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Organizational Behavior Forces Discussion Paper

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR FORCES DISCUSSION PAPER TEAM B MGT307 APRIL 12, 2010 ANDY WAGSTAFF Organizational Behavior Forces Discussion In this paper Learning Team B compares and contrasts the different organizations of each of its team members. The team is made up of six students, each of which is employed by a different organization. It was with a collaborative effort that this group was able to discuss and analyze these organizations.

The individual companies and business environments that were addressed in the learning team discussions include; a correctional facility, a variety of organizations that provide some form of health care or medical service, a retail store, an insurance company, and one member of Team B is employed at home as a homemaker/student. Team B participated in discussions and analyzed the organizational behaviors of each organization within their group. The purpose of this paper is to provide that analysis that describes some of the internal and external forces that have an impact on organizational behaviors.

Team B intends to present an explanation summarizing the findings of the Learning Team discussions. The paper includes an analysis of the following internal and external forces: Restructuring Organizational Mission Competition Economy Customer Demands The following are personal descriptions of internal and external forces that impact organizational behavior within the organizations of each individual member of Learning Team B. Restructuring Restructuring, or rearranging, of an organization can turn a company upside- down and leave employees in a state of shock.

This particular external force can have a huge impact on the organizational behaviors of any organization from a medical clinic to a correctional facility. It is customary for a company under restructure to use layoffs or reduce full-time positions to part-time to decrease the costs of employment. Another possible change made by a company trying to survive after downsizing could be to obtain lower employee wages. This could be done by moving the business to a facility in another state or country. For any number of reasons, a company may choose to move only part of its organization during the restructure.

For example, a business’ medical records department holds confidential information regarding its employees. With this in mind, the restructuring team may want to select an outside source to perform medical records services during the restructure. This will ensure the confidentiality of its employees and safeguard their personal information. Understanding organizational behaviors brought on by internal and external forces is important for everyone involved whether it is an insurance company, a retail store, or a home health care agency.

There is little known about the safety and health risks to workers who face or survive episodes of downsizing, or the effects of downsizing and outsourcing on the capacity of organizations to provide occupational health services and programs for workers {text:bibliography-mark} . Therefore, it is highly recommended that personnel meetings be scheduled to address the questions and concerns of a company’s remaining employees. Organizational Mission The organizational mission of the medical team at the Pendleton Prison System Department of Corrections provides inmate rehabilitation and medical care.

The mission of the medical team at Pendleton is to reduce unnecessary morbidity and mortality and protect public health by providing patient-inmate timely access to safe, efficient medical care, dental, and disability programs. The mission statement of an organization affects the organizational behavior within the company by providing direction to each person’s duties within the company. Although the organizations of the members of Team B are significantly different in size and function, the impact of their organizational mission directly affects their organizational behavior and success.

Most organizations define a mission statement and develop practices to control the organizational behavior of the organization to accomplish this mission {text:bibliography-mark} . Competition Competition is an external force that affects organizational behavior in retail as well as many other types of organizations. There are several examples of the different external forces that affect organizational behaviors, some of which include; creditors, customers, suppliers, and the labor market. Competitors

Competitors are peers that perform similar functions within their professional discipline. Competitors contribute to the industry with their ability, supply, goods, and services, at competitive prices. Competitors’ contributions are usually of a high caliber and this is what gives consumers their choices. Creditors In contrast, creditors have an impact in retail because most businesses purchase goods and services to a large extent on credit. Generally, these businesses are given discounts or other incentives for buying in bulk. Customers

Customers obviously play an essential part in the retail business. In fact, without any customers, there would be no business. In retail, it is important that a business know how to change with itscustomers. This will expand customer confidence and increase buying. Labor Market The labor market affects the number of qualified employees who a business will be allowed to hire. In comparison to expanding customer confidence, the lack of qualified employees at a business can lead any type of organization to customer dissatisfaction. Customer Demands

Customer demand is the quantity of a product or service that customers are willing and able to purchase at a given price during a given period {text:bibliography-mark} . Meeting the demands of customers can be difficult at times. The medical field always has tried to satisfy its customers’ needs in the best way possible, but it is becoming more complicated because of the customers’ increased expectations. Here is an example of changes in organizational behaviors of employees at a medical clinic concerning customer demands. A patient is 15 minutes late for his or her appointment so e asked the patient to reschedule the appointment but instead, the patient refuses to leave the clinic until he or she was seen by a doctor. This is when behaviors have to change in order to meet the customer’s demands. There may be times, for instance, when the patient is not able to reschedule the appointment. To meet this customer’s needs, employees have to work even harder. First we try to make the customer feel as comfortable as possible until he or she is seen by the provider. We have to gain their satisfaction to go forward to improve our customer services.

Second, we focus specifically on this customer. It is important to treat the customer as an individual person just as we want to be treated. One way that a medical clinic can work to improve customer demands is to have questionnaires available for the customers. When the questionnaires are reviewed the company will know what areas that they need to improve in and what areas they are doing well in. These questionnaires may very well lead the medical clinic to implement even more organizational behaviors if needed to increase customer satisfaction. Economy

The economy has affected organizational behaviors in many American households. The following is a personal example from an American homemaker and student. My fiance is the bread winner in the household at one point and he was making enough money that I could sit at home and take care of the babies. But now, the economy is so bad that I am now trying to find a job so that we can make ends meet. His job as a correctional officer has stopped giving overtime to the employees. The bills are going up twice as much as they used to be and so now we do not have any extra money to have or to save. Conclusion

In conclusion, the internal and external forces that impact the behaviors of an organization can have both a negative and a positive effect on the company itself as well as on the people within the company. These changes in behavior, or reactions from within an organization, are caused by forces such as the restructuring of a business, increased customer demands, technology, competition, or even from a fluctuation in the economy. Although internal forces are considered to be causes that people have either created or could have controlled, external forces are those in which people have no irect control. A business in comparison to people has many forces that can manipulate and form its common behavior and the organizational behaviors of the people within it. Organizations of every kind, from those that provide goods to those that provide services, still have to change continually and positively while searching for new ideas and opportunities to maintain a competitive advantage. This team’s belief ist; how a company reacts, how it manages, and how it adapts to changes, will determine its failure or success. References

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Change Process Theories

Change Process Theories: A Review Outline Introduction Four types of Organizational Change Theories: Van de Ven and Poole • Dialectical: Kurt Lewin • Evolution: o Lippitt, Watson, and Wesley o Bartlett and Kayser • Teleology: o Edgar Schein o Prochaska and DiClemente • Life Cycle: Ichak Adizes Conclusion Introduction An enduring quest of management scholars is to explain how and why organizations change. The processes of change or sequences of events have been difficult to define, let alone manage. Researchers have borrowed many concepts from many fields of study, including sociology, biology, and physics.

Van de Ven and Poole (1995) proposed four categories of organizational change: dialectical, evolution, teleological and life cycle. Dialectical theory is the development of an organization through the conflict, competition, and/or collaboration of internal or external interests, wherein the status quo is changed regardless of the overall benefit or detriment to the organization. Evolutionary theory views organizational change as the cumulative change brought about through the continuous cycle of variation, selection and incorporation, and retention, caused by competition for scarce resources, environmental change or imposed conditions.

Teleology is the purposeful development of an organization towards a defined end result or in line with a predetermined collective ideology by means of repetitive sequences of goal definition, implementation, evaluation and modification. Finally, Life Cycle theory is the linear, organic development of an organization from a homogenous, undefined entity to a differentiated, structured entity through accumulated experiences arising from the pressure of external events as mediated by internal logic, rules or programs.

Within these four categories, I present six theories of organizational change to illustrate the underlying concepts within each category. Dialectical Theory Kurt Lewin is widely regarded as one of the pioneers in the study of change processes. A social scientist, Lewin postulated that human behavior is based on a relatively stationary equilibrium of two groups of forces. While driving forces facilitate change by pushing in the desired direction, counterforces known as restraining forces immediately sprout to hinder the change.

When a significant change in these forces occurs, behavior must also shift to maintain equilibrium. After equilibrium is reached, the new behaviors gradually become the standard for maintaining the status quo. Lewin described this process in his article, Frontiers in Group Dynamics: “A change toward a higher level of group performance is frequently short lived; after a “shot in the arm” group life soon returns to the previous level. This indicates that it does not suffice to define the objective of planned change in group performance as the reaching of a different level.

Permanency of the new level, or permanency for a desired period, should be included in the objective. A successful change includes, therefore, three aspects: unfreezing (if necessary) the present level, moving to the new level, and freezing group life on the new level” (p 34). The Evolutionary Theories Lippitt, Watson, and Westley expanded on Lewin’s work by introducing the idea of a relationship between the change agent and the ‘client’ or organization to be changed. Lippitt et al. ’s theory proposes seven phases. The first phase focuses on developing a need for change.

A client must not only be aware of a problematic situation, but must believe a better state of affairs is possible, and that the change agent (whether a consultant or method) is relevant and available. Phase two is the establishment of a change relationship. As with any human relationship, one of the most delicate yet absolutely crucial elements in forming the change relationship is the first impression. “Often the client system seems to be seeking assurance that the potential change agent is different enough from the client system to be a real expert and yet enough like it to be horoughly understandable and approachable” (Lippitt et al. p 134). Phases three, four, and five are an elaboration on Lewin’s moving stage, and can be grouped together under the heading: moving toward change. These straightforward phases are (3) Clarification or Diagnosis of the client’s problem (4) Examination of the Alternative Routes and Goals and Establishing Goals and Intentions of Action, and (5) Transformation of Intentions into Actual Change Efforts. Lippitt et al. return to Lewin’s Refreezing stage with phase six: The generalization and stabilization of change.

A critical factor in the stabilization of change is the spread of change to neighboring systems. A change is much more likely to be retained if reinforced by colleagues’ usage. The final phase, achieving a terminal relationship, focuses on preventing a dependency on the change agent for support and developing a form of client self-reliance for future problem-solving. Lippitt et al. issue a final caution, noting that the seven phases present are not always sequential, and the phases can overlap or repeat themselves throughout the change process.

Bartlett and Kayser (1973) propose that successful change depends on a reactive redistribution of power within the structure of an organization. This power redistribution optimally occurs through a six phase series of stimuli and reactions. Stimulus 1: Pressure on top management takes the form of both internal pressure (such as union strikes, low productivity, high costs or interdepartmental conflict) and external pressure (such as lower sales, stockholder discontent, or a competitor’s breakthrough. When these pressures offset one another, e. g. high sales despite employee grumbling, there is little incentive for top management to induce change. However, when internal and external pressures are aligned, Reaction 1: Arousal to take action senior management seeks a consultant or other diagnostic tool to discover the problem. Stimulus 2: Intervention at the top – While long-term managers tend to look for individuals and groups to blame, “outsiders” tend to see the organizational structure or processes as equally likely culprits.

The “outsider”, presumably hired and respected for his expert ability to improve organizational practices, is in an ideal position to Reaction 2: Reorient top management to internal problems. In order to Stimulus 3: Diagnose problem areas effectively, top management speaks with multiple levels of the organization. This step largely determines the success of the change. Top menagers who only consult their immediate subordainates gather little to no new data.

Managers who conduct a comprehensive hierarchy-spanning feedback search not only acquiremore information but have a positive reinforcing effect on the change to come. By consulting all hierarchy levels, managers achieve employee buy-in, drawing employees to believe that not is management itself willing to change, but actual important problems are being acknowledged and ideas from lower levels are being valued by upper levels (Bartlett and Kaser, 1973, p. 58). In contrast, manager who take a unilateral approach are making changes based on limited viewpoints with little to no employee buy-in.

