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Should College Athletes Be Paid?

Should College Athletes Be Paid? Should college athletes be paid? This question has been the subject of debate for many years. There are pros and cons to both sides of the issue, but college athletes deserve to be paid for several reasons. One reason is that college athletes are not allowed to work and earn money when they are playing a sport. Another is that college athletes can contribute to a winning team that attracts fans and raises ticket sales and can bring in money through sponsorships and merchandising. Paying college athletes will also prevent them from accepting bribes, such as money, cars and clothes.

Another consideration is how are athletes going to afford all the necessary expenses for college, especially if they come from poor families. Some people say that athletes are being paid with an education, but what if an athlete has an injury that requires surgery? Athletes and their families will need money to pay medical bills, which will be expensive. Surgery is not cheap and they may not be able to pay the medical bill. Lastly, paying athletes may help them stay in school longer rather than turning professional where they could stand to make a lot of money. “Should College Athletes Be Paid? ” New York Public Library. 2003. 21 Dec. 2009 . ) College athletes should be paid because they are not allowed to work and earn money. (“Slaves of Big Time College Sports. ” USA Today. 2000. Eitzen, D Stanley. 21 Dec. 2009 . ) Without that money, many athletes may not be able to afford college or the associated expenses, such as food or rent if they live off campus. This defeats a key goal of college, which is to make students self-sufficient and be able to take care of themselves without their parents or guardians.

Another reason that college athletes should be paid is that they attract fans and sponsors but receive none of the profit. It has been estimated that a Division One school can earn as much as $750 million from ticket sales and merchandising in just one football season. (“Slaves of Big Time College Sports. ” USA Today. 2000. Eitzen, D Stanley. 21 Dec. 2009 . ). That amount equals almost $11. 3 million per player! The school should take some of the profit, and the college athletes should receive the majority of it, which clearly does not happen. Instead none of the money goes to the athletes.

In addition to ticket sales and merchandising, schools also receive sponsorships. Merchandise brings in less than $1 million annually to the University of Florida compared to the $69 million total revenue. Again, this number would be significantly less in a school that did not win back to back-to-back championships. Merchandise is low on the list of revenue behind boosters, sponsorships, ticket sales, etc. (“Should Student Athletes Like Tim Tebow Be Paid for Endorsements? ” The Bleacher Report. 2009. Brown, Jeremy. 10 March 2010 http://www. thebleacherreport. com).

The head of the Tennessee women’s basketball team receives $200,000 a year from sponsorships and radio and television shows, in addition to her $175,000 salary. The $200,000 she receives from sponsorships and radio and television goes directly to her: the athletes do not get a penny of it. (“Should College Athletes Be Paid? ” Issues and Controversies. 1999. 18 Dec. 2009 . ) Paying college athletes would prevent them from accepting bribes. An opposing school could offer a key player on the team money to throw a game. That key player could be bribed into doing this. If athletes were paid, it would reduce the chances of this happening.

Players may also be bribed with money or cars to go to a certain college. This would have the effect of making wealthier schools better at sports because they can afford to pay the players with bribes. Another reason for paying college athletes is to keep them in college. The truly good athletes may have the opportunity to turn professional in their junior year and make millions of dollars. If they are at least being paid some money in college, that could give them a reason to stay and complete their senior year and graduate. Some people say that college athletes are being paid with an education.

An education is important and should be the priority, but the reality is many Division One athletes go to college to play sports with the hope of becoming professional. An education does not pay for food or clothes or an injury that may happen. Medical bills are expensive, and the athletes and their families might not be able to afford the necessary medical treatments. Furthermore, institutions’ athletic scholarships in reality are not usually good enough to support entire teams. “We examined such scholarships available at our institution, and it is clear that most scholarships aren’t ‘full rides. They fail to cover a lot of the expenses throughout the four years of college. In addition, there is no guarantee that an annual athletic scholarship will be renewed for every returning student athlete. ” (“Should Student-Athletes Be Paid? ” The Sport Digest. Martin M. 2008. 9 March 2010 http://www. thesportsdigest. com. ) Athletes should be paid to play for many reasons. College athletes are not allowed to work and to earn money for school and related expenses. They also attract fans and raise money from ticket sales, sponsorships and merchandising to benefit their schools but do not receive any of that money in return.

Paying athletes may also prevent them from accepting bribes such as money, clothes and cars. Lastly, if athletes were paid, it could help encourage them to stay in school and waiting until graduating before they turn professional. Bibliography Brown, Jeremy “Should Student Athletes Like Tim Tebow Get Paid For Endorsements? ” The Bleacher Report. 16 November 2009. Croton Harmon High School Library, Croton on Hudson, NY. 10 March 2010. http://www. thebleacherreport. com Eitzen, D Stanley “Slaves of Big Time College Sports” USA Today. September 26 2000. Sirs. Croton Harmon High School Library, Croton on Hudson, NY. 1 December 2009. http://sks. sirs. com M, Martin “Should Student Athletes Be Paid? ” The Sports Digest. 21 April 2008. Croton Harmon High School Library, Croton on Hudson, NY. 9 March 2010. http://:www. thesportsdigest. com Shenk, David “Should College Athletes Be Paid? ” New York Public Library. 27 July 2003. Croton Harmon High School Library, Croton on Hudson, NY. 21 December 2009. http://nypl. org “Should College Athletes Be Paid? ” Issues and Controversies. 4 June 1999. Facts on File. Croton Harmon High School Library, Croton on Hudson, NY. 18 December 2009. http://www. 2facts. com

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Analyzing Supply of Demand Simulation

Analyzing Supply of Demand Simulation ECO/365 January 31, 2010 Analyzing Supply of Demand Simulation Supply and demand is a significant element of business procedures thus this paper will evaluate how supply and demand affects a business via a simulation provided by the University of Phoenix. In this paper, I will talk about the reasons for changes that occur in supply and demand. I will talk about how shifts in supply and demand influence the organization’s decision making process as well.

I will also cover the four key points established within the reading assignments and how they relay to the simulation and how every theory can be related to situations in a workplace environment. This paper will establish how price elasticity of demand influences the decisions of the consumer and the organization. Changes in Supply and Demand There are quite a few factors that influence supply and demand in the simulation. These factors demand for the apartments, the availability of the apartments, the price of the apartments, the quantity of people or renters who are interested.

According to the simulation, a demand curve is downward sloping. During the simulation, as the price of the apartments decreased, demand for them increased. The supply curve, however, is sloping upwards. The number of two-bedroom apartments increased as the price increased. An excess in the industry for the apartments make use of downward demands on the price for the apartments. So therefore in order for GoodLife to attract renters, they would need to lower their prices. Shifts that Affect Decision Making

The different shifts in supply and demand affects decision making in several ways in regard to the simulation. In the simulation the changes that GoodLife were trying to make as well as the changes in the population of Atlantis had an effect on the supply and demand of the simulation. Since the renters changed their preferences, the demand for the apartments that GoodLife offered decreased. GoodLife then decided to renovate the apartments and make them into condominiums that they could for sell. By doing this, GoodLife caused a decrease in the supply as well as a decrease in the demand.

Given that, the supply and demand curve equally moved to the left. Four Key Points Four key points in the simulation were supply and demand, equilibrium, shifts in the supply and demand, and price ceilings. The simulation is based on supply and demand and is very helpful in understanding the different factors that can affect it. According to the simulation, a demand curve is downward sloping. According to our text, a demand curve illustrates how a “change in the price level will change aggregate expenditures on all goods and services in an economy” (Colander, 2010).

In reference to the simulation, as the price for the apartments decreased, demand increased. The supply curve, on the other hand, is upward sloping. The number of two-bedroom apartments increased as the price increased. Equilibrium is a concept in which opposing dynamic forces cancel each other out. In other words, equilibrium can be described as the position at which quantity demanded meet up with the supply that is presented. The quantity demanded will surpass the quantity supplied which can possibly lead to shortages, if prices are below the equilibrium point.

