Posted on

Entrepreneurial Intentions The Influence Of Self Efficacy Commerce Essay

Entrepreneurship, as an activity, is instrumental in advancing economic growing and development in different regional and national economic systems of the universe. The growing of any economic system mostly depends upon the entrepreneurial activities undertaken by its citizens. However, inspite of its manifold advantages, merely a little proportion of the Indian population chooses entrepreneurship as a calling. There are assorted societal, personal and psychological factors that influence the purposes of persons when entrepreneurial calling pick is concerned. Many surveies round the universe have analyzed the entrepreneurial purpose and its deciding factors amongst people.

This survey, by the agencies of a structured questionnaire, intends to research the factors that have an impact on the purposes of persons to go an enterpriser. An attempt is made to analyse the relationship between entrepreneurial purpose and hazard taking behavior, self efficaciousness and general attitude towards entrepreneurship. The questionnaire was administered on 120 respondents ( belonging to the age group of 17 to 18 ) of Jaipur and Ajmer City of Rajasthan. Descriptive statistics and correlativity were used to pull important findings. Results show how these variables affect purpose and, as a consequence existent entrepreneurial behaviour.


An enterpriser is a bourgeois who non merely conceives and organizes ventures but besides often takes hazards in making so. He is one who wants a greater sense of duty and control over his life and has the assurance to experiment. Entrepreneurship can supply a satisfying and honoring working life, supplying a flexible life style and considerable concern liberty. An enterpriser possesses a complex personality and there are certain personality features that make him rather different from an ordinary homo being. Some of the features possessed by enterpriser are inborn and some are acquired through the procedure of socialisation. Intention is defined as an awaited result that is intended or that guide one ‘s planned actions. Intention is related with the attitudes, more concretely refering the sensed desirableness and feasibleness ( Gatewood, Shaver, & A ; Gartner, 1995 ) . In this context, the purpose to make a house and the leaning to move ( Krueger, 1993 ) are considered as the chief forces that make the creative activity of a house possible. Entrepreneurial purposes, in bend, are a determinant factor for executing entrepreneurial behaviour ( Kolvereid & A ; Isaksen, 2006 ) . Forming an purpose to develop an entrepreneurial calling is the first measure in the frequently long procedure of venture creative activity ( Gartner, Shaver, Gatewood, & A ; Katz, 1994 ) .

Entrepreneurial development, no uncertainty, is of great significance as enterprisers are the accelerators of industrial development lending to employment coevals, sweetening of per capita income, gross to the Government in the signifier of revenue enhancements and responsibilities ( Popli and Rao, 2010 ) . The paper examines the impact of factors like gender, self efficaciousness and hazard taking attitude on entrepreneurial purposes.


Schumpeter ( 1934 ) justly describes the psychological science of an enterpriser motivated by the lines “ the dream and the will to establish a private kingdomaˆ¦the will to suppress, the urge to contend, to turn out oneself superior to others, to win for the interest, non of the fruits of success, but of success itselfaˆ¦ . ” Entrepreneurs possess some distinguishable features ; some of the of import as given by Teng ( 2007 ) include invention, strategic redevelopment, creative activity of new houses, presuming hazard, etc. Many surveies have revealed that entrepreneurial purpose could be influenced from two beginnings, internal and external. Internal factors include a strong motive and personal features while external factors cover the external environment that may back up or impede entrepreneurial purpose among people ( Soetanto et al. , 2010 ) .

Get downing a new house is a complicated determination due to high uncertainness and perceived hazard. Douglas and Shepherd ( 2002 ) found that attitudes to independence, hazard and income are related to the person ‘s purpose to be self employed. The above treatment leads to the formation of the undermentioned hypothesis:

H1: There is a relationship between hazard taking attitude and entrepreneurial purpose

Assorted surveies have pointed to the importance and impact of different features such as age, gender, beginning, faith, degree of surveies, labour experience, and so on ( Reynolds et al. , 1994 ) on entrepreneurial purposes, nevertheless the consequences are non unidirectional. A research conducted by Soetanto et Al. ( 2010 ) says that there is no grounds that old ages in instruction, gender and academic accomplishment have a positive influence on a individual ‘s determination sing entrepreneurship. The calling psychological science literature provides a significant sum of grounds that gender is a important variable in understanding differences in calling ego efficaciousness ( Lent & A ; Hackett, 1987 ) . Overall, empirical grounds suggests that adult females are likely to hold lower outlooks than work forces for success in a broad scope of businesss ( Eccles, 1994 ) . The UK Global Entrepreneurship Report ( GEM UK 2001 ) says that work forces are around two and a half times more likely to be an enterpriser than adult females. Womans are comparatively more likely than work forces to believe that they will make no occupations in the following five old ages. Work force are about twice every bit likely to believe that they have the accomplishments to get down a concern as a adult female. All these facts indicate some clear differences in factors which affect the attitudes and motives of adult females – and hence clear deductions for the type of support and support which adult females require to acquire started. The above treatment consequences in the preparation of the undermentioned hypothesis:

