurated World Teacher’s Day. This day was selected to commemorate the adoption of UNESCO/ILO joint Recommendation. World Teacher’s Day lays emphasis on the achievements and contributions of the teachers around the world. The efforts of Education International and its 348 member organizations have led to the wide spread recognition of World Teacher’s Day.

Every year, EI launches a public awareness campaign to highlight the contributions of the teaching profession. This is so because it believes that World Teacher’s Day should be internationally recognized and celebrated around the world Types Of Teachers Teachers serve as the guiding force in a student’s life. They are responsible for molding a student’s personality and shaping his/her mental orientation. Teachers deeply impact our lives and direct the course of our future. One cannot deny the influence of teachers in one’s life. In fact, it would not be an exaggeration to say that, till a certain age, out life revolves around our teachers.

They are our constant companions, until we grow old enough to come out of their shadow and move ahead on our own. Right from the time we embark on our education trip, we come across different types of teachers. Some are friendly, some are strict, and some are the ones we idolize. We also dislike a few, who fail to impress us positively. Students begin to like teachers, according to their own individual preferences. They even classify their teachers into different categories, such as Friendly Teachers, Lenient Teachers, Perfectionist Teachers, Strict Teachers and Funny Teachers.

All these classifications for teachers are based on some typical personality traits of the teachers. For ex – some teachers constantly criticize the students, some act like friends, some are fun to be with and so on. Let us explore them in detail. Friendly Teacher A friendly teacher, as the very term suggests, acts like a friend for his/her students. A teacher-friend, in fact, combines both the guidance of a teacher and the understanding of a friend. We all, at some point of time, aspire for an understanding teacher. Such a teacher acts like our friend, philosopher and guide. Funny Teacher

A funny teacher is like a God-sent to the students. Such a teacher always wants to see his/her students smile ands make learning a pleasurable experience. They are not clumsy, as most people think them to be. Rather, they are witty and bring in humor in the most subtle form. Ideal Teacher An ideal teacher is the one we respect from our heart. He/she acts as a guide to the students, while not pushing them too much. Such a perfect motivates them and boosts their morale. He/she tries to encourage the students and refrains from criticizing them. Lenient Teacher A lenient teacher is easygoing and takes things as they come.

He/she is not overly finicky about things, such as doing homework on time or not sitting quietly in the class, etc. Such teachers very well realize that being strict with a child can only make him/her withdrawn. However, this does not mean that one can do anything in the class of a pampering teacher. Strict Teacher A strict teacher is very tough on students. He/she always insists on adhering to the deadlines. Such a teacher dislikes any mistakes or carelessness on the part of the students. Students have to be extra cautious under such a teacher. He/she is like a disciplinarian, always keeping students on their toes.

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The Effect of Salt Concentration on Osmosis in Potato

Part A: Title: Diffusion Diffusion is the spontaneous movement of particles from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated. For this experiment, a 14 cm glass was filled with cold tap water. A drop of red food coloring was dropped in the cup. A stopwatch was used to measure the time it took for the food coloring to get to the bottom of the cup. The average diffusion rate was . 78 cm a second. If a different color was used, I do not think it would have made a difference in the results. The mood of the person experimenting could possibly alter the results.

For example, if a person is under stress, they may accidentally squeeze too much altering the rate of diffusion. If the water was warmer, this may have sped the diffusion process because the molecules would have been moving faster. If the water was freezing, this may have slowed the diffusion process because the molecules may have been moving slower. Part B: Title: The effect of salt concentration on osmosis in potato. Introduction: 1. The purpose of doing this lab is to observe the effects of various solute concentrations on osmosis in a potato. 2.

During osmosis, water moves from the side of the membrane where they are most concentrated to the side where they are less concentrated. If the concentration is equal on both sides, there will be no movement. 3. I hypothesize that the mass of the potato will decrease as the salt in the solution increases. This is because the solution around the potato will draw the water from the potato, causing it to decrease in size. Method: To begin this experiment, 1? teaspoons of salt was added to a beaker containing 100 mL of distilled water. This was the 7% solution. 0 mL of this solution was poured into a second beaker and 50 mL of distilled water was added. This produced the 3. 5% solution. 50 mL of this solution was added to a third beaker, then 50 mL of distilled water was added to make the 1. 75% solution. Out of the third beaker, 50 mL of the solution was discarded. In the fourth beaker, only 50 mL of water was added. After the solutions were mixed, a potato was cut into four sections. Out of each section, two pieces were cut, using a steak knife, into small blocks with the measurements of 10mm x 10mm x 40mm.

At this point, each piece measured 4,000 cubic mm in volume. Two potato pieces were then deposited into each solution. The potato pieces were then left in the solutions for 9 hours before being measured again. Results: Write “Results” as the heading for this section It was found that the potato pieces that were put into the highest salt concentration solution decreased the most in volume. The potatoes that were placed in the 3. 5% solution decreased in volume, but not as much as in the 7% solution.

Both decreased in size because the water from the potato cells were drawn out to the water solution. The potato piece that was placed in the 1. 75% solution virtually stayed the same size. This was the isatonic solution. The solution on the outside of the potato cell was the same as the solution on the inside, so no water moved. The potato that was placed in the distilled water alone increased in size because the water was drawn into the potato cell. This is because there was a higher concentration of water molecules on the outside of the potato than on the inside.

See table 1. Table 1. Potato core measurements | 0% salt solution| 1. 75 salt solution| 3. 5% salt solution| 7% salt solution| Beginning average volume (cu mm)|  4000 mm|  4000 mm|  4000 mm|  4000 mm| Ending average volume (cu mm)|  5220 mm|  3820 mm|  2940 mm|  2520| Percent difference (only if beginning measurements are different from each other)|  23%|  4. 5%|  27%|  37%| Discussion: Write “Discussion” as a heading for this section. Answer the following four questions – each in its own paragraph. 1.

Why did the results come out the way they did? Explain the biology behind the water movement into and out of the cells in each solution. Here’s another hint: This is where you show whether or not you understood what you were observing. You should consider each of the four solutions and explain what happened using the terms “hypertonic” “hypotonic” and “isotonic. ” In osmosis, the flow of the water from or to a cell depends on whether the cell is immersed in a solution that is isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic to the solution.

If the cell is isotonic to a solution, this means that the solute concentration of a cell and its environment is the same and therefore there will be no movement of water. If the solute concentration is lower than that of the cell, then water will flow into the cell, causing it to expand. If the solute concentration is lower than that of the cell then water will flow out of the cell, causing it to shrink. 2. Were your hypotheses right or wrong? Tell how those hypotheses would have to be modified in another experiment. My hypotheses were correct. . What mistakes (uncontrolled variables) might have affected how the results came out. Suggestion: Think of all the places in your method and materials where accuracy may not have been the best. Describe several. There could have been several variables that could have affected the results of this lab. One would have been if the salt measurements were incorrect. If more or less salt was added than realized, this would have caused the results to be incorrect. Another variable could have been the size of the potatoes being measured incorrectly.

If the pieces of the potatoes were not cut evenly and consistent with each other, but were recorded as being the same size, this would have caused the end results to be incorrect because the starting size was not measured properly. 4. Describe a real or hypothetical situation in your future professional life where you might apply what you have learned in this lab to a real-life situation. Before you begin, study your instructor’s directions on how to write a good application paragraph and review any feedback given by your instructor on other essays and labs relating to this important question.

Osmosis can be related to dehydration in humans. In the field of nutrition, keeping properly hydrated is often stressed and is important in order to function properly. Certain foods with a lot of salt can cause the body to become dehydrated if a person does not properly hydrate themselves. Dehydration can cause a many problems such as fatigue, dry mouth, dry skin, and even death because water is being drawn from those cells. I can use this information to explain to a client or patient the effects of not drinking enough water and the importance of staying hydrated.

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Timeless Beowulf, Tireless Executives

Timeless Beowulf, Tireless Executives The literary masterpiece Beowulf compiles the life of Beowulf as living the supreme military life. The concepts and themes of the story are considered timeless because comparisons can be drawn from Beowulf’s life to the lives of the people of today. Consider the fact that Beowulf lives a detached life, which validates him being a wise and strong leader. This also leaves him a man who must face his death grasping the fact that he has foolishly abstained from having a devoted relationship with another person.

In his tenacious quest for fame and glory, Beowulf is evocative of concurrent young executives in that they classify their profession above all other facets of life, just as Beowulf placed his quest for fame and glory above all other aspects of his life. Beowulf demonstrates his unrelenting desire for fame by the slaying of the monster Grendel, keeping his composure to stay calm without being nervous or scared. Beowulf “[began] to remove his iron breast-mail, / took off the helmet and handed his attendant/ the patterned sword, a smith’s masterpiece” (Beowulf lines 44).

His next expression of seeking heroic fame comes with the defeat of Grendel’s monstrous mother. Further proof of Beowulf’s heroism and glory is acknowledged when he “cuts the corpse’s head off” (Beowulf 65). Even when Beowulf is older and becomes king, he continues to seek fame because he is willing to battle the dragon despite realizing his heroic fate. The solitary life that Beowulf leads leaves him without having meaningful or intimate relationships. He is not a typical affiliate of their society and he has no close kinsman or companion with whom he can share his feelings.

According to the critical essay “Beowulf’s Androgynous Heroism. ” written by scholar Robert Morey, “[Beowulf] is the only king in the poem who never marries. Rather Beowulf appears married to the eorlscipe [earlship] he enacts among the Danes” (4). In addition to never having an intimate relationship, the poem does not imply or even mention Beowulf procreating. The only thing that resembles a friendship is the loyalty that Wiglaf shows Beowulf. Wiglaf is the only warrior brave enough to stay and fight at his lord’s side (Beowulf 85).

Many people of today use similar practices in the business world with an outcome not as positive. A massive volume of today’s leaders, including but not limited to administrators, directors, officials and business executives follow the same relentless pursuit of great monetary success just as Beowulf’s incessant search for fame . The majority of these people alienate themselves from attached relationships as a result from this pursuit of fame and greed. An article written by Martin M.

Cooper in the San Fernando Valley Business Journal conveys this point, “I’m against the rewarding of mediocrity at the top, the opportunity these excessive salaries provide to those who criticize all business, and I’m against leaders of public companies who do not remember that we–the ones who buy the stock–are the real owners of the businesses” (390). This greed is undoubtedly the reason behind the lack of a family life in these people’s lives. Executives will also place the company’s values higher than their own personal values.