At this point, the prices have a tendency to rise in order to increase the supply until the equilibrium is met. A shift in the demand curve can occur because of a change in the income, a change in the price or a change in tastes. A shift in the supply curve can because of change in the costs of production, a change in technology, or a change in price of goods. A price ceiling takes place when the government places a legal limit on how high the price of a product can be. In order for a price ceiling to be successful, it must be put below the market equilibrium.

Applying Simulation to Workplace The impact of supply and demand changes can have a big influence over the software industry. The technology involved in the software industry never really stays at the same level because technologies constantly change. However, if you were to take a closer look at things, computers and software evolve about every six months to a year and half; hence the reason technology is the constant factor that prompts change in the software industry. Elasticity of Demand Price elasticity of demand refers to the way prices change in correlation to the demand.

People with lower incomes are inclined to have lower price elasticity because they have less money to spend. People with a higher income are inclined to have higher price elasticity since he can afford to spend more money. In both cases, “ability to pay is negotiated by the intrinsic value of what is being sold. If the thing being sold is in high demand, even a consumer with low price elasticity is usually willing to pay higher prices” (WiseGeek, 2010). Basically, goods or services presented at a lower price lead to a demand for greater quantity.

Price elasticity of demand also explains that price becomes more elastic, because consumers can always choose to buy a good or service that is cheaper, in this case, prices will change with demand. In addition to this, completion for a certain good or service can also affect price elasticity of demand because it keeps prices lower. In summary, according to the simulation process, the demand curve is sloping downward, which causes the quantity demand to increase as the price decreases. The suggestion was for the management company to decrease its rental rates, which would therefore increase the demands for apartments.

The supply curve is sloping upward, so therefore the quantity supplied increases as the price decreases. As stated, the quantity demanded balances out the quantity supplied at the equilibrium point. Nevertheless, when prices are below equilibrium, the quantity demanded surpasses the quantity supplied. In retrospect, when prices are above equilibrium, quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded, which cause an excess. References 1) WiseGeek. (2010). What is Price Elasticity of Demand?. Retrieved from http://www. wisegeek. com/what-is-price-elasticity-of-demand. htm

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Starting a Business: Musical Instrument Dealership

The Opportunity Music has power to attract almost all the people. In a country like Bangladesh historically people have practiced music for a long time. That implies that musical industry can get only bigger and bigger in the future which should increase the demand of the musical instruments. And with only a few competitors the opportunity in musical instrument dealership and selling musical instrument can be really huge. In our research we have observed that now day’s people are very brand conscious. Keeping that in mind we are introducing ESP Guitar for the first time in Bangladesh which is a very much renowned brand in the whole world.

It is a Japanese brand who makes electronic guitars and basses. It is a very popular brand in many countries right now. ESP is well known for their stylist guitars and basses. Many popular rock and metal bands are using ESP recently and we believe it will be very popular in our country as well because there are number of rock and metal bands in our country now. We are introducing this new brand because according to our analysis it will give us a competitive advantage over our competitors and it will also differentiate our company from all the major players of the industry.

Apart from launching ESP in Bangladesh we are also offering installment system which should attract more students who are the main target customers of our company. With the help of the technical and management team of EBS we are also offering free servicing of the musical instruments. Overall we can say that the opportunity in the music industry is huge. We believe we can capitalize this for our benefit. We intend to do that by our creative idea and meeting all the customers’ needs. Products and Services Tune and Play will sell new and used musical instruments and accessories.

Our primary items will be electric and acoustic guitars, amplifiers and electronic keyboards, drams and some local instruments like harmonium, tobla and flute. In addition we will have a full service, on-site repair and customization department (band instruments, guitars and electronics). Tune and Play will offer several name brand instruments such as: • Electric and acoustic guitars by ESP. • Bass Guitar • Keyboards • Pianos • Drums • Amps • Mixer • Microphone • Processor • Sound-Card • Foot-Pedal • Violin • Saxophone A very well stocked accessory department to support the above items. In addition to complete repair services for our products, we will emphasize upgrades and customization items to develop other income streams our competitors have not considered. When carrying a brand name item conflicts with giving the customer the best all-around value, we will always pursue the product that best suits our client’s interest. Marketing Analysis Target Market Our main target customers are musicians who are ready to pay anything for their desired instrument.

However within that musician customer, there are different segments, ranging from professionals, to semi-professionals, to hobbyists and novices. We intend to target musical novices, hobbyists, and semi-professionals. These groups include the largest percentage of musicians, with the greatest amount of disposable income. These market segments can generally be approached with the same marketing techniques, and can be very loyal when treated properly. We are also targeting the students of those schools where ‘Music’ is offered as a mandatory course to them.

Moreover there are many music school are present at Dhaka, and the numbers are in rise. Reasons for Buying our Product We are the only store in Dhaka who will offer ESP brand instruments for which musicians have a high demand. We will also offer the novice to semi-professional musician, the convenience of a wide selection, unique offers, experienced and reliable staff, and an educationally-focused community center; all in one location Again most musicians need support and service. The instruments that we sell can be difficult or impossible for end users to service.

Potential clients tend to seek stores that can fulfill these services through word of mouth referrals or by using direct shopping experiences. These musicians come back time after time if they feel they are getting a fair deal. Therefore, we will ensure enough numbers of technicians for them always, so that they can find solution of their instrument’s problems any time. We will also provide one year warranty for the brand items. Analysis of Marketing Data: To know about the customer preferences and needs towards musical instrument, we conducted a market survey.

After successfully completing the survey analysis, we had a more clear idea of what a potential buyer or musician desires from a music store. For our survey, we targeted people whose who are above 15 years old. We found that 53% people prefer rock music, 27% people prefer heavy metal and rest of the people like classical and pop music. 47% people like to buy Guitars from a music store, 27% 1ike to buy Keyboards, 13% like to buy Drums and others prefer to buy some local instruments like Harmonium, Flute etc.

We found that people want both cash and installment payment available in the store. We found out, almost 40% people usually buy instruments for their learning purpose, 35% people buy because they are in band, and rest of the people buy by following their favorite artist. 80% people want lifetime free servicing if the instrument is not broken and rest of the people prefer stores should give year-end sales with 10%-15% discount. For people, Dhanmondi, Panthapath and Uttara as the most convenient place fir shopping. Industry Analysis

Since the inception of Bangladesh, basic musical instruments were being manufactured by some local manufacturer. The department was being run by some minor players and import for marketing for international brands didn’t exist at all. The market of musical instrument grew massively during late 70s and early 80s when many artists & bands were emerging. Demand of many international instruments like guitar, drums started to increase along with those regional instruments. From that time the need of importing instruments of various brand had became a lucrative opportunity for entrepreneurs.

Further, with the technological advancement and immensely growing demand, more and more instrument seller were becoming available but there was not enough legal and economic support to install any authorized dealership or franchising for the provision of brand demand. Though 40 years back from now Melody & Co. , one of the musical instrument dealers, started their business in Old Town of Dhaka during the Pakistan era, they were just a dealer of regional instruments like harmonium, Tablas etc. Industry situation: Although enough growth has taken place in the musical instrument sector but most of it can be attributed to the random brand growth.

Similarly Value Added Services have grown but are still a drop in the bucket. Now that the competition has been introduced in the instrument sector some very positive impact have been observed on the growth of the sector in a short span of time which is expected to continue to grow for at least next couple of years. Key Success Factors: • Potentiality of music industry: As the music scenario in Bangladesh is improving and getting the touch of western influence, people are also getting interested in western instruments like electric guitars, drums etc. Emerging brand consciousness: Now days, musicians and artists are being more conscious about the brand. They now prefer brand over cost, as brand represent their image, style and quality. • Globalization: Due to globalization the market in Bangladesh is also getting the attention of the rest of the world. MNC’s from different side of the world also want to access this new market before any of their competitors. So international instruments brands will eagerly enter this market to diversify their risk. • Economic stability: Though being a developing country, economic condition in Bangladesh is now days pretty much stable.

