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Discussion Of The Minority Language Policy Education Essay

Chapter 2

European Union Language Policy ( ELP ) being implemented since the 1998 and all of the province in EU need to happen their minority languages they want to continue. First, the research worker will specify what EU linguistic communication policy is all about and so will briefly discourse about the France instruction system and besides Sweden instruction system. The treatment will go on with how EU linguistic communication policy being pattern in some other member states and how the policy advancement in current state of affairs.

EU Language Policy are rather of import for the EU as they claim on their official home page ‘Languages: Europe ‘s assets ‘ . Article I-8 of the European Constitution names as the Union ‘s slogan: ‘United in diverseness ‘ . Promotion of lingual diverseness besides listed among the Union ‘s aims in Article I-3. As we can see The European Union take the linguistic communication issue as of import one. The European Union tries to recognize this purpose in three respects which is foremost by keeping 20 official linguistic communications ( European Communities, 2006 ) ; secondly by propagating a policy of multilingualism where each European citizen should talk several linguistic communications and the ultimate aim of the European Union is that Europeans speak at least two foreign linguistic communications ( ‘mother tongue-plus-two ‘ policy ) ( European Communities, 2006 ) . Third is by advancing and protecting minority or regional linguistic communications ( Vlaeminck, 2003: 38 ) .

Harmonizing to Romedi Arquint, ( 2006 ) in his paper presentation for regional or minority linguistic communications and instruction jobs in Europe, the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages was based on some of import pillars which is the linguistic communications are different from every topographic point so that the same measuring can non be usage for all Europe. Second, the charter itself shows the centered on integrating toward the Council of Europe and non exclusion, the 3rd one is the charter is non the concluding 1 and can be alteration. So that the concluding say will come from the state. Forth is the function played in measuring and supervising must non be overlook and at the same time treatment are needed between all of the member provinces and the EU organic structures. In the charter besides stated that among the chief pillars in the charter is developing and instruction. It is clear stated in the article 7, paragraph 1 explicitly concern preparation and instruction, i.e, :

“ the proviso of appropriate signifiers and agencies for the instruction and survey of regional or minority linguistic communications at all appropriate phases ” ( Article 7, paragraph 1.f, as taken from Romedi Arquint, 2006, 19 )

It proves that the EU Language Policy are used to educate the people in EU and the paper besides discoursing about the manner the policy being implemented. The charter clearly said that the concluding say will come from the state, so there will be a job while implementing it. But the job arises when the policy of Europe is centered on Council of Europe. So between the member provinces and the centered organic structure, normally will hold some dissension between them. For illustration the France will non let any attempt to take English as linguistic communication of behavior in EU organic structures in certain countries ( Alexander Caviedes, 2003, 253, 254 ) . So it proves that there is component of laterality in linguistic communication use between the member states and the EU organic structures ( Council, Commission and Parliament ) . This is one of the obstructions in implementing the policy, if there is policy, none of the member states can be excuse to disobey.

The paper besides comes up with another hard inquiry in discoursing about execution of linguistic communication policy which is the instructor. Even though in the modern universe the people are utilizing more engineerings and mass media as their medium of communicating and to acquire information, but the school still plays of import function in developing the pupil manner of thought and it will still hold influence toward the modern society. Here is where the function of instructors are of import in implementing the policy indirectly. Hence, the pedagogues need to acquire adequate preparation in certain linguistic communication in advancing them at the schools. The instruction divisions besides need to be after new manner of learning minority languages non burying to develop the instructors harmonizing to their several field.

As the research shows, the European truly pushes the people of EU to larn and continue their local linguistic communication. It brings wealth and comfortable economic integrating. Not merely the policy is good for the economic system, it is besides of import to integrating in the labor market, societal coherence and makes a major part to intercultural duologue. Language is an built-in portion of our individuality and the most direct look of civilization. It is done linguistic communication that we socialize, that we express our ideas, that we transmit our cultural heritage. Languages build Bridgess to other people and civilizations ( European Commissioner Leonard Orban, 2006 ) .