Perhaps even worse is the CEO who delegates the change to a subordinate, who potentially has less information, less clout within the organization, and the lingering uncertainty that top management isn’t sincere about the change. Reaction 3: Recognition of specific problems found through the diagnosis process will cause deliberation resulting in the Stimulus 4: Invention of a new solution. Suggestions for solutions can be gathered in phase 3. Barlett and Kayser place particular importance on group collaboration for generating potential solutions.

Through this collaboration, there is greater Reaction 4: Commitment to the new courses of action. Stimulus 5: Experimentation with new solutions inevitably produces occasional setbacks and/or outright failure. During this period, the multi-level employee endorsement of change becomes critical as the organization Reaction 5: Reviews the results of the change. While non-effective ‘solutions’ are thrown out, effective solutions are propagated and expanded. Ideally, the quietly discarded solutions only briefly demoralize their advocates, while the retained superior solutions have an infectiously positive effect.

Finally, this Stimulus 6: Reinforcement from positive results ushers in a full scale Reaction 6: Acceptance of the new practices. Teleological Theories Edgar Schein further defined Lewin’s three stage theory, proposing that the Unfreezing stage can be subdivided into three steps: Disconfirmation, Induction of Guilt or “survival anxiety”, and Creation of Psychological Safety. Disconfirmation is characterized by the dissatisfaction and/or frustration with the current state of affairs. Survival anxiety occurs when the dissatisfiers are accepted as valid and linked to the nonattainment of goals.

The primary restraining force at this stage is learning anxiety – having to admit that the current behaviors are “wrong” and the additional fear that attempting a new process may result in failure and a loss of esteem. The Creation of Psychological Safety step is the addressing and overcoming of this fear. Schein further subdivided Lewin’s theory by splitting the moving process into three phases. The first phase, Cognitive Redefinition is typified by organizational members discovering that the definitions, concepts and other anchors previously relied upon are not absolutes.

While the unfreezing stages create motivation for change, the second phase, termed Imitation and Identification with a Role Model, determines whether the change is beneficial or harmful, depending on the role model chosen. However, if there are no attractive role models, the third phase, Scanning of Alternatives and Trial and Error, comes into play. Occasionally, if there is sufficient psychological safety, spontaneous insight into a solution may occur.

This spontaneous insight is highly valuable because such insights often take into account both stated and hidden unique obstacles to a change, unlike process consultants who often can only address the stated barriers. With regard to the Refreezing stage, Schein notes that the new behaviors must be at least somewhat compatible with the remaining behaviors or the cycle of disconfirmation may restart, potentially reversing the progress made, or devolving into an endless cycle of new behaviors. Prochaska et al (1992) developed a change behavior model for the health care field which has gradually been extended to other disciplines.

Much like Lewin’s model, their model defines the general process of change. Unlike Lewin, Prochaska et al. present their five stages of behavioral change as cyclical in nature rather than as a simple progression. Please see figure 1. Precontemplation (PC) is the stage at which there is no intention to change behavior in the near future. Typically, an external force such as a lawsuit or technological advancement occurs to push an organization into the next stage. Contemplation (C) is the stage where the problem or undesirable behavior is recognized, and serious consideration is given to change the behavior.

This stage is characterized by the weighing of current opportunity costs against the actual costs of modifying the problem. Preparation (PP) is a stage that combines intention and initial attempts to change behaviors. The organization intends a full transformation of the indicated ‘problem behaviors’ in the very near future. The cessation of undesirable behaviors and embrace of the new behaviors marks the advent of the Action (A) stage. The Maintenance (M) stage is often, and incorrectly, viewed as a static stage. In truth, this stage is the continuation and reinforcement of the new behaviors.

This stage becomes particularly pertinent when the initial attitude of ‘new and improved’ begins wearing thin and organizational members consciously or subconsciously attempt to return to the ‘old and trusted’ methods. This backslide can continue (precontemplation) until the problem is once again addressed (contemplation). Life Cycle Theory In his 1998 book, Adizes presents one of the clearest descriptions and in depth refinements of Life Cycle organizational development models to date. Based on ten sequential stages of development, he addresses the attitudes, issues, and threats at each stage of life.

These life stages are categorized into the growing phase, second birth and coming of age, and aging organizations. Please see figure 2 for reference. (In the interest of brevity, a few potential alternative stages have been omitted. ) The Growing Phase begins with the courtship stage where the organization is only an idea in the founder’s mind. At this time, the founder is building inspirational momentum – revving his courage so that when the time comes to make the decision to take the risk, he has the internal commitment to survive the external doubts and hardships.

During the courtship stage, this commitment determines whether the idea will result in a healthy organizational child or if it is merely an affair, a momentary infatuation with entrepreneurship. Once the risk has been undertaken, the nature of the organization mutates drastically. At this Infancy stage of the organization, there is an overriding emphasis on doing rather than thinking; thinking of new products may be useful in the future, but sale of current products ensures a future will exist.

The organization is incredibly personal, with little hierarchy. Formal procedures are non-existent except for those imposed by outside forces, i. e. laws and government regulation. Like an infant, the organization requires periodic infusion of milk (cash) and the constant tending of its creator. The period of infancy is necessarily short. The energy level required plateaus as brand loyalty builds, suppliers stabilize, and the production problems are no longer a daily crisis: the baby begins sleeping through the night.

The infant organization moves into the Go-Go stage. With the idea working, ends meeting, and sales flourishing the founder and the organization become arrogant. The struggle to survive fades to the back of the mind and every opportunity becomes a priority: after all, if one dream came true, why not other dreams as well? The toddler shoves every opportunity into its mouth, without regard for nutritional value. Whereas in the infancy stage there was no hierarchy, the Go-Go stage begins development of a structure.

At the beginning of the stage, the responsibilities are shared and many tasks overlap: the organization is organized around the people not the tasks. The CEO risks falling into the Founders Trap: failing to realize the organization has moved beyond a one-man show, that decentralization and delegation have become imperative. The signs of imminent crisis, the arrogance, uncontrolled growth, lack of structure and centralized decision making, are obfuscated by soaring sales, overconfidence from success, and the residual stubbornness of an entrepreneur fighting for his dream.

When the crisis hits, the company falters and a second birth occurs. The Second Birth and Coming of Age Phase begins with Adolescence: an awkward period that is more painful and prolonged than infancy. Like a teenager trying to establish independence from his family, the adolescent organization’s characteristic behaviors include conflict and inconsistency. In delegating, the founder must content himself with offering advice instead of taking control: he must allow his organizational child to make mistakes in order to learn from them.

Gradually, the organization establishes its sovereignty, with the occasional clash with ‘old management’. This can precipitate a divorce, especially if the founder decides that the organization’s goals have become incompatible with his own. The adolescent organization experiences a shift from merely generating more sales, to generating better sales with less overhead and more profit. When the overall structure of the administration stabilizes and leadership roles become institutionalized, the organization moves to the next stage of development: Prime.

Prime is the optimum point on the life cycle curve, combining the vision and aggressiveness of a Go-Go with the structure solidified in Adolescence to back it up. This is not to say that a company in its prime has stopped growing, but that growth has become planned and controlled. The challenge of Prime is to continue the momentum, and not become complacent and ride the inertial growth from previous stages. If a Prime organization does not refuel this momentum, organizational vitality will level off, and will enter the stage called Stable, the end of growth and the beginning of decline.

The Stable stage is first in the Aging Phase in the organizational life cycle. The organization slowly loses flexibility; the persistent sense of urgency departs and is replaced with a feeling of security in the relatively stable market share acquired over the years. Several changes slip in: the developmental spending budget grows while the product and market research budgets decline, management training is substituted for management development, and there is a power shift to the finance department from engineering, marketing, or research and development. Despite these changes, there is markedly less conflict in the Stable stage.

There are no major transitional events in the Aging phase as there were in the Growing phase. Instead, there is a slow process of deterioration. As the organization draws back from personalized attention to each client, it slides into Aristocracy. The organization is often cash rich, leading organizational members to misclassify themselves as in the prime stage. “Don’t make waves” becomes the company motto, and uniformity of thought, dress, and address becomes the norm. While Bob and Mary may be on a first name basis outside of the office, or behind closed doors, during meetings it is inevitably Mr.

Smith and Ms. Jones. Another notable communication change is that focus is placed on how something was said, rather than what is said. Because of the organizational taboo against sparking conflict, consultants are brought in to give voice to the deadly trend of expecting external forces to increase market share without the executives having to admit anything. The consultant reports are often read, but ignored until the advent of Early Bureaucracy. With revenues and profits plummeting and a high turnover of good people, the Early Bureaucracy witch hunt begins.

Internal conflict, back stabbing and paranoia obliterate any remaining customer focus. The organization focuses on who caused a problem rather than on what to do about it. The remaining creative individuals jump ship or are fired as though they were the source of the problems. The organization has two options remaining: Bureaucracy or Death. If a company is subsidized or nationalized, it has attached itself to life support: autonomic (administrative) functions are kept moving, but the vital spark from the infancy stage has been extinguished.

The organization has become a Bureaucracy; its only purpose is to perpetuate its existence. Eventually, through internal decision making or government reallocation of funds, the organization quietly dies. Conclusion As theories develop, they become more specific and therefore more limited in scope. Scholars examining these theories develop a form of tunnel vision, and can become stymied by unexplainable behavior outside their specialty. Van de Ven and Poole’s taxonomy of change theory types helps to reacquaint researchers with the wide variety of possibilities.

Further research on the meta-analysis of change theories is indicated. References Adizes, Ichak. (1988). Corporate Lifecycles: How and Why Corporations Grow and Die and What to do About It. Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey. Armenakis, Achilles and Bedeian, Arthur. (1999). Organizational Change: A Review of Theory and Research in the 1990s. Journal of Management. 25. 293 – 315. Bartlett, Alton and Kayser, Thomas. (1973). Changing Organizational Behavior. Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey Lewin, Kurt. (1947). Frontiers in Group Dynamics.

Human Relations. 1. 5-41. Prochaska, James, DiClement, Carlo, and Norcross, John. In Search of How People Change: Applications to Addicitive Behaviors. American Psychologist. 47. 1102 – 1114. Romanelli, Elaine. (1991). The Evolution of New Organizational Forms. Annual Review of Sociology. 17. 79-103. Retrieved November 29, 2006 from JSTOR. http://links. jstor. org/ sici? sici=0360-0572%281991%2917%3C79%3ATEONOF%E2. 0. CO%3B2-M Van de Ven, Andrew. (1995). Explaining Development and Change in Organizations. Academy of Management Review. 20. 510-540.