Confidence is necessary in this line of work, but when that turns into arrogance then problems arise in business and/or personal relationships. The analysis “Working lives of the lonely and arrogant: Michael Skapinker on the narcissistic tendencies of modern chief executives” published in The Financial Times reveals, “Moving into the chief executive’s suite inevitably changes the relationship with colleagues. It is difficult for former friends to talk freely to someone they now depend on for their pay and promotion” (Skapinker 13).

A variety of executives are contained by the foundation of self conservation. Living a detached and alienated life could cause a person to regret not having any personal or intimate relationships. The phrase “No guts, no glory” is the absolute code that Beowulf and modern business officials live and die by Timeless trends, views, and perceptions transcend from the life of Beowulf to the lives of the leaders of today. Works Cited Beowulf. Trans. Seamus Heaney. The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Major Authors. 8th ed. Ed. Stephen Greenblatt and M. H. Abrams.

New York: Norton, 2006. 31-97 Clark George. “Chapter 3: The Heroic Age, Ideal, and Challenge. ” “Beowulf” Twayne’s English Author Series 477. Twayne Publishers 1990 Infotrac Alabama Virtual Library. 13 Nov. 2009 . Cooper Martin M. “Lonely at the Top – But Often Lucrative . ” San Fernando Valley Business Journal (27 Feb. 2006): 390-391. Infotrac Alabama Virtual Library. 13 Nov. 2009 . Morey Robert. “Beowulf’s Androgynous Heroism. ” The Journal of English and German Philology (Oct. 1996): 486. Literature Resources from Gale. Alabama Virtual Library. 16 Nov. 2009.

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Project Report on Power Plant at Tanda


WE ARE ALSO VERY TANKFUL TO ALL THE OFFICERS AND STAFF OF NTPC LTD. , TANDA FOR EXTENDING A HELPING HAND WHENEVER WE NEEDED IT. WITH REGARDS, RAVI KANT BHARTI B. TECH FINAL YEAR (VOCATIONAL TRAINEE) (B. M. A. S ENGG. COLLEGE, AGRA (U. P)) INTRODUCTION NTPC is the largest power generation company in India, with comprehensive in-house capabilities in building and operating power projects. It is producing 28,644MW.

Its family consists of 18 coal based power plant producing (23209 MW) and 8 gas based power plant having a capacity of (5435 mw). It is also setting up a hydro based power plants having capacity of 2471MW. It is one of the largest Indian companies with a market cap of more than US$50 BILLION and has total assets of around US$ 20 BILLION. In this firm government has 89. 5% stake and 10. 5% with public. NTPC is ranked 463rd biggest company in the world, 5th biggest Indian company and 2nd largest Asian power generator. It produces 26350MW which is 20. 18% of the total 130,539MW of all India consumption.

More than one-fourth of India’s generation with one-fifth capacity. The next largest power utility owns 7. 9% of market share in terms of capacity and 8. 12% of share in terms of units generated. NTPC’s vision is to become world class integrated power major, powering India’s growth, with increasing global presence. It also develops and provides reliable power, related products and services at competitive prices, integrating multiple energy sources with innovative and eco-friendly technologies and contributes to society. NTPC stations are regular recipients of CEA’s meritorious performance awards.

This firm is also well concern about the environmental factors. It uses world’s largest ESP’s and also gives emphasis on environmental monitoring along with efforts to increase energy efficiency. BRIEF HISTORY OF THE POWER PLANT(TANDA) This prestigious power plant was inaugurated by late Prime Minister “Smt. Indira Gandhi” in 30th December 1981. It is located 22km away from the distt. Of Akbarpur (Ambedkar Nagar) and 60km(Approx) from Faizabad in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The capacity of the Power Plant is 440MW consisting of the four units each of 110MW capacity. This Power plant originally was owned by U. P.

State Electricity board but the level of performance that is P. L. F. (Power load factor) deteriorated which was taken over by NTPC at the date of 15th January on the year 2000 and It’s now successfully run by the co-operation work of engineers, workers, helpers and the other people who indirectly help the growth of this power plant and is now running an average of 85-90% (PLF). In the starting period of acquisition the PLF was these units were supplied, erected and commissioned by M/s BHEL. The Power house was located on the bank of river Saryu and West of the existing Mehripur pumping station of the Tanda canal system.

Necessary land, water and transport facilities are available. Land facility:- 1 . Land for Power Station including storage yard, Marshalling yard, Switching yard :- 120 hectares 2. Land for ash disposal 160 hectares 3. Land for colony 100 hectares Water facility:- 1. Water for once thru cooling 726. 5 cusecs 2. Water for cooling tower 45. 0 cusecs Transportation facility:- Power station is on Tanda-Faizabad also connected to Akbarpur-Faizabad. Nearest railway station 13km far (surapur).

Akbarpur is situated on Lucknow–mughalsarai Railway track. The distance of plant from Akbarpur is 30km. Tanda town is about 8km far from plant. Production & Transmission:- The 4*110MW power electricity is produced at the station using four different units. Each unit generates 110MW power. The arrangement of each unit is same. Since it is a thermal power plant, coal is used as the main source of energy. This coal is mainly supplied from the Dhanbad(Bihar) and other places. Generated electricity is supplied to following station:- 1. >Sultanpur 1 3. >Gorakhpur . >sultanpur 2 4. >Basti Since this power plant had been undertaken by NTPC in 2000 its performance in terms of power factor load(PLF) is improved in a great manner and can be observed from the given graph: FAMILIARIZATION OF THE POWER PLANT BASIC OPERATIONS OF A POWER PLANT Coal to Electricity Generating steam from coal Conversion of thermal energy to mechanical energy Generation and load dispatch of electric power. Coal to Electricity NTPC, Tanda is a thermal power station which produces electricity by using a non-renewable source of energy i. . coal. Coal is converted into pulverised form to enhance easy burning. The heat generated is used to convert water to steam which is further used to move the turbine to produce electricity. NTPC, Tanda is capable of producing a total of 440 MW of electricity. The main area of concern in any power plant is to increase the efficiency of producing electricity along with maintaining the previous best known efficiency The thermal power plant uses a dual ( vapour + liquid) phase cycle. It is a closed cycle to enable the working fluid to be used again and again.

The cycle used is “Ranking cycle” modified to include super heating of steam, regenerative feed water heating and reheating of steam. The figure shown below describes “Ranking cycle”. On large turbine it becomes economical to increase the efficiency by using reheat, which is a way of partially overcoming temperature limitations. Basic Power Plant Cycle The above figure shows the ranking cycle graph which is used in a power plant. The paths shown below the figure represents the complete the whole steam and heat cycle as followed in different operation cycles of a power plant. Factors affecting thermal power plant efficiency:

BOILER: 4 no of radiant dry bottom natural circulation, vertical water tube boiler with single reheat 380ton/hr of steam pressure 160kg per square cm at 540 degree centigrade of temperature. TURBINE AND TURBO GENERATOR: 4 no. of 110 MW each. WATER TREATMENT PLANT:4×30 ton/hr capacity. OUTER SUBSTATION: a) Power Transformer: 4 no. of 125 MVA 11/220 kVA. b) Reverse Transformer: 2 no. of 30/20/10 MVA 220/66/33 kVA. RATED PARAMETERS: Rated parameter related to output: 110 MW. Economical Output: 95 MW. Rated Speed: 3000 rpm. Rated temp. of steam before steam valve: 540*C. Max. emperature of steam before stop valve: 543*C. Rated temperature of steam before IP casing: 540*C. Max. temperature of steam before IP casing: 543*C. Rated pressure of steam just before stop valve:130 atm. Max. pressure of steam just before stop valve: 136 atm. Normal pressure of steam before IP casing: 31 atm. Max. pressure of steam just before stop valve: 37 atm. Cooling water temperature: 32*C. SYSTEM OF THE TURBINE: 2 Stop valve, one on either side of HP casing. 4 Control valves, 2 on either side of HP casing. 2 Stop valves, one on either side of IP casing. 2 Interceptor valves, one on either side of MP casing. Row circuit wheels, 8 moving wheel in HP cylinder. 8 Non regulated extraction and one reheat. Weight of HP rotor (approx. ): 5,500 kg. Weight of IP rotor (approx. ): 11,000 kg. Weight of LP rotor (approx. ):24,000 kg. Direction of rotation: Clockwise looking at the turbine from the pedestal 1. Barring speed: 62 rpm. DETAILS OF TANDA 110 MW # TG is designed by M/S SKODA supplied and manufactured by BHEL. # TG are supported by 7 journal bearings & coupled by 3 rigid couplings. Bearing no. 2 is thrust cum journal bearing. # HP TURBINE: Two concentric casing horizontally splitted up.

Double Row single circuit wheel and 8 impulse stage wheels. # IP TURBINE: Two concentric casing horizontally splitted up, 12 stage out of which integratelly forged with shaft & 4 shrunk fitted. # LP TURBINE: 2X4 reaction stages when steam flow is diabolie. All 8 wheels are shrunk fitted. # LP HEATERS: 1, 1A, 2, 2A are vertically mounted on LP casing. #EXTRACTION: 8 uncontrolled extraction, 3 from LP turbine, 4 from IP turbine and 1 from HP outlet. #BARRING GEAR: 62 rpm between LP and generator. INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TURBINE

The steam turbine is the prime mover in which the pressure energy of the steam is transformed into the kinetic energy of the rotor and later it is converted into electrical energy. CLASSIFICATION OF STEAM TURBINE 1. According to the no. of pressure stages : a) Single stage turbine, b) Multistage turbine. 2. According to the direction of steam flow: a) Axial turbine , b) Radial turbine. 3. According to the no. of cylinders : a) Single cylinder turbine, b) Double cylinder turbine, c) Three cylinder turbine, d) Four cylinder turbine. 4. According to the method of governing : a) Throttle with turbine, ) Turbine with nozzle governing. 5. According to steam condition at inlet to turbine: a) Low Pressure Turbine: Using steam at a pressure below 5 atm. b) Medium Pressure Turbine: Using steam at a pressure between 5 atm. to 40 atm. c) High Pressure Turbine: Using steam above 40 atm. 6. According to action of turbine: a) Impulse turbine, b) Reaction turbine. PARTS OF STEAM TURBINE BLADE: 1. BLADE: Blades of turbine are classified in following manner: # According to steam action: a) Impulse turbine, b) Reaction turbine. In case of Impulse turbine blade, pressure drop does not take place in moving blades.