H2: There is an impact of gender on entrepreneurial purpose.

Douglas and Fitzsimmons ( 2005 ) found some grounds that attitudes to ownership, independency and income were related to the person ‘s purpose to prosecute in entrepreneurial behaviour. In a survey by Lynn ( 1991 ) , fight and rating of money were the most of import variables which influence the determination of self employment. Besides, harmonizing to Storey ( 1994 ) the demand to be one ‘s ain foreman or to hold independency is the most important factor which motivates entrepreneurial purpose among people.

Self Efficacy Theory ( SET ) contributes to explicating assorted relationships between beliefs, attitudes, purposes, and behaviour. Self efficaciousness was proposed by Bandura in 1977, which came from Social Cognitive theory. Harmonizing to Bandura, outlooks such as motive, public presentation, and feelings of defeat associated with perennial failures determine affect and behavioural reactions. Bandura ( 1986 ) separated outlooks into two distinguishable types: self-efficacy and result anticipation. He defined self-efficacy as the strong belief that one can successfully put to death the behaviour required to bring forth the results. He states that self-efficacy is the most of import stipulation for behavioural alteration, since it determines the induction of get bying behaviour. Previous probes have shown that peoples ‘ behaviour is strongly influenced by their assurance in their ability to execute that behaviour ( Bandura et al. , 1980 ) . Armitage and Conner ( 2001 ) conclude that self-efficacy is more clearly defined and more strongly correlated with purposes than sensed behavioural control ( PBC ) . In fact, self-efficacy has replaced PBC in legion surveies ( Kolvereid & A ; Isaksen, 2006 ) , and it is strongly positively related to concern creative activity and entrepreneurial success ( Rauch & A ; Frese, 2007 ) . Boyd and Vozikis ( 1994 ) argue that a individual ‘ purposes to make a new concern will be strongest when he or she has a high grade of self-efficacy ensuing from command experience, entrepreneurial function theoretical account, societal persuasion, and a high grade of end scene. The above treatment leads to the formation of the undermentioned hypothesis:

H3: There exists a positive relationship between high ego efficaciousness and positive attitude towards entrepreneurial calling.

Two people may keep an every bit strong belief that entrepreneurship involves confronting new challenges, but one of them may see these challenges positively while the other may see them unpleasant ( Moriano et al. , 2011 ) . The Theory of Planned Behavior as proposed by Icek Ajzen in 1985 through his article “ From purposes to actions: A theory of planned behaviour ” contends that purposes are a map of three sets of factors: attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control ( PBC ) .

Normative belief is defined as an person ‘s perceptual experience about peculiar behaviour, which is influenced by the judgement of important others ( e.g. , parents, partner, friends, instructors ) . They are concerned with the sensed chance that of import referent persons or groups will O.K. or reject a given behaviour ; they set the norm that specifies how the topic should act. Depending on the societal environment, these force per unit areas can go a trigger or a barrier to the development of an entrepreneurial calling. Subjective norm is defined as an person ‘s perceptual experience of societal normative force per unit areas, or relevant others ‘ beliefs that he or she should or should non execute such behaviour.

In the context of entrepreneurship, the theory of planned behaviour asserts that entrepreneurial purpose is dependent on an person ‘s attitude toward the desirableness of an entrepreneurial calling, subjective norms including perceived household outlooks and beliefs to execute the behaviour, and perceived behavioural control or the sensed ability to put to death the intended behaviour of come ining entrepreneurship.

Students with more positive attitudes, stronger subjective norms, and more sensed behavioural control with regard to entrepreneurship, will hold stronger entrepreneurial purposes. The above treatment leads to the formation of the undermentioned hypothesis:

H4: There exists a relationship between positive attitude towards entrepreneurship and positive entrepreneurial purposes.


The survey was carried with the following aims:

To measure the relationship between gender and