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Chem Lab – Heat of Combustion of Magnesium

Heat of Combustion of Magnesium Background: The students were given full instructions on how to experimentally determine the enthalpy of reaction (? Hrxn) for the combustion of magnesium ribbon, using Hess’s Law. Data Collection: |Reaction 1 |Reaction 2 | | |(MgO) |(Mg) | | |Trial 1 |Trial 2 |Trial 1 |Trial 2 | |Volume of 1. 00 M HCl |50. 0 mL ± 0. 5 mL |50. 0 mL ± 0. 5 mL |50. mL ± 0. 5 mL |50. 0 mL ± 0. 5 mL | |Final temperature, t2 |28. 9(C ± 0. 1(C |28. 8(C ± 0. 1(C |44. 8(C ± 0. 1(C |44. 4( C ± 0. 1(C | |Initial temperature, t1 |22. 5(C ± 0. 1(C |22. 3( C ± 0. 1(C |21. 9(C ± 0. 1(C |21. 8( C ± 0. 1(C | |Mass of solid |0. 50 g ± 0. 01g |0. 50 g ± 0. 01g |0. 25 g ± 0. 01g |0. 25 g ± 0. 01g | Data Processing: |Reaction 1 | | |(MgO) | | |Trial 1 |Trial 2 | |Change in |final temperature – initial temperature |final temperature – initial temperature | |temperature, (t |28. (C – 22. 5(C = 6. 4(C |28. 8(C – 22. 3(C = 6. 3(C | | | | | | |Uncertainty of temperature: 0. 1(C + 0. 1(C = 0. 2(C |Uncertainty of temperature: 0. 1(C + 0. 1(C = 0. 2(C | | | | | | |Change in temperature = 6. (C ± 0. 2(C |Change in temperature = 6. 3(C ± 0. 2(C | |Heat of HCl |Mass of 1. 0 M HCl [pic] specific heat of HCl [pic] change in |Mass of 1. 0 M HCl [pic] specific heat of HCl [pic] change in | |solution, q |temperature |temperature | | | | | | |To find mass of 1. 0 M HCl : Density of 1. M HCl [pic] volume |To find mass of 1. 0 M HCl : Density of 1. 0M HCl [pic] volume | | |of 1. 0M HCl |of 1. 0M HCl | | |1. 005 [pic] [pic] 50. 0 mL = 50. 3 g |1. 005 [pic] [pic] 50. 0 mL = 50. 3 g | | | | | | |50. 3 g [pic] . 00418 [pic] [pic] 6. 4(C = 1. 3 kJ |50. g [pic] . 00418 [pic] [pic] 6. 3(C = 1. 3 kJ | | | | | | |% Uncertainty of Heat: [(0. 5mL ? 50 mL) + (0. 2(C ? 6. 4(C)] |% Uncertainty of Heat: [(0. 5mL ? 50 mL) + (0. 2(C ? 6. 3(C)] | | |[pic] 100% = 4% |[pic] 100% = 4% | | |Uncertainty of Heat: 4% of 1. 3 kJ = 0. 5 kJ |Uncertainty of Heat: 4% of 1. kJ = 0. 5 kJ | | | | | | |Heat of HCl = 1. 3 kJ ± 0. 5 kJ |Heat of HCl = 1. 3 kJ ± 0. 5 kJ | |Enthalpy change,|Enthalpy change of reaction = -heat of HCl solution |Enthalpy change of reaction = -heat of HCl solution | |(H | | | | |Enthalpy of MgO = -1. kJ ± 0. 5 kJ |Enthalpy of MgO = -1. 3 kJ ± 0. 5 kJ | |Moles of MgO |Mass of MgO ? molar mass of MgO |Mass of MgO ? molar mass of MgO | | | | | | |0. 50 g MgO ? 40. 30[pic] = 0. 0120 mol |0. 50 g MgO ? 40. 30[pic] = 0. 0120 mol | | |% Uncertainty of moles: (0. 01g ? 0. 0g) [pic] 100% = 2% |% Uncertainty of moles: (0. 01g ? 0. 50g) [pic] 100% = 2% | | |Uncertainty of moles: 2% of 0. 0120 mol = 0. 0002 mol |Uncertainty of moles: 2% of 0. 0120 mol = 0. 0002 mol | | | | | | |Moles of MgO = 0. 0120 mol ± 0. 0002 mol |Moles of MgO = 0. 0120 mol ± 0. 0002 mol | |Molar enthalpy |Enthalpy of MgO ? moles of MgO |Enthalpy of MgO ? oles of MgO | |change, (H/mol | | | | |-1. 3 kJ ? 0. 0120 mol = -110 [pic] |-1. 3 kJ ? 0. 0120 mol = -110 [pic] | | | | | | |% Uncertainty: [(0. 5 kJ ? 1. 3 kJ) + (0. 0002 mol ? 0. 0120 mol)] |% Uncertainty: [(0. 5 kJ ? 1. 3 kJ) + (0. 0002 mol ? 0. 120 mol)] | | |[pic] 100% = 40% |[pic] 100% = 40% | | |Uncertainty: 40% of -110 [pic] = 40 [pic] |Uncertainty: 40% of -110 [pic] = 40 [pic] | | | | | | |Molar enthalpy change = -110 [pic] ± 40 [pic] |Molar enthalpy change = -110 [pic] ± 40 [pic] | |Average molar |(molar enthalpy change of Trial 1 + molar enthalpy change of Trial 2) ? | |enthalpy change |( -110 [pic] + -110 [pic] ) ? 2 = -110 [pic] | | | | | |Uncertainty: (40 [pic] + 40 [pic] ) ? 2 = 40 [pic] | | | | | |Average molar enthalpy change = -110 [pic] ± 40 [pic] | |Reaction 2 | | |(Mg) | | |Trial 1 |Trial 2 | |Change in |final temperature – initial temperature |final temperature – initial temperature | |temperature, (t |44. 8(C – 21. 9(C = 22. 9(C |44. 4(C – 21. 8(C = 22. (C | | | | | | |Uncertainty of temperature: 0. 1(C + 0. 1(C = 0. 2(C |Uncertainty of temperature: 0. 1(C + 0. 1(C = 0. 2(C | | | | | | |Change in temperature = 22. 9(C ± 0. 2(C |Change in temperature = 22. 6(C ± 0. 2(C | |Heat of HCl |Mass of 1. M HCl [pic] specific heat of HCl [pic] change in |Mass of 1. 0 M HCl [pic] specific heat of HCl [pic] change in | |solution, q |temperature |temperature | | | | | | |To find mass of 1. 0 M HCl : Density of 1. 0M HCl [pic] volume |To find mass of 1. 0 M HCl : Density of 1. 0M HCl [pic] volume | | |of 1. 0M HCl |of 1. M HCl | | |1. 005 [pic] [pic] 50. 0 mL = 50. 3 g |1. 005 [pic] [pic] 50. 0 mL = 50. 3 g | | | | | | |50. 3 g [pic] . 00418 [pic] [pic] 22. 9(C = 4. 81 kJ |50. 3 g [pic] . 00418 [pic] [pic] 22. 6(C = 4. 75 kJ | | | | | | |% Uncertainty of Heat: [(0. 5mL ? 0 mL) + (0. 2(C ? 22. 9(C)] |% Uncertainty of Heat: [(0. 5mL ? 50 mL) + (0. 2(C ? 22. 6(C)] | | |[pic] 100% = 1. 9% |[pic] 100% = 1. 9% | | |Uncertainty of Heat: 1. 9% of 4. 81 kJ = 0. 09 kJ |Uncertainty of Heat: 1. 9% of 4. 75 kJ = 0. 09 kJ | | | | | | |Heat of HCl = 4. 81 kJ ± 0. 09 kJ |Heat of HCl = 4. 75 kJ ± 0. 9 kJ | |Enthalpy change,|Enthalpy change of reaction = -heat of HCl solution |Enthalpy change of reaction = -heat of HCl solution | |(H | | | | |Enthalpy of Mg = -4. 81 kJ ± 0. 09 kJ |Enthalpy of Mg = -4. 75 kJ ± 0. 09 kJ | |Moles of Mg |Mass of Mg ? molar mass of Mg |Mass of Mg ? molar mass of Mg | | | | | | |0. 25 g ? 24. 30[pic] = 0. 010 mol |0. 25 g ? 24. 30[pic] = 0. 10 mol | | |% Uncertainty of moles: (0. 01g ? 0. 25g) [pic] 100% = 4% |% Uncertainty of moles: (0. 01g ? 0. 25g) [pic] 100% = 4% | | |Uncertainty of moles: 4% of 0. 0100 mol = 0. 0004 mol |Uncertainty of moles: 4% of 0. 0100 mol = 0. 0004 mol | | | | | | |Moles of Mg = 0. 0100 ± 0. 0004 mol |Moles of Mg = 0. 0100 ± 0. 0004 mol | |Molar enthalpy |Enthalpy of Mg ? oles of Mg |Enthalpy of Mg ? moles of Mg | |change, (H/mol | | | | |-4. 81kJ ? 0. 0100 mol = -481 [pic] |-4. 75 kJ ? 0. 0100 mol = – 475[pic] | | | | | | |% Uncertainty: [(0. 09 kJ ? 4. 81 kJ) + (0. 0004 mol ? 0. 0100 |% Uncertainty: [(0. 09 kJ ? 4. 75 kJ) + (0. 0004 mol ? 0. 100 | | |mol)] [pic] 100% = 6% |mol)] [pic] 100% = 6% | | |Uncertainty: 6% of -481 [pic] = 29 [pic] |Uncertainty: 6% of -475 [pic] = 29 [pic] | | | | | | |Molar enthalpy change = -481 [pic] ± 29 [pic] |Molar enthalpy change = -475 [pic] ± 29 [pic] | |Average molar |(molar enthalpy change of Trial 1 + molar enthalpy change of Trial 2) ? | |enthalpy change |(-481 [pic] + -475 [pic] ) ? 2 = -478 [pic] | | | | | |Uncertainty: (29 [pic] + 29 [pic] ) ? 2 = 29 [pic] | | | | | |Average molar enthalpy change = -478 [pic] ± 29 [pic] |

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Is Lady Macbeth the Real Driving Force Behind Duncan’s Murder?

Macbeth “Lady Macbeth is the real driving force behind the murder of King Duncan” Discuss this statement and decide whether or not you agree. Known as one of the most influential writers in history, Shakespeare was born in 1564 in Stratford upon Avon. During the 17th century Shakespeare rose to more fame and became one of the popular playwright writers across the globe. Altogether his collection of master pieces is 154 heart-wrenching sonnets and 37 compelling plays. ‘Macbeth’ delivers a powerful message about a tale of greed and a hunger for power which leads to tragic consequences.

Macbeth is a naive character who is the protagonist of the play. He is one of the noble men for the king and this highlight to the reader of the loyal and trusted position he carries. Subsequently, we find that Macbeth is from an honourable family. ‘By Sinel’s death I know I am thane of Glamis’ This also shows that he is of a high class, strengthening his character as being trustworthy and of an honourable status. Macbeth as a sincere character which does not last for long once the three witches ‘plant the seed’ in Macbeth’s mind.

During the play, Macbeth has issues with his desires and loyalty towards the king. The three witches appear in front of Macbeth and Banquo. They portray their prophecies which have an impulsive influence on Macbeth making him ‘thunderstruck’ at the thought of ever being admired enough to become king. This consumes Macbeth with disturbing thoughts when they refer to him as the ‘thane of Cawdor’ and the ‘future king’. These make Macbeth compelled in the witches predictions.

He may react in this spontaneous manner becoming ‘speechless’ because he has a desire to gain a higher status and may have had thoughts of murdering Duncan previously. Macbeth becomes eager and impatient, ‘stay’, ‘I charge you’ shows that he is commanding the witches because he is desperate to hear his future. This introduces a completely different side to Macbeth as being, he has been given the title of ‘thane of Cawdor’ yet he still wants more. His curiosity and frustrated behaviour shows that he already had a hidden desire of ambition.