While in case of Reaction blade, pressure drop takes place in moving blades. #According to Position: a) Fixed Blade b) Moving Blade. # According to construction: a) Free standing blade: This type of blade is not covered by anything and freely stand on the shaft of turbine. b) Shroud blade: This type of blade is covered by a plate of iron on the tip of the blade. c) Laeed wined blade: When the blade is tightened by thick wire, it is called Laeed wined blade. It is also called ribbon wined or Damping wined or Laeing wined blade. NOMENCLATURE OF BLADE CONSRUCTION OF FIXED AND MOVING BLADE

CONSTRUCTION OF IMPULSE AND REACTION TURBINE 2. ROTORS: The three rotors of turbine are supported on only five bearings, the thrust cum journal bearing being common to HP and MP rotates. It is the rotating part of turbine. It is also termed as Shaft. It has following classification: a) Flexible Shaft: The working speed of such type of rotor is below their critical speed. b) Rigid Shaft: The working speed of such type of rotor is more than their critical speed. 3. BEARING: Bearings are classified in following manner: a) Friction Bearing: In such type of bearings there is a line of contact between contacting surfaces. ) Antifriction Bearing: In such type of bearing there is a point contact between contacting surfaces. In NTPC Tanda, journal bearing which is a type of friction earing is used to support parts. There are 7 journal bearings among which second one is thrust cum journal bearing. 4. COUPLING : Rigid type of coupling is used in NTPC Tanda to connect the shaft of turbine. 5. BEARING PEDESTAL: Two bearing pedestals, front and rear. The front bearing pedestal carries all the governing system components, MOP and front HP bearings. The rear bearing pedestal carries the thrust bearing and its protection equipments.

STAGE: Pair of moving and fixed wheel is called a stage. No. of stages in each turbine: HP: 8 stages IP: 12 stages LP: 2×4 stages Regenerative cycle: There are 8 stages: LPT: 3extraction IPT: 4extraction HPT: 1 extraction in outlet of HP. Among which: Ext. 1 to5: LP Heater Ext. 6: Deaerator Ext. 7: HP Heater 1 Ext. 8: HP Heater 2 6. BALANCING HOLE: Balancing hole is provided in blade for the passage of steam. In NTPC Tanda, it exits in HP&IP turbine. AXIAL SHIFT: The value of axial shift is 0. 3mm. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IMPULSE AND REACTION TURBINES. PARTICULARS IMPULSE REACTION TURBINE: 1.

Pressure drop only in nozzle not in both blades in moving blade 2. Area of blade channel constant varying 3. Blades profile aerofile 4. Admission of not all around all around steam 5. Power not much power much power 6. Space require less space require more space 7. Efficiency low high 8. Blade not difficult to manufacture. DIFFERENE IN NOZZLE AND THROTTLING GOVERNING: S. N. ASPECT THROTTLE NOZZLE CONTROL CONTROL 1. Throttling loses sever no throttling loses 2. Partial admission low high losses 3. Heat drop lesser higher 4. Use in both turbine in both turbine 5. Suitability small turbine medium and larger turbine

STEAM ADMISSION: In case of impulse turbine:- Steam admission does not take place all around. There is a 4 arc steam admission in impulse turbine. In case of reaction turbine:- admitted all around the rotor. STEAM EXPANSION IN TURBINE: Steam coming out from super heater at 540degree C and 139kg per square cm. Three cylinders of 2 set of main stop and governing valve arrangement on either side of HP casing and each set consist of one stop valve and 2 governing valve assembling series. The steam from the boiler is admitted the reheater where it heated at original temp.

The reheated steam is taken to IP casing through combined stop and interceptor valve arrangement at either of IP casing. The exhaust from the IP casing has taken directly the LP casing. The steam expanded in the LP turbine to a very low blade pressure which is maintained by the condenser below atmospheric pressure about 3% of makeup water is required to condensate the losses of cooling water due to evaporation in cooling tower. Finally steam exhausted by LP turbine is condensed in the surface type condenser type cooling water following through a large no. of tubes.

The HP, IP &LP turbine coupled in series and mechanical power generated from team transmitted to generator. REGLUATION AND SAFTY EQUIPMENTS FOR TURBINE PREPARATION: The scheme of regulation of turbine is regulated by four governing valves (GV) on the inlet to the HP parts and by two interceptor valves (IV) on the inlet to the LP parts. The amount of opening at any instant of these valves given by preparation of secondary oil which is indirectly dependent upon the primary oil preparation and directly upon the spring fence in the transformer and incidental dependent upon the portion of limiter (LT) during the stand all oil scouting.

SPEED SENSING ELEMENT: The speed sensing element is located on the external of HP rotor maintain the preparation in circuit of primary oil which is directly proportional to the square of speed of 2850 to 3360 rpm correspond the primary oil preparation of 2. 17 to 2. 99kg at an oil temp of 50 degree C under the same condition. The speed of 3000 rpm corresponds to a preparation of approx. 2. 38atg. TURNING GEAR: It is located on the bearing pedestal between LP part & the generator at intended to rotate the rotor at 62rpm before the commencement of start of apparatuses.

This prevents over warming up of rotor. PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM IN TURBINE: The pneumatic control system provided to the turbine are liable on main controlling of the valve of extraction and gland sealing system all element the final hazard associated with hydraulic system for the pneumatic system. Air is required at pressure 10atm &temp 80 *C. AIR TANK: It has capacity 2. 5 cubic metric tank is clamped to ground max pneumatic permitted. Inside the tank pressure 10atm &temp 80degree C. The air tank provided with two air relief valve at the top and a drain crook at the bottom. AIR VALVE:

Air valve each is provided for the two cold reheat flap. The fine extraction valves monitor the admission and release of compressor air inlet these equipments. Each air valve has an electromagnetic through which can be controlled automatically. All the air valve and these associated equipment are located in instruments box. EXTRACTION VALVE: Pneumatic controls non-return valve. These are insulated in the fine extraction line. Each valve is designed according to the steam. CRITICAL SPEED: Maximum speed of rotor at which resonance or vibration starts at high amplitude is called critical speed.

O Critical speed of generator: 2150rpm. O Critical speed of IP turbine: 1570rpm. O Critical speed of HP turbine: 3460rpm. O Critical speed of LP turbine: 1500rpm. LIMITING OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS: The operation of turbojet at a particular load in range 80-110MW is considered as stabilized operation provided that parameters of steam do not fluctuate and no serious deviation appear in the operation of set. During such stable operational period, change of load and other operating condition must be to the minimum extent possible.

It is to be noted must be maintained at the rated valve only. STEAM PRESSURE AND TEMPRATURE: O PRESSURE: During any twelve month operational period, the average steam pressure is not allowed to exceed the rated value. In maintaining this value, the rated steam pressure is not allowed to exceed 110% of the rated pressure. However, the pressure increase upto120% of rated pressure may be permitted provided the total amount of pressure fluctuation between 110% to 120% and rated pressure does not exceed a total of 12 hrs during any twelve month operational period. O TEMPERATURE:

During any twelve month operational period, at any turbine inlet point , the average admitted steam temperature is not allowed to exceed rated temperature . While maintaining this average value ,the admitted steam temperature is not allowed to exceed the rated temperature in excess of 8*C . However in exceptional cases, the temperature may momentarily be allowed to exceed the rated temperature by 14*C maximum, provided the total amount of the period of operation, between the limits of 8*C and 14*C does not exceed 400 hrs in any of 12 month operational period.

The turbine operation between the range of 14*C to 28*C in excess of the rated steam temperature is admissible provided the total operational duration between these limits does not exceed 80 hrs/day any 12 months operational period. Steam is supplied to the HP and MP casing inlet ports through two parallel supply lines; the maximum continuous difference in steam temperature in the individual steam line is allowed to be 17*C ;however ,if the deviation do not exceed the duration of 15 min the steam temperature difference is allowed to be 28*C maximum . DESCRIPTION OF PARTS

STOP VALVE: Stop Valve is used to stop or open the supply of steam coming through main stream tube, in HP Turbine. CONTROL VALVE: Control Valves are used to control the supply of steam in HP Turbine after passing the stop valve. It is 4 in number; two are on either side of HP Turbine. INTERCEPTOR VALVE: Interceptor Valve is between HP. Turbine and IP Turbine to regulate the supply of steam. BEARING: There are 7 bearings in TG set, out of which 6 are journal bearing and one is thrust cum journal bearing. 1,3,4,5,6,7: journal bearing; 2: thrust cum journal bearing.

There is sliding friction between the rotor and bearings. Bearing 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 resist only radial load while bearing 2 resists both radial and thrust load. The rotor slides on bearing. Hence there is sliding friction. The inner surface of bearing is made of softer material called BAVIET. There is a little clearance between the rotor and inner surface of bearing where lubricating oil film is formed. Lubricating phenomena of oil occurs through wedging action. CONDENSER: A steam condenser is a device or an appliance in which heat of steam is absorbed by water and thus steam condenses.

TYPES OF CONDENSER: a) Jet Condenser, b) Surface Condenser. In NTPC Tanda, Dry Surface type condenser is used. Surface Condenser: SPECIFICATION OF SURFACE TYPE CONDENSER USED IN NTPC TANDA: 1. No. of condenser in each unit = 2 2. Condensers are supported on: 48 spring no. in each unit. 3. Type of condenser: Dry Surface type. # Cooling water inlet is from bottom. # Cooling water outlet is from top. #Inlet and outlet cooling water connection are located at one side only. #Other end of condenser has been left freely for expansion & contraction reason. 5. Cooling area of each condenser = 3380 sq. 6. Quantity of cooling water required for two condenser = 15400 cubic meter at 33*C. 7. Steam flow to condenser = 267 ton/hr. 8. No. of passes = 2. 9. Condenser tube outer diameter = 22 mm. Inner diameter =20 mm. , Thickness = 1 mm. 10. Condenser tube material: cupronickel (90% Cu + 10% Ni) 11. Length of tube = 7. 5 m 12. No. of tube = 13800. GLAND STEAM CONDENSER: Gland steam condenser is used to condense the steam leaking through turbines. HOT WELL: Hot well is used to store water formed through condensation of steam coming from outlet of LP turbine into condenser.

