Posted on

Summary of Project Feasibility

Summary of Project Feasibility Assessing the feasibility of Expanding Services (Revenue Increase), Frequent Shopper Program (Revenue Increase), and Increasing Efficiency enhancements are important for Kudler Fine Foods that will determine the success for the project. A “feasibility study focuses on helping answer the essential question of should we proceed with the proposed project idea? ” (Hofstrand & Holz – Clause, 2009).

Operational, technical, and economic feasibilities are what specify the project feasibility analysis. Operationally, the Expanding Services will increase the loyalty and profitability of consumers by providing contest, and cooking classes. This program should integrate into the existing workflow without possessing to make any type of tremendous problems to the operations. The extra advertising should help Kudler Fine Foods revenue to increase by drawing in more consumers.

The Frequent Shopper Program would only require little user training therefore, no major issues of computer illiteracy should occur. Frequent Shopper Program will provide high value incentives through a partnership with loyalty points program (Virtual Organization, Kudler Fine Foods, Sales and Marketing). This will enhance the attitudes at the point of sales. Kutler Fine Foods already use a POS server that would be a staging ground for the Frequent Shopper database.

Kudler’s operations are to increase efficiency by benchmarking Nordstrom department stores. Employee training programs and integration of new software system will facilitate the effort. Increasing efficiency has developed supplier relations program and has solicited the help of marketing to help roll out the program. The various types of proposed requirements that should be taken into consideration are the hardware and software. Hardware relates to the development of the system and software is for the information database and tracking.

TPS/Transaction processing system will capture and record information about the transactions that take place at Kudler’s. MIS/Management information systems will produce reports that management needs for planning. Executive information systems will provide the executives information that will be used for monitoring the competitive environment. Centralize management system hardware, front end web server, loyalty card and store server hardware will help assist the “Frequent Shopper Program. Economic feasibility is the cost/benefit analysis or CBA. CBA helps to give the project team/management in determining whether or not the proposed program is beneficial to the organization. Because the programs are not going to cause a dramatic increase in cost the company will benefit and be very successful. Reference Hofstrand, d. & Holz – Clause, M. (2009,). What is Feasibility Study? Retrieved April, 2010, from extension. iastate. edu

Posted on

How Successful Was Lenin’s Attempt to Create an Alternative Modernity in Russia by 1929?

How successful was Lenin’s attempt to create an alternative modernity in Russia by 1929? Overview The aim of this essay is to discuss how successful Lenin’s policies were in his attempt to create an alternative modernity in Russia by his death in 1924. By scrutinizing his actions and their individual impacts in relation to the desired modernity, historians can assess whether Lenin achieved the socialist dream he sought for. I will break down the essay into three components from which I can individually conclude their successfulness as an alternative modernity.

These shall be established in the introduction. Introduction The introduction will firstly discuss the crisis of modernity in the inter-war period in order to put Lenin’s rise to power and subsequent desire for a new society in context. This includes the general political and social crisis surrounding the propagating theories of nineteenth century thought. I will introduce the notion of a ‘socialist utopia’ and state the aims such a society seeks to establish.

I will indicate that my concluding thoughts are to be that Lenin undoubtedly created an alternative modernity in Russia; however it is clear that by the time of his death he regarded Russia as communist work in progress and realized that much had to be done in order to reach the preferred modernity envisioned by Marx and Engels. Russia achieved a society which was, in practice, a form of success but ideologically was less successful at achieving the state it required. Section 1

The first section will convey the new means and ways of the Russian government and compare this to what Lenin wanted for his party at the time and what Lenin had hoped would happen to the government eventually according to Marxist beliefs. I will consider the success of the revolution in 1917 and the way in which the government consolidated its power in the years thereafter. In order to do this I will need to examine the ways in which Lenin secured emancipation of the working class according to Marx teachings because it is using these beliefs that a utopia hoped to be established.

This includes the interpretation that authoritarianism would fix inter-war society in a time of fear and doubt. Other successes to consider include the ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’, the support for the Bolshevik Party and communism, uniting the workers of the world for revolution, the ability to spread communism, and the path to the ultimate stateless society. Section 2 The second section refers to the economic alternative that communism had to offer and assesses the success of the new method in following the socialist tradition.

I will note how the new forms of economic control were successful in that it transformed Russian economy into a more ‘modern’ system, however even though the system was undoubtedly communist, there were still capitalist elements that were not characteristic of the alternative modernity that Russia claimed allegiance to. I will discuss the success of Lenin’s policies such as ‘War Communism’ and the ‘New Economic Policy’ (NEP), considering how they adhered to the ideology on which they were based and whether they were economically successful or not. Section 3

The last section will establish whether society and culture was also revolutionized in the endeavor to create a new form of society. Modernism attempts to create culture and indeed, anything that could influence culture was used in order to consolidate and maintain support of communism from the Russian people. The egalitarian option that socialism offers was applied in many areas of society in the hope that it would create a better, stronger and more content social order. This includes the emancipation of women which is an ideological consideration concerning the communist ideas of equality between the sexes.

In this case practical needs were judged more important than ideological needs as reversal of many reforms concerning women were deemed essential to the regimes survival. Other cultural revolts that must be assessed include the attitude and dealings with the Orthodox Church, the use of arts and popular culture and the rise of propaganda. Conclusion The conclusion will state that Lenin did create of form of modernity that was different from anything politics had ever seen and that he did enjoy variations of success in comparison to the state of tsar ruled Russia, however this success was often limited and short lived.

Lenin had to adapt his Marxist beliefs many times in order to make them a feasible option for Russia. Indeed, he did successfully create an alternative modernity but he failed to obtain the socialist utopia which was his ultimate goal as practical want trumped the ideological battle. The quest for an alternative modernity was never meant to happen in Lenin’s lifetime, he was merely the instigator for what he hoped would develop into his idea of a perfect community. In this light, historians must conclude that Lenin was successful in achieving the starting point from which a utopia could emerge.

Posted on


1. Nowadays, many immigrants have moved to America(north, central, and south) for many reasons, searching for a fresh start. My family was one of them. I was born in Egypt and lived there for six years of my life. My family’s decision to immigrate to Canada was basically for my future. At that time, the state of the Egyptian government was very unstable, the economy was poor and there were many problems between Christians and Muslims in the country. Also, the education system in Egypt is not one of the best in the world. So, thinking of my future, my parents decided to immigrate to Canada.

I have been living here for 12 years now. My country will always be the best to my eyes but I have to say my place is in Canada. In one’s life, it is highly likely that one will hear somebody say “I’ve been lucky to have some great opportunities acting with some great people since leaving my country” or “ I have certainly been kept busy since leaving the street! ” talking about how much his life is better in another country. In M. G. Vassanji’s short story, “Leaving” we followed the plot which took place in Tanzania in the 21st century.

The story gives a clear representation of immigrant’s lives, their motives and their most dominant struggles. The story can be perceived from many different angles with the use of context, the character’s evolution, the language used and the plot. The origin of “ Uhuru Street” and more specifically of “Leaving” has much to do with the origin of M. G. Vassanji. Vassanji is a Canadian writer of Indian identity. He was born in Kenya and spent his early years in the south of Asia, in Tanzania. In his written pieces, he concentrates on the situation of south Asians living in Africa.

There, we can already see a direct link of vassanji’s life and the people he writes about. Much like Aloo in “Leaving”, he even received a scholarship to the university of Massachusetts. In his stories, Vassanji analyzes the lives of those people, which are affected by the several migrations. The short story that I chose takes place in Tanzania, Africa. It involves an Indian family living in Africa dealing with the possibility of migration of one of the sons to America and how this could affect his and his whole family’s life.

In the story, the son is helped by his family to go to university in America. The mother suffers because she is a widow who raised four children and has trouble letting her son go. “Leaving” mainly talks about the leaving of the place where our roots are, nowing that everything will change. M. G Vassanji’s style is very unique. It is rather simple and direct combining real life events with heart-felt emotions, nationalities and historical facts. This author had many motives and purposes in writing this story.

First of all, this story is a reproduction of a part of his experience because he went through the same life issues as Aloo did. Secondly, the story is a representation of the fears of Indians and immigrants in general. In “Leaving”, the mother fears that her son will loose a part of his heritage, living in a country where there is no link to it and where there is no daily practice of it and she risks loosing her son. She is also afraid of letting him go because of her protective nature and roots. Third of all, Vassanji intended to show the reader what immigrants go through, what their values are and how they live.