The witches have an obvious impact on Macbeth, as he starts to talk to himself and a horrid image of ‘murdering king Duncan’ is placed in his mind. This is a huge contrast to the Macbeth we were shown earlier who was a ‘noble’ and ‘loyal’ person we are shown this so that we can observe how he changes from being ‘faithful’ to disloyal. We see that Macbeth finds murdering Duncan unnecessary and decides to leave it up to fate; “If chance will have me king, why chance may even crown me without stir… This shows that Macbeth doubts that murder is required in order to fulfil the prophecy and become king. It also shows that Macbeth is an indecisive character as he has still not made his mind on what approach to take, the reader is unsure of what Macbeth will decide. Macbeth instantly writes a letter to his wife Lady Macbeth, displaying his eagerness to spread his new found news, this shows that he felt that there was some truth in the witches’ prophecy. Lady Macbeth is a striking character, who is introduced as Macbeth’s wife and long term companion.

Shakespeare contrasts the role of Macbeth to women of the 17th century who would have been at home and submissive towards their husbands. Lady Macbeth seems like the more dominating person in the relationship “You shall put this night’s great business into my dispatch, which shall to all our nights and days to come” This shows that even though she is not actually going to perform the murderous act, she has decided to take control of the situation by handling the preparations as she believes that he husband is not competent enough to do it himself.

The fact that Lady Macbeth only takes part in the planning and not the crime illustrates that she does not need to worry about the consequences of their vengeful scheme, there might not be any consequences for her as she did not commit the vicious act of murder. Lady Macbeth is a sly woman who desires for more control, this is reflected upon the advice she gives to Macbeth. Look like th’ innocent flower, but be the serpent under’t” Lady Macbeth encourages her husband to be like a snake which symbolises wickedness, portraying that she is not a good influence on Macbeth, this could confirm Lady Macbeth’s real character that even if she may appear to be innocent she really is an immoral and cunning character. She decides to take the matter into her own hands by planning Duncan’s murder her plan involves getting the servants drunk. “…. is two chamberlains will I with wine and wassail so convince that memory, the warder of the brain, shall be convince a fume, and the receipt of reason” She is very intelligent and has thought ahead so that the plot does not fail. She has decided to make the plan herself because maybe she does not trust Macbeth enough. Macbeth himself is not too keen on committing the murder without Lady Macbeth aggravating him, this also shows that she is the one with the desire and the plans; she wants to be the Queen of Scotland.

This makes the reader aware of Lady Macbeth’s negative characteristics, which she possesses, also making the reader feel angry towards her for consuming Macbeth with evil thoughts. Lady Macbeth tries to force Macbeth into making a decision through manipulation, but Macbeth does his best to try and put off this decision about whether or not to murder Duncan; “we will speak further”, this shows that Macbeth is reluctant to end the conversation about murdering Duncan, at this point Macbeth has still not made up his mind.

This makes the reader aware of Macbeth’s state of mind , it also portrays his human qualities that although he is plotting a murder he is feeling guilty at his wicked thoughts this makes the reader sympathetic towards him that he is in this situation and is confused on which path to follow and whether or not he should listen to Lady Macbeth.

Lady Macbeth somehow manages to be manipulative towards Macbeth this is portrayed through her approach to Macbeth’s refusal to continue in the plot with the use of phrases like “live like a coward” this shows Lady Macbeths manipulative qualities and the way she has manipulated the situation to get an outcome which benefits her and Macbeth. As she knows what to say to infuriate him she decides to challenge his manhood; “When you durst do it, then you were a man; And to be more the man… ” She decides to challenge this because she knows he feels very strongly towards it.

This shows the reader that Lady Macbeth will take all sorts of steps as well as having a corrupting approach of bullying Macbeth into murdering Duncan. Throughout the play Macbeth is uncertain on what he should; “If we should fail? ” this shows Macbeth’s fickle behaviour, his questioning his wife as if she has all the answers and knows the future, it makes the reader aware of his low confidence and more sympathetic towards his state of mind he is not the one making the decisions he is leaving them for Lady Macbeth to make.

Macbeth is eventually persuaded by his wife into murdering Duncan, “I am settled, and bend up each corporal agent to this terrible feat. Away, and mock the time with fairest show. ” He is reluctant and has now come to the conclusion that he wants to do all in his power to achieve his aim, and make his ambition come true. He is fearful “I’ll go no more I am afraid to think what I have done; Look o’t again I dare not. ”

This shows that Macbeth is frightened: he does not want to take a chance in going back to the scene where Duncan’s murder took place, because he may get discovered even though it is in order to perfect the crime scene. He is even afraid of his own thoughts, which shows that Duncan’s death has had an impacted on his vulnerable mental state. The individual to blame for the murder of Duncan is debatable as there are several characters that have a hand in his death.

Could it be the witches who planted the seed of becoming King into Macbeth’s head? Macbeth himself who committed the murderous act, or is it Lady Macbeth who cunningly drove Macbeth into committing the murder? Although this is true, Lady Macbeth is the real driving force behind the murder of King Duncan. She is a stronger and more ruthless, who is determined to get what she desires; she is more influential in her decisions than Macbeth.

She is fully aware of Macbeth’s boundaries and to what extent she has to push him in order to make him kill Duncan. At one point so furious at Macbeth for being a ‘coward’ that she wanted to become a man herself. The three witches, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are all responsible for Duncan’s death. From this we can draw a conclusion that although all these characters played a role in Duncan’s murder Lady Macbeth has a stronger pressure as she kept giving Macbeth sly comments she drove Macbeth into Murdering King Duncan.

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Youth Suicide

ARTICLE IN PRESS Journal of Adolescence xxx (2010) 1–8 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Adolescence journal homepage: www. elsevier. com/locate/jado Factors accounting for youth suicide attempt in Hong Kong: A model building Gloria W. Y. Wan a, Patrick W. L. Leung b, * a b Clinical Psychology Service, Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui Welfare Council, 5/F, Holy Trinity Bradury Center, 139 Ma Tau Chung Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China 3/F, Sino Building, Clinical and Health Psychology Centre, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, China b s t r a c t Keywords: Suicide ideation/attempt Family Psychopathology Life events/stressors Chinese youths This study aimed at proposing and testing a conceptual model of youth suicide attempt. We proposed a model that began with family factors such as a history of physical abuse and parental divorce/separation. Family relationship, presence of psychopathology, life stressors, and suicide ideation were postulated as mediators, leading to youth suicide attempt. The stepwise entry of the risk factors to a logistic regression model de? ned their proximity as related to suicide attempt.

Path analysis further re? ned our proposed model of youth suicide attempt. Our originally proposed model was largely con? rmed. The main revision was dropping parental divorce/separation as a risk factor in the model due to lack of signi? cant contribution when examined alongside with other risk factors. This model was cross-validated by gender. This study moved research on youth suicide from identi? cation of individual risk factors to model building, integrating separate ? ndings of the past studies. O 2009 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction Youth suicide, being one of the three leading causes of death in young people, has been a focus of research. Various individual risk factors have been identi? ed (Gould, Greenberg, Velting, & Shaffer, 2003). Despite this success, not until recently are there attempts to develop complex theory-based models that draw together all those identi? ed risk factors and depict their interplay (Bridge, Goldstein, & Brent, 2006; Mann, Waternaux, Haas, & Malone, 1999). Correspondingly, empirical studies in this area are few (e. g. Foley, Goldston, Costello, & Angold, 2006; Fortune, Stewart, Yadav, & Hawton, 2007; Prinstein et al. , 2008; Reinherz, Tanner, Berger, Beardslee, & Fitzmaurice, 2006). Hence, we propose here a model of youth suicide attempt and test it in a sample of Chinese high school students. We aim at articulating and testing hypothetical pathways between family factors, psychopathology, life stressors, and suicidal behavior. Our model begins with consideration of family risk factors, including a history of physical abuse within the family, poor family relationship, and parental divorce/separation (Johnson et al. 2002; Gould, Fisher, Parides, Flory, & Shaffer, 1996; Gould, Shaffer, Prudence, & Robin, 1998; Liu, Sun, & Yang, 2008; Salzinger, Rosario, Feldman, & Ng-Mak, 2007). However, the latter’s association with youth suicidal behavior is no longer signi? cant or attenuated after controlled for parent-child or family relationship (Groholt, Ekeberg, Wichstrom, & Haldorsen, 2000). Family adversities are also known precursors of youth psychopathology (Fergusson, Woodward, & Horwood, 2000). The latter in turn is found to be a risk factor of suicidal behavior * Corresponding author. Tel. : ? 852 2609 6502; fax: ? 852 2603 5019.

E-mail address: [email protected] edu. hk (P. W. L. Leung). 0140-1971/$ – see front matter O 2009 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10. 1016/j. adolescence. 2009. 12. 007 Please cite this article in press as: Wan, G. W. Y. , Leung, P. W. L. , Factors accounting for youth suicide attempt in Hong Kong: A model building, Journal of Adolescence (2010), doi:10. 1016/j. adolescence. 2009. 12. 007 ARTICLE IN PRESS 2 G. W. Y. Wan, P. W. L. Leung / Journal of Adolescence xxx (2010) 1–8 (Brent, Baugher, Bridge, Chen, & Chiappetta, 1999; Osvath, Voros, & Fekete, 2004).

A wide range of psychopathology has been implicated, including internalizing/externalizing disorders, and substance use disorders (Brent et al. , 2004; Foley et al. , 2006; Gould et al. , 2003; Lee et al. , 2009; Shaffer et al. , 1996; Stewart et al. , 2006). Furthermore, the risk of suicidal behavior increases with the number of comorbid disorders and with the combination of mood, disruptive and substance abuse disorders (Brent et al. , 1999; Shaffer et al. , 1996). Suicide ideation is among the best predictors of suicide attempt (Prinstein et al. , 2008; Wong et al. , 2008).

Studies also suggest that the occurrence of life stressors may prompt suicide ideators into acting on their ideation, ending up in attempted suicide (Borges et al. , 2008; Liu & Tein, 2005). Based upon the above review, our model on youth suicide attempt starts with family risk factors such as a history of physical abuse and parental divorce/separation. We postulate that poor family relationship, psychopathology, life stressors, and suicide ideation act as mediators, leading to suicide attempt. Speci? cally, we hypothesize that a history of physical abuse and parental divorce/separation are associated with poor family relationship.

The latter is in turn related to the occurrence of psychopathology in youths. Comorbid internalizing and externalizing disorders then play a crucial role as risk factors to recent life stressors and suicide ideation. Finally, the latter two are risk factors directly linked to suicide attempt. Method Participants and procedure A total of 2754 grade 7–11 Chinese high school students were recruited to participate voluntarily in the study. They were randomly sampled from 15 mainstream high schools of diversi? ed academic rankings from different regions of Hong Kong.

The participating schools represented a convenience sample, since they were schools served by the School Counselling Service of Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui Welfare Council, at which the ? rst author of this study worked. However, the participating schools covered a full range of academic rankings and a wide geographic spread across Hong Kong, and no speci? c bias in their sampling was noted. Thus, they were considered to be representative of local mainstream schools. Special schools of various kinds were excluded. Ethics approval was ? rst obtained from the relevant institutional authority.

School visits were then made to explain the objectives of the study. A total of 15 schools were contacted and all of them (100%) agreed to participate in the study. Informed written consents were obtained from parents of the randomly sampled students. The response rate was 94. 4%. The participants completed the self-report questionnaires during school hours. The returned questionnaires were screened for severe psychopathology and suicidal behavior. For ethical reasons, the corresponding school counselors would be alerted for such cases in order to take appropriate actions.