So the buying power of Bangladeshi people is also healthy enough for these instrument businesses. Trends: Technological: Technologically Bangladesh is about a couple of years back dated from the developed countries. As a result of that technological advancement in musical instrument is not that significant for last few years. Due to lack of proper knowledge and equipments there is no authorized manufacturing sector for instruments, except those handmade instruments. Political: Politically Bangladesh is a very unstable country. But this specific business has no connection with politics at all.

But considering the international DFI or Franchising, political assessment is necessary. Due to political corruptions and instability, Bangladesh is sometimes favorable or unfavorable country for MNCs depending on the situation. Considering the political aspect, this instrument business does not have much to care about. Societal: As this is related with culture and art, societal influence has tremendous impact over our business. Most societies of Bangladesh are conservative and they are attached with traditional Bangladeshi culture.

These influence traditional Bangladeshi musical instruments like Harmonium, Tablas etc. But guitars & drums are more likely considered as western influence which is sometimes considered as a negative aspect by them. So to certain extent societal factors drive the industry. Assessment of Industry: By considering the five forces of an industry, we can assess our musical instrument industry from five different sides. Bargaining Power of Supplier: In this specific business sector, suppliers have enough power to dominate over instrument dealership business in country like ours. Because of the economic sloth advancement, the suppliers (the brands) do not usually that much care about authorizing dealership in our country. • Also the brands that are more popular in Bangladesh will have a higher demand, any musical store will want to be a licensed dealer of them. • Cost of selecting and switching suppliers is quite high. All these factors determine the supplier’s dominance over the industry. Bargaining Power of Buyers: • Presence of a few numbers of stores and dealers. • Cost of buying brand products from abroad is quite high and heavily taxable.

These factors determine the buyer’s low power over the industry. Threat of new Entrant: • High opportunity of profitable venture. • The market is not saturated yet. • Low burden of government rules and regulations So, the threats from new entrants are high in this industry. Threats of Substitute: • Substitute products are limited and weak. • Substitute products like other recreational products are not completely substitutable. So, threat of substitute products is quite low even do not exist at all. Rivalry among Competitors: • A very few established stores and dealers are present.

Most of the other stores are discrete and unstable, which usually sell those regional instruments like Harmoniums, Tablas. • The cost of production is quite high. • Products are rated at fixed price. • Switching between products is costly. So rivalry among the existing competitors is moderate. It is not extreme because of less switching power of customers and fixed price, and also not much less because of the low number of dealers. Competition Analysis After doing some research we have come with some direct, indirect and also some future competitors of our music store. major ones are identified. 1. Existing huge music stores : In Dhaka city, there are 4-5 huge music stores which are OMNI, World music, Golden music and Music melody. They all have an approximate monthly sale of 10-15 lacs. Among our main competitor OMNI is our main concern. OMNI is the dealer of YAMAHA guitars and Pearl drums, which cost them a huge amount. Their initial investment was 2-3 crore, they business is mainly equity based, they didn’t take any loan because OMNI music store is a part of the huge business group. They reached their break even 4. 5 years.

Demand for their music instrument is stable but on some special occasions their sales increase like on valentines day, pahela baishakh, independence day etc. Key success factor are commitment, honesty, right price quality and loyal customer. The other huge music stores mentioned earlier like golden music, music melody, world music whose business share is almost similar. They have a monthly sale of 10-12 lacs. They also bought many different brands that differentiate their music store. Music melody produce some local instruments but in a small scale. [pic]

Competitors Position based on Sales 1. Existing small music stores: There are some small competitors in this market. They mainly get their product from the big competitors because investment costs need a huge amount of money to bring instruments. They also sale regionally produced instruments like harmonium, bahala etc. This kind of stores is also our concern because some of them may have the potential to grow as a huge competitor. 2. Future opening of music store: Music appeals everyone in the world. Music industry in Bangladesh is growing at a steady rate.

Because now days Nokia, Benson & hedges etc are coming up with competition to bring out the talents from our country. This gives even small time musicians grow in confidence to buy some heavy instruments. Also music TV programs in all channels and music schools are establishing in Dhaka this also demand music instruments. So as demand for music instruments are growing, the more there will be openings of music store. Competitive advantage: In order to sustain and expand in this competitive marketplace we will take effective decision and implement them.

Our store is providing the product of ESP. We will provide brand uniqueness. Also we will offer some after sale service to our customers who will buy expensive instruments costing more than 50,000tk. We are also providing some different service like: an exchange offer of your instrument with similar instrument but this would not be similar for everyone like we will check the instrument first that decide whether it will be profitable to exchange so that after repairing we can sell it again a good price also sometimes we may require some money with the instrument depending on the product.

We will also repair different instruments in our store with a minimum charge of starting tk. 1000. Also we will provide customers with the service of customizing the instruments like color requirements, putting a tattoo or art, band logo on their guitar or other instruments charging differently depending on instrument. These services make our stores different from others. Marketing Plan Pricing Policy: For pricing, we divided our products in two segments. For ESP brand items, we are going to follow cost based pricing policy and for other products, we are going to follow competitor based pricing policy.

These pricing strategies will help us sustain in the market, as well as make profit. Cost Based Pricing Policy: In this policy, we would consider all our expenses. These include transportation cost, utility cost, rental cost, promotional cost, storage cost etc. Once we find out all our expenses, we would divide it by the number of instruments kept in our store. This will give us expense per unit. After that, we would add the cost of the instrument itself with the expenses per unit. Then we will add 30% profit margin. An example is shown below:

Selling price = Total Cost / ((100-margin) / 100) If Total Cost of a guitar is TK 70,000, then by applying this formula, we get: Selling price = 70, 000 / ((100 – 30) / 100) = TK 100,000 Competitor based pricing policy: This is a method where we will use prices of the competing products as a benchmark instead of considering own costs or the customer demand. This will be applicable for products that my competitors are offering as well. For example guitar accessories, amps, keyboard, piano, drums etc.

The reason for selecting this strategy is because it would be really difficult to survive in price wars with my competitors. They have more experience and they are also in this business for a longer time. As a result they have already covered a lot of their investment. This means they can offer products at a lower price than us. Place: Our store will be located in Panthopath, Dhaka. It will be situated near Bashundhara City. Reasons for selecting this place are as follows: -some of my competitors are located here. This means customers will prefer this place, since they have many options. since our store will be outside Bashundhara City, we can operate at a comparatively lower rent. -Panthopath is lucrative place for conducting business. -as there is sufficient transportation facility, people can easily visit our store. -Since there are some jamming pads located near our store, people are likely to pay us a visit. After some years, we are planning to expand our business to some other locations. One of our priorities will be Uttara. This is because looking at the current market scenario, there are no musical stores in Uttara till now.

Product: Our main focus is ESP guitars because ESP guitars are unique and are preferred by a lot of the younger generation. They like its exceptional designs. Some of the designs available are X-shaped, V-shaped etc. Besides that, the sound of ESP guitars is good for both riffs and lead guitar. For other guitars, it is tough to match the price of ESP, providing the same quality. Promotion Strategy Our critical marketing program will be the grand opening, so we will place our initial advertising to give the greatest coverage.

Our specific goal for the event is to create a big buzz for the local music community has ever seen regarding a new store. We will target our desired customer base using radio, newspapers, hand leaflet, banners and word of mouth. At present, radio is the easiest way to reach musicians for the simple reason that the love of music is what drives us to become musicians. Newsprint reaches a large portion of the public, letting them see what we have to offer before making a trip to the store. Large billboard and banners in different areas and hand leaflets are also very useful way to inform the people about our promotional activities.