Aloo’s motive for leaving Africa even though he was not accepted in the program he applied for says a lot about the living conditions of immigrants to Africa. 2. A)The story is about the life of an Indian family of a widow mother, her two daughters and two sons living in Africa. At the beginning, we learn that the two daughters have gotten married and the mother misses them. Aloo’s mother, as we remark, places all her hope in her son Aloo hoping he will be a man with good opportunities followed by a bright future. Aloo and the narrator are the youngest of 4 children, 2 boys and 2 girls, raised by their widow mother.

We learn as we read the story that the daughters are married and out of their mother’s house. This leaves a large burden on the mother’s shoulders as she starts feeling emotions of loneliness. One day, the family sells their store and move from Uhuru Street to Upanga, which was described as peaceful and quiet. During Aloo’s graduate year, he goes on a life changing fieldtrip with a former professor back from abroad. His chat with the professor was the turning point that made Aloo get courage to apply to an American university.

In reaction to this desire, Aloo’s mother humored the boy, feeling this was a waste of time. she did not want to get his hopes up only to see them shattered afterwards. When the character finally receives the letter from the California institute of technology, Aloo learns he has been accepted in the agriculture program. Aloo initially wanted to go into medicine and had gotten accepted in the local university of Tanzania. Mother, surprised by the news, kept trying to put Aloo down to protect him and keep him from leaving telling him they did not have enough money.

She also joked about how some of his uncles in America would help with financial aid. When Aloo kept insisting, they all decided to confide in an old friend, Mr. Velji. Mr. Velji was very impressed by Aloo’s straight A average and said that it would be a good opportunity and a good experience for the young man. Mother had a hard time letting her son go but ended up doing it to make him happy. The final passage of the story is a letter from Aloo written from London telling his family how much London is a beautiful place and sharing his wonderful experience with them.

All the events that happened in the plot are a brief explanation of the passage. First, the event of the mother’s letting her other son, the narrator, go to America foreshadowed that she would have problems letting Aloo go as well but that she would finally let him leave. Second, when Aloo started having hope to go to America and was determined to go, foreshadows the fact that he would expect so much from his trip and would change during this trip as we read in the passage. Third of all, when the mother chose to ask Mr.

Velji’s opinions about Aloo’s departure, we could see that she knew what she was doing. She knew that, with his experience from going to America himself, he would be able to judge the situation wisely. This can be related to the character’s evolution in the passage. 2. B) We can see that, in this specific passage, two characters have evolved: Aloo and the mother. In the beginning of the story, the reader’s perception of Aloo is a young adult chasing after his dream of getting into the medicine program. He was viewed as an excellent student with a straight “A” average.

When he receives the letter from the university of California back and finds out he was accepted, he decides he would go to the university because of the fact that he was an Indian being accepted and welcomed by many fraternities in an American university. we can see that his acceptance was a very unusual thing happening because of the discrimination that exists in America nowadays towards immigrants. This event marked the start of his evolution. The passage itself is a letter written by Aloo to his family from London, where e had stopped to visit a friend, telling them how the places he has visited are so different and so beautiful.

This passage can have many interpretations. Aloo can be simply sharing a wonderful experience with his mother and siblings or he could be telling them that finally he is living and that what he used to live in Asia is not good enough. In London, he felt as if he was in a world of freedom and opportunities and that Asia was a prison that he escaped from. The second character to whom we can associate a certain evolution in the passage of the short story “Leaving” is Aloo’s mother. Throughout the beginning of the story up to the middle, the mother had been rather neutral about Aloo’s going away to university.

She did not want to encourage him because of many reasons. First of all, she knew that being of Indian origin, he would probably have more trouble than Americans in getting into the university. She did not want to get his hopes up and then see all of his dreams shattered because of the discrimination that exists in the U. S. A. Secondly, she knew that if he ever was accepted and did go away to university, he would probably like his life there more than his life in dare s salam and therefore would not think about coming back.

On the other hand, she also was afraid that he would loose a part of his Indian identity if he went to another country and changed his way of living. Basically, in all of the preceding reasons, the mother just wants to protect her child from the outside world that she knows nothing about. Then, in the second half of the story, the mother’s behavior and view concerning Aloo’s departure slowly starts changing. Her love for her son, her protective ways and seeing her son’s dreams being shattered when she tells him that he will not be leaving make her start to see that she needs to learn to let go.

In the passage, after the mother has read Aloo’s letter, she stares into the distance. She stares into the distance because she sees what she feared happening in front of her eyes. At this point, we see that she is still worried about her child especially after her interpretation of the words in his letter, but she is ready to accept what life brings him and let him build the bases of his own life. I think time is the wisest counselor for her. 2. d) In the passage, there is a sentence that has a rather hidden meaning from Aloo’s point of view.

Vassanji wrote, “Even the mountains are clean and civilized”. This part of the phrase means that Aloo is criticizing his old life, the life with his mother and siblings in Tanzania as to say that he has finally reached what is the real civilization. He is basically showing them that he is finally in a better place when he never even imagined of going there until a few months before. Vassanji wrote: “Aloo’s first letter came a week after he left, from London where he’d stopped over to see a former classmate. It flowed over with excitement. How can I describe it,’ he wrote, ‘the sight from the plane…mile upon mile of carefully tilled fields, the earth divided into neat green squares…even the mountains are clean and civilized. And London…Oh London! It seemed that it would never end…blocks and blocks of houses, squares, parks, monuments…could any city be larger?… How many of our Dar es Salaams would fit here, in this one gorgeous city…? A bird flapping its wings: Mr Velji nodding wisely in his chair, Mother staring into the distance. ” 3. As I mentioned before, this specific passage, can be viewed in two ways.

The most obvious one is that Aloo’s letter is simply a way of expressing his wonderful experience and sharing this happy moment with his family with no other intention. This interpretation is a rather innocent interpretation of Aloo’s character in the way that he is sharing his excitement of seeing things he has never even imagined before. The other decipherment of this passage is an unfavorable one. The view is that Aloo wrote the letter as a criticism of the Asian lifestyle and as a method of telling his family how he is in a better place and has a better life.

Some may even read the mother’s reaction of staring into the distance as a selfish one. The mother would be thinking about how her son has left her and went to a better place after all she did for him. She might even be jealous of the fact that her son has many opportunities that she never got to have as a young adult. Of course she is happy that he gets to go and chase after his dreams but she is sad at the idea that he chose his dreams over his mother. 4. With the use of context, character’s evolution and plot, we can see that this passage has a large variety of interpretations.

Aloo’s words are either perceived as innocent and good or selfish and bad. He could be writing to his family to share a wonderful, breathtaking experience or he could be writing to tell them how much life in Africa is a prison and how he has finally found the real life. Either way, the most important aspect of this passage is the fact that Aloo left his a country that resembled his own and people who are like him to go towards the unknown. What are his motives for doing so? The predominant incitement for this choice is the fact that he is an Indian boy being accepted and highly welcomed by several fraternities to the university.

This was truly a once in a lifetime opportunity because the Indians and immigrants in general, from what we understand from the story, were discriminated against at that time in America. Etymology of words: Green: “O. E. grene, earlier groeni, related to O. E. growan “to grow,” from W. Gmc. *gronja- (cf. O. Fris. grene, O. N. gr? nn, Dan. gron, Du. groen, Ger. grun), from PIE base *gro- “grow,” through sense of “color of living plants. ” The color of jealousy at least since Shakespeare (1596); “Greensleeves,” ballad of an inconstant lady-love, is from 1580. Meaning of “a field, grassy place” was in O.