It is below condenser. CONDENSATE EXTRACT PUMP(CEP Pump): Condensate extract pump (CEP) is used to extract water from hot well and to supply main mechanical ejector. It is in 3 of number out of which any 2 are in running stage at any time. BOOSTER PUMP: Booster pump is used to pump the drip water formed due to partial condensation of steam in low pressure heaters. The outlet of booster pump is connected to the outlet of 5th low pressure heater. STEAM AIR EJECTOR: To maintain vacuum in condenser air ejector is used are of two types of air ejector is used: 1. Mechanical Ejector . Vacuum Pump. Here in NTPC Tanda Mechanical ejector is used . It works on venturimeter principle. There are two type of mechanical ejector: a) Starting Mechanical Ejector b) Main Mechanical Ejector It is used to remove air from the mixture . In case of ejector used for steam plant where a high vacuum pressure is maintained in the condenser . It is necessary to use two mechanical air ejector in series to obtain maximum vacuum . Main mechanical ejector is also used for heating of water on account of steam used in Mechanical ejector. There are 4 nozzles in two ejectors.

This also works as heat exchangers. DEAERATOR: It is used to separate out dissolved oxygen and air from water coming from low pressure heater . Oxygen and air is separate out from water in order to check corrosion of pipes and other equipments. In deaerator, water is sprinkled out from nozzles; it is called atomization of water. The deaerator is situated at a height in order to have a high pressure head for having a good efficiency of boiler feed pump. BFP works as suction and discharge of water. While suction process, there may be caviation which can damage the impellers of BFP.

To avoid caviation FST is situated at a reasonable height. FEED WATER STORAGE TANK (FST): Feed water storage tank is used to store water for B. F. P. It is situated below deaerator. Generally the whole set is termed Deaerator. BOILER FEED PUMP: Boiler feed pump is used to supply water at a high pressure of requirement to boiler. It is the equipment used having the maximum input of energy in the plant. The pump used is centrifugal pump. Each of the unit has two B. F. P. MECHANICAL SEAL COOLER: Mechanical seal cooler is used for cycling of feed water leaking through boiler feed pump.

Thus it stops more leakage of water. ECONOMIZER: An Economizer is a device in which the waste heat of flue gases is utilised for heating the feed water in steam generating set. LOW PRESSURE HEATER(LP Heater): Low pressure heaters are used to heat water coming from main mechanical ejector. They are 5 in number. HIGH PRESSURE HEATER: High pressure heater is used to heat water coming from BFP. From high pressure heater water is fed to economizer. OIL PUMPS:- MAIN OIL PUMPS(MOP) This is centrifugal single stage double suction pump mounted directly on the HP rotor extrusion & is housed in the pedestal bearing.

In normal operation of turbine, the completely quantity of oil required by turbo-set is supplied by main oil pump. MOP supplies oil the injector for lubrication and for the governing & oil operated protection. The lubrication oil is collected in oil cooler the 42 to 45*C before entering the bearing 3. Oil cooler are provided. STARTING PUMP: The rotor driven main oil pump can operate system only at about 2800rpm. Hence to meet the required of starting and sloping the system. EMERGENCY PUMP: In discharging oil to the bearing when the lubricating oil pressure drop to a present valve.

There are two EOP on driven by 10kw AC motor & the 2nd by 9. 2kw DC motor located at ecometer with suction from the oil tank. TYPE OF LUBRICATING OIL USED IN NTPC TANDA:- Servo prime 46 supplied IOCL. OIL REQUIREMENT:- O Total required of oil for entire set: 23,400 lit. O Out of which turbine required: 19,000 lit. O Generator required: 4,400 lit. O Make up oil for set: 38lit/day. HEATERS: There are 8 heaters provided from each 110kw, two high pressure & one heaters act as a dearator of the condenser. For shake of optimization essentially equal feed water temp rise cross LP Heater 1 to 5 dearator & HP heater. is aimed at the rise across the other. For the equal feed water enthalpy rise for the heater is impossible. In actual practice, turbine has naturalextraction. Since extraction of steam can be removed at these points with little pressure. Cycle can be adjusted for equal enthalpy rise. GLAND STEAM SYSTEM(GSC):- The turbine rotors needs the protection of casing at both ends so that they must be coupled at the place where the rotor must be sealed against the atmosphere so that the high pressure steam inside the take out waste fully or at the cold atmosphere air does not enter the casing in HP & IP.

Both the ends have steam at a pressure much higher the atmosphere in LP casing. This pressure is below the atmosphere. Hence glands are provided at casing end. BASIC CYCLE OF A POWER PLANT For proper functioning of a power plant ,its working operation has been divided into following main operation cycles. Steam cycle Feed water cycle Condensate water cycle Primary air cycle . Flue gas cycle Secondary air cycle EXPALAINATION OF POWER PLANT CYCLES STEAM CYCLE: This cycle basically deals with the flow of steam at different pressure and temperature to different turbines namely HP,IP and LP turbines which is connected to the generator.

It can be explained from the figure shown below HP From Final S/H MP LP TURBINE GENERATOR R/H 32 Ksc,535 `C MAIN STEAM 130Ksc 535 `C 34 Ksc,370 `C condenser Hot well STEAM CYCLE Hp By-pass Steam coming out from super heater at 540degree C and 139kg per square cm. Three cylinders of 2 set of main stop and governing valve arrangement on either side of HP casing and each set consist of one stop valve and 2 governing valve assembling series. The steam from the boiler is admitted the reheater where it heated at original temp.

The reheated steam is taken to IP casing through combined stop and interceptor valve arrangement at either of IP casing. The exhaust from the IP casing has taken directly the LP casing. The steam expanded in the LP turbine to a very low blade pressure which is maintained by the condenser below atmospheric pressure about 3% of makeup water is required to condensate the losses of cooling water due to evaporation in cooling tower. Finally steam exhausted by LP turbine is condensed in the surface type condenser type cooling water following through a large no. f tubes. The HP, IP &LP turbine coupled in series and mechanical power generated from steam transmitted to generator. Feed water cycle :- this cycle deals with the flow of water to boiler feed pump from feed storage tank ,which is later fed to the boiler drum passing through high pressure heater and economizer D/A FST (165-170)°C 170°C HPH-1 HPH-2 205°C 240°C ECONOMIZER 1&2 340°C BOILER DRUM 2 B. F. PUMP FEED WATER CYCLE This system plays an important role in the supply of feed water to the boiler at requisite pressure and steam/water ratio. his system starts from boiler feed pump to feed regulating station via HP heaters. Boiler feed pump : this pump is horizontal and barrel design driven by an electric motor through a hydraulic coupling. all the bearings of the pump and motor are forced lubricated by oil lubricating system. The feed pump consists of pump barrel into which is mounted the inside starter, together with rotor. water cooling and oil lubricating are provided with their accessories. The brackets of the radial bearing of the sunction side and the radial and thrust bearing of the discharged side are fixed to low pressure cover.

High pressure heater: these are regenerative feed water heater operating at high pressure and located by the side of turbine. It is connected in series on feed water side and by such arrangement the feed water after feed pump enters the hp heater. the steam supply to these heater from the bleed point of the turbine through motor operated valves. Condensate water cycle: It deals with the water flowing through the condenser which plays an important role in increasing the efficiency of the plant. It consists of a feedback path from main ejector to hot well. HOT WELL 40°C LPH M/E LPH3 LPH4 LPH5 D/A 3 CE PUMP 150°C

HEIGHT 42M FEEDBACK PATH CONDENSATE WATER CYCLE 45 °C The steam after condensing in the condenser known as condensate, is extracted out of the condenser hot well by condensate pump and taken to the de-aerator through ejectors, gland steam cooler and series of LP heaters Condensate pump : the function of these pumps is to pump out the condensate to the deaerator taken to the de-aerator through ejectors, gland steam cooler and series of LP heaters. This pump is rated generally for 160 cubic metre/hour at a pressure of 13. 2 kg/cm square. LP heater :- there are four lp heater in which 4 extraction are used. hese heaters are equipped with necessary safety valves in the steam space level indicator. the condensate flows in the u tube in 4 passes and extraction steam washes the outside tubes. Deaerator : the inner corrosion can be prevented by removing dissolved gases from the feed water. it can be achieved by embodying into the boiler feed system a deaerating unit whose function is to remove the dissolved gases. it works on two principles:: henry law and solubility law. Solubility law : solubility of gases decreases with increase in pressure and /or decrease in pressure.