Measures Psychopathology The 1991 version of Youth Self-Report (YSR) was re-validated with satisfactory test–retest reliability and criterion validity for use with Hong Kong Chinese youths (Leung et al. , 2006). It evaluated the occurrence of psychopathology in the past 6 months. Since two items in YSR referred to suicidal/self harm behavior and they thus contaminated the relationship under investigation between psychopathology and suicidal behavior, the two items were removed in this study from the construct of internalizing problems as assessed by YSR.

Youth suicide ideation/attempt Self-report measures of suicide ideation/attempt had been found to be reliable primary data sources (Joiner, Rudd, & Rajab, 1999; Miranda et al. , 2008). Two measures were used to assess suicide ideation/attempt in this study. First, YSR had two items that referred to suicide ideation and attempt, respectively. However, a single-item measure for a variable was considered undesirable.

Hence, two short self-report questionnaires for suicide ideation and attempt were extracted respectively from an existing, longer questionnaire used in a previous local study which asked the occurrences and details of suicide ideation, communication, plan, and attempt (Ho, Leung, Hung, Lee, & Tang, 2000). This questionnaire was found useful in assessing the suicidal behavior of peers of suicide completers and attempters. Depending on whether a youth had consistently indicated suicide ideation and/or attempt both in the adapted questionnaires and with the corresponding item in YSR, he/she would be considered ategorically in this study as a suicide ideator and/or attempter, or not. Recent life stressors The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS; Holmes & Rahe, 1967) asked 30 stressful life events which might happen to the young people and their families in the preceding 12 months. In this study, items in the SRRS related to parental con? ict and divorce/separation were excluded, since these family events were separately examined elsewhere as family risk factors in our model. Items irrelevant to local young adolescents were also excluded (e. g. accepted at a college of your choice). Family relationship In this study, the Family Relationship Index (FRI), a composite of three subscales (i. e. , cohesion, expressiveness, and con? ict) of the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1986), was used as a measure of family relationship. The FRI had Please cite this article in press as: Wan, G. W. Y. , Leung, P. W. L. , Factors accounting for youth suicide attempt in Hong Kong: A model building, Journal of Adolescence (2010), doi:10. 1016/j. adolescence. 2009. 12. 007 ARTICLE IN PRESS G. W. Y. Wan, P. W. L.

Leung / Journal of Adolescence xxx (2010) 1–8 3 been found to correlate well with other measures of family dysfunction (Hoge, Andrews, Faulkner, & Robinson, 1989) and was widely used in research with Chinese youths (Locke & Prinz, 2002). Parents’ marital status The current marital status of the participants’ parents was enquired with reference to divorce/separation. History of physical abuse Participants were asked to report if they had experienced any physical abuse in the family since childhood. Three items were adapted from Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) (Bernstein et al. 1994) and two additional ones that were relevant to the local Chinese context were speci? cally written for this study, e. g. , ‘‘People in my family had applied corporal punishment to me’’ and ‘‘After I was being physically punished, I had to go to see a doctor or could not go to school’’. Data analysis First, a series of logistic regression analysis would be conducted to explore the signi? cance of each individual risk factor separately in predicting suicide ideation and attempt. Except for parental divorce/separation, other risk factors were measured in this study in dimensional scales. They were turned into ategorical data in this logistic regression analysis using distributional cutoffs to de? ne relative deviance (see Table 1 for the exact de? nitions of cutoffs). Second, we tested our proposed model of youth suicide attempt, using hierarchical regression ? rst. The series of predictors would be entered in steps according to their positions in relation to suicide attempt in our proposed model. The risk factors of a history of physical abuse and parental divorce/separation would ? rst be forced into the regression equation, after controlling for effects of the background variables (including age, gender, and family income).

Family relationship would then be entered into the equation in the second step. The third batch of predictors would be internalizing and externalizing problems. They were followed in turn by suicide ideation and life stressors. We hypothesized a partial or complete mediational model in which the effects of factors entered ? rst would be attenuated or superseded by those of the subsequent factors in predicting youth suicide attempt. Lastly, path analysis would be conducted to directly test our proposed model of youth suicide attempt, using Lisrel 8. 71.

Path analysis has its strengths in examining the chains of in? uences between independent variables, and in postulating the possible cause-and-effect relations among variables for further investigation. An ordinary sample covariance matrix for path analysis would not be appropriate to deal with the dichotomous data of suicidal behavior and parental divorce/separation, as well as the kurtosis and skewness within the other dimensional data. Instead, an asymptotic covariance matrix should be used, analysis of which would require the use of an estimator that allowed for non-normality.

The weighted least squares (WLS) method, instead of the maximum likelihood estimator, had provision for such non-normality and was thus the appropriate estimator to be used in this study. Results The mean age of the 2754 participants was 13. 9 years (SD ? 1. 3, range ? 11–18). Among the participants, 55. 7% was male. There were missing data on suicidal behavior from 39 participants. Among the remaining 2715 participants, 252 participants (9. 2%) reported suicide ideation in the past 6 months. Among the 91 (3. 3%) reporting suicide attempt in the same period, only six (6. %) did not report suicide ideation. By gender, among the 1219 female participants, 167 (13. 7%) reported suicide ideation, while only two (3. 0%) of 66 (5. 4%) female suicide attempters did not report suicide ideation. The corresponding ? gures for male participants (1535) were 85 (5. 5%), four (16. 0%), and 25 (1. 6%). Table 1 Percentages of suicide ideators, attempters, and non-suicidal controls, association with various risk factors, and odds ratios (ORs) for predicting suicide ideation and attempt. Variables Cronbach’s Alpha Ideators (n ? 52) n Parents divorced/separated History of physical abusea Poor family relationshipb Internalizing problemsc Externalizing problemsc Frequent recent life stressorsd – 0. 83 0. 83 0. 89 0. 88 – 41 73 142 76 99 102 % 16. 3 29. 0 56. 3 30. 2 39. 3 40. 5 Attempters (n ? 91) n 19 29 51 32 45 44 % 20. 9 31. 9 56. 0 35. 2 49. 5 48. 4 Non-suicidal controls (n ? 2457) n 239 169 602 103 153 364 % 9. 7 6. 9 24. 5 4. 2 6. 2 14. 8 Ideators vs controls OR 1. 8** 5. 8*** 3. 8*** 13. 9*** 9. 8*** 3. 6*** (95% CI) (1. 2–2. 6) (4. 2–8. 1) (2. 9–5. 1) (9. 6–20. 1) (7. 1–13. 4) (2. 7–4. 8) Attempters vs controls OR 2. 3** 5. *** 3. 7*** 10. 7*** 11. 1*** 5. 2*** (95% CI) (1. 3–4. 0) (3. 3–8. 6) (2. 4–5. 7) (6. 6–17. 5) (7. 1–17. 5) (3. 4–8. 1) **p < 0. 01; ***p < 0. 001. a Cutoff at total score > ? 6 (80th percentile). b Cutoff at total score > ? 15 (80th percentile). c Cutoff at T-score > ? 64 (at clinical range, 92nd percentile). d Cutoff at number of recent life stressors > ? 4 (80th percentile). Please cite this article in press as: Wan, G. W. Y. , Leung, P. W. L. , Factors accounting for youth suicide attempt in Hong Kong: A model building, Journal of Adolescence (2010), doi:10. 1016/j. adolescence. 2009. 12. 07 ARTICLE IN PRESS 4 G. W. Y. Wan, P. W. L. Leung / Journal of Adolescence xxx (2010) 1–8 Table 1 presents the internal consistency coef? cients of the measures employed in this study. They were consistently satisfactory, ranging from 0. 83 to 0. 89. Table 1 also lists the results of separate logistic regression analysis of each risk factor, including the percentages of suicide ideators, attempters, and non-suicidal participants (i. e. , those reporting neither suicide ideation nor attempt) having various risks, as well as the odds ratios (ORs) of these risk factors in predicting suicide ideation and attempt.

Despite multiple testing of the group differences, such testing was all theory-driven (see the literature review above) and was not random so that statistical control of the effects of multiple testing was not required. All three family risk factors (i. e. , parental divorce/separation, history of physical abuse, and poor family relationship) were more prevalent among suicide ideators and attempters, and had signi? cant ORs. Among these risk factors, a history of physical abuse was the best predictor of suicide ideation (OR ? 5. 8, 95% CI ? 4. 2–8. 1) and attempt (OR ? 5. 3, 95% CI ? 3. 3–8. 6).

Nearly one third of ideators (29. 0%) and attempters (31. 9%), in contrast to 6. 9% of non-suicidal participants, had a history of being physically abused. With respect to the other two family risk factors, 16. 3% of ideators (OR ? 1. 8, 95% CI ? 1. 2–2. 6) and 20. 9% of attemptors (OR ? 2. 3, 95% CI ? 1. 3–4. 0), compared to 9. 7% of non-suicidal participants, reported parental divorce/separation, while 56. 3% of ideators (OR ? 3. 8, 95% CI ? 2. 9–5. 1) and 56. 0% of attemptors (OR ? 3. 7, 95% CI ? 2. 4–5. 7), compared to 24. 5% of nonsuicidal participants, reported poor family relationship.

Compared to family factors, internalizing and externalizing problems were even more associated with higher risks of suicidal behaviors. The ORs of internalizing problems for suicide ideation and attempt were respectively 13. 9 (95% CI ? 9. 6– 20. 1) and 10. 7 (95% CI ? 6. 6–17. 5), while the ORs of externalizing problems were 9. 8 (95% CI ? 7. 1–13. 4) and 11. 1 (95% CI ? 7. 1–17. 5). Nearly one third of ideators (30. 2%) and attempters (35. 2%), in contrast to 4. 2% of non-suicidal participants, had internalizing problems. The corresponding ? gures for externalizing problems were 39. 3% and 49. 5% vs 6. %. Life stressors in the past year also elevated the risk of suicide ideation (OR ? 3. 6, 95% CI ? 2. 7–4. 8) and attempt (OR ? 5. 2, 95% CI ? 3. 4–8. 1). About 40. 5% of suicide ideators and 48. 4% of attempters were reporting more frequent life stressors, compared to 14. 8% of non-suicidal participants. Table 2 shows the results of logistic regression analysis with forced entry of subsets of risk factors in steps, after controlling for background variables (i. e. , age, gender, and family income). With each successive entry of each subset of risk factors, the majority of the previous ones became insigni? ant so that in the ? nal regression model, only recent life stressors (OR ? 1. 01, p < 0. 01) and suicide ideation (OR ? 95. 7, p < 0. 001) signi? cantly accounted for youth suicide attempt. In other words, despite their initial statistical signi? cance when ? rst entered into the regression model, those risk factors such as a history of physical abuse, poor family relationship, and internalizing and externalizing disorders no longer signi? cantly accounted for youth suicide attempt, after life stressors and suicide ideation were later entered into the model.

This pattern of results indicated a mediational model largely compatible to our proposed model of youth suicide attempt. It should be noted that parental divorce/separation as a predictor was not signi? cant even when ? rst entered into the regression analysis alongside with a history of physical abuse. This risk factor was thus dropped in the later path analysis. Our proposed model of youth suicide attempt, in a form of a mediational model, was directly tested by path analysis. It achieved a very good ? t: c2 (6, N ? 2754) ? 39. 5, p < 0. 0001; GFI ? 0. 99; AGFI ? 0. 97; RMSEA ? 0. 045; NFI ? 0. 96; CFI ? . 97; RMR ? 0. 57 (Fig. 1). Weighted least squares standardized estimators of the model and their signi? cance according to the two-tailed z value are presented in Fig. 1. All paths shown were signi? cant at p < 0. 01. As shown in Fig. 1, a history of physical abuse, as a family risk factor, was linked directly to suicide ideation, as well as to the ? rst tier of mediators in the model, namely, poor family relationship, and externalizing and internalizing problems. They were in turn linked to suicide ideation. The externalizing and internalizing problems were additionally linked to recent life stressors.