We will also have regular advertisement in different youth oriented magazines. Another promotional plan is to telecast our advertisements in different area based local cable channels. This is also a useful tool to inform people in economic way. Word of mouth is the one area we really hope to see develop, as a personal endorsement by a customer is worth more to us than what any advertisement can achieve. Distribution: We will follow the following strategies: 1. Direct purchases from manufacturers – generally the best price, but higher minimum orders. 2.

Purchases from national distributors – large selections, good prices. 3. Purchases from regional distributors – small selection, average pricing. Management team We believe an efficient management team can increase the productivity of company. And a productive workforce can be an asset for a company and it can provide the company with a competitive advantage over the major players of the industry. We have started this business on the basis of partnership rules and regulation. There are seven partners and we all are the students of North South University.

We know each other for a long period of time and we believe with our co operative effort we can make this company a very successful one. As we all are partners of the company and have contributed equally to the initial investment so all of us will be included in the decision making process. But for instant decision making we have prepared an organ gram. |Chairman |M. Riaz Mahmud | |CFO |M. Nahian Morshed | |Board of Directors |M.

Faizur Rahman | |Board of Directors |Mustafa Waki Chodhury | |Board of Directors |Mohona Khan | |Board of Directors |M. Shahriar Firoz | |Board of Directors |Rizon Minhazur Rahman | We are hiring 5 sales executives, who will run our store. Our requirement is H. S. C. passed, fluent in English and have basic computer literacy knowledge.

We will hire persons who are with good interpersonal skill and can convince the customers easily to buy instrument and behave well with the customer so that they remain loyal and happy with our service. Delivering Process Our business is an import oriented business. So, we’ll have to wholly depend on shipping for the delivery process and also container trucks will also be involved to deliver the instruments as the port is situated in Chittagong and we’ll have to transport the items to Dhaka. Customers will have the responsibility to transport their bought product to their favored destination.

For payment to the parent company we will follow the Letter Of Credit (LC) system. In this system, we will get affiliated with an international bank which have subsidiary in Bangladesh. The international bank will have to be selected as the parent company might have trust issues and the international renowned bank will help us gain reliability. As soon as we receive the products, we will issue an LC. As our chosen company ESP is an established brand worldwide, they will take responsibility for the shipments. We had to get a license of ESP to get their permission of selling their product.

The licensing took a great toll of our investment as we had to pay BDT. ……… to ESP. According to the license, we need to achieve some requirements which are their benchmarks. • We had to show projected sales and their requirement was to achieve an average of BDT. 50 lakh mark yearly within 5 years. • We had to show them our work on balance sheet, income statement and break even analysis as they were looking into our business’ feasibility. • Also they checked the location of the store to find out if enough demand will be generated from the “place” factor of four P’s. We reached an agreement that we will to train our servicing employees according to their training methods to create the same environment and to comply with their customer service. • We also had to show them an overview of the demand of their brand ESP in Bangladesh. Financial Projections Income Statement Our income statement is initiated with finding out the sales of first month and it is utterly based on our surveys. We first found out the total market value in terms of BDT. We went through our surveys and found out the competitors’ yearly sales and the total represents the presumable market size.

As we are in the initiation stage we are assuming to get a hold of no more than three percent (3%) of the market size. We did a sales forecast for every month. For starters, we assumed a growth rate of 0. 5 percent for the first three months which gradually increased to 1 percent and later we ended the first year with a growth rate of 2% in the last three months. The increasing growth rate will be as a consequence of our extensive marketing policies. The first year’s growth rate being only 12. 65% percent, we had to incur losses in every month. The econd year, the yearly growth rate we have assumed will be 12. 68% owing to the steady growth rate every month. And third year we expect a growth rate of 16% approximately. For our cost of goods sold, we presumed forty percent (40%) of our sales and we counted our sales discount to be 2. 5%. Another variable cost is sales commission of one percent (1%) of sales which is categorized as selling expenses. Fixed costs include both selling and administrative expenses. Selling expenses include store salaries of BDT. 20,000 per month, rent of BDT. 50,000 per month, advertising expenses of BDT. 5,000 per month, utility of BDT. 5,000 per month and depreciation expenses of BDT. 250 per month. The administrative fixed costs consist of salaries which is monthly BDT. 10,000, utility monthly 2,000, insurance monthly BDT. 2,000 and depreciation expenses of BDT. 200 per month. We expect to reach the break even in 6. 62 years and we have shown income statements for 10 years just for getting an idea of the net income in following years. Sensitivity: We have shown sensitivity analysis changing the sales revenue by five percent in both directions.

For worst case scenario with 5% downfall in sales, our net loss in first year will rise by more than BDT. 70,000. In the most likely case, we also incur a loss of BDT. 105,000 approximately and best case scenarios with 5% sales increment, net profit will be almost BDT. 33,000. For 2nd year, most likely case scenario will produce a profit of BDT. 342,566 and worst case scenario will produce profit of BDT. 155,858. But, the best case scenario will generate less net income than most likely case because of tax rules. The 3rd year most likely case will see us earn a net income of BDT. 04,398. We have also assumed the worst case and best cases and if that happens we will have net income of BDT 508,314 and BDT 700,483 respectively. Cash-Flow Statement Cash flow statement is the way of constructing the cash inflows and outflows according to type of activities such as operating, investing and financing activities. It gives us the idea about if the company will be profitable over the years by generating sufficient cash and if it will be able to pay off its debt. We have done cash flow statements for 8 years and those will be included in the appendices.

For our cash flows, we followed direct method starting with the operating activities which includes inflow from sales revenue and outflows from different expenses like cash paid to suppliers, salaries expenses, rent expenses, sales commission, advertising expenses etc. in investing activities, outflows includes BDT. 10,000,000 of purchasing of assets, other investment of BDT. 1,000,000 and purchasing of contract of rent BDT. 1,000,000 and there are no inflows. Financing activities has inflows form loan and owners investment worth BDT. 8,000,000 and BDT. 7,000,000 respectively.

Cash outflows from financing includes loan payment of BDT. 171,438 per month. The payment of installment continues till year 7 when we paid off our debt. Our total cash flow will be negative till year 4, first quarter and since then its uprising. But we maintained a cash balance from the beginning generated from loan which will see us through these periods. From first year, our cash balance is reduced to BDT. 2,004,607 from BDT. 2,910,411 which is the starting balance of the first month. Second year it is reduce to BDT. 1,398,301 and by the end of year three the cash balance will be BDT. 20,853. Sensitivity: The sensitivity analysis of every year attached to appendices will show how much the expected cash flows can differ when we consider worst possible and best possible cases. The first year’s best case is likely to reduce the outflows by about BDT. 120,000 but the worst scenario will increase outflows by about BDT. 117,000. the second and third years’ sensitivity analysis shows the same effect reducing or increasing the cash outflows in best and worst cases respectively. Balance Sheet Our balance sheet shows how much the venture capitalist can depend on our business.

In the balance sheet we tried to figure out the total asset each year as the first objective of a business is to maximize the value of its assets. We also showed if the assets matched the liabilities. Our total assets included cash, inventories, receivables, other current assets categorized as current assets and long term assets consists of non current assets, accumulated depreciation etc. Current liabilities are payables, short term debt and others while non current liabilities are long term debt and others and these two makes up the liabilities part. Equity has only common equity invested by the owners.

For most of these items, we tried to maintain a specific percentage of sales such as for inventories, we maintained 20. 69% of sales, 40. 14% of sales as short term debt etc because we know these items are vulnerable to the change of sales and move in the same direction. Our first year’s total assets are BDT. 17,350,008 while the next two years it went down to BDT. 16,912,962 and BDT. 16,623,039. This can be associated with the increment in negative cash flows or increase in outflows. But it’s uprising from then as we expect it to rise as high as BDT. 5,481,609 in eight years. A significant change occurs in year seven as we reach break even; our total assets rises from about 20 million to above 24. 5 million. This is because of the rise in cash balance that year after recuperating the total investment. Sensitivity: By changing the sales by 5% positively and negatively, we found out the best and worst case scenarios which can contribute to the change of our total assets. Again, as we are looking to maximize the value of our assets, we have to be conscious about what the best and worst situations can do to our business.