Henry law : the mass of gas with definite mass of liquid will dissolve at the given temperature and is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas in contact to liquid. * Primary air cycle :- In this cycle, air is used to carry pulverized coal from mill to the burning zone of boiler. * Flue gas cycle :- In this cycle, gas containing waste materials are removed from the system using various techniques like electrostatic precipitator , ID fans etc. The flue gas, before being removed is used to heat the primary and secondary air. Secondary Air cycle:- In this cycle, fuel is mixed with air (known as secondary air) for proper burning of coal. BOILER * A STEAM GENERATOR IS A COMPLEX INTEGRATION OF THE FOLLOWING ACCESSORIES: 1. ECONOMISER 7. DIV PANEL 2. BOILER DRUM 8. PLATEN SH 3. DOWN COMERS 9. REHEATER 4. CCW PUMPS 10. BURNERS 5. BOTTOM RING HEADER 11. APHs 6. WATER WALLS ECONOMISER * Boiler Economiser are feed-water heaters in which the heat from waste gases is recovered to raise the temperature of feed-water supplied to the boiler. It preheats the feed water by utilizing the residual heat of the flue gas. * It reduces the exhaust gas temperature and saves the fuel. BOILER DRUM * It is an enclosed Pressure Vessel * Heat generated by Combustion of Fuel is transferred to water to become steam * Serves two main function. * Separating heat from the mixture of water and steam. * It consists of all equipments used for purification of the steam after being separated from water. BOILER DRUM LEVEL CONTROL * Important for both plant protection and equipment safety. * Maintain drum up to level at boiler start-up and maintain the level at constant steam load. Decrease in this level will uncover boiler tubes and get overheated and damaged. * Increase in this level will make separation between steam and moisture difficult within drum. * Controlled circulation is required to maintain the difference in the density between water and steam with increase in pressure. DOWN COMERS * It carries water from boiler drum to the ring header. * They are installed from outside the furnace to keep density difference for natural circulation of water & steam. * Heating and Evaporating the feed water supplied to the boiler from the economiser. WATER WALLS These are membrane walls, no. of tubes are joined. * Vertical tubes connected at the top and bottom of the Headers. * Receives water from the boiler drum by down –comers. ADVANTAGES * Increase in efficiency * Better load response simpler combustion control. * Quicker starting and stopping * Increased availability of boiler. * Heat transfer is better * Weight is saved in refractory and structure * Erection is made easy and quick DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM UNDERSTANDING A CONTROL SYSTEM On the basis of given figure CONTROLLER PROCESS SENSOR ERROR S. P C. V. + – S. P:=SET POINT C. V:=CONTROL VALUE EXPLANATION It is a closed loop or feedback system. * System is set to fixed value known as SET POINT. * Deviation of the measured value from set value describes the controlling action to be performed. * Control value to be sensed by sensor and the deviation from SET Pt. is measured and a Error signal is generated. Types of controller used in a power plant LOCAL CONTROLLER | Outdated controllersIndividual controller for each unit like turbine , boiler, generators etcManual monitoring | DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM CONTROLLER | centralized data collection centre. Manual monitoring is done. Outdated technology. DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM | Recent technology . topic to discuss in detail. | DDCMIS – TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND PROGRESS OF INSTRUMENTATION USED TO IMPLEMENT AUTOMATIC PROCESS CONTROL * LOCAL PNEUMATIC CONTROLLERS * MINIATURIZED AND CENTRALIZED PNEUMATIC CONTROLLERS AT CONTROL PANELS AND CONSOLES * SOLID-STATE CONTROLLERS * COMPUTERISED CONTROLS (SUPERVISORY) * DIRECT DIGITAL CONTROL(DDC) * DISTRIBUTED MICROPROCESSOR BASED CONTROL Disadvantages of earlier Systems * Analog instrument panels required huge space, lot of wiring and are less user friendly for monitoring of large number of parameters. Accuracy obtained with solid-state controls is not good and they tend to drift with time. * Supervisory controls are inflexible as changing of control configuration requires change in routing of wires. * Use of centralized control leads to complete failure during shutdowns. Components of DDCMIS CONTROL SYSTEM MAN MACHINE INTERFACE & PROCESS INFORMATION SYSTEM DATA COMMUNICATION SYSTEM ( DATA HIGHWAY) BOP & CI SYSTEM * CONSISTS OF OPEN LOOP CONTROL SYSTEM (OLCS) AND CLOSED LOOP CONTROL SYSTEM (CLCS) * OLCS – THE SEQUENCE CONTROL, INTERLOCK OF ALL THE PLANT SYSTEMS WHICH ARE NOT COVERED IN THE SG-C&I AND TG-C&I.


The MAX1000+PLUS is now re-named as maxDNA. where-in DNA stands for Dynamic Network of Applications. maxDNA is a network of applications where diverse hardware and software solutions co-operate to allow the plant to reach its greatest potential. BHEL’s Electronics Division has established itself in the area of Control & Instrumentation for new power plants as well as renovation and modernisation of existing power plants. A leader in the Indian Power Sector market, it has already supplied and commissioned above 200 sets of DCS for thermal, combined cycle and hydro sets all over the country and overseas. MCS Inc. USA, former systems division of Leeds and Northrup, USA, is an internationally reputed technology leader In both Power as well as Industrial process control systems, with 70 years of rich experience in the field. Applications maxDNA systems are used in many applications throughout the world including electric power generation, co-generation, cement, glass, ceramics, primary metals, chemicals and petroleum, water and waste-water treatment and incineration plants. BHEL offers a variety of solutions for Power Plants ranging from simple control systems to complex unified automation for Power Plants of any size.

The synergy of BHEL’s expertise in Power Plant Controls and cutting-edge technology of maxDNA provides for unified DCS solution for entire Power Plant comprising of Steam Generator, Steam Turbine Generator and Balance of Plant C&I. The state-of-the art control system is also configured for complete range of Hydro Turbine governing and auto sequence controls, SCADA systems and for wide range of industrial process applications. The spectrum of applications in brief are as listed. Power Plant Controls o Steam Generator Controls o Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) controls o Steam Turbine controls Industrial Steam Turbine Controls o Balance of plant controls o Data Acquisition and information management o Hydro Turbine Governing and Auto sequence controls o Generator and Switchyard controls o Electrical System controls o Fossil power utility plants o Combined cycle power plants o Captive power plants o Simple cycle power plants Industrial controls The maxDNA allows easy integration of third party devices and communication with external systems. The system also allows user flexibility to operate a small stand-alone control system to a mega control system with plant-wide automation.

Its open architecture permits the integration of process control, management information systems, local and wide area networks, PLC systems and SCADA systems BHELs integrated Automation and Information Management System maxDNA is a microprocessor based real time system. This system is designed on modular basis, allows scalability and provides operator the complete tool to increase the availability, efficiency and safe operating state with respect to the Process component. The maxDNA DCS product line provides regulatory control, sequential logic control, operator interaction through CRTs (MAXSTATIONS) and information management.

The MAXSTATION can be configured as an operator station, engineer’s station, historian (MAXSTORIAN), gateway, or link server (MAXLINKS) to foreign systems. It provides for high-resolution graphics utilising a powerful graphical user interface – MAXVUE. The maxDNA also provides a comprehensive set of tools (MAXTOOLS) for the development of system application, configuration and installation. maxPAC Process I/O maxPAC input and output modules connect thousands of process variables, controllable and element devices throughout the plant to the maxDNA Plant Automation System. axPAC I/O modules are available in a number of input and output configurations to match the electrical characteristics of the sensors, transmitters and controllable devices. Key Features High density I/O. · Isolated Input / Output modules. · Supports full redundancy. · Both local and remote installations. · Lower power consumption. · Self calibrated analog modules. · Remove and insert modules while powered. · Modules have colour coded faceplates for rapid identification. · Rotary address switches for fast set-up. · All the modules that require field power include a front mounted fuse disconnect  and a LED fuse status indication. All discrete modules include front mounted LEDs for input / output state. · (15+1) bit Resolution for Analog inputs. OPERATING ENVIRONMENT MaxPAC I/O and related hardware comply with the following standards. · ESD – IEC 801-2. · Surge – IEEE-472-1974 (ANSI C37 90a) surge withstand test. · RFI-801-3 with the cabinet door closed. · Vibration – Sinusoidal vibration specification per SAMA PMC31. 1 using control room level; 1 mm displacement 5-15Hz, 0. 5G 15-150Hz. · Storage temperature – 26 to 70 Degree C. · Operating temperature 0 to 60 Degree C. · Relative Humidity; 5 to 90%, non-condensing.

SALIENT FEATURES – The DCS Data Highway speed is 10/100 Mbps. – Communication Network is full Duplex type. – Intelligent Switched Fast Ethernet for communication with redundancy. – 32 Bit Intel Multifunction Controller for OLCS & CLCS with WINDOWS CE Operating System. Intel Pentium IV OWS with WINDOWS 2000 for MMI / DAS. – Distributed Data base on RPUs. – On line documentation system. – Centralized Engineering Station for programming, configuration and downloading. – Dedicated links for other system. – Integrated SOE with 1 milisec resolution functions are envisaged. Multilevel security system are envisaged for different functions like engineering, database changing etc. – Optical isolation for I/O modules. – Scan time for critical analog signals is 20 milisec & others 100 millisec or above. – Execution time for control logics is selectable from 20/100/500 millisec. as per requirement. – Interchangeability of Engineering station and Operator Workstation, wherever necessary. – History with 1 second sampling rates and long term storage & retrieval. – Point database (Global Data) accessible at any station across the Network. – Selective I/O redundancies depending on process criticality. Enhanced graphic capabilities. – OPC complaint. – Status of modules available on OWS. – Controller logic is available on OWS (on-line). -Facility for simulation of control logic schemes with virtual processor. HARDWARE ENVIRONMENT maxDNA technology is used for monitoring and manage process control environment through a maxSTATION . it is used for man machine interface. maxSTATION can be set up as an operator’s workstation. it uses maxVUE graphical interface software to provide a graphical view of the process and comprises of both standard and custom display.

Engineer’s workstation is used for creating and maintaining configurations and process control documentation using maxDPU tools and maxVUE graphical configurator software. it is also used to create and maintain custom graphic displays using the maxVUE graphics editor software. maxSTATION collects and manages process and event history, reporting, and archiving using the maxSTORIAN history and archiving software. maxSTATION Hardware According to the function to be performed by a particular workstation determines its minimum hardware requirements.

Such as for collecting data one needs a larger hard diskthan operator’s workstation. So for its proper functioning it must meet the minimum hardware requirements. mxaDNA components The maxDNA Distributed control system consists of one or more maxDNA Remote Processing Units (RPUs) cabinets which contains, * maxDPU Distributed Processing Units (DPUs), the process controller, provides control and data acquisition functions. * Input/Output devices (I/Os) for monitoring and controlling the actual process. * One or more maxSTATIONs configured as operator or engineer workstations.

This technology is used for man machine interface. It is essential to have a network system between workstation and field for the interface. Network Overview maxDNA technology uses a client/server architecture. maxDPU acting as a server collects information, stores it and ultimately transfers the information to the appropriate maxSTATION clients . maxSTATIONs and maxDPUs communicate with one another via maxNET. The maxNET Network is a fully redundant 10/100 Mb per second Ethernet network using industry standard UDP/IP protocol for communications between Workstation clients and servers. axDNA POINT DATABASES: it is composed of point databases. A point databases created in maxDPU Tools, consists of hardware resources and control points. One configuration is permitted per DPU or DPU pair, which may serve a group of Remote Processing Unit cabinets. In a power generating plant, for instance, one configuration could represent a burner management strategy, another a boiler control strategy, and so forth. System resources consists of RPU’s H/W,DPU,I/O Modules, power supplies, etc. Control points consists of FUNCTION BLOCK custom BLOCK Standard block ATOMIC BLOCK EXPLANATION OF BLOCKS

Atomic Block : Function Block that implements smallest possible function in maxDPU. All Atomic Blocks are programmed into maxDPU. Standard Block: derived Function Block that is part of maxDNA product. All Standard Blocks are programmed using Atomic Blocks and/or other Standard Blocks. End users, operations or consultants cannot customize standard Blocks. Custom Block :derived Function Block that is made from Atomic Blocks, Standard Blocks and/or other Custom Blocks. New Custom Blocks can be built and existing Custom Blocks can be changed by anyone using maxDNA-engineering tools.