E. Sense of “of tender age, youthful” is from 1412; hence “gullible” (1605). Greenhorn (containing the sense of “new, fresh, recent”) was first “young horned animal” (1455), then “recently enlisted soldier” (1650), then “any inexperienced person” (1682). Green light in figurative sense of “permission” is from 1937. Green and red as signals on railways first attested 1883, as nighttime substitutes for semaphore flags. Green beret originally “British commando” is from 1949. Green room “room for actors when not on stage” is from 1701; presumably a well-known one was painted green. ”[1] Block solid piece,” c. 1305, from O. Fr. bloc “log, block,” via M. Du. bloc “trunk of a tree” or O. H. G. bloh, both from PIE *bhlugo-, from *bhel “a thick plank, beam. ” Slang sense of “head” is from 1635. The meaning in city block is 1796, from the notion of a “compact mass” of buildings; slang meaning “fashionable promenade” is 1869. Extended sense of “obstruction” is first recorded 1649. The verb “to obstruct” is from 1570. Blockhead “stupid person” (1549) was originally a head-shaped oaken block used by hat-makers. Blockade first used 1680, with false Fr. ending (the Fr. word is blocus). Blockhouse is c. 500, of unknown origin. ” Flappig/Fly “”to soar through air,” O. E. fleogan (class II strong verb; past tense fleag, pp. flogen), from W. Gmc. *fleuganan (cf. O. H. G. fliogan, O. N. flugja, M. Du. vlieghen, Ger. fliegen), from PIE *pleu- “flowing, floating” (cf. Lith. plaukiu “to swim”). The O. E. plural in -n (cf. oxen) gradually normalized 13c. -15c. to -s. Notion of “flapping as a wing does” led to sense of “tent flap” (1810), which yielded (1844) “covering for buttons that close up a garment. ” Flying buttress is from 1669. Fly-fishing (from fly (n. )) is from 1653; while flying fish is from c. 511. Flying saucer first attested 1947, though the image of saucers for unidentified flying objects is from at least 1880s. Flying Dutchman ghost ship first recorded c. 1830, in Jeffrey, Baron de Reigersfeld’s “The Life of a Sea Officer. ” Slang phrase fly off the handle “lose one’s cool” dates from 1825. On the fly is 1851. Flying colors (1706) is probably from the image of a naval vessel with the national flag bravely displayed. ” Distance “c. 1290, from O. Fr. destance, from L. distantia “a standing apart,” from distantem (nom. distans) “standing apart, separate, distant,” prp. f distare “stand apart,” from dis- “apart, off” + stare “to stand” (see stet). The figurative sense is the same as in stand-offish. Phrase go the distance (1930s) seems to be originally from boxing. ” Plane “flat surface,” 1604, from L. plantum “flat surface,” properly neut. of adj. planus “flat, level, plain, clear,” from PIE *pla-no- (cf. Lith. plonas “thin;” Celtic *lanon “plain;” perhaps also Gk. pelanos “sacrificial cake, a mixture offered to the gods, offering (of meal, honey, and oil) poured or spread”), suffixed form of base *pele- “to spread out, broad, flat” (cf.

O. C. S. polje “flat land, field,” Rus. polyi “open;” O. E. , O. H. G. feld, M. Du. veld “field”). Fig. sense is attested from 1850. The verb meaning “soar, glide on motionless wings” is first recorded 1611, from M. Fr. planer (16c. ), from L. planum on notion of bird gliding with flattened wings. Of boats, etc. , “to skim over the surface of water” it is first found 1913. ” Maps [pic] [pic] Ramatan Abdel-Maksoud Analysis of “Leaving” 603-103-04 David Fielding March 6th 2009 ———————– [1] http://www. Etymonline. com (all etymologies of words)

Posted on

Hrm and Technology

1. 0 Introduction In today’s rapidly changing business world, the need has arisen to harness the resources to its optimum use in order to gain success in the business arena. Technology plays a vital role as this applies to the most valuable resource of Human resource too. Technology has greatly influenced the transformation from traditional and personal management to a more strategic human resource management approach. The ongoing technology improvement has paved the way for quick access to obtain the preferred resource regardless of geographical and environmental barriers.

The extent of technology use across various activities of HRM, especially in recruiting and selection covers from advertising positions, receiving applications, initial screening to final section. This particular search can be for entry level, middle level and high level position as appropriate, according to the external and internal factors of an organization. Huge cost reductions in HR have also been experienced through technology application, while, they have also led to adverse impacts such as redundancies and lay-offs.

Communication development technology contributes furthermore, from the recruitment process to career development process through training and development, and creates resource personnel in the organization. Computer based testing leads to unbiased selections, arbitrating to effective and efficient Human Resource Management. Access to Human Resource Information systems (HRIS) has also helped to automate most of the functions of HRM to a greater extent and allows the HR activities to run in a less cumbersome and efficient manner.

This report further outlines the adoption of virtual work and outsourcing as a result of modern technological evolution, and the benefits and impacts that technology has embraced towards Human Resource Management. 2. 0 DISCUSSION 2. 0 What is Human Resource Management? According to Samson & Daft, “Human resource management refers to the activities undertaken to attract, develop and maintain an effective workforce within an organization”. In other words HRM is the function dealing with managing people within the employer – employee relationship (Stone, 2005).

HRM function involves the productive use of people in achieving the organisation’s strategic business objectives and the satisfaction of individual employee needs. HRM is closely related to other management aspects, as its main objective is to improve the productive contribution of people. Human Resources Management encompasses a wide range of activities inclusive of identifying and deciding on staffing needs, hiring, recruiting and training the most suitable employees, ensuring and evaluating their performance, , and ensuring that the personnel and management practices conform to various regulations.

It also includes activities relating to managing approaches for employee issues such as benefits and compensation, safety, employee records and personnel policies. (Snell & Sherman, 2004). Human Resource managers plan, administer and review activities relating to staff selection, training and development, conditions of employment and other human resource issues within organizations (Peters, 2004). 3. 0 Objectives of using Technology in HRM The study of HRM describes what human resource managers do and what they should do.

While there are many definitions of HRM, its primary purpose is to improve the productive contribution of people within an organization. Until the last few years the discipline was known as personnel management. (Eddie & Smith, 2004). Now the term ‘human resource management’ is increasingly used in recognition of the importance of an organization’s workforce in contributing to the goals of that organization. Today’s human resource issues are enormous and appear to be ever expanding.

The human resource manager faces a multitude of problems ranging from a constantly changing workforce to coping with ever increasing government rules and regulations. Because of the critical nature of human resource concerns, they are receiving increased attention from upper levels of management. It used to be rare to see job advertisements for human resource managers. Now such advertisements are very common and encompass significant organizational responsibilities. People are the common element in every organization. From an organization’s perspective, its staff is its human resources.

It is people like you who produce the goods and services that create wealth. It is these goods and services that contribute to our standard of living. (Collins, 2005). There are many challenges facing organizations today. The better our organizations work, the easier it is for society to meet the present and future threats and opportunities. It can be said that the central challenge we face in society is to continually improve the performance of our organizations in both the private and public sectors. Part of this improvement will come from organizations becoming more efficient and effective.

This requires the effective management in these organizations. 4. 0 Technology in the modern business An Organization’s Technology is the process by which inputs from an organizations environment are transformed into outputs. This model integrates organizational level technology research with human resource management strategies. (Robert, Mathis, John Harold 2006). The model relates dimensions of technical processes to human resource practices, focusing on practices used to develop employees. These relationships are mediated by the type of skills employees use.

An empirical study of 139 employees found support for two hypotheses developed from the model. Results suggested that technology and HRM activities are connected through the level of cognitive skill complexity and the amount of support employees receive in developing new skills. Due to changes in the way decisions are made in organizations today (for example, making more decisions at lower levels) the connection between the work process, the skills employees need, and the emphasis on developing employees will become increasingly important. 5. Impact of Technology in HRM The technology has radically changed the way employees and managers access human resource data, and the use of online HR solutions has expanded rapidly over the past year. (Collins, 2005). Self-service and online tools have become important in the continuing effort to improve the management of HR functions and to drive competitive advantage, the survey found. “As the lines blur between HR data and that used by the rest of the enterprise, organizations find it makes sense to consolidate all employee data using a corporate portal.

The importance of HR self-service is increasing, especially those applications that improve employee performance. “We’re seeing the strongest growth among applications focused on managing and enhancing worker skills and productivity–no surprise given that up to 70 percent of an enterprise’s expenses are people-related. _New skills required: As new technologies are developed and implemented, there is an Urgent need to upgrade existing employee skills and knowledge if the organization wants to survive and flourish in a competitive world.