Finally, suicidal ideation and life stressors were both associated with suicide attempt, with life stressors also linking to the suicide ideation as well. This mediational model with several tiers of mediators explained 48% and 87% of the variances in youth suicide ideation and attempt, respectively. Table 2 Logistic regression of risk factors in predicting youth suicide attempt, controlled for demographic variables. Blocks entered to the modela Deviance between blocks (c2)b 18. 37*** 1. 02*** n. s. 55. 59*** 72. 71*** 1. 02** n. s. 1. 17*** 1. 01* n. s. 1. 07** 1. 07*** 1. 09*** 168. 80*** 10. 5*** 1. 02* n. s. n. s. n. s. n. s. n. s. n. s. 95. 67*** 1. 01** ORs 1 2 3 4 5 1. Family factors History of physical abuse Parental divorce/separation 2. Poor family relationship 3. Psychopathology Internalizing problems Externalizing problems 4. Suicide ideation 5. Life stressors n. s. n. s. 103. 72*** n. s. : non-signi? cant. *p < 0. 05; **p < 0. 01; ***p < 0. 001. a The sequence of blocks entered into the logistic regression model; all factors entered were continuous variables except parental divorce/separation and suicide ideation. b Chi-square deviance of each block entered.

Please cite this article in press as: Wan, G. W. Y. , Leung, P. W. L. , Factors accounting for youth suicide attempt in Hong Kong: A model building, Journal of Adolescence (2010), doi:10. 1016/j. adolescence. 2009. 12. 007 ARTICLE IN PRESS G. W. Y. Wan, P. W. L. Leung / Journal of Adolescence xxx (2010) 1–8 5 0. 85*** 0. 52*** 0. 13*** 1. 00*** History of physical abuse 0. 39*** Poor family relationship 0. 19*** 0. 13*** Suicide ideation 0. 20*** 0. 15*** 0. 88*** Suicide attempt 0. 21*** 0. 17*** 0. 44*** 0. 79*** 0. 13*** 0. 33*** Externalizing problems 0. 42*** 0. 29*** Recent stressors 0. 82*** *p

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Furman V. Georgia

Furman vs. Georgia In Furman vs. Georgia Furman was convicted of murder and two others for rape. “Juries had convicted Furman for murder and two other individuals for rape—all three were African American—and then imposed the death penalty. ” (Source A). “Furman v. Georgia (1972). ” American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 19 Apr. 2010. . The three pleaded that the death penalty is against the eighth amendment, which prohibits any man from suffering cruel and unusual punishment, and when Furman and his counterparts case reached the Supreme Court, the Supreme Court ruled the death penalty unconstitutional. So the Court ruled for the first time that capital punishment violated the Eighth Amendment. ” “All executions were put on hold following the decision. ”(Source B). Hinds, Maurine. Furman v. Georgia and the DEATH PENALTY DEBATE. Berkely Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, Inc. , 2005. 79-80. Print. The significance of Furman v. Georgia is that this case was the first case that was ruled violating the Eighth amendment and that it halted every man on death row in the United States.

The decision of the Supreme Court is a superior choice because it is not within the right of another person to choose which man should die and which man should live and that the death penalty is not something that are forefathers saw as constitutional. In Furman v. Georgia “On the night of August 11, 1967, 29-year-old William Joseph Micke, Jr. , came home from work to his wife and five children in Savannah,Georgia. He went to bedaround midnight. Two hours later, the Mickes were awakened by strange noises in thekitchen. Thinking that one of his children was sleepwalking, William Micke went to thekitchen to investigate.

Micke found 26-year-old William Henry Furman in the kitchen. Furman was a poor, uneducated, mentally ill African American who had broken into the house and was carrying a gun. When he saw Micke, Furman fled the house, shooting Micke as he left. The bullet hit Micke in the chest, killing him instantly. Micke’s family immediately called the police. Within minutes, the police searched the neighborhood and found Furman still carrying his gun. Furman was charged with murder. ” (Source C). http://www. enotes. com/supreme-court-drama/furman-v-georgia. N. p. , n. d. Web. 19 Apr 2010.

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In Cold Blood

Truman Capote was born in New Orleans in 1925, a harsh time in America. He was brought up in an amalgamation of places in the South of America, moving among New Orleans, Alabama and New Georgia. He began writing stories at the age of fourteen, depending on the seasonal changes. He later went on to work for the New Yorker after having left school at fifteen. He soon became renowned as the author of the celebrated Breakfast at Tiffany’s.

Finally, he published his masterpiece, In Cold Blood, which is most certainly a work of art that changed the nature of writing for all time to come. The novel is filled with contrasting themes, ranging between moments of sombreness and cheeriness, invoking various emotions when reading the non-fictional novel. The novel revolves around the lives of the infamous murderers, Richard Eugene Hickock and Perry Edward Smith and the story of how they murdered four innocent people, known as the Clutter family.

This essay will explore the relationship between character and theme presented in In Cold Blood, referring specifically to the characters of Dick Hickock and Perry Smith, assessing the question about whether the characters are portrayed empathetically or as ruthless murderers, the theme of light versus dark being represented in each of these two characters. The contrast drawn between Dick and Perry and the Clutter family will be shown with reference to minor characters that influence the reader’s perceptions of the characters, as well as the effect of narrative scope on the novel.

Firstly, Perry was born, “Perry Edward Smith Oct. 27 1928 in Huntington, Elko County, Nevada, which is situated way out in the boon docks, so to speak… in 1929 [his] family had ventured to Juneau, Alaska” (Capote 274). He had not had a normal upbringing. His mother left his father at a young age and moved around the country without real love, friends or a proper grounding. Perry lived in a nunnery at one stage of his childhood where he was severely beaten to the stage of near death from drowning incidents caused by a certain nun.

Therefore, it is no wonder that he felt as though the world was against him. Moreover, “Sitting, [Perry] seemed a more than normal-sized man, a powerful man, with the shoulders, the arms, the thick, crouching torso of a weight-lifter” but he was disproportionately structured, “when he stood up he was no taller than a 12-year-old child” (Capote 27). It is this that is ominously foreboding of his personality. At a first glance he seems to be grotesquely large and well-built, but further inspection allows one realise that he is merely, “overblown and muscle bound” (Capote 27).

The same thought process is attached to his inner qualities; he seems at first, with his boyishly good-looks, to be soft and sweet, a part Indian and a part Irishmen to be a placid romantic. One would never assume at first that Perry is a cold-blooded killer. Instead, one would think the opposite with him being so caring of animals such a squirrels, enjoying the company of children and being an excellent artist and skilled guitar player – “With the aid of his guitar, Perry had [often] hung himself into a happy humour. He knew the lyrics of some two hundred hymns and ballads – a repertoire ranging [endlessly]” (Capote 59)

But, through further analysis one finds that, “In some ways old Perry was “spooky as hell”… He could slide into a fury… “He might be ready to kill you, but you’d never know it, not to look at or listen to. ”” (Capote 116) What was really going on with Perry, whether he was anxious or nervous, scared or ireful – even with his anxiety causing his blood to bubble, it was almost assured that he would remain cool, calm and collected on the outside, “with eyes serene and slightly sleepy” (Capote 116). Therefore, Perry had a, “doom against which virtue was no defense” (Capote 185).

He “had such a rotten life” (Capote 306). In many ways Perry is portrayed in an array of varying degrees of passivity and iniquity. It is then true to state that, “‘the path of the righteous man is beset on all sides with the iniquities of the selfish and the tyranny of evil men” (Jackson). He was in no doubt destined to the awful vengeance that was incurred upon him – death by hanging from the neck. In contrast to this, Dick Hickock lived a much better life than what Perry did; he lived a somewhat average middle-class lifestyle. As a child he eceived much love from his parents and at one stage received a bicycle for his birthday, which he was indeed very proud of. He partook in most sports and achieved highly even being given a scholarship to go to college (which he did not accept). Instead, he started working and married a young but pretty girl who was above his standards, and even though this was the case, they had children together. Furthermore, Dick honestly thought of himself as, “a normal. And Dick meant what he said. He thought of himself as balanced, as sane as anyone – maybe a bit smarter than the average fellow… (Capote 116) He too, at first, seems to be kind hearted as he tends to smile somewhat and make jokes. But with his harmless jokes come harmful ones too, such as in the closing moments of the court case where both Dick and Perry laughed loudly at Dick’s comment of, “No chicken-hearted jurors, they”! (Capote 307) Moreover, Dick’s truly evil side is portrayed when he speaks of his lust for young adolescents and his paedophiliac propensities. He openly claims that he, “never [gave] any thought to whether it is right or wrong” (Capote 278).

This act in itself is worthy of maximum penalty and coupled with assisted murder of first degree on four counts it is no doubt that he too be destined to the ultimate punishment – death by hanging from the neck. One of the reasons why the novel is so appealing is the nature of its impartiality; in the partnership of Dick and Perry they are both portrayed empathetically as well as like ruthless killers. Throughout the novel there are minor characters that ensure that one feels empathy at times toward the dire-stricken duo and at other times one will feel detestation and abhorrence toward the cowardly couple.

With regards to Perry one feels compassion for him when he explains the horrors of his childhood, the way in which he was so often mistreated and misguided and lost out on so many important aspects of growing up that would normally lead to living a normal life. Perry Smith wanted to go to college and receive a proper education and was most jealous of former in-mate Lowell Lee Andrews who had what he desired, despising him for it. One might feel sorry for him insofar that he suffers from pain in his legs as a result of a motorcycle accident and resultantly became an addict of aspirin.

One might even be envious of him for he is full of wisdom, being opposed to conventionalism for, “there is considerable hypocrisy in conventionalism” (Capote 150) and for being so artistically and musically inclined. It is Perry’s father, Tex John Smith, and his friends, Donald Cullivan and Willie-Jay? On the other hand, though it need not be mentioned why, one feels utter distaste towards such a felon for his heinous crimes are unspeakable and his lack of remorse is most certainly worthy of hatred and the label of ‘a cold-blooded killer’.

Perry’s cold-bloodedness is most clearly portrayed when he openly exclaims, “[he] didn’t want to harm [Herb Clutter]. [He] thought he was a very nice gentleman. Soft-spoken. [He] thought so right up to the moment [he] cut his throat. ” (Capote, 246). With regards to Dick, one would also be inclined to think kindly of him because he is a clever and quirky man, always “quick with a joke, or to light up [one’s] smoke” (Joel). He would hardly be seen without a smile and to be quite charming. The people in his life, which cared for him most, would be his parents, Mr. nd Mrs. Hickock – who never spoke badly of their son and always had hope and faith in him, even up until the last moment. It is precisely this aspect which makes one feel compassion for Dick. However, one finds his actions inexcusable and sees him as a cold blooded killer insofar as he was the main instigator for the ‘score’ of the Clutter household. He was the ringleader and the mastermind of the whole operation and he perpetually insisted that him and Perry leave no witnesses standing. It is thus that he is rightfully named a ‘cold-blooded killer’.