Operators may view pts from any configuration at any operator’s workstation provided the operator’s work station and DPU are attached to the same maxNET network and have read access to specified domains. Tasks performed by the maxSTATION : 1. ;Display real time data from any DPU on the maxNET network in a single graphic display. 2. ; Display trend or X-Y data from any DPU on the maxNET Network in a single display. 3. ;Access all control loops on the maxNET Network. 4. ;Display the current alarm summary display; available alarm information is typically restricted to a specific domain.

Working in maxVUE maxSTATION software requires the Microsoft Windows® operating system. It run as a standard windows application and respond to the mouse and keyboard like any other windows package. Input Devices The maxSTATION accepts a variety of input devices including: * MOUSE * TRACKBALL * Touch screen * Keyboard Use of mouse is similar to that in case of a computer. Using the keyboard maxSTATION can use both a normal QWERTY keyboard and an operator’s keyboard . Engineer’s keyboard is required in an engineer’s workstation. it is used to enter text and perform other function with special keys.

Operator’s keyboard has dedicated keys used to perform specific tasks such as acknowledging alarms or taking control action . ————————————————- maxSTATION is the hardware platform through which one can view and manage process control environment. It can be set up as an operator’s or engineer’s workstation and the compatible software must be installed, however security alerts are set , the protective key (dongle) and passwords are different . Each of the standard configurations is shipped with Processors and Power Distribution mounted and internally interconnected.

Connecting stations and DPUs to the maxNET NETWORK Workstations and maxDPUs communicate with one another over maxNET. a redundant Ethernet network. It is consists of two independent Ethernet networks named as “A” and “B”. it is assumed that “A” is independent clone of “B”. This network setup is consists of electrical and fiber optic cable fast Ethernet switches and fiber optic converters. maxNET is an open system and does not rely on a specific model of network hardware. In setting up this network, two types of wires are used metallic cable is used for interconnection inside the cabinets and for short distance runs through reas that are not subject to electrical noise. Fiber optic cable is used when it is necessary to span a large geographic area, to provide electrical isolation between equipment groups or to reduce noise pickup in electrically harsh environments. Both types of capable of carrying data at 10Mbps or at 100 Mbps. Network Layout Guidelines During lay out of this network one should must be considered the following factors like,Path from workstation to DPU. The number of switches must be kept minimum. It is good practice to restrict the number to “3” between any workstation and the maxDPU.

Keeping the number of switches to a minimum not only increases reliability but also make troubleshooting easier when a switch fails. The maxNET “A” and “B” networks must be completely separate from each other and from other network(the plant network). “A” and “B” cables must not be connected to the same Ethernet switch. Cables of network A and network B should not get mixed up. A’s cables must only be connected to network A Ethernet card or switch, similar is the case with network “B” for this reason only each of the connector has been labeled.

The rear panel of each processor slot must be similarly marked like “ A,B and P or LAN for a plant Ethernet connection). Cables assembled in cabinets and desks at the factory contain a two line label. The top line describes where the cable originates and the bottom line describes where the cable terminates. This dual network structure of the maxNET architecture provides high reliability through its redundancy. No single network element can fail and prevent communications between any workstation and maxDPU or DBM.

For more reliability network “A” and network “B” cables through physically separate paths when installed at plant site. Accidently, if bunch of cables get damaged it can be easily solved without interrupting the networks. Signal losses can be reduced by establishing the metallic network connection or unshielded twisted pair electrical cable. CABLE MINIMAL REQUIREMENT * Ethernet UTP 4 pair 24 AWG stranded wire for any runs less than 20 ft. * Ethernet UTP 4 pair 24 AWG solid wire for any runs greater than 20 ft. * Fiber optic cable:62. 5/125um multimode fiber with ST connectors.

Here we use plenum-rated insulation on the network cables for local fire codes require it and for cabinet wires standard PVC insulation is accepted. UTP cables comes in two varieties straight-through cable is used to connect different types of devices (workstation to a switch or a switch to a maxDPU). Crossover cable is used to connect similar devices(switch to switch). Some devices have both the ports crossover and straight-through cable may be used them. Cross over ports are typically labeled with an “X”. A single port on a device may be used as either a straight-through or a crossover.

Fiber optic converters have a switch labeled MDI/MDI-X. When a peripheral device is connected to the media converter we have to move the MDI/MDI-X switch on the converter to the MDI position. Ethernet switches are used to interconnect all nodes of the maxNET network. The switches used in a maxNET system must meet some minimum functional requirements. However these switches must meet certain requirements which are listed below: HADWARE DUPLEX SPEED maxSTATION Full duplex 10Mbps or 100Mbps maxDPU4F Full duplex 10Mbps or 100Mbps MaxDPU4E Full duplex 10Mbps DBM Half duplex 10Mbps Ethernet Switch Minimal Requirements

Must contain a minimum of two full-duplex 100 Base TX ports for connections to other switches. 120V ac 60Hz/240V ac 50Hz power 19 inch rack mounting Must allow the user to manually configure the speed and duplex settings for each port. Ethernet Switch Desired Features Support remote management (SNMP) to allow user to check and configure switch settings and to read and reset port statics,it greatly helps in system maintenance procedures. This is maxDNA maxDNA is the seamless combination of proven Plant Automation System hardware and a Dynamic Network of Applications specifically designed to meet the needs of electric power plants. axDNA is supported by a full range of life cycle services designed to increase the economic value of your plant. What makes the difference is that maxDNA was created by application developers knowledgeable in all aspects of the operation of power plants. Electric Power Generation Metso Automation offers turnkey solutions for all types and sizes of power plants. For large fossil fired plants Metso Automation exclusively uses the D-E-B coordinated control philosophy, an approach that assures the unified operation of the boiler, its inputs, fuel, air and feedwater, with the turbine-generator output.

The D-E-B system is a proven control strategy that is designed to meet the number one objective of the power plant – match generation to demand, under all conditions. Now in its fourth generation, D-E-B has been proven on over 900 large fossil fired power plants around the world – and it is only available from Metso Automation. Metso Automation is the leader in supplying systems and applications for eco-efficient power plants. Metso engineers designed and supplied the systems for world’s largest biofuelled power plant.

An advanced information management system was supplied to accurately monitor and report the plant’s various products (electricity, process steam and district heating) to ensure proper invoicing. Due to the boiler’s large size (550MWt) and wide range of fuels, accurate monitoring of fuel consumption and efficiency would be next to impossible without the advanced applications designed by Metso Automation. Over 4500 people are stationed in 37 countries around the world to provide long-term support for all Metso Automation installations. maxDNA configuration tools Summary

Connects to DPU4E and DPU4F – real or virtual 100% self-documenting – no off-line storage of database or diagrams Create & edit logic diagrams Rapid configuration speeds installation Extensive on-line tools to aid debugging Display & print logic diagrams What-you-see-is-what-is-installed for long-term ease of maintenance maxDNA Configuration Tools are comprised of maxTOOLS and maxVUE Graphical Configurator. It is the set of software elements which are used to configure, edit and maintain the Distributed Processing Units (DPU4Fs and DPU4Es) in a system. maxDNA Configuration Tools can run in any maxSTATION. axDNA Configuration Tools are used to configure the modulating control strategies, the binary logic control strategies, the DPU database, sequence of events reporting, alarm types and setpoints, loop execution times, I/O card, bus, termination interface, and maxNET interface in a DPU. maxTOOLS A configuration often starts with bulk data entry. maxTOOLS takes advantage of relational database methodology to support rapid and efficient entry and manipulation of data. A flexible import of data supports initiation of maxDNA databases from customer databases, speeding time of entry as well as reducing the potential for errors. axVUE Graphical Configuration maxVUE Graphical Configuration takes over after bulk data entry to provide object interconnection, and eventual on-line debug of the process. Both the modulating and the binary or logic control loops are configured in a graphical format using standard maxDNA algorithms and function blocks. A partial list of the current library is listed in the table on the following page. The initial step is the selection of the DPU database from the overall project database. The DPU database is then connected to the process I/O bus and the individual I/O cards that convert the field signals that are read by the DPU software.

The assignment of I/O cards and channels per card is done at this time. Sequence-of-events digital inputs points are identified to enable the DPU to read the millisecond timestamps associated with all changes of state for these selected points. Each control loop is configured by selecting an algorithm and connecting the inputs from one algorithm to the outputs of other algorithms to achieve the desired control strategy. Since maxVUE Graphical Configurator is object oriented, a configured loop can be reused as the starting point in configuring similar loops such as multiple coal mill temperature loops.

Algorithms can be grouped into custom function blocks which can be configured as a single block with only the block inputs and outputs shown. Partial List of Algorithm Function Blocks| Absolute value Add / subtract Multiply Divide Mod Exponential Power Square root Totalizer Calculate Signal select Leadlag Analog input buffer Analog output buffer Digital input buffer Digital output buffer Pulse input / output buffer Quad PAT buffer Thermocouple in buffer RTD input buffer Device logic Sequence master Sequence step First out Timer on Timer off Timer pulse

Trigger edge any Trigger edge fall Trigger edge rise Serial link bit pack Serial link bit unpack Alarm reporter Alarm clock Output driver buffer| Auto manual Limiter PID Feed forward Participation member Participation master Controller combining PAT out Control select Control add (bias) Control multiplier (ratio) Control divider 1 Control divider 2 Function generator Quality force Not And Or Exclusive or Greater than Less than Equal Not equal Flip flop reset dominant Flip flop set dominant Flip flop no dominant Analog tag Digital tag Steam properties

Flow compensation Level compensation User object Group Counter Timer| As part of the configuration process, the execution class is also selected from the three available time classes that are typically set at 40, 100, and 500 milliseconds. maxDNA Configuration Tools allow the user to view the structure details and connections at various levels to provide both a “functional” representation of the strategy (see figure 1) and a highly detailed “schematic” representation showing all available data (see figure 2). Figure 1 – Functional Representation of a Strategy

Pan and zoom capabilities are provided to facilitate focus on the portion of the loop being investigated or configured. Drag and drop cursor control is utilized as well as line connection between algorithms as selected by the engineer. maxDNA Configuration Tools also provides automatic cross referencing of algorithms and signals plus direct access via a single keystroke to these cross referenced items. Each and every control loop, signal, and algorithm can be annotated to enhance understanding of the control strategy, unique I/O configurations, or existing plant peculiarities.

This information can be displayed on the CRT and / or printed on the drawings. Diagnostic checks are integrated into maxDNA Configuration Tools to prevent errors such as connecting a logic signal to a modulating input or having an inoperable configuration. maxDNA Configuration Tools also allow the import and export of point databases on either a system or DPU basis. During the engineering phase, the I/O database is typically distributed to individual DPUs for security reasons. The database assigned to a given DPU can then be accessed and connected to the control and data acquisition strategies being developed for that DPU.