Additionally there will be growing demand for workers with more sophisticated training and skills especially in emerging ‘hot’ sectors like telecommunications, hospitality, retailing, banking, insurance, biotechnology and financial services. For example, services. For example, service sector employee requires different skills than those utilized in manufacturing. (Peters, 2004). They need strong interpersonal and communication skills as well as the ability to handle customer complaints in a flexible way. _ Downsizing: New Technologies have decimated many lower end jobs with frustrating regularity.

Increased automation has reduced employee head counts everywhere. The pressure to remain cost effective has also compelled many a firm to go lean, cutting down extra fat at each managerial level. The wave of merger and acquisition activity, in recent A time has often left the new, combined companies to downsize operations ruthlessly. The Positions that have been filled up with workers possessing superior technical skills and Knowledge has also tilted the poser base ( in many emerging industries) from management to technical workers.

It is not uncommon today for managers to have limited understanding of the technical aspects of their subordinates’ work. Managing the expectations of knowledge workers is going be major area of concern for all HR Managers in the years ahead. (Akin, Norton, Peg, 2004) _ Collaborative work: Technological change has resulted in hierarchical distinctions being blurred and more collaborative teamwork where managers, technicians and analysts work together on projects. Team based incentive plans have also made it necessary for all classes of employees to work in close coordination with each other. Telecommuting: The rapid advances in technology have led to the relocation of work from the office to the home. Telecommuting has become the order of the day where employees work at home, usually with computers and use phoned and the Internet to transmit letters, data and completed work to the home office. Companies have been able to increase their applicant pool through this mode and employees have also been able to live further away from cities and gain considerably due to savings in rents, transportation etc. _ Internet and intranet revolution:

Internet and information technology have enabled companies to become more competitive by cutting costs. Manufacturers, bank, retailers, and you name anything have successfully harnessed computer technology to reduce their costs and deliver want satisfying goods and services to customers at an amazing speed. Even in HR, internets and intranets are being used to handle training, benefit administration, performance management and out placement functions, in recent times. (Peters, 2004). The cumulative impact of new technology is so dramatic that at a broader level, organizations are changing the way they do business.

Use of the internet to transact business has become so commonplace for both large and small companies that e-commerce is rapidly becoming the organizational challenge of the new millennium. Managing virtual corporations and virtual workers in this technology driven world is going to pose tough challenges for HR Managers in the years ahead. _ Role of HR in a virtual organization: A virtual organization is network of companies or employees connected by computers. Virtual workers work from home, hostel, their cars, or wherever their work takes them.

The human resources function plays a unique role in a virtual organization: i. Psychological fit: The lack of face-to-face interaction in virtual organization, virtually compels HR professionals to determine the psychological fit between different units initially. (Collins, 2005). ii. System alignment: Given the lack of physical proximity, it becomes even more critical that the organization’s mission, vision and measures be aligned and that all parties are familiar with these issues, the HR function can play an important role in this task. iii.

Reconsider rewards: In a virtual unit. Very few permanent exit. In many cases, the organization will be staffed with workers having different motivational forces. So rewarding each entity in an effective way becomes an important job. iv. Reconsider staffing needs: In a virtual organization, most employees work on a contractual basis. Finding people with requisite skills, a knowledge and motivation level becomes an important activity. v. Build partnerships: Virtual, teams have to be built from scratch paying attention to their unique requirements.

The concept of employment needs to be replaced by the concept of ‘partnership’ especially when most tend to work independently away from the permanent employees or owners of the organization. vi. Develop leaders: Leaders become the major forces for building trust, creating a mission and instilling a sense of belonging to the organization HR can play a major role in ensuring that leaders assume these responsibilities and meet them in an effective away. (Collins, 2005). 6. 0 Technology in HR Activities A human resources officer develops, advises on and implements policies relating to the effective use of personnel within an organization.

HR personnel work comprises a number of different but related policies, all of which are required by organizations that employ people, whatever the size or type of business. These cover areas such as working practices, recruitment, pay, conditions of employment and diversity. HR staffs need to ensure that the organization employs the right balance of staff in terms of skills and experience, and that training and development opportunities are available to employees to enhance their performance in order to achieve the organization’s objectives. Collins, 2005). Typical work activities As a human resources (HR) officer they must have a clear understanding of their organization’s business objectives and be able to devise and implement policies which select, develop and retain the right staff needed to meet these objectives. (Farquharson, 2006)The exact nature of the work activities varies according to the organization, but is likely to include: working closely with departments, increasingly in a consultancy role, assisting line managers to understand and implement policies and procedures; • promoting equality and diversity as part of the culture of the organization; • liaising with a wide range of organizations involved in areas such as disability, gender, age, religion and health and safety; • recruiting staff – this includes developing job descriptions, preparing advertisements, checking application forms, short listing, interviewing and selecting candidates; • developing policies on issues such as working conditions, performance management, equal opportunities, disciplinary procedures and absence management; • advising on pay and other remuneration issues, including promotion and benefits; • undertaking regular salary reviews; negotiating with staff and their representatives on issues relating to pay and conditions; • administering payroll and maintaining records relating to staff; • interpreting and advising on employment legislation; • listening to grievances and implementing disciplinary procedures; • developing HR planning strategies with line managers, which consider immediate and long-term staff requirements in terms of numbers and skill levels; • planning and sometimes delivering training, including inductions for new staff; • Analyzing training needs in conjunction with departmental managers. (Farquharson, 2006) When considering all the above accepts of a human resource manager, they must allocate much and more time and energy on selecting the right candidate to the right position.

The technology can be used on Selected HRM activities such for Employee recruitment, employee selection, training and development and performance appraisals 6. 1 Recruitment & Selection The HR manager faces the main challenge when it comes to Recruitment and selection the manager has to be much more careful when choosing the right candidate. A recent study showed that the correlation between the ability to deliver well in a job interview and the ability to do well on the job is just 14 percent, or one good employee out of every seven people you hire. (Okpara, 2006). If you or your recruitment agency has found itself in a similar position, there are proven methods to improve this average. The same study considered these methods. Background Checks – According to (Okpara, 2006).

The 14 percent increases to 26 percent if the candidates passes a series of employee background checks like falsified educational credentials and other serious liabilities, background checks only reveal information when an individual has been caught being lying. Of equal or greater value are underlying attitudes, as well as actions at which an applicant has not been caught, to most fully protect the organization against negligent hiring lawsuits and to assure the organizations are hiring reliable, ethical, hard-working employees. Knowing this information about the people the company hire is absolutely essential because a business can be held liable for accidents and crimes committed by its employees. Personality Tests – consider traditional assessment tools used in the hiring process. These assessments measure personality characteristics.

Personality tests raised the rate of success in hiring to around 50 percent positive. (Okpara, 2006). Many employers want to know a candidate’s aptitude and personality type to ensure an appropriate job match. Some want to know it before they hire a candidate, some before they promote an employee, and some before they create work teams. In an effort to learn more about an employee, employers today administer personality tests. There are many kinds of personality tests available, but in the workplace a validated and reliable occupational assessment is critical to success on the job. (Okpara, 2006). Those professionals do not pass or fail but should be selected for the job that matches their individual personalities.

Abilities Assessments – When applicants were tested for both abilities and personality, employers found they were hiring the right people just over half or about 54 percent of the time. (Times, 2006) After managers have used to identify their employee’s strengths and areas for development, they can use the Series to software’s available to develop the competencies that are most important to their professional growth and success. (Okpara, 2006). The software’s are conveniently located on the Internet, making it easy to implement and execute. These systems help managers to keep doing the things they do well, stop doing those things that interfere with their effectiveness, and start doing things that will improve their performance. These systems encourage managers to perform their jobs better.

It gives emphasis to the importance of managers to the organization and its goals and pays big dividends in the form of improved productivity, fewer “people problems,” increased employee retention, and greater profits. It is an ideal method for managers to improve their leadership and management skills. It can be used anywhere and at any time because it is on the Internet. After responding to questions and doing online exercises, it gives managers the tools they need to maximize their strengths, become better managers, and lead more effectively. Interest Assessments – To take it one step further, the study considered interest assessments, an even more sophisticated tool. It measures the job-related qualities that make a person productive – Thinking and Reasoning Style, Behavioral character, and Occupational Interests.