Furthermore, there is a great contrast with regards to the theme of light and dark pertaining to Dick and Perry and the Clutter family, for even though Dick and Perry initially seem to be somewhat gentle or not as malevolent as they are after what one eventually learns about them, they most certainly are laced with evil streaks. Conversely, the Clutter family, each and every one of them was of pure goodness, not just in appearance or facades but in their minds and hearts too. Their souls were comprised of untainted decency. They were a tightly knit unit that worked coherently to enrich others’ ives. Similarly, Dick and Perry also worked together, a team but conversely yet again, their aim was to impoverish other peoples’ lives. Moreover, the narrative scope is from two varying viewpoints: that of the Clutter family who were innocently murdered, and that of the two cold-blooded killers, Dick and Perry. The different points of view allow one to relive both sides of the story; Capote presents them without foregone conclusions hence, each standpoint is one of impartiality. Capote works wizardry with the use of the third person omniscient perspective to communicate the two points of view.

Emphasis is laid on some important scenes in the novel because of the way it is not written in complete chronological order. Finally, by closely analysing various aspects of the novel such as character and theme, whether or not Dick and Perry are portrayed empathetically or as cold-blooded killers, and how the theme of dark versus light is portrayed in the two main characters in accordance with the Clutter family and the effect of narrative scope we can fully understand what a wonderful masterpiece Truman Capote has fashioned.

Word Count: 1794 Bibliography Capote, Truman. In Cold Blood. New York: Penguin Books, 1965. Joel, Bille. “Pianoman. ” Piano Man. cond. M Stewart. By Billie Joel. Los Angeles, 1973. Pulp Fiction. Dir. Quentin Tarantino. Perf. Samuel L. Jackson. 1994.

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Gender and Leadership: Literature Review

Gender and Leadership Literature Review 1. Introduction Leadership theories and literature describe what leaders should do and on the other hand literature also exists on what leaders actually do, the former are prescriptive and the latter are descriptive (Bratton et al; 2005). Leadership style is a relatively consistent set of behaviours that characterise a leader (DuBrin; 1995). The main leadership theories encompass the trait, behaviour, contingency, power influence, and gender influence and exchange leadership perspectives.

This paper focuses on transformational leadership and thus will detail the theory underpinning transformational leadership vis a vis gender differences in leadership. A brief discussion on Leadership effectiveness as it relates to gender and Leadership styles will also be shown. In a study of gender and leadership styles it is important to highlight the deeper foundations that have a bearing on why men and women may lead differently. One of those causes has been found to be culture; a brief review of this construct and its’ bearing on gender has also been outlined in this section. . 2Gender and Leadership Swanepoel et al (2003) define gender as a “demographic factor that may influence Human Resources Management in organisations and which can lead to similar problems of discrimination in the workplace”. DuBrin (1995) state that the terms sex and gender arouse controversy both scientifically and politically. He further states that the term gender refers to perceptions about the differences among males and females whilst sex differences refer to actual tangible differences such as the fact that the mean height of men is greater than that of women.

The terms gender and sex are, however, often used interchangeably. Task and interpersonal styles in leadership research are obviously relevant to gender because of the stereotypes people have about sex differences in these aspects of behaviour (Ashmore, Del Boca, & Wohlers, 1986; Eagly & Steffen, 1984). Men are believed to be more self-assertive and motivated to control their environment (e. g. , more aggressive, independent, self-sufficient, forceful, and dominant). In contrast, women are believed to be more selfless and concerned with others (e. . , more kind, helpful, understanding, warm, sympathetic, and aware of others’ feelings). Although democratic versus autocratic style is a different (and narrower) aspect of leader behaviour than task-oriented and interpersonally oriented styles (see Bass, 1981), the democratic- autocratic dimension also relates to gender stereotypes, because one component of these stereotypes is that men are relatively dominant and controlling (i. e. , more autocratic and directive than women.

Bratton et al (2005) highlight a study conducted by Schein (1975) who extended the gender issue in Leadership further with the results confirming that to both the male and female managers who participated in the study; being a successful manager meant being masculine in terms of stereotypical behaviours (Bratton et al, 2005). Wajcman in Bratton, Grint and Nelson stated, “Some leadership behaviours are interpreted differently depending on the gender of the leader. For example, a particular action seen as “firm” when displayed by a man (e. , banging the table top with the hand) might be termed “hysterical” when displayed by a woman. ” (Bratton et al; 189). Women are said to find participative management more natural than men because they feel more comfortable interacting with people and that their natural sensitivity encourages group members to participate in decision- making (Dubrin; 1995). Yet as women move up the corporate ladder, their identification with the male model of corporate success becomes important and may even reject the few feminine traits that they may earlier have endorsed.

Bass (1998) in his review of studies other than his own concludes that there is no consistent pattern of male-female differences in leadership styles. Modern theory proposes that women lead differently than men (Bratton et al; 2005). This theory tends to promote the idea that women have the characteristics and skill that are necessary for effective leadership and that these skills and characteristics include a more interactional leadership style, the ability to build consensus, a tendency to empower others, and a greater ability to nurture others (Bratton et al; 2005).

Robbins (date) in Swanepoel et al (2003) points out that the similarities between women and men tend to outweigh the differences, and that these differences suggest that men are comfortable with a directive style while female managers prefer a democratic style (Swanepoel et al; 2003). The gender perspective argues that women leaders have an interactive, people centered, participative management style. Women leaders are associated with consensus building and power sharing.

Views in favour of the gender perspective advocate for equal opportunities at the work place; full utilization of women to utilize available human resources; acknowledgement of the “special contribution” women can make the work place due to their leadership style and alternate approaches to situations (Bratton, et al; 2005). Swanepoel et al (2003) state that in general women follow a transformational leadership style, which emphasises followers, consensus, and the use of charisma, personal reference and personal contact to enhance interpersonal relations and to influence followers.

Men, however prefer a more direct style where job performance is seen as transactional and they also tend to use formal position, power and authority to control people. To tackle the question of whether men and women have different leadership styles, Eagly and Johnson conducted a 1990 review of leadership studies. Notably, although lab studies viewed women as both interpersonally oriented and democratic and men to be both task-oriented and autocratic, field studies indicated a difference on only one of those dimensions: The omen were found to be more democratic, encouraging participation, and the men were more autocratic, directing performance. http: www. psychologymatters. org/womanboss A 2003 meta-analysis extended those results and indicated that women were slightly more likely than men to have the transformational leadership style. Women also appeared to reward good performance more than men, a very positive part of transactional leadership. Men were more likely to criticize subordinates and be less hands-on, styles found to be ineffective. http: www. psychologymatters. rg/womanboss. However, psychologists caution against concluding that women or men have some sort of natural or inherent leadership style. There is a possibility that women, knowing how negatively people respond to “bossy” women, soften their approach. Additionally, the research shows only averages, or tendencies, for each sex. Some men will have more “feminine” management styles; some women will have more “masculine” management styles. (http: www. psychologymatters. org/womanboss) Eagly’s advice is to be careful about the power of perception.

She says that even though the research found some differences in leadership style, “the sex differences are small because the leader role itself carries a lot of weight in determining people’s behaviour. ” She concludes that women are in some senses better leaders than men but suffer the disadvantage of leadership roles having a masculine image, especially in some settings and at higher levels. Stripping organizational leadership of its masculine aura would allow psychologists to get a clearer picture of any true differences between men and women. http: www. psychologymatters. org/womanboss)

Eagly and Johnson highlighted the following summaries from their review;” The preponderance of available evidence is that no consistently clear pattern of differences can be discerned in the supervisory style of female as compared to male leaders” (Bass, 198 l, p. 499);”There is as yet no research evidence that makes a case for sex differences in either leadership aptitude or style” (Kanter, 1977a, p. 199); “In general, comparative research indicates that there are few differences in the leadership styles of female and male designated leaders” (Bartol & Martin, 1986, 19. 278).

However Quantitative reviews of this research have established the presence rather than the absence of overall sex differences (Eagly, 1987; Eagly & Wood, in press; Hall, 1984). These differences, although typically not large, tend to be comparable in magnitude to most other findings reported in social psychological research. (http: www. psychologymatters. org/womanboss) 3. 3 Cultural Dimension – the link to gender Several theories have been put forward to account for gender differences including biological differences, differences in early childhood and the fulfilment of culturally prescribed gender role expectations.

Thomas and Bendixen (2000) refer to Thomas and Ely (1996) who capture the essence of cultural issues in organisations when they state that employees make choices at work based on their cultural background (Thomas and Bendixen; 2000). It is thus important for organisations to understand these values that employees bring into the workplace (Thomas and Bendixen; 2000). Thomas and Bendexin (2000) also lean on Trompenaars (1993) who identified different levels of culture, noting that national culture is at the highest level whilst organisational culture is at the next level down in the hierarchy of culture.

Gender related differences in leadership styles may have a foundation in culture. Schein (1990) defines organisational culture as “a pattern of basic assumptions, invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore is to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems. ” (Schein, 1990; 111).

He further identifies three levels at which culture manifests itself as observable artefacts, values, and basic underlying assumptions (Schein, 1990). Observable artefacts are things that one sees or feels upon entering an organisation. This includes the dress code, the physical layout, the smell and feel of the place to the more tangible things such as the annual reports and company records (Schein, 1990). “Through interviews, questionnaires, or survey instruments one can study a culture’s espoused and documented values, norms, ideologies, charters, and philosophies. (Schein, 1990; 112). More direct questioning can reveal the more the underlying assumptions, which “determine perceptions, thought processes, feelings and behaviour” (Schein, 1990; 112) For Edgar Schein (1985) the transformation that matters is a change in the corporate culture. What do leaders pay attention to, measure, and control sends symbolic signals to the rest of the corporate culture. Hofstede is a central figure in the development of literature on the cultural construct in leadership (Dickson, Hartog & Mitchelson; 2003).

He advances the idea that cultural differences are initially encountered as differences in shared values with values being defined as tendencies to prefer certain states of affairs over others (Dickson et al; 2003). Hofstede (1980,2001) described initially four culture dimensions; individualism-collectivism; masculinity-femininity; uncertainty avoidance; and power distance and a fifth dimension, future orientation was added in later work (Dickson et al; 2003). Power distance is “the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally”.

Hofstede (in Dickson, Harthog & Mitchelson, 2003, pg 737). Uncertainty avoidance is defined as the extent to which the members of a society feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations (Dickson et al p. 740). Individualism versus collectivism ranges from societies in which the ties between individuals are “loose” and people are expected to take care of themselves and close family only to societies that are “tight” where people expect their “in-group to look after them and they do so in return (Dickson, et al. 2003). Masculinity versus femininity ranges from societies in which social gender roles are clearly distinct to societies in which social gender roles overlap (Dickson, et al. ; 2003). This dimension has a direct bearing on gender issues in that societal roles determine gender roles and these ultimately have a bearing on the leadership style that one practices, In her exploration of African management van der Colff (2003) uses the African tree concept advanced by Mbigi (1996).

According to this concept the main stem underpinning all the most important values of African History can be traced through ubuntu, which is the key to all African values and involves collectivism (van der Colff; 2003). “Traditionally African leadership is built on participation, responsibility and spiritual authority”. (van der Colff; 2003,258). Nussbaum (1996) in van der Colff (2003) is quoted as saying that African leadership requires transparency, accountability and legitimacy. The only way they can be legitimate is to be trustworthy themselves before they can expect trust from employees (van der Colff; 2003).