In the plant the individual DPU databases can likewise be converted to other formats such as Access™ for use by plant or headquarters personnel. Once configured and enabled in the DPU, the loop configuration can be accessed from any system maxSTATION and displayed on the CRT. This display provides all process information in real time updated on the screen every second. Values are displayed in engineering units or percentages as configured for that particular variable. Logic signals are color coded for true or false.

Four levels of quality coding (good, bad, doubtful, and substitute) are provided for each process signal and are propagated through out the control strategy. In addition to normal logic overrides, individual algorithms can be configured to execute desired strategies upon detection of undesired quality codes associated with the input signals to that algorithm. Figure 2 – Detailed Representation of a Strategy Hierarchical Structure maxDNA Configuration Tools support a hierarchical organization of control objects.

This arrangement allows for: * Cut and paste of a branch of the hierarchy to replicate the configuration for a piece of equipment * Aggregate alarming – automatically created alarm statistics such as the number of high severity unacknowledged alarms in a branch of the control hierarchy to animate graphics displays * Group Alarm Acknowledge – single keystroke to acknowledge alarms in a branch of the hierarchy * Incremental Reload – incremental changes with NO effect on other branches * Inherited Characteristics – such as execution order and rate can be set for each branch

Virtual and Real DPU DPUs can be emulated in any maxSTATION to facilitate debugging and testing. Multiple engineers can work with different portions of the project in parallel without impacting each other’s work. The output of each engineer can then be combined and tested using the capabilities of the virtual DPU. Composite objects maxDNA Configuration Tools support the creation of custom control objects. A custom control object can be a loose collection of control blocks in a group, or can be a fully tested template.

Some features of composite object management include: * Controlled exposure of key parameters – the engineer can expose at the composite block level attributes of blocks used to make up the object * Controlled security of exposed parameters – the engineer can specify the security level necessary to manipulate individual parameters * User designated names for parameters – In01 of an AND gate can become Oil Pressure Ok * Locking – objects can be locked to prevent tampering * Copy and paste – composite objects can be cut and pasted to speed configuration Documentation

Complete documentation of the DPU configuration is contained in the DPU. This information can be accessed via the maxNET highway and viewed live or uploaded to any engineer’s maxSTATION on the system. In the maxSTATION, the configuration can be captured as a Windows Metafile Graphic in a “ . wmf” format which can be viewed by Autocad or Microsoft word. From the maxSTATION the configuration can be copied to a CD, printed via the system printer, or accessed by the corporate engineering office. A differences program allows the comparison of DPU configurations at several levels to insure complete integrity of the program.

All discrepancies are tabulated for review and action. On-Line DPU Interface In an on-line system, the DPU program can be modified at the following incremental levels – individual variable, individual loop, branches of the control hierarchy, or the entire DPU. This allows incremental changes enhancing the integrity of the entire modification process by not requiring complete DPU downloads for only small changes. The existing configuration is uploaded to the engineer’s maxSTATION. From here the configuration is modified as necessary and then downloaded to the DPU. In most system architectures, the DPUs used for control are redundant.

One of the DPUs is kept as active, controlling the process, while the other is set to the inactive mode. The revised strategy is downloaded to the inactive DPU. Once downloaded, the inactive DPU is activated and control is transferred to it. By utilizing the freeze and unfreeze instructions, each individual output whether modulating or binary can be compared with the state or value of the field device and unfrozen if compatible or investigated if uncompatible. In all cases the DPU with the original or old strategy is now the backup and can take over control if there are any problems with the new strategy.

If the new configuration is w

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High interest rates create an unwillingness to spend money. Because consumers know that they will pay more over the course of the loan, they might choose to postpone buying high items such as cars and homes. Higher interest rates cause deflation, which means the purchasing power of the dollar is stronger. Debt deflation reduces personal wealth and aggravates an economic downturn. Many parties control interest rates, including banks and, the Federal Reserve. These institutions decide which interest rates to charge to other banks, companies in need of business loans and individuals wishing to buy a mortgage.

The rate charged to consumers is not compatible: While borrowers with a high credit score receive lower interest rates, people with poor credit scores receive higher interest rates. Low interest rates affect purchasing habits as well. The Federal Reserve sets a low discount rate to inspire banks to issue more loans to each other and to consumers. When consumers and businesses have easier access to credit, they spend more money. In most cases, low mortgage rates equate to more home purchases and low credit card rates cause people to spend more on credit.

However, low interest rates and an increase in the money supply means the dollar weakens. Businesses that rely on foreign vendors will see an increase in the cost of production because of the changes in the exchange rate. Changing the procure routine of banks and consumers through interest rates is a long standing procedure of the Federal Reserve. During the 1970s, low interest rates associated with a large number of women entering the workforce, caused a spending spree that resulted in high inflation.

To reduce the rise in prices the Federal Reserve raised the prime interest rate to 21. 5 percent in December1980. When the economy is in a deep recession and the unemployment rate is high, setting low interest rates has little effect on consumer purchasing. When the Federal Reserve could not use interest rates to influence monetary policy or purchasing decisions, it is stuck in what is called a “liquidity trap. ” This occurred in 2010 when the Federal Reserve set interest rates to near zero percent with little effect on jump-starting the economy.

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Coping with Culture Transition 1

INTRODUCTION TO UNDERSTANDING CULTURE AND BEHAVIOUR LESSON 1 Key Terms: Evoked Culture, Transmitted Culture, Individualism- Collectivism, Uncertainty Avoidance, Power Distance, Masculinity Femininity, Long and Short Term Orientation Understanding of culture is the first step towards improving intercultural communication. This lesson aims to understand why culture develops, highlights its essential features, define culture and examine numerous culture patterns that influence intercultural communication. Basic Functions of culture: 1.

To improve the adaptation of members of the culture to a particular ecology and social environment. 2. Fulfills the basic needs; food shelter, physical protection 3. Fulfills the derived needs; organization of work, distribution of food, social control. 4. Fulfills the integrative needs; psychological security, social harmony and purpose in life. Culture has certain elements which mark a collection of people as a culture. These are history, religion, values, social organization and language. Defining Culture: There are about 164 definitions of culture in the anthropology literature!

However, for all practical purposes we will focus on Marsella’s definition: “Culture is shared learned behavior which is transmitted from one generation to another for purposes of promoting individual and social survival, adaptation and growth and development. Culture has both external (e. g. artifacts, roles, institutions) and internal representations (e. g. values, attitudes, beliefs, cognitive styles, consciousness patterns and epistemologies). ” The most important characteristic of culture is that is learned.

It is learned through the transmitting of proverbs, stories, art etc. and through numerous channels such as family, peer, media, church etc. Also, culture is passed on from one generation to the next through communication. Communication makes culture a continuous process. Various symbols are used to transmit culture. These symbols are carried in books, pictures, films and non verbal actions such as hand shaking and bowing as symbols to greet someone. Another important characteristic of culture is that it is not static; cultures change and evolve over time.

Innovation through discovery of new practices, tools and concepts produce slight changes in social habits and behavior, for instance, cellular phones have reshaped cultures almost all over the world. Cultures may also change as a result of environmental upheavals, war, migration, influx of immigrants and growth of new technologies. THREE MAJOR APPROACHES TO CULTURE 1. Evoked Culture- is defined by cultural differences created by differing environmental conditions activating a predictable set of responses. Environmental conditions can activate some behaviors, such as cooperation and sharing.

Everyone has the capacity to share and cooperate, but the degree to which groups do share and cooperate depend upon the external environmental conditions, such as variance in the food supply. 2. Transmitted Culture- consists of ideas, values, attitudes and beliefs that are transmitted from one generation to the next through interaction. The view that is it wrong to eat beef is an example of transmitted culture because this value must have originated in the mind of one person who then transmitted it to others.

Different cultures transmit different self concepts to children. 3. Cultural Universals- this approach tries to identify aspects of culture that are universal and are found in all groups. These cultural universals unite all people in a common bond of humanity. Examples of cultural universals would be language, religion, education, beliefs about personality characteristics of men and women, the experiencing of certain basic emotions etc. PERCEPTION AND CULTURE Perception is defined as the means by which we interpret the physical and social world around us.

Perception is selective and what is allowed in to our conscious mind is determined through culture. For instance, how delighted one feels at the thought of eating the flesh of a cow, fish, dog or snake depends upon what one’s culture has taught them about food. Perception is culturally determined…people are not born knowing what clothes to wear, what games to play, what foods to eat or which Gods to worship. Cultures give meaning to most of our experiences. Every culture has its own belief system and values.

People from cultures where Christianity is predominant usually believe that salvation is attainable only through Christ. People who are Jewish, Buddhist, Hindu do not share this belief. They have their own set of beliefs regarding salvation and what happens to the human spirit after the body dies. Beliefs therefore, are mostly determined by culture. Values are normative and evaluative rules which teach a member of a culture what is good or bad, right or wrong, morals etc and is embedded into our socio-cultural milieu.

However, the value of a culture may not be the value of all individuals within that culture. Age, gender, personal experience, occupation may also shape the individual’s view of the environment. Hofstede’s Value Dimensions The lack of precision, and the lack of a universally applicable framework for classifying cultural patterns, has been addressed by a number of researchers. The most famous and most often cited work in this area is the research by the Dutch organizational anthropologist Hofstede.

Hofstede derived his culture dimensions from examining work-related values in employees of IBM during the 1970s. Hofstede’s work was one the earliest attempts to use extensive statistical data to examine cultural values. He proposed five value dimensions; A. Individualism- Collectivism: In Individualistic cultures such as the cultures in the west, the individual is the single most important unit in the social setting, independence rather than dependence is stressed, individual achievement is rewarded and personal goals take over the group goals.

In collectivistic cultures such as those in the eastern parts of the world and south America, people count on their in groups to look after them, there is greater readiness to cooperate with the in-group members, identity is based on the social system and individuals are emotionally dependent on the group or organizations such as the family, school, religious institutions etc. Both individualism and collectivism can take different forms in different societies. B.

Uncertainty Avoidance: This term defines the extent to which people within a culture are made nervous by situations which they perceive as unstructured, unclear or unpredictable, situations which they therefore try to avoid by maintaining strict codes of behavior. Cultures with high uncertainty avoidance express a strong need for written rules, planning, regulations and ceremonies which add structure to life. On the other hand, cultures with low uncertainty avoidance need are not threatened by deviance and unconventional ideas, they prize initiative, dislike structure associated with hierarchy and are more willing to take risks.