These systems were used for placement, promotion, self-improvement, coaching, succession planning, and job description development. (Okpara, 2006). It is a flexible management tool that develops Job Match Patterns that can be customized by company, department, manager, position, geography, or any combination of these factors. Job Match Assessments – The study found that the most impressive and successful assessments are integrated measures of a combination of factors, and also include the concept of job match. They use cutting-edge technology combined with empirical data to evaluate the candidate against employees who are exemplary in performing their duties. Okpara, 2006). These recruitment assessments increased an employer’s ability to identify excellent candidates more than 75 percent of the time. Hiring top performing employees may be one of the most valuable activities you can do for your business. This system combine tested and reliable data derived from pre-employment screening assessment system, with a customized job analysis survey to create a benchmark by which the manager can hire an employee who best fits for the job and company. Employee Selection Process By including job match as a key factor in your employee hiring process, allocation of human capital will be significantly more effective.

Most employee hiring decisions are made with inadequate information, but Profiles International assessments will deliver the information that the manager need to know before tendering a job offer and making a hiring mistake. 6. 2 Performance Appraisal Technology may contribute to performance management and thus to appraisal satisfaction in two primary ways. First, technology may facilitate measuring an individual’s performance via computer monitoring activities. This frequently occurs as an unobtrusive and rote mechanical process that relies on minimal input from individuals beyond their task performance. Jobs that incorporate this type of appraisal technology are frequently scripted or repetitious and involve little personal judgment or discretion. Working in a call centre or performing data entry are examples. (Peters, 2004).

In this instance, the very act of performing a job simultaneously becomes the measure of how well a jobholder accomplishes it. Keystrokes, time on task, or numbers of calls made are recorded and at once become both job content and appraisal content. A second approach to technology and performance management changes the emphasis so that technology becomes a tool to facilitate the process of writing reviews or generating performance feedback. Examples here include multi-rater appraisals that supervisors or team members generate online, as well as off-the-shelf appraisal software packages that actually construct an evaluation for a manager. (Peters, 2004). This particular technological approach occurs more often in the ontext of jobs that involve personal judgment, high discretion, and open-ended tasks for which real-time performance monitoring is not an option. 6. 3 Training and Development The activity of Training and development has been made more efficient from the implementation of technology to it. Organizations now use computer based training sessions which use a visually demonstrated and presentation oriented training programme for the employees. (Peters, 2004). Programmes are stored in computers which reduce the necessity of getting trainers to repeat the training programme over and over again. The employees are also equipped with software’s which enable them to re-check and use as manuals for the work they perform, thus influencing a cheaper mechanism of Self Training. (Peters, 2004).

Errors and omissions are eliminated in the training programme, making the employees to understand their job processes more efficiently. 6. 4 Reward System The revolution is being driven by new technologies and by the major social and political changes that have led to the globalization of business and to the increasing numbers of democratic, capitalist countries. Billions of people have recently entered, or are about to enter, the capitalist world. (Collins, 2005). A smaller but very significant number have entered the world of electronic connectedness as a result of the growing popularity of the Internet, satellite TV, cellular phones, and videoconferencing.

The combined effects of technological and political change on organizations are enormous and multifaceted. Increasingly, organizations are finding that in order to be competitive in the new global economy they have to reinvent themselves in important ways. This is true of their basic organizational structure, their global reach, and their use of information technology. (Collins, 2005). It is also true of their reward systems. The old reward practices and systems that worked well in nationally focused, bureaucratic, capital-intensive, hierarchical, steady-state, near-monopoly corporations. Dramatic change is needed, and it is not difficult to identify what the key theme of today’s reward systems should be: a focus on rewarding excellence.

Many factors argue for excellence being the number-one focus of any organization’s reward system, including the ability to attract and retain the best people and to motivate the kind of performance that an organization needs in order to succeed in the new economy. Creating reward systems that focus on excellence and treat employees as human capital investors requires a major change in the way most systems operate. (Collins, 2005). Reward systems typically treat employees as job holders who are rewarded according to the size and nature of their jobs and how well they perform their jobs. Viewing them as human capital investors suggests a different approach to rewards in two respects. First, it suggests basing rewards on the value of the human capital that people bring to the organization.

What their job is at a particular moment is much less important than the value of their knowledge and skills. Second, it suggests rewarding people according to how effectively they use their human capital-their knowledge, skills, and competencies to help the organization improve its business performance. Creating reward systems that recognize the value of human capital and reward performance excellence is not easy. It requires a careful articulation among an organization’s reward system, business strategy, organization design, information systems, and employees. (Collins, 2005). I will begin our discussion of how it can be done by considering how reward systems impact organizational effectiveness. 7. 0 HRIS Human resource ‘info system’

The Human Resource Information System (HRIS) is a program or software or online issue solving method for the data entry, data tracking, and data information needs of the Human Resources, payroll, management, and accounting functions within a business. (Stone, 2005). In general packaged as a data base, hundreds of companies sell some form of HRIS and every HRIS has different capabilities. It is very important to select the HRIS carefully based on the capabilities you need for the organisation. Benefits of a Human Resource Information System (HRIS) is no longer a “nice to have,” but a necessity to help HR manage both a sea of information and the money spent on benefits plans, as HR faces limited resources and constantly changing data. (Stone, 2005). As a result the HRIS that most effectively serves companies tracks: Pay raises and history, pay grades and positions held • Performance development plans, training received • Disciplinary action received, personal employee information • High potential employee identification, and applicant tracking, interviewing, and selection. An effective HRIS provides information on just about anything the company needs to track and analyze about employees, former employees, and applicants. Your company will need to select a Human Resources Information System and customize it to meet your needs. 8. 0 Benefits of Technology in HRM Technology is changing the way we work, the roles we undertake, and the interactions through which work gets done. (Peters, 2004).

Companies are leveraging to manage the complexity of the global HRM and to deliver high-quality service. Companies use either a common system universal to all location For a example, HSBC uses people soft Ids to identify all the employees dispatched globally. SAP is the system that is used in MAS Holdings Globally, which enables the employees, suppliers and the management and the higher management to make Operational, analytical and strategic decisions, or a set of non standard system in unique to a each location to handle their HR programs and informational needs. The problem with the latter is that data are often late, incomplete and/or inaccurate. However because the time and cost factors they are the most commonly used.

To reduce the negative impact of such problems some companies are developing service centers utilizing self service technologies and HRIS databases to eliminate routine work and to push delivery point back the employee or line management. With an appropriate use of HRM technology Human Resources staff enables employees to do their own benefits updates and address changes (example: by creating a data entry format , uploading it to the intranet and later program the filled data to be store into a central location), thus freeing HR staff for more strategic functions. Additionally, data necessary for employee management, knowledge development, career growth and development, and equal treatment is facilitated. (Farquharson, 2006).

Finally, managers can access the information they need to legally, ethically, and effectively support the success of their reporting employees. 9. 0 Conclusion Technology and Human Resource have brought about a radical change in meeting with the strategies, policies and implementation of the corporate planning of an organization. In other words, it has become the nucleus of an organization, which caters to the requirements of selecting the right candidate for the suitable job, training and coaching them to develop and achieve the desired levels to maximize objectives and to create a competitive edge in the industry and ultimately sustain them in the organization with a career development plan.

In this process, opportunities will be given to those who are really in need of a specific exposure in another country so as to acquire the required skills. This so called valuable resource will be able to cater to the demand with a long-term view, by adopting the right technology advancement at the right time and improve the overall operation of the organization with a clear vision and hence contribute to the bottomline which will enhance the share value and satisfy the shareholders to achieve satisfaction. 10. 0 Reference ? Stone, J, R. (2005). Human Resource Management. (5th Ed. ). John Wiley and sons, Australia ? Anne Osborne Kilpatrick, James A. Johnson, 2004. Handbook of Health Administration, Co. CRC Press ? Collins, M. (2005).

Professional recruitment: Journal of proquest education, p. 32. ? Eddie, C. & Smith. (2004). Human Resource and Personnel Management: Text and Cases, Co. Tata-Mcgrawhill, p. 87-89. ? Farquharson, M. (2006). Performance appraisal: Journal of proquest education, p12. ? Grey. . (2005). Human resource planning: Journal of proquest education. ? Robert L. Mathis, John Harold Jackson, 2006. Human Resource Management, Co. Thomson South- Western ? Okpara, J. O. (2006). Job satisfaction: American journal of academy of business, p81. ? Peters, L. (2004). five keys to effective recruiting: Ivey business journal, p 21-24. ? Snell & Sherman, 2004, managing human resource 12th edition

Posted on

The History of Schizophrenia

The History of Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder with symptoms of emotional instability, detachment from reality, and withdrawal into the self. The word “Schizophrenia” is less than 100 years old. However the disease was first identified as a discrete mental illness by Dr. Emile Kraepelin in the 1887 and the illness itself is generally believed to have accompanied mankind throughout its history. There are documents that identify Schizophrenia can be traced to the old Pharaonic Egypt, as far back as the second millennium before Christ.