In the EU establishment phase, there are besides some statement about pick of linguistic communication used in the supranational phase, where France have made some move to develop a jurisprudence or in other words to continue the Gallic in the establishment degree. Because of this ground besides, the ELP was develop,

While France linguistic communication policy were influenced by their state province spirit from the 1789 France Revolution that makes Gallic people more strong in protecting their linguistic communication rights and hard for them to follow the EU linguistic communication policy. The Gallic people agree to keep the state province is by through assimilation of republic values and experience that ‘Anglo-Saxon ‘ Multiculturalism are racialist and have it ‘s ain aims. The value of France which is one linguistic communication, one province, one civilization and one construct makes them unite. There is no room for the particularism of other individualities, whether for the regional or immigrant and surely non for any linguistic communication other than that which unites ( D.E. Ager, 1996 ) .

While harmonizing to Helot and Young ( 2005 ) the Gallic linguistic communication are on the first topographic point among other linguistic communications, but late under the political force per unit area from Europe establishments, other linguistic communications acquired some acknowledgment. The research they conduct for three old ages result shows that the more different a linguistic communication is, the more motivated the pupil to larn. Besides linguistic communication consciousness as a theoretical account of linguistic communication instruction enables all linguistic communications to be given the same position in the schoolroom ( Helot and Young, 2005, 243 ) . This is because ; there are some strata between Gallic linguistic communication and other foreign linguistic communication in the school, it shows how superior the Gallic linguistic communication in the school. But even though France has already complied with the EU linguistic communication policy, but there still no acknowledgment or any figure in course of study and proviso to immigrant linguistic communications, all of this remains equivocal. The author besides did non hold with statement stating that because of the household is non fluid in Gallic, they remain distant from the school. It is against their findings.

Sweden Minority Language Policy was created during 1997 to follow the Council of Europe Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities languages. Sweden authorities so let go of a Government Bill titled Nationella minoriteter I Sverige ( National Minorities in Sweden ) ( 1998/99 ) :143 ) and as an incorporate policy towards national minorities was proposed. The historical minority linguistic communications taken up were Finnish, Meankeili, Romani, Sami and Yiddish. The Swedish already taken enterprises to reenforce the acquisition of a 2nd foreign linguistic communication were taken before the European Council recommendation in 1995 saying that the school students should, as a regulation, have the chance to larn two linguistic communications of the European Union in add-on to their female parent lingua. Plus, there are major alterations introduced at the mandatory school and upper secondary school had a dramatic influence upon the linguistic communication state of affairs ( Cabau-Lampa, 2007, 337 ) . But dissatisfactory consequences for the Sweden because in 2004/05, one tierce of upper secondary school students aged 20 were non entitled to come in a higher instruction establishment, as they failed to obtain 90 % of the points available in the topics for the programme in which they enrolled ( Cabau-Lampa, 2007, 342 ) . It shows that the policy is being implemented successfully in Sweden but so the people can non acquire the best benefit from it. But from the state of affairs besides, the incrimination can non be put to the authorities or Europium establishments because it might be the mistake of the pupil them self. It may take sometimes to allow the pupil get in flow of the system, so we can see the addition on the consequence.

All of the EU member provinces need to follow with the Copenhagen Criteria[ 1 ]which is regard for and protection of minority rights which included minority linguistic communications in every member states. Existing member states need to follow the standards while the new campaigner states need to reform their ain minority linguistic communication policy. It shows how the EU serious in continuing the minority languages. EU tries to continue all the different values to do ( J-B. Adrey, 2005 ) .

While harmonizing to Dawra, ( 2005 ) the EU linguistic communication policy is a diverseness sort of policy because it include many of the EU member states. She besides point out that the EU linguistic communication policy are one of the EU values or individualities. So that it is of import for them to continue the linguistic communications. The EU wants the member states unite in diverseness which is to hold the same linguistic communication policy and in the same clip advancing their minority linguistic communications. EU did non press the member states authorities to take action from what they impose in the policy.