For the first two years, the worst case scenario doesn’t do much damage as the reductions in total assets are by about BDT. 50,000 from the most likely scenarios; BDT. 17,292,408 in first year and BDT. 16,846,620 in second year. While the best case scenarios in the first two years see our total assets to rise to BDT. 17,407,482 and BDT. 16,979,158. The third year the change about BDT. 75,000 in both cases as the best case scenario puts our total assets to BDT. 16,698,871 and the worst case to BDT. 16,547,041. For al these time, the increases and decreases in total assets are backed by the retained earnings portion of owner’s equity.

Breakeven: |Pay Back | | | | | | | |Initial Investment | ?? -15,000,000. 00 | | |Year 1 | ?? 1,061,866. 91 | ?? -13,938,133. 09 | |Year 2 | ?? 1,450,954. 8 | ?? -12,487,178. 20 | |Year 3 | ?? 1,739,046. 20 | ?? -10,748,132. 00 | |Year 4 | ?? 2,119,043. 11 | ?? -8,629,088. 89 | |Year 5 | ?? 2,667,444. 37 | ?? -5,961,644. 52 | |Year 6 | ?? 3,328,314. 32 | ?? -2,633,330. 20 | |Year 7 | ?? 4,203,767. 76 | ?? ,570,437. 55 | |Year 8 | ?? 4,366,613. 47 | ?? 5,937,051. 02 | | | | | | | ?? 11,517. 17 | | | |228. 6438216 | | | |0. 26421429 | | |Pay back in years |6. 626421429 | | Exit Strategy: Our ongoing business is Musical instrument dealership. Our exit strategy is a mixture of liquidation and our own strategy. First we will liquidate some percentage of our assets. We are planning to sell those underperforming assets at a lower price and we will also invest some additional capital to establish a diversified service line.

This will be actually a recording studio as we are planning to seize the opportunity created by lack of recording studio in Bangladesh. We are planning to open a recording studio which will contribute to the uprising music scenario in Bangladesh. Due to lack of quality music studios, we believe our exit plan from musical instrument dealership to recording studio will shift our position from decay to a growing stage in company life cycle. It will be our long term plan because we do not want to loose the face value of the product. Initial Investment: Rent (4 months)= Tk. 200,000 Equipments (Estimated Average per unit) Electric Guitar(5*30,000) |150,000 | |Bass Guitar(5*30,000) |150,000 | |Acoustic Guitar(20*3000) |60,000 | |Piano(2*100,000) |200,000 | |Keyboard(10*20,000) |200,000 | |Drums(5*30,000) |150,000 | |Mixer(3*50,000) |150,000 | |Microphone(5*10,000) 50,000 | |Processor(5*20,000) |100,000 | |Accessories(Strings, Cables, Tuners etc) |90,0000 | |Other Equipments |100,000 | |Total |1,400,000 | Estimated Initial Marketing Cost=300,000 Furniture=100,000 Reserve For Cash Requirements=3,000,000 Dealership Cost=10,000,000 Total Initial Investment=15,000,000 Conclusion

We have worked on this business plan for the last three months and gathered all the related information about the music industry. After analyzing all the data we have came up with the idea investing in this business can be really challenging but profitable. If we can survive through the initial trouble we can diversify our business by investing in different regions of Bangladesh. In the era of communication people are very fond of the creative ideas and we believe our business is creative and unique enough to attract the potential customers. Reference: www. google. com www. yahoo. com acct. tamu. edu/smith/acctwebs. htm Haque, Akkas & Ashif (2008) ‘Three taxes of Bangladesh’

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Debate Advertising Towards Children Can Only Be Seen as Harmless

Introduce team members- Aidan Laura Marketing Debate Notes: On average, children in the U. S will watch 25 000 – 40 000 television ads per year. $15 – $17 billion is spent on these ads ? marketers see children as the future and aim to create brand loyalty from a young age. Therefore positive advertising at children will help shape the future ? developing healthy/positive lifestyles in children from a young age van only benefit society in the long run. Children’s diets result from the interplay of many factors.

Multiple factors account for childhood obesity, including individual, social, environmental and cultural factors. Parents & Money There are many children who appear not to be adversely affected by marketing targeted at them ? their parents’ instilled good values in them. Positive Effects of Advertising Children are the future and therefore allowing them to be subjected to more adult concepts that are displayed to them in marketing such as decision-making and critical thought can only prepare them better for the future.

Marketing to children (and as a whole) works because it lives off of deeply held beliefs about self-expression & freedom of choice ? ideologies that children can only benefit from being exposed to. Marketers use overly creative tools to engage the young audience – this creativity can used in the future to be successful. Communication in itself can be a force for real good ? this good is often overshadowed by the bad effects marketing has on, however if it has the power to do this then the positive advertising must have the potential to be as effective.

Marketing helps develop children’s media literacy and critical decision making, which are necessary in adulthood. Through marketing, children learn to analyse what they are presented with and become more street wise. Positive Advertising Examples Nickelodeon: encourages physical activity, community sport participation, consumption of fresh fruit and veg Harry Potter Books marketing: nowadays massive budgets are given to book releases as well as movies – Harry Potter and Twilight books were promoted heavily and the igh sales of these books shows how successful the marketing was. Aus Kick and other community sports advertisements: advertising and sports sponsorship encourage children to participate in some form of physical exercise. Breakfast Cereals: all children’s breakfast cereals either promote healthy learning (sultana bran- fight the fuzzies) or physical activity (nutrigrain- ironman, weetbix- aus cricket team).

These cereals are often sponsored by a sports team or organisation and therefore the cereals brand can be seen when watching these sports along with the primary advertising. This encourages children to value physical exercise and value their education. In 1998 3,000 children and teenagers under the age of 18 years in the United States begun smoking. Non-profit organizations and government agencies used social marketing and advertising to prevent children and youth from starting smoking.

Now in 2010 the number has dropped remarkably due to advertising, which as changed the social norm. Children and young people are an interested and active consumer audience that should be acknowledged, valued and respected. Figure 2 ‘What I eat every day’ was a clear concern, with 83% considering this important. Similar studies during the late 1990s carried out by HPI for Procter and Gamble and Sunny Delight showed children far less concerned about their daily diet than they are nowadays (advertising is benefiting children).

Daily diet was important across the age spectrum, with children as young as six to nine saying what they eat was important. What they eat every day was important to 81% of 14-16 year olds. Figure 6 Children understand the context and consequences of healthy eating. They were asked how they thought eating healthily could beneifit them and while fuel and growth was naturally highest scoring, they also recognized that healthy eating gives energy and promotes general well-being. They themselves talk a lot about balance; they know eating healthy eating promotes well-being as well as helping you grow.

They acknowledge the need for a variety of different foods (dairy for bones, vitamins in fruit and veg) although most are unsure why. Burt. M. , 2009, Marketing to Children – An Ethical Predicament, Ethical Corporation. http://www. ethicalcorp. com/content. asp? ContentID=425 (accessed 3rd March 2010) Benady. D. , 2008, The Positive Power of Pestering, Marketing Week. Shah. A. , 2008, Children as Consumers, Global Issues, http://www. globalissues. org/article/237/children-as-consumers (accessed 10th March 2010)

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The Structure of Myth and the Structure of Western Film

? The Structure of Myth and the Structure of Western Film Based on Saussure (1974), structuralism is a theoretical method derived from his theoritical work. He divides language into two component parts which together produce a third (signifier, signified and meaning). According to him, meaning is produced through a process of combination and selection. As Saussure insists, “In language, there are only differences without positive terms… language has neither ideas not sounds that existed before the linguistic system, but only conceptual and phonic differences that have issued for the system. (1974: 120) Saussure divides language into langue and parole. Langue refers to system of language, the rules and conventions which organized it. Parole refers to individual utterance, the individual use of language. Structuralism takes two basic ideas from Saussure’s work. First, a concern with the underlying relations of cultural text and practices – the grammar which makes meaning possible. Second, the view that meaning is always the result of the interplay of relationship of selection and combination made possible by the underlying structure.