There is a greater desire for clear company rules, precision and punctuality. C. Power Distance: Power distance defines the extent to which the less powerful person in society accepts inequality in power and considers it as normal. People in high power distance countries such as India, Africa, Brazil, and Singapore believe that power and authority are facts of life; these cultures teach their members that people are not equal in this world and social hierarchies are present. Low power distance countries such as Austria, Norway, United States, New Zealand and Israel hold that inequality in society should be minimized.

People in these cultures feel that they are close to power and they should have access to that power. Subordinates consider superiors to be the same kind of people as they are and vice versa. D. Masculinity Femininity: Hofstede used the term masculinity and femininity to refer to the degree to which masculine and feminine traits are valued and revealed. Masculine cultures are male oriented, they expect men to be assertive, ambitious and competitive and women are meant to be home makers and submissive.

A classic example of such a society in spite of its economic development is Japan. Cultures that value femininity as a trait stress nurturing behaviors. A feminine world view maintains that men need not be assertive and that they can assume nurturing roles and promotes sexual equality. E. Long and Short Term Orientation: This dimension came about as a result of the criticism Hofstede faced for collecting data with a western bias. This survey used a form called the Chinese Value Survey which included teachings of Confucius.

Cultures who favor long term planning such as those in India, China, Hong Kong, Japan and Brazil place importance in personal stability and respect for tradition. They tend to value long range goals. However, those cultures that rank low on long term orientation index such United States, Great Britain, Canada and Philippines, often do not place a high priority on status, try to postpone old age, are concerned with short term results and as such seek immediate gratification of their needs. DEEP STRUCTURE OF CULTURE

Nobles (1980) identifies the deep structure of culture as the philosophical assumptions underpinning and reflected the in the culture’s world view, ethos and ideology. To better understand any culture, you need to appreciate that culture’s deep structure. The deep structure includes issues such as God, Loyalty, Family and Community. Religion forms the single most important element of the deep structure of a culture. This is because religion serves a number of important psychological and social needs. It provides comfort through the belief that super natural aid is available in times of crisis.

Through rituals, religion may be used to enhance the learning of oral traditions and plays an important role in maintaining social solidarity. Dominant religious traditions of the world We have chosen Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Confucianism as these religions have lasted for centuries and shaped millions of people across the world. Christianity: Christianity is followed by a billion people scattered throughout the world. The basic assumption behind Christianity is the belief in God and Jesus Christ who is the Son of God.

Jesus came to this planet to save the human kind. Christians believe in organized worship and God’s message is shared with others. This is because Jesus’ view of self was relational. Even at the Last Supper, Jesus shared his final meal with his twelve leading disciples rather than being alone. The ethical principles intended to give direction to the followers of the faith are found in the Ten Commandments and scattered throughout the bible. However, the central ethic of Jesus was love. “Love your neighbor as yourself. What you would like people to do to you do to them. Even though membership in the church community is important to Christians, most religious scholars maintain that each individual has a unique relationship with God and salvation, particularly for the Protestants is achieved by an individual’s own efforts and deeds. Activity and Christianity are bound together, this is because Jesus was an active man and urged his followers to be energetic. Even though gender inequality has stayed in many cultures of the world, the modern interpretation of the Bible is more consistent with current perceptions.

The Romans, before the coming of Jesus, regarded women as inferior to men, men could divorce their wives but not vice versa. Jesus banned all divorce. The new religion offered women not only greater status and influence within the church but also more protection as wives and mothers. Last but not the least, Jesus was courageous and was not intimidated by his opponents. These traits are valued by all Christians and they strive to be courageous in their pursuits. Judaism: Judaism is the oldest of the religions being practiced today and smallest of all the major religious traditions.

However, it has had a profound effect on the entire world. As a religion, Judaism has three essential elements; God, Torah and Israel. They believe in one universal eternal God who has entered into a special relationship or covenant with one people, the Jews and Israel and given them the task of being the ‘nation of the nations’. Torah refers to what’s commonly known as The Five Books of Moses. “A Torah” is that handwritten parchment scroll written in Hebrew and many English translations are also now available. It serves as an nstruction manual for various subject areas. There is no part of life the Torah doesn’t have an opinion on. Israel is considered the Holy Land; the only land which receives its blessing from G-d without the services of any intermediaries is the holy land of Israel. God’s added (revealed) presence in Israel is what gives it its extra measure of holiness. The holiness of the Land has many practical applications. Judaism is not only a religion that serves spiritual needs but a guide to worship, ceremonies, justice, friendship, kindness, intellectual pursuits and diet.

According to the teachings of the Torah the woman is the one who sets the foundation of every Jewish home. It is the woman’s primary job to ensure that the home is a place of peace and harmony, a conducive atmosphere for spirituality and Godliness. Her God given nature is suited for this purpose. Women are by nature more nurturing, patient and compassionate. Judaism places great regard for higher education and intellectual pursuits and teaches a firm system of justice. Islam: Islam is one of the most widespread and most misunderstood religions of the world.

Islam emerged in the Arab world thousands of years ago with the arrival of Prophet Muhammad- who was considered the messenger of God by the Muslim people. Muhammad delivered the religious message, established the social order and formed a city-state known as Madinah. Islam believes in one God Allah and has five pillars of faith and practice which are cardinal principles that outline prescriptions for social conduct, practical ethics in the fabric of society. Muslims believe that God wishes to communicate with human beings and he uses prophets for this purpose.

Abraham, Moses, Jesus were all prophets but the final prophet Muhammad revealed God’s eternal message. Islam believes that God revealed scriptures to humanity as guidance for them and hold that the Quran is God’s final word and supersedes all previous writings. Muslims believe in praying (Salat or Namaaz) five times a day: on rising, at noon, in the midafternoon, after sunset and before retiring. Fasting in the holy month of Ramadan, Muslims do not eat, drink or engage in sexual activities and neither do they smoke between sunrise to sunset.

The Pilgrimage (Hajj) means that once in a lifetime every Muslim, if financially able, is to make a pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia as evidence of his/her devotion to Allah. The pillar of Jihad is one of the most misinterpreted concepts of Islam. Jihad has two meanings: The first is the inner Jihad or ‘struggle with oneself’ a battle all individuals wage with their own baser instincts in order to achieve a virtuous life. The second connotation is the outer Jihad that includes all activities that either defend Islam or further its cause.

Political extremists who want to forward their own cause refer to their guerilla or terrorists wars as Jihad. Hinduism: Hinduism is a conglomeration of religious thought, values and beliefs. Amongst the Hindus, one may find magic, nature worship, animal veneration and an unlimited number of deities. They find divine in everything, from the Himalayan peaks to the Ganges to the several inconspicuous sites where the gods and goddesses lived. Rituals are important in showing that God is in everything and ritual significance can be found in everyday activities such as the lighting of incense, bathing, and eating and marriage ceremonies.

The sacred texts of the Hindus include and oldest Vedas, of which the Upanishads are the most influential as it teaches the knowledge of God and records the spiritual experiences of the sages of ancient India. The Bhagvad Gita is an eighteen chapter book which teaches how to achieve union with the supreme reality through the paths of knowledge, devotion, selfless work and meditation. The path towards Nirvana or spiritual enlightenment is influenced by one’s karma.

According to the theory of Karma, the present condition of each individual’s life is a product of what one did in the previous life and one’s present acts, thoughts and decisions determine one’s future states. Buddhism: Buddhism was founded by an Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama in about 563 B. C. Buddhism is a path of practice and spiritual development leading to Insight into the true nature of life. Buddhist practices such as meditation are means of changing oneself in order to develop the qualities of awareness, kindness, and wisdom.

The experience developed within the Buddhist tradition over thousands of years has created an incomparable resource for all those who wish to follow a path — a path which ultimately culminates in Enlightenment or Buddha hood. Because Buddhism does not include the idea of worshipping a creator god, some people do not see it as a religion in the normal, Western sense. The basic tenets of Buddhist teaching are straightforward and practical: nothing is fixed or permanent; actions have consequences; change is possible.

Thus Buddhism addresses itself to all people irrespective of race, nationality, or gender. It teaches practical methods (such as meditation) which enable people to realize and utilize its teachings in order to transform their experience, to be fully responsible for their lives and to develop the qualities of Wisdom and Compassion. There are around 350 million Buddhists and a growing number of them are Westerners. They follow many different forms of Buddhism, but all traditions are characterized by non-violence, lack of dogma, tolerance of differences, and, usually, by the practice of meditation.

Confucianism: Confucianism is more than a religion, it’s a system of social, political, ethical and religious thought based on the teachings of Confucius and his successors. It has had a profound impact on the cultures of Korea, Japan, Vietnam and especially China. It has no priests, no temples and religious rituals, only a rational ethical system with strict norms, stressing loyalty to the ruler, obedience to one’s father and proper behavior. Confucius did not write down his philosophy, therefore the details of his teachings have been passed on by his disciples.

However, the most influential of the books written was the Analects which contained aphorisms, sayings and proverbs that were believed to be the most salient ideas of Confucian philosophy. The essence of all its teachings may be summed up under this one word ‘Jen’. The nearest equivalent to this difficult word is “social virtue”. All those virtues which help to maintain social harmony and peace like benevolence, charity, magnanimity, sincerity, respectfulness, altruism, diligence, loving kindness, goodness are included in Jen.

Confucius laid great stress on the cultivation of character, purity of heart and conduct. He exhorted the people to develop a good character first, which is a priceless jewel and which is the best of all virtues. The nature of man, according to Confucius, is fundamentally good inclined towards goodness. His teaching was largely concerned with the problems of good government. He said, “The Ruler himself should be virtuous, just, honest and dutiful. A virtuous ruler is like the Pole-star which, by keeping its place, makes all other stars to evolve round it. As is the Ruler, so will be the subjects. CONCLUSION It is clear from this lesson that culture is a complex and dynamic process, its roots very deep and branches far reaching. Individuals well informed in cultural knowledge have a significant edge over others due to their deeper understanding of how culture influences our lives. REFERENCES Samovar, L. A. , Porter, R. , & Stefani, L. A. (1998). Communication between cultures (3rd Ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. POINTS TO PONDER: ? Do personalities differ from culture to culture? ? Are there universal aspects of personality? ? What are the prominent features of Singapore culture?