Minority linguistic communication can be define as from definition given by European Bureau for Lesser used linguistic communication ( EBLUL, 1995:37 ) :

“ ( aˆ¦ ) a linguistic communication which, as consequence of its constructions, its sounds, its words, its characters and its history, differs and is distinguished from the dominant linguistic communication of a province and is spoken and/or written within a certain district, by a smaller figure of individuals. ”

The minority languages spoken within the European Union besides can be classified as follows:

The national linguistic communications of two member provinces which are non official linguistic communications of the EU ( i.e ) Irish and Letzeburgsch )

Languages of communities shacking in a individual member province ( e.g Breton in France ; Welsh in the United Kingdom

Languages of communities shacking in two or more member provinces ( e.g Basque in France/ Spain ; Occitan in France/Italy/ Spain )

Languages of communities which are minority linguistic communications of other member provinces ( e.g. German in Belgium ; Swedish in Finland )

Non-territorial linguistic communications ( e.g Roma, Yiddish ) ( Shuibhne, 2002: 52, harmonizing to EBLUL, 1996 )

There are many obstructions sing the execution of the policy on some states in EU like in context of German, the authorities trap between the demand of the supranational establishments and their ain national system. The execution of necessary reforms within the educational sector is determined by the demands and recommendations issued by the EU every bit good as by the specificity of the German instruction system. Increasingly, of import determinations and steps can non be made on the footing of national considerations merely.

However, this supranational attack entails much strife, since the single national instruction systems in the EU member provinces are non sufficiently standardized. Furthermore, concerted attempts such as the European Framework of Languages add to the top-down force per unit areas to introduce and internationalise instruction plans and course of study on all degrees. One of import requirement of the realisation of feasible educational policies on the European degree is understanding on the position of English in the national instruction systems of the EU member provinces ( Sing, 2007 ) .

But non all the research worker sees the obstructions of execution as bad consequence. Harmonizing to Tender and Vihalemm ( 2009 ) , the EU linguistic communication policy are the tool usage by the EU to promotes to the citizen to larn two more linguistic communications for the interest of their state economic growing. They besides seem to do the EU linguistic communication policy as advantage for the EU citizen for their ain good. Europium shows how serious they are in continuing the multilingual by naming Leonard Orban as their commissioner field of Multilingualism. The writer besides shows that the EU have already be after a Framework Strategy for Multilingualism that used to advance citizen to larn two more extra linguistic communications. The writer did non province that the policy is a failure, but so they try to see it from different point of position. They believe that the policy will run more efficient if it integrated with regional and economical policy. They besides suggest the usage of ICT solution in back uping the cultural and epistemological value of linguistic communication. The writer besides believed that the Less Widely Used Language ( LWUL ) needs support from the European Institutions to keep.

2.2 Decision

From the reappraisal of literature, it can be summarized that EU Language policy are of import for the EU as a whole because it will besides bring forth EU economic integrating and besides will do the people of EU more productive and originative. It will besides do them easier to travel around EU states to work and non possible for them to larn other linguistic communication which is non Europe linguistic communication and travel to work all around the universe. It will profit their economical trade and besides shows how rich the Europeans with cultural values. It could besides advance their European values to the universe which is “ United in Diversity ” . From the literature besides can be seen how the member provinces comply with the policy. Some of it accepted the policy without any job while some of the states need to alter their province policy in order to follow with the EU policy. Like what we can see from the two states, Sweden and France where came with different consequence in implementing the policy at their school, where one of it implemented successfully with good consequence from their pupil ( France ) . But different consequence with another state ( Sweden ) where they implemented successfully even they have the thought of one female parent lingua and two extra linguistic communications before the Council urge the states to follow the Charter. But the consequence has non been good because many of the pupils can non follow the acquisition system. More will be discuss in coming chapters.

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