Depression, dementia, as well as thought disturbances that are typical in schizophrenia are described in detail in the Book of Hearts. The Heart and the mind seem to have been synonymous in ancient Egypt. The physical illnesses were regarded as symptoms of the heart and the uterus and originating from the blood vessels or from purulence, fecal matter, a poison or demons. Some recent study into the ancient Greek and Roman literature showed that although the general population probably had an awareness of psychotic disorders, there was no condition that would meet the modern diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia in these societies.

At one point in history, all people who were considered “abnormal,” whether due to mental illness, mental retardation, or physical deformities, were largely treated the same. Early theories supposed that mental disorders were caused by evil possession of the body, and the appropriate treatment was then exorcising these demons, through various means, ranging from innocuous treatments, such as exposing the patient to certain types of music, to dangerous and sometimes deadly means, such as releasing the evil spirits by drilling holes in the patient’s skull.

One of the first to classify the mental disorders into different categories was the German physician, Dr. Emile Kraepelin. He used the term “dementia praecox” for individuals who had symptoms that we now associate with schizophrenia. The nonspecific concept of madness has been around for many thousands of years and schizophrenia was only classified as a distinct mental disorder by Kraepelin in 1887. He was the first to make a distinction in the psychotic disorders between what he called dementia praecox and manic depression. Kraepelin believed that dementia praecox was primarily a disease of the brain, and particularly a form of dementia.

Kraepelin named the disorder ‘dementia praecox’ (early dementia) to distinguish it from other forms of dementia (such as Alzheimer’s disease) which typically occur late in life. He used this term because his studies focused on young adults with dementia. The Swiss psychiatrist, Eugen Bleuler, coined the term, “schizophrenia” in 1911. He was also the first to describe the symptoms as “positive” or “negative. ” Bleuler changed the name to schizophrenia as it was obvious that Krapelin’s name was misleading as the illness was not a dementia (it did not always lead to mental deterioration) and could sometimes occur late as well as early in life.

The word “schizophrenia” comes from the Greek roots schizo (split) and phrene (mind) to describe the fragmented thinking of people with the disorder. His term was not meant to convey the idea of split or multiple personality, a common misunderstanding by the public at large. Since Bleuler’s time, the definition of schizophrenia has continued to change, as scientists attempt to more accurately delineate the different types of mental diseases. Without knowing the exact causes of these diseases, scientists can only base their classifications on the observation that some symptoms tend to occur together.

Both Bleuler and Kraepelin subdivided schizophrenia into categories, based on prominent symptoms and prognoses. Over the years, those working in this field have continued to attempt to classify types of schizophrenia. Five types were delineated in the DSM-III: disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, residual, and undifferentiated. The first three categories were originally proposed by Kraepelin. These classifications, while still employed in DSM-IV, have not shown to be helpful in predicting outcome of the disorder, and the types are not reliably diagnosed.

Many researchers are using other systems to classify types of the disorder, based on the preponderance of “positive” verses “negative” symptoms, the progression of the disorder in terms of type and severity of symptoms over time, and the co-occurrence of other mental disorders and syndromes. It is hoped that differentiating types of schizophrenia based on clinical symptoms will help to determine different etiologies or causes of the disorder. The evidence that schizophrenia is a biologically-based disease of the brain has accumulated rapidly during the past two decades.

Recently this evidence has been also been supported with dynamic brain imaging systems that show very precisely the wave of tissue destruction that takes place in the brain that is suffering from schizophrenia. The 1800’s saw a slow progression towards an eventual schizophrenia definition. From the 1800’s on, schizophrenia history begins to gain ground as researchers began to understand the nature of the disease: Although the nineteenth century saw great strides towards a schizophrenic definition, “lunatic asylums” of the time were often little more than human zoos.

For a fee, well to do ladies and gentlemen could tour the asylums, viewing the patients. No doubt the psychotic behavior of schizophrenics made them popular “attractions” during these degrading tours. Schizophrenia in Recent Times The start of the twentieth century saw, for the first time in schizophrenia history, a practical schizophrenia definition and the birth of effective treatments. In 1911 Eugene Beuler first used the term schizophrenia, and his schizophrenia definition includes symptoms such as blunted emotions, disordered thoughts, and loss of awareness.

Then in 1957, Kurt Schneider created the schizophrenic definition still in use today, and is the first person in the long history of schizophrenia to list the currently accepted features of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia definitely has a very significant genetic component. Those who have a third degree relative with schizophrenia are twice as likely to develop schizophrenia as those in the general population. Those with a second degree relative have a several-fold higher incidence of schizophrenia than the general population, and first degree relatives have an incidence of schizophrenia an order of magnitude higher than the general populace.

The History of Schizophrenia Treatment in the Twentieth Century Schizophrenia history abounds in unusual treatments and bizarre “cures. ” Indeed, the twentieth century stands apart from the rest of schizophrenia history because it saw the first effective schizophrenia treatment: the first antipsychotic drug was created in 1952. The twentieth century also saw some controversial schizophrenia “cures. ” Portuguese doctor, Egus Moniz, developed the lobotomy in the 1930s. Moniz won a Nobel Peace prize for his work in 1949.

The lobotomy procedure cut the nerve fibers from the frontal lobe to the interior of the brain, where emotions are generated. Patients were less agitated and aggressive after a lobotomy. Of course, patients were also left indifferent and with blunted emotions, but this didn’t squelch the lobotomy’s popularity as a schizophrenia treatment. Patients could be released from hospitals after lobotomies, saving both hospitals and family members money. Lobotomy procedures varied. American neurologist John Freeman created perhaps the most bizarre procedure.

Freeman traveled America performing lobotomies for the benefit of audiences comprised of journalists and medical professionals: to call him a medical showman isn’t stretching the truth much. Freeman’s lobotomies were simple, quick, and medically preposterous. With the patient under anesthesia, Freeman placed an ice pick (yes, you read that correctly) into an area just above the eyeball. Using a hammer, he drove the ice pick into the patient’s brain to a depth of approximately one inch. Lobotomies fell into disfavor as people noticed patients often died from lobotomy-induced epilepsy or surgical infections.

Severe brain damage was also shown in many cases (not that it should have required a study to prove an ice pick to the brain caused extensive damage). Still, between the 1940s and the 1950s over 40,000 Americans were lobotomized. Shock therapy was developed at the same time lobotomies were darkening schizophrenia history. Approaches to shock therapy varied. Some doctors used insulin injections; others preferred Metrazol or electricity. Insulin often left patients in comas. Both Metrazol and electricity caused seizures, and electric shock therapy often caused memory loss.

Surprisingly, electroconvulsive therapy is still used to treat some cases of schizophrenia and severe depression. Current techniques are supposed to be much safer, but many medical professionals consider electroconvulsive therapy very dangerous, and something that should only be used as a last resort. Since schizophrenia may not be a single condition and its causes are not yet known, current treatment methods are based on both clinical research and experience. These approaches are chosen on the basis of their ability to reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia and to lessen the chances that symptoms will return.

Medications For Schizophrenia: Antipsychotic medications have been available since the mid-1950s. They have greatly improved the outlook for individual patients. These medications reduce the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia and usually allow the patient to function more effectively and appropriately. Antipsychotic drugs are the best treatment now available, but they do not “cure” schizophrenia or ensure that there will be no further psychotic episodes. The choice and dosage of medication can be made only by a qualified physician who is well trained in the medical treatment of mental disorders.