Bass (1997) has argued that transformational leadership is universally applicable. He proposed, that regardless of culture, transformational leaders inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or organization, followers become motivated to expend greater effort than would would usually be expected. While acknowledging the universality of transformational leadership, Bass recognized that cultural differences will contribute to differences at the individual level of measurement.

He stated “Variation occurs because the same concepts may contain specific thought processes, beliefs, implicit understandings, or behaviors in one culture not another” (p. 132). This raises the question of the universality of gender differences in transformational leadership. Although there have been several studies on gender differences in America, unknown is the extent that these findings are replicated in other cultures. This study will show some findings of transformational leadership with a Zimbabwean sample. 3. 4. Transformational Leadership theory

From a broad perspective, leadership styles can be transformational and transactional; a transformational leadership style is one that seeks to influence behaviour through inspirational and motivational means. Transactional leadership styles use contingency factors such as rewards and punishment to influence and affect behaviour (Densten, Gray & Sarros, 2002). The transactional leadership theories emphasise transactions between leaders and their followers. Transactional leaders get things done by giving contingent rewards such as recognition and pay increases.

These leaders usually manage by exception to monitor performance and take corrective action to remedy poor performance. They motivate followers by clarifying role and task requirements (Swanepoel; 2003). Transformational leadership was first coined by Burns (1978) and further developed by Bass (1985, 1998) and Yammarino & Bass, (1990) with research accumulating in the area over the past fourteen years. Transformational leadership is defined in terms of four inter-related factors: idealised influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration.

Taken together, these sub-types are believed to represent the most effective attitudes and behaviours a leader can have. (Panopoulos; 1998). The transformational characteristic of idealised influence is based on earlier conceptualisations of charisma (e. g. House, 1977). The charismatic leader is able to inspire respect and higher order motivation in followers. The leader is able to communicate a sense of power and confidence in higher values and beliefs. The charismatic leader possesses a clear set of idealised qualities with which followers might wish to be associated (Panapoulos; 1998).

The leader who provides inspirational motivation to followers is likely to speak optimistically about the future, articulating a compelling vision of what must be achieved. He motivates followers by his/her own enthusiasm. The leader is therefore not merely a distant charismatic source of referent power but is also able to directly and effectively translate his/her own enthusiasm to followers (Panapoulos; 1998). The leader must also provide intellectual stimulation to followers. In providing intellectual stimulation, the leader is said to orient ollowers to awareness of problems, to their own thoughts and imagination, and to the recognition of their beliefs and values (Yammarino & Bass, 1990 in Panapoulos; 1998). Furthermore, by providing an intellectually stimulating environment, transformational leaders are able to foster the development of creative solutions to problems, which stand in the way of organisational goal attainment. Panapoulos (1998) states that from a humanistic perspective, the most outstanding component of transformational leadership is the leader’s individualised consideration of his/her followers.

According to Bass and his colleagues (Yammarino, Spangler & Bass, 1993 in Panapoulos; 1998), a leader’s use of individual consideration is a crucial element in followers’ achievement of their full potential through a close consideration of their developmental needs. In providing individual consideration, the leader is not only aware of and sensitive to the current needs of followers, but is also aiming to elevate those needs to a higher level (in combination with the use of the other factors of transformational leadership).

This can be done by coaching and mentoring, as well as by setting examples and tasks, which are developmentally consistent with the needs of each individual (Panapoulos; 1998). Gender differences in transformational leadership – A review of past research A number of authors have speculated on possible gender differences in the use of transformational leadership (e. g. , Avolio & Bass, 1988; Bycio, Hackett, & Allen, 1995), however, there has been a notable lack of evidence (Bass & Avolio, 1994). Bass contends there are none.

Yet, other studies show that women develop a “feminine style of leadership,” which is characterized by caring and nurturance, and men adopt a “masculine style of leadership”, which is dominating and task- oriented (Eagly, Makhijani, & Klonsky, 1992). In a study of 345 metropolitan branch managers Carless (1998) found that: Female managers are more likely than male managers to report that they take an interest in the personal needs of their staff, encourage self-development, use participative decision-making, give feedback and publicly recognize team achievements.

In summary, female managers report they use more interpersonal-oriented leadership behaviors compared to male managers (Carless, 1998). The review by Eagly and Johnson was the first systematic and comprehensive analysis of gender differences in leadership. Earlier reviews (e. g. , Bartol & Martin, 1986; Dobbins & Platz, 1986) were based on limited samples and were criticized because they failed to specify the selection criteria for inclusion in the review. Eagly and Johnson’s (1990) meta-analysis of gender differences in leadership revealed mixed findings.

An analysis of task-oriented style and interpersonal oriented style showed that women and men did not differ on these dimensions in organizational studies. Differences were noted for studies in which the sample did not formally hold a leadership position (experimental and assessment studies). On the other hand, significant gender differences were reported in the use of democratic leadership in organizational, experimental and assessment studies. Women used a more participative and inclusive style of leadership and men were more likely to use a directive, controlling style. Carless, 1998). Studies which have used the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ; Bass, 1985b; Avolio, et al. , 1995) to examine gender differences in leadership style have reported conflicting findings. Bass, Avolio and Atwater (1996) examined gender differences in leader behaviour with three samples. Sample I consisted of 79 female and 150 male upper-level leaders who worked for American hi-tec, Fortune 50 firms. Subordinate ratings of leadership (N = 877) indicated that female leaders were rated higher on all transformational leader behaviors compared to male leaders.

These findings are consistent with an earlier study of leaders in the Roman Catholic church (Druskat, 1994). Sample 2, consisted of first-level supervisors employed by a number of organizations, 38 of the leaders were female and 58 were male. Subordinates (N = 271) observed no gender differences for the subscales of Intellectual Stimulation and Inspirational Motivation, however, females were reported as higher on the subscales of Charisma and Individual Consideration.

Sample 2 findings were consistent with an earlier study reported by Bass and Avolio (1994). Generally, in studies that report significant differences between females and males the effect sizes are very small and it is therefore argued that there is no practical differences between female and male leaders (Yammarino, Dubinsky, Comer & Jolson, 1997). In the third sample of 154 female leaders and 131 male leaders who worked for nonprofitable organizations (e. g. health care), subordinates (N = 913) reported no differences in the leader behavior of females and male leaders. Similary, Komives (1991) found no difference between female and male manager self-ratings of transformational leadership, with the exception of Intellectual Stimulation; women managers were found to be significantly higher than their male counterparts(Carless,1998). According to the gender-centred perspective, individual attributes vary according to their gender (Betz & Fitzgerald, 1987; Hennig & Jardin, 1977; Loden, 1985).

This approach proposes that, women develop a feminine style of leadership, which is characterized by caring and nurturance, and men adopt a masculine style of leadership, which is dominating and taskoriented (Eagly, Makhijani, & Klonsky, 1992). Similarly, the social-role theory (Eagly, 1987) proposes that individuals behave in accordance with societal expectations about their gender role. Through the socialization process, people learn to conform to cultural expectations about their gender role.

The feminine model of leadership includes typical transformational leadership behaviors, for example, participatory decision-making, collaboration and quality interpersonal relationships between leader and subordinate (Eagly, Karau, Miner & Johnson, 1994; Helgesen, 1990; Loden, 1985). Hence, it could be expected that females and males may differ in their use of certain transformational leadership behaviors(Carless,1998). The structural perspective suggests that the organizational role the individual occupies is more important then the gender of the individual (Kanter, 1977).

Within organizations clear guidelines exist for the expected performance of managers, hence the major issue for managers is meeting the organization’s expectations regarding effective management performance, not conforming to culturally defined gender roles. Assuming female and male managers occupy the same role within an organization and have equivalent access to status and power there is no reason to expect gender differences in leadership styles (Eagly, Karau, & Makhijani, 1995).

This suggests that when examining gender differences in leadership behavior it is important to compare women and men who occupy the same position in the organization and are at the same level in the organizational hierarchy. (Carless ,1998). Eagly and her colleagues (Eagly & Johnson, 1990; Eagly, et al. , 1995) suggest that gender differences vary according to the extent of gender congeniality. Gender congeniality is described as the “fit between gender roles and particular leadership roles” (Eagley, et al. , 1995, p. 29). It reflects an individual’s interest in a specific leadership role and appraisal of their competence to perform that role. In some organizations, such as the military, leadership positions are defined in more masculine terms than feminine. Thus, leadership positions in these organizations would be described as congenial to men. In others, such as education and nursing, leadership is defined in more feminine ways and therefore could be described as congenial to women(Carless, 1998). 3. 5Effective Leadership

Since women began to climb the corporate ladder, authorities have asked if they have what it takes to lead groups and organizations. According to the research, while men and women are equally effective in some settings, more often effectiveness depends on the fit between the setting and management gender. For example, women’s typically more mentoring, coaching style is more favorably received in female-dominated professions; men’s more typically “command and control” style is well received in male-dominated professions. http: www. sychologymatters. org/womanboss . In essence therefore, all things being equal, men and women are equally effective. But given varied work settings and a workplace whose top managers are still more likely to be male, all things rarely are equal. For example, women are slightly more likely to be “transformational” leaders, serving as role models, helping employees develop their skills, and motivating them to be dedicated and creative. That approach may actually be more effective in today’s less hierarchical organizations.

But not all workplaces are alike: The participatory style may backfire in traditional male settings such as the military or organized sports. Conversely, the command-and-control style more typical of men may backfire in a social-service agency or retail outlet. (http:www. psychologymatters. org/womanboss) A 1995 review by Alice Eagly, PhD, Steven Karau, PhD and Mona Makhijani, PhD, of more than 80 different studies found that when aggregated over the organizational and laboratory experimental studies in the sample, male and female leaders were equally effective.

The leaders or managers assessed in the studies were typically first-level or first-line supervisors, with a strong minority of studies looking at mid-level managers or managers of mixed or unknown levels. The analysis also showed that women were more effective leaders in female-dominated or female-oriented settings, and that men were more effective leaders in male-dominated or male-oriented settings. Thus working in a leadership role congruent with one’s gender gives the perception that one is more effective. (http: www. psychologymatters. org/womanboss) Theories of transformational leadership (e. . , Bass, 1985a; Conger & Kanungo, 1988; Kouzes & Posner, 1987; Sashkin & Burke; 1990; Trice & Beyer, 1986) have focused on identifying a range of leadership behaviors which contribute to effective performance. Although these theories differ in the leadership behaviors they distinguish, there exists a number of common themes. Transformational leaders articulate a vision, use lateral or nontraditional thinking, encourage individual development, give regular feedback, use participative decision-making, and promote a cooperative and trusting work environment. http: www. psychologymatters. org/womanboss) Densten, et al. ; (2002) emphasise that successful leaders are able to build a strong corporate culture, are truth-tellers, can see the invisible, that is, spot potential winners or identify trends before their rivals or customers, are fast learners and good communicators. Leaders are expected to anticipate future events before they occur and have a vision to overcome uncertainties. Managers on the other hand are expected to run current operations effectively and efficiently (Bratton, et al. ; 2005).

Darling in Swanepoel, Erasmus et al argues “a real test of successful leadership in management lies in giving, to the greatest extent possible, opportunities to others within the situational context of the firm. One does not have to be brilliant to be a good leader, but you have to understand people- how they feel, what makes them tick, and the most effective ways to influence them. ”(Swanepoel, Erasmus, Van Wyk, Schenk; 359) DuBrin (1995) state that in order to be a leader one has to make a difference and to facilitate positive changes.

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