According to Levi – Strauss, the myths are structured in terms of binary opositions. All myths also have similar social culture function within society. Their purpose is to make the world explicable, to magically resolveits problems and contradictions. In sixguns and society, Will Wright (1975) use both methodologies to analyze the Hollywood Western as myth. According to Wright, the western has evolved through three stages: classic, transition theme and professional. He also identifies a basic set of structuring opositions: inside society >< outside society, good >< bad, strong >< wilderness (49).

In order to fully understand the social meaning of a myth, it is necessary to analyze not only its binary structure but also its narrative structure – the progression of event and the resolution of conflicts. The classic western is divided into sixteen narrative functions. Those are: 1. The hero enters a social group. 2. The hero is unknown to the society. 3. The hero is revealed to have an exceptional ability. 4. The society recognizes a difference between themselves and the hero; the hero is given a special status. 5. The society does not completely accept the hero. . There is a conflict of interests between the villains and the society. 7. The villains are stronger than the society; the society is weak. 8. There is a strong friendship or respect between the hero and a villain. 9. The villains threaten the society. 10. The hero avoids involvement in the conflict. 11. The villains endanger a friend of the hero. 12. The hero fights the villains. 13. The hero defeats the villains. 14. The society is safe. 15. The society accepts the hero. 16. The hero loses or gives up his special status. (48-9) Poststructuralism and popular movie

Poststructuralists reject the idea of an underlying structure ultimately determining the meaning of a cultural text or practice. For poststructuralists, meaning is always process, a momentary stop in a continuous flow of possibilities. Jacques Derida (1973) has invented a new word to describe the divided nature of the sign: meaning both to defer and to differ. The sign is made meaningful for Saussure by being different. Derrida adds to this notion that meaning is also always deferred, never fully present, always both absent and present.

Jacques Lacans poststructuralist account of the development of the subject has had an enormous influence on both cultural studies and film studies. Lacan takes Freud’s developmental structure and rearticulates it through a critical reading of structuralism to produce a poststructuralist psychoanalysis. According to Lacan, we make a journey through three determinate stages of development. Those three determinate stages are: 1. mirror phase 2. the fort-da game 3. Oedipus complex Laura Mulvey’s (1975) work is in part an attempt to appropriate the poststructuralist psychoanalysis on Lacan for a feminist film criticism.

Using Lacan, she constructs an analysis of how popular cinema produces and reproduces what she calls the male gaze. The inscription of the image of women inthis system is twofold: she is the object of a male desire, and she is the signifier of the threat of castration. A particular problem for cultural studies is Mulvey’s account of the audience as purely textual- a homogenous and passive production of the text. There is no room in Mulvey’s theory for social, historical subjects who arrive at the cinema with a range of competing and contradictory discourses, which confront and negotiate with the discourse of the film.

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Theatre of the Absurd

THE THEATRE OF THE ABSURD The dictionary meaning of the word ‘Absurd’ is unreasonable, ridiculous or funny. But it is used in a somewhat different sense when we speak of the ‘Theatre of the Absurd’, or more commonly known now-a-days as ‘Absurd Drama’. The phrase ‘The Theatre of the Absurd’ was coined by the critic Martin Esslin, who made it the title of his book on the same subject, published in 1961. Esslin points out in this book that there is no such thing as a regular “movement” of Absurd Dramatists. The term was useful as ‘a device to make certain common fundamental traits that were present in the works of a number of dramatists’.

Esslin saw in the works of these playwrights as artistic co-relation to Albert Camus’ philosophy that life is inherently without meaning as is described in his work ‘The Myth of Sisyphus’. In this essay Camus has described the situation of the human beings as one out of harmony with its surroundings. The Theatre of the Absurd, today, can be considered as a designation for particular plays written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, and also, along with that, to the style and form of theatre which has evolved from their work.

A short but true story narrated in the beginning of Martin Esslin’s book The Theatre of the Absurd provides the best commentary on the significance of the Absurd, and also helps in understanding the human values of Samuel Beckett’s play Waiting for Godot, which is famous as an Absurd Drama par excellence. This is the story as told by Mr. Esslin – “On 19th November 1957, a group of worried actors were preparing to face their audience. The actors were members of the company of the San Francisco Actor’s workshop.

The audience consisted of fourteen hundred convicts at the San Quentin penitentiary………………………………………………………………………………………………. The curtain parted. The play began. And what had bewildered the sophisticated audiences of Paris, London, and New York, was immediately grasped by an audience of convicts……… The trio of muscle men, biceps overflowing………. parked all 642 lbs on the aisle and waited for the girls and funny stuff. When this didn’t appear they audibly fumed and audibly decided to wait until the house lights dimmed before escaping. They made one error. They listened and looked two minutes too-long-and stayed. Left at the end.

All shook. A reporter from the San Francisco Chronicle who was present noted that the convicts did not find it difficult to understand the play. One prisoner told him ‘Godot is Society’. Said another ‘He’s the outside’. A teacher at the prison was quoted as saying: They know what is meant by waiting………. and they know if Godot finally came he would only be a disappointment. ” This story is helpful in understanding the genre of the Absurd. Playwrights commonly associated with the Theatre of the Absurd include Samuel Beckett from Ireland, Eugene Ionesco from Rumania, Jean Genet from France and Harold Pinter of Great Britain.

The Absurd in their plays takes the form of man’s reaction to a world apparently without meaning, or man as a puppet that is controlled or threatened by an invisible outside force. Though the term is applied to a wide range of plays, some characteristics coincide in many of the plays. For instance broad comedy is mixed with tragic images where the characters are caught in hopeless situations and are forced to do repetitive or meaningless action. Even the dialogues are full of specialized jargons, and wordplays and cliches and even nonsense. Even the plots are mostly cyclical or absurdly expansive.

Regarding the story, it is either a parody or a dismissal of realism. The Theatre of the Absurd is commonly associated with Existentialism, and Existentialism was an influential philosophy in Paris during the rise of the Absurd Theatre. However, it is not exactly correct. Historically Existentialism grew with the nineteenth century writings of Nietzsche and Kierkegaard. On reading Nietzsche’s Zarathustra published in 1883, the readers come across a startling phrase that God is dead! According to Esslin, since then for many more people, God has died.

He says; “And so after two terrible wars, there are still many who are trying to come to terms with the implication of Zarathustra’s message searching for a way in which they can with dignity, confront a universe, deprived of what was once its centre and its living purpose, a world deprived of a generally accepted integrating principle, which has become disappointed and purposeless. The Theatre of the Absurd is one of the expressions of this search; it seeks to re-establish an awareness of man’s situation when confronted with the ultimate reality of his condition. For the people, in between the two World Wars, the world seemed to be falling apart. Disintegration of the society, the menace of the unknown and utter loneliness of man, all this and many more made human beings look upon life as useless and futile. The world had become a place where man continues to waste, and pine and, and degenerate. In Samuel Beckett’s play, Waiting for Godot, the situation of man in this universe is summarized by Pozzo’s outburst in the second act of the play: “One day we were born, one day we shall die, the same day, the same second, is that not enough.

They give birth astride of a grave, the light gleams an instant, then it’s night once more. ” A most poignant image of death comes out in these lines. Esslin feels that in Beckett’s plays physical nature follows its own cycle, birth – growth – degeneration – decay and death. Seasons follow each other but there is hardly any escape The origin of the Theatre of the Absurd is rooted in the new pioneering experiments in the art of the 1920s and 1930s. The aim of these experiments was to do away with art as a mere imitation of appearances.