The dosage of medication is individualized for each patient, since people may vary a great deal in the amount of drug needed to reduce symptoms without producing troublesome side effects. The large majority of people with schizophrenia show substantial improvement when treated with antipsychotic drugs. Some patients, however, are not helped very much by the medications and a few do not seem to need them. No frames is difficult to predict which patients will fall into these two groups and to distinguish them from the large majority of patients who do benefit from treatment with antipsychotic drugs. A number of new ntipsychotic drugs (the so-called “atypical antipsychotics”) have been introduced since 1990. The first of these, clozapine (Clozaril), has been shown to be more effective than other antipsychotics, although the possibility of severe side effects – in particular, a condition called agranulocytosis (loss of the white blood cells that fight infection) — requires that patients be monitored with blood tests every one or two weeks. Even newer antipsychotic drugs, such as risperidone (Risperdal) and olanzapine (Zyprexa), are safer than the older drugs or clozapine, and they also may be better tolerated.

They may or may not treat the illness as well as clozapine, however. Several additional antipsychotics are currently under development. Antipsychotic drugs are often very effective in treating certain symptoms of schizophrenia, particularly hallucinations and delusions; unfortunately, the drugs may not be as helpful with other symptoms, such as reduced motivation and emotional expressiveness. Indeed, the older antipsychotics (which also went by the name of “neuroleptics”), medicines like haloperidol (Haldol) or chlorpromazine (Thorazine), may even produce side effects that resemble the more difficult to treat symptoms.

Often, lowering the dose or switching to a different medicine may reduce these side effects; the newer medicines, including olanzapine (Zyprexa), quetiapine (Seroquel), and risperidone (Risperdal), appear less likely to have this problem. Patients and families sometimes become worried about the antipsychotic medications used to treat schizophrenia. In addition to concern about side effects, they may worry that such drugs could lead to addiction. However, antipsychotic medications do not produce a “high” (euphoria) or addictive behavior in people who take them.

Another misconception about antipsychotic drugs is that they act as a kind of mind control, or a “chemical straitjacket. ” Antipsychotic drugs used at the proper dosage does not “knock out” people or take away their free will. While these medications can be sedating, and while this effect can be useful when treatment is initiated particularly if an individual is quite agitated, the utility of the drugs is not due to sedation but to their ability to diminish the hallucinations, agitation, confusion, and delusions of a psychotic episode.

Thus, antipsychotic medications should eventually help an individual with schizophrenia to deal with the world more rationally. Treatment of schizophrenia depends upon a life-long regimen of both drug and psychosocial, support therapies. While the medication helps control the psychosis associated with schizophrenia (e. g. , the delusions and hallucinations), it cannot help the person find a job, learn to be effective in social relationships, increase the individual’s coping skills, and help them learn to communicate and work well with others.

Poverty, homelessness, and unemployment are often associated with this disorder, but they don’t have to be. If the individual finds appropriate treatment and sticks with it, a person with schizophrenia can lead a happy and successful life. But the initial recovery from the first symptoms of schizophrenia can be an extremely lonely experience. Individuals coping with the onset of schizophrenia for the first time in their lives require all the support that their families, friends, and communities can provide. ———————– 1

Posted on

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

Davis Weiss The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a federal statute that was signed into law in America by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. It is divided into 10 titles. The bill contains provisions that will go into effect on June 21, 2010 and September 23, 2010. Also, the additional provisions will go into effect in 2014. Title I of H. R. 3590 will ensure quality affordable health care for all Americans by eliminating discriminatory practices by health insurers such as pre-existing condition exclusions.

Title I also extends dependant coverage up to age 26, caps insurance companies non-medical expenses, and prevents unfair termination of insurance policies. Title II expands eligibility for Medicaid to lower income persons and assumes federal responsibility for much of the cost of this expansion. These bills provide enhanced federal support for the Children’s Health Insurance Program, simplify Medicaid and CHIP enrollment, and improve Medicaid services.

Title III will strengthen the quality of healthcare by establishing The Physician Quality Reporting Initiative (PQRI) which is a value-based purchasing program for hospitals that link Medicare payments to quality performance. Title IV puts into place a new interagency council to promote healthy policies and to establish a national prevention and health promotion strategy. Title V will encourage innovations in health care workforce training, recruitment, and retention, and will establish a new workforce commission.

Title VI creates new requirements to provide information to the public on the health system and promotes a newly invigorated set of requirements to combat fraud and abuse in pubic and private programs. Title VII allows certain hospitals and treatment centers to receive discounted and/or generic drugs to aid their budget. Title VIII establishes a new, voluntary, self-funded long-term care insurance program, the Community Living Assistance Services and Support (CLASS) Independence Benefit Plan, for the purchase of community living assistance services and supports by individuals with functional limitations.

No taxpayer funds will be used to pay benefits under this provision. Title IX levies an excise tax of 40 percent on insurance companies and plan administrators for any health coverage plan that is above the threshold of $10,200 for individual coverage and $27,500 for family coverage. It also requires employers to disclose the value of the benefit provided by the employer for each employee’s health insurance coverage on the employee’s annual Form W-2.

And lastly, Title X requires employers that offer and make a contribution towards employee coverage to provide free choice vouchers to qualified employees for the purchase of qualified health plans through Exchanges. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act reforms the health care system by expanding the availability of health insurance, regulating health insurance coverage, and restructuring health care delivery, including how it is paid for. The bill would reduce the number of uninsured Americans by 31 million, leaving only 6 percent of nonelderly adults uninsured.

A number of different mechanisms are used to increase coverage, including expanding Medicaid, which provides insurance to low-income parents and children at very small cost; establishing state-based insurance exchanges with subsidies for low- and middle-income households; requiring individuals to obtain coverage; and mandating that most employers offer health insurance. The new act would make Medicaid available to all individuals earning less than 133 percent of the federal poverty line, or $14,500 a year ($29,500 for a family of four) while improving services for beneficiaries.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act also create state-based health insurance exchanges, called Health Benefit Exchanges, which are marketplaces where consumers can shop for and purchase health insurance. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act include numerous reforms of the health insurance market, in many cases regulating this market for the first time. The Congressional Budget Office estimates that about 8 million such persons would remain uninsured.

Additionally, the bill restricts access to abortion services in the Health Benefits Exchanges and, in particular, for people receiving federal subsidies. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act saves money by reducing the cost of premiums that families and individuals pay to maintain their health insurance policies. It also saves money by getting rid of waste in the medical industry by establishing a center where physicians can report waste and by supporting comparison shopping for medical equipment. In addition, the act helps small businesses to save money by giving them the opportunity o offer health benefits to their employees without devastating the budget of their company. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act raise revenue by imposing an annual fee on the health insurance sector. Such fees would be imposed on insurance companies that sell high cost health insurance plans. The fee is designed to generate smarter, more cost-effective health coverage choices. The reconciliation bill delays this new fee until 2018 so that plans have time to implement reform and begin to save from its efficiencies.

The amount of the fee is $8. 0 billion in 2014, $11. 3 billion in years 2015-2016, $13. 9 billion in 2017, and $14. 3 billion in 2018. According to the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), the legislation will reduce the deficit by $138 billion over the first decade and by $1. 2 trillion in the second decade, as compared to current legislation. The CBO has recalculated its estimates several times, first projecting a savings of $132 billion, then $118 billion, and $143 billion. It also increases the Medicare Hospital Insurance (HI) tax rate by 0. percentage points on an individual taxpayer earning over $200,000 ($250,000 for married couples filing jointly). The revenues from this tax will be credited to the HI trust fund. The taxable base of the HI tax is also broadened by including net investment income. The act would also impose a ten percent tax on amounts paid for indoor tanning services. The tax is effective for services on or after July 1, 2010. Reduces the deficit in the next ten years and beyond. The bill is fully paid for with revenue provisions that focus on paying for reform within the health care system.

Posted on

Are Steroids Worth the Risk

Are Steroids Worth the Risk? One of the most controversial issues with all athletes are steroids. How harmful are they? Is it worth the risk to get a competitive edge on the game? Should it be banned from sports? Steroids are not the answer; not only are there physical bad side effects, there are also psychological effects short and long term. The history of steroids dates back to the 1930s, the were taking from male testosterone originally. They were used to treat HIV-AIDS and cancer.

They also helped stimulate bone growth and appetite, in order to help those who had trouble with weight gain. An example of this was a man named Barry Tyson who was suffering from HIV and took steroids in order to help build more mass in order to fight off infections from the disease. He noted that, within the first dosage he had taking at night he woke up the next day feeling like a new man and had abundant sources of energy. Some were along theses lines of using it for good medical use and healing it was lost for the benefit of athletes.