It was after the First World War that German Expressionism attempted to project the inner realities and also tried to objectify thoughts and feelings. At the same time, the Theatre of the Absurd was also strongly influenced by the traumatic experience of the horrors of the Second World War, which showed the total impermanence of any values and shook the validity of long time held conventions. It also highlighted the precariousness of human life and also its fundamental meaninglessness and unpredictability.

The trauma of living from 1945, under the threat of nuclear annihilation also seems to have been an important factor in the rise of this new theatre. At the same time, the Theatre of the Absurd also seems to have been the reaction to the disappearance of the religious dimensions from contemporary life. Absurd Theatre hopes to achieve this by shocking man out of an existence that has become overused, mechanical and self satisfying. It aims to startle the viewer, shake him out of this comfortable conventional life of everyday concerns.

The Theatre of the Absurd highlights man’s fundamental bewilderment and confusion originating from the fact that man has no answers to the basic existential questions like why we are alive, why we have to die, why there is injustice and suffering. Playwrights share the view that man is inhabiting a universe with which he is out of key. Its meaning is indecipherable and his place within it is without purpose. He is bewildered, troubled and maybe even obscurely threatened. Man’s tragedy is that he is not aware of his problem. Man is always trying to seek some purpose in life by getting involved in trivialities and superficial pursuits.

This is one reason why tragedy and farce are closely interlinked in the Theatre oh the Absurd. Even at the moment of the tragic climax in Waiting for Godot, farce enters the moment. Estragon’s trousers fall in attempting suicide and the chord breaks, when thy try its strength, making Estragon and Vladimir almost fall. The comedy here illustrates their life’s hopelessness and the futility of all their efforts to end them. The perfect statement of the philosophy of the Theatre of the Absurd as defined by Martin Esslin, is in which the world is seen as a hall of reflecting mirrors, and Reality merges gradually into fantasy.

If God is dead, then surely the Theatre of the Absurd is looking for an alternative spiritual goal, i. e. making man aware of his lost moorings and trying to make him feel what he has to regain. Plays within this group are absurd in that they focus not on logical acts or realistic occurrences or even traditional character development. They instead focus on human beings trapped in an incomprehensible world facing incidents which are illogical. Mainly the theme of incomprehensibility is coupled with the inadequacy of language. Basically there is no story, no dramatic conflict and nothing really ever happens.

Mostly there is repetitive action and circular arrangement of events. Devaluation of language is also an important trait of the Absurd Drama. Esslin says that Absurdism is the inevitable devaluation of ideals, purity and purpose. Absurdist drama asks its viewers to draw his own conclusions and make his own errors. Though Theatre of the Absurd may be seen as nonsense, they have something to say and can be understood. Even regarding plots, traditional plot structures are rarely considered as good plots in the Theatre of the Absurd. Plots usually consist of Absurd repetition of action as in Waiting for Godot or The Bald Soprano.

Often there is an outside force that remains a mystery like in The Birthday Party or A Delicate Balance. Absence, emptiness, nothingness and unresolved mysteries are central features in many Absurdist plots, for example, in The Chairs an old couple welcomes a large number of guests to their home, but these guests are invisible so all we see is empty chairs, representing their absence. Another example is where the action of Waiting for Godot is centered on the absence of a man named Godot, for whom the two characters keep waiting till the end of the play. Plots are also cyclical like in Endgame, it begins where the play ended in the beginning.

One of the important aspects of Absurd Drama was its distrust of language as a means of communication. During those times language had become ‘a vehicle for conventionalized, stereotyped meaningless exchanges’. Words usually failed to express the fundamental nature of human experience because it was not able to penetrate beyond its surface. So the playwrights of the Absurd Theatre constituted first and foremost an onslaught on language, showing it as a very unreliable and insufficient tool of communication. During those times language had become ‘a vehicle for conventionalized, stereotyped meaningless exchanges’.

Words usually failed to express the fundamental nature of human experience because it was not able to penetrate beyond its surface. So the playwrights of the Absurd Theatre constituted first and foremost an onslaught on language, showing it as a very unreliable and insufficient tool of communication. Absurd Drama uses conventionalized speeches, cliches, slogans and technical jargons, which it distorts and breaks down. It is by ridiculing the ‘conventionalized and stereotyped’ speech, that Absurd Theatre tries to make people aware of the possibility of going beyond everyday speeches and communicating more authentically.

The theme of the Absurd play is the purposelessness of human life. Albert Camus in his essay ‘The Myth of Sisyphus’ has described the situation of human beings as one out of harmony with its surroundings. The Theatre of the Absurd is one of the ways of facing the life that has lost its meaning and purpose. As such, it fulfils a double role. Its first and more obvious role is satirical where it criticizes a society that is petty, superficial and dishonest. Its second and more positive aspect is that it highlights the basic absurdity of the human situation.

It showcases the condition of human beings in a world in which man has lost all his faith. Here he is presented in his basic situation where he is left with no choice and desperately searches some refuge or heaven. Such a play produces the effects of alienation. We find it very difficult to identify ourselves with the characters in the Absurd Drama. Even though their situation is very painful and violent, they are presented to us in such a way that we tend to laugh at them and their condition and behavior. Esslin feels that this kind of drama speaks mostly to the deeper level of the audience’s mind.

In a way it challenges the audience to make sense of the nonsense. It urges them to face the situation consciously and along with that, to laugh at this fundamental absurdity of such situations. So, the dominating theme of the absurd playwrights is man’s loneliness, despair, and desperation when he finds that his faith in God is declining. In all the writers of the Absurd Drama, the common traits are usually the devaluation of language, absence of characterization and motivation and search for meaning in a basically absurd situation.

But each of them has his own style of presenting these traits. For example Ionesco presents absurdism through hilarious and outrageous farce. In Beckett’s works, absurdism is presented by depicting a world which is devoid of God, where life is full of anguish and despair. In the plays of Harold Pinter menace and terror surrounds people. His plays, famous as comedy of menace, are basically funny up to a point. The most surprising thing about plays of this group is that in spite of their breaking of the rules, they are very successful.

In his book, The Theatre of the Absurd, Esslin says, “If a good play must have a clearly constructed story, these have no story to speak of; if a good play is judged by subtlety of characterization and motivation, these are often without recognizable characters and present the audience with almost mechanical puppets; if a good play has to have a fully explained theme, which is neatly exposed and finally solved, these often have neither a beginning nor an end; if a good play is to hold the mirror up to nature and portray the manners and mannerism of the age in finely observed sketches, these seem often to be reflections of dreams and nightmares; if a good play relies on witty repartee and pointed dialogue, these often consist of incoherent babblings. ” To conclude, the Theatre of the Absurd presents anxiety, despair and a sense of loss at the disappearance of solutions and the illusions of life. Now facing all this means that we are facing reality itself. Thus, is can be said that Absurd Drama becomes a kind of a modern mystical experience. It aims to shock its audience out of complacency, to bring it face to face with the harsh facts of the human situations as the writers see it.

It becomes a kind of a challenge to accept the human condition as it is, with all its mystery and absurdity, and to bear it with dignity, because there are no solutions to the mysteries of existence. That is because ultimately man is alone in this meaningless world. To accept all this freely and without fear may be painful, but doing so brings a sense of freedom and relief. And that is why we say that the Theatre of the Absurd does not provoke tears of despair but the ‘laughter of liberation’. Bibliography PRIMARY SOURCES 1. Martin Esslin, The Theatre of the Absurd SECONDARY SOURCES 1. Martin Esslin, Introductin to The Theatre of the Absurd 2. Arnold P. Hinchliffe, The Absurd 3. Ronald Gaskell, Drama and Reality 4. Eva Metman, Reflections on Beckett’s Plays

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Contrasts in the Great Gatsby

Tyler Simms Great Gatsby Essay Accelerated English 11 Mrs. Cameron F. Scott Fitzgerald constructed his novel, The Great Gatsby, by sculpting numerous situation and character contrasts together through out the novel to create and deliver a magnificent work of art. Although Fitzgerald contrasted numerous characters and situations through out the novel, there are three that are very pungent; the characters Tom Buchanan and George Wilson and Daisy Buchanan and Myrtle Wilson.

Not only were there Character contrasts, there were also situations that Fitzgerald contrasted against each other. One of them was the contrasting of the concept of the Old Money life style and the New Money life style. Tom and George not only have physical contrast, they also have contrasting lifestyles as well. Among other things, Daisy is very statuesque and “up-in-the-air” where as Myrtle s pragmatic and “down-to-earth. ” Fitzgerald uses the concept of Old and New Money to contrast lifestyles and characters in the novel.

Tom is Old Money, which means he inherited all of his riches from at least two generations into his family and does not flaunt his money. George, on the other hand, is very low class and has to work to provide for himself and his wife, Myrtle, who is committing an affair with Tom. Aside from the money aspect, Tom is “… a sturdy, straw haired man of thirty with a rather hard mouth and a supercilious manner” (Fitzgerald 11). It is also made clear by Fitzgerald that Tom beats his wife and Myrtle, giving him the element of being robust and controlling.

George is a pushover from the time he is introduced until he makes a decision that ruins everything for some, and revised for others. Tom deceived George into believing that he is going to sell him a car, with no intention of doing so, but with every intension of seeing Myrtle. Not only is he a pushover, he is very gaunt with not even half the audacity of Tom. Tom’s audacity and ill temper hurt the people around him, particularly Daisy and Myrtle. Their personalities are very much apart from each other.

Myrtle is a very forward-looking person who knows {text:soft-page-break} what she wants in life, she is endowed with a strong character and vitality which distinguishes her from Daisy. Daisy’s superficiality extends to her personality. She is fragile, unstable and a confused character. While talking to Nick she said: “… I woke up with an abandoned felling and asked the nurse right away if it was a boy or a girl. She told me it was a girl, and so I turned my head away and wept. ‘Alright,’ I said, ‘I’m glad it’s a girl.

And I hope she’ll be a fool-that’s the best thing a girl can be in this world, a beautiful fool” (Fitzgerald 21). They also married their husbands for different reasons. Myrtle says she married George because she thought he was a gentleman. She also thought he knew about good “breeding. ” On the other hand, Daisy married Tom because rich girls had to marry into money and good social status. Marrying Tom, Daisy married into the Old Money life style. The people who live by the Old Money lifestyle inherited all of their riches from at least two generations back in the family.

They also don’t flaunt their money with buying and having extravagant cars, houses, parties etc. Fitzgerald differentiates Old Money and New Money by placing them on separate sides of Manhattan. Old Money on East Egg and New Money on West Egg. Tom and Daisy live on East Egg and prefer small get-togethers. Tom and Daisy had a party and the only people who were invited were Nick and Jordan. Whereas Gatsby, who lives in West Egg and is New Money, has very extravagant parties every weekend. By seven o’clock the orchestra has arrived-no thin five piece affair but a whole pit of oboes and trombones ad saxophones and violas and cornets and piccolos and low and high drums” (Fitzgerald 44). The contrast of the two lifestyles along with the characters brings the novel to a whole new level of interest. It also makes the story more interesting. Any novel that contrast any two or more subjects from with in itself, such as two or more characters or different life styles, is indeed a work of art. {text:soft-page-break} Works Cited Page Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Simon and Schuster Inc. , 1953.

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Seven Major Changes in the Workplace

Running head: SEVEN MAJOR CHANGES IN THE WORKPLACE Seven Major Changes in the Workplace Seven Major Changes in the Workplace With the ever-growing population and technological changes many employers are going to have to adapt. Robert Barner highlights seven major changes that will affect the places where we work, both for the employer and employee (Kreitner, 2004, p. 76).

The seven major changes are (1) The virtual organization (2) The just-in-time workforce (3) The ascendancy of knowledge workers (4) Computerized coaching and electronic monitoring (5) The growth of worker diversity (6) The aging workforce and (7) The birth of the dynamic workforce (Kreitner, p. 76). I will discuss how these seven changes major changes will affect the managers at my company, Blake Inc. The Virtual Organization We are living in a time where technology is in the forefront. Things are constantly changing and companies must be able to keep up with it.

Right now in my company my managers are scrambling to keep up with the constantly changing technological world. Managers are now being set up with access to their computers from home. So if they are unable to come in to work or need to leave early they can still communicate with us. They can do everything from home that they can do at the office. They are also working on a plan, in case of an emergency or the office building is no longer usable that we can set up shop somewhere else within 48 hours.

My manager is also setting up a web site that will be accessible by all employees to get update information concerning the company, such as business decisions, software help and 24 hour technical support. The Just-In-Time Workforce At Blake we are aligned with Temp Agencies that are able to supply us with workers at a moments notice. My managers know that must be able to meet high demands. They also set up incentives for employees wishing to put in extra work.

They understand that is better to have people who know the business to do the work rather than a temp who really has no interest or knowledge in the company. The Ascendancy of Knowledge Workers Now more than ever it is important that companies hire very knowledgeable people. My managers are now trying to hire more people with a technical or analytical background to help with reports and other information needed by employees. Employees must know what they want and what they need so that they can effectively communicate this to the technical staff.

Also, the managers at Blake must be able to step up and jump in when needed. This means they must know their job and all aspects of the company. The managers must know the responsibilities of each of their employees and make sure that their employees are knowledgeable as well. We have recently been asked to create a manual entailing our job responsibilities so that if something happens someone else will have knowledge of what we do. Computerized Coaching and Electronic Monitoring Being an internet-based company all employees has access to a wealth of information through the intranet.

From the intranet you can look up other employees, find customer information such as contracts and orders placed, to information on employee benefits. At Blake employees just found out that their internet access was truly being monitored. Upon finding this out Managers took away internet access from all employees in which it is not a job necessity. This did not go well with employees as they felt as though their privacy was being invaded. As a supervisor I had to make sure that my employees had access to the websites they needed but nothing more. Employees feel that they are not trusted and treated like babies.

Managers at Blake must be careful not to alienate employees in order to try and gain more efficiency. The Growth of Worker Diversity Blake employs a very diversified group of people. In fact some employees can barely speak English well. At times it gets kind of hard to understand them. My Managers must work hard not to alienate any one group of people. Every employee must be given the same chance to excel. They also must be proactive in learning about each group’s backgrounds and or culture as to not offend anyone. Managers at Blake are becoming more understanding o different beliefs and cultures and do not punish people for partaking (taking a day off) in these beliefs. The Aging Workforce Managers at Blake encourage continuing education. In fact anyone who wishes to go to school can do so for free, it is mentioned on our website how they will provide up to $50,000 for each employee towards their education. Education is encouraged whether you are young or old. Managers really respect the older employees because the hold so much knowledge and experience, so they must be careful not to quickly replace them with a younger face.

It is important to have a good mix, as not all young college grads are a good fit as not all older people are. The Birth of the Dynamic Workforce Blake managers must work to be more encouraging. They will have to be able to motivate employees and encourage cross training. Employees must be able to help out in other departments when needed. Slow times in one department may mean a chaotic time in another. Being able to meet the demands in the high productivity department and use workers from the slow department can decrease cost.

Managers must be able to think ahead in order to keep up with competition and stay ahead of the game. Blake is a pretty good company to work for but has been behind the times for a while. My managers are proactively trying to keep up with industry standards. This has caused a lot of revamping and the recruiting of more knowledgeable employees. Blake Managers understand that if they want to stay in business they must come to terms with the changes in the 21st century. Reference Kreitner, R. (2004). Management (9th ed. ). Boston, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.