The effects of steroids are tremendous in both genders. Yes even girls have been caught on steroids to help give them an advantage in sports. The risk that effect boys in the long run are; Testicular shrinkage, blood clotting, breast development, impotence (inability to get an erection), sterility, jaundice (liver damage), shortening of height, heart disease, cancer, and even tumors. Now why would someone want to risk all those long term effects just to get a little stronger. Some would say, “well I’m just going to use it for a little then I will get off of it. Well steroids is just like any other drug, it is addicting. People try to get off, but once off they realize they cannot get gains as quickly as Palcsik 2 they were before and go back on the steroids thinking just one more time will be fine. After time has passed they never get off and become addicted just like any other drug. Even if you are still skeptic here are some short term effects on boys from steroids: Premature balding or hair loss, dizziness, trembling, seizures, pain when urinating, and even aching joints.

Not only are boys effected, but some girls try to get a competitive edge over the fellow athletes. Steroids are not meant to be taken by woman, because a woman’s genetics are not meant for male testosterone. Some of the effects on girls are; increased facial hair, development of masculine traits such as deepening of the voice, loss of feminine characteristics, shrinking of breast, and even extreme increased sex drive. These risks are not worth having just so they can become better or close to their competition.

Most woman’s effects of steroids are irreversible and once one cannot be changed. Another trend found in woman is that when they take steroids they tend to drink more often than usual. This leads to even more liver problems and possible shut down of this organ may be a long term effect. Not only are there physical effects, but there are some psychological effects also. One of the most major factors is “roid rage. ” Roid rage is a result of steroids that cause drastic moods swings and aggression.

No just little mood swings, they are extreme uncontrolled bouts of anger caused by steroid use. The longer use of the steroids the more so called rages are experienced and to a greater extent. Back a few years ago there was an entertainment wrestler that used steroids excessively. As the years went on he never noticed any rages or irritability. Suddenly one day he snapped in a violent rage killing his wife and strangling his little seven year old son. Other psychological effects are depression, becoming delusional, paranoia, and even problems sleeping.

So not only are there all these mental aspects of steroids that can destroy you, but also physical effects too. Many people believe that taking steroids to get the competitive edge is worth it. Look at all these negative effects. The short term results are not worth the extreme damaged caused to athletes body. People also say well steroids shouldn’t be illegal in sports, if you choose to take the risk then it is Palcsik 3 that persons responsibility. The answer is no steroids are not okay in sports or at all in daily life.

It was initially banned not because it was considered cheating in sports, but because of the unhealthy effects of steroids and the addictions caused by it. Also it is cheating it is not a persons natural ability, it is fake and additives to the body that are naturally there. People might say well people use it when they are sick so it can’t be that bad. Steroids should only be used in medicine to help patients that need it because it is controlled by doctors so u cant exceed the amount you are supposed to have. It is a controlled prescription that the doctors understand.

Steroids are not the answer for athletes. If you have the raw natural talent then you have what it takes to be a superb athlete, if not then keep trying till it is no longer possible. If it is not meant to be then it isn’t meant to be, there is no point in sacrificing your body just for a few years of possible fame or glamor. Also its not even guaranteed that a person will succeed in the what the reason is that they are taking steroids. The question is are you willing to go throw pain and suffering for the rest of your life just for a advantage over the competition for a temporary time?

Posted on

Zara Internationalization Analysis

ZARA-Internationalization Analysis When it comes to internationalization strategies, ZARA is the perfect case to look at. By putting in practice a set of different strategies, ZARA has accomplished great positioning worldwide and is one of the most recognized brands in the apparel market. Listed below are the main internationalization strategies ZARA has used to become one of the leading clothing brands in the world. Operating Filial

When ZARA first started opening stores outside of Spain, at the end of the 1980’s and beginning of the 1990’s, they looked for markets that resembled the Spanish market, had a minimum level of economic development and would be relatively easy to enter. The entry into the market would be decided by a team of economy experts from the headquarters that, after analyzing the micro and macro components of the market that affected ZARA directly, would say whether to enter or not. This analysis was made to see how much alike was the international market to the Spanish one.

This allows them to, successfully, have the same products in the international market and the local market, distribute the same products between both markets, apply same decisions taken by the head offices and save money and time on flexibility between the international and local market. These key factors, allowed ZARA to have more control of its operations and an easier management. It is no coincidence then, ZARA’s first European stores (outside of Spain) opened with high success in countries like Portugal, France, Greece, Belgium and Cyprus.

Joint Venture A joint venture can be defined as an agreement between two or more companies through which they compromise to build a new firm to achieve a certain purpose. This kind of strategy allows the company to expand with limited capital investment, and therefore, to limit the risk too. The company can also be benefited from the partner’s experience in a certain field. Making joint ventures with public foreign corporations can allow the company to start prosperous relationships with that certain market, and use them in the future.

It was not clearly seen how could this alliance benefited Benetton due to the fact that they’re one of ZARA’s very strong enemy; but Benetton admitted that because of this potential competitiveness, they would prefer to have some control into this new ZARA venture and also to have it as a partner and not as an enemy in the Italian market. Franchise ZARA has 31 franchised stores in 12 countries. The company use franchises in countries that are risky, small, or with significant cultural differences or administrative barriers that feeds the desire to invest in this market.

ZARA in their franchises, has very strong financial partners, franchises are well established and are usually for five years. ZARA charged its franchisees from selling their products a fee that varies between 5% and 10% of its sales. The company offers its franchisees complete access to business services, which are human resources, logistics and training, all without any cost and allows them to return to 10% of merchandise. Some of the advantages that a franchise offers to ZARA are, less investment and less risk, standardization and relatively little scrutiny.

Franchise also has its disadvantages, difficult to find local investors and seek to ensure the policy coherence in the image. But if a company like ZARA that is so big and recognized around the world use a franchise as an investment decision, is because the benefits are more than the losses. Manufacturing Contracts Autonomous Filial ZARA is an exclusive and dedicated local market, it has strong relationship to the country where is located. It is relatively autonomous but not at the same level as the qualified filial and is considered a small replica of the parent company.

While management stressed that ZARA used the same business system in all the countries which it operated, there was some variation in retailing operations at the local level. The first store opened in each market, usually a leader store for the market, played a particularly critical role in refining the marketing mix by affording detailed insights into local demand. The marketing mix that emerged there was applied to other stores in the country as well. Pricing was also part of this market based mix. However if a decision was taken to enter a particular market, customers effectively bore the extra cost of supplying it from Spain.

ZARA had historically market local currency for all the countries in which it operated on each garments price tag. The higher prices outside did imply a somewhat different positioning for ZARA overseas, particularly in emerging markets. For example in Spain about 80% of the citizens can afford ZARA. It’s different in Latin-American countries like Mexico for cultural and economic reasons because the average income in Mexico is $3000 compared to $14000 in Spain. The Mexican people who buy in ZARAare the upper class and the middle class, which is the class that knows fashion that is accustomed to buying in Europe, or in the United states.

In Mexico ZARA’s are targeting 14 million inhabitants compared to 35-36 million in Spain, but 14 million is more than enough to put in a network of stores there. Differences in positioning also affected the stores which products were sold and ZARA’s overall image. For example in South America, ZARA’s products had to present a high-end rather than a mid-market image and it was emphasized that they were “made in Europe”. However, the image presented was never one of “made in Spain”. Qualified Filial A qualified filial is a unit with great strategic relevance in the entire corporation.

It acts in coordination with other units of the multinational corporation, mostly influencing them with strategic behavior and their expertise on a specific technology. Thus, a qualified filial has to be a center of excellence. In ZARA, the international distributing centers can be considered as qualified filials, for distribution is one of the key factors in ZARA’s selling process. International distributing centers are located in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, where shipments are consolidated from the main distributing center in Arteixa.

Working under Just in Time policies and systems, distributing centers have a great responsibility linking the stores with Arteixa, and at the same time, implementing distributing strategies that affect them. These centers allow a rapid flow of information and merchandise to the different stores, so keeping their levels of excellence are vital for the process. This is why ZARA invests on their ongoing improvement to keep up with technology as it improves and making it a flexible and reliable system so it doesn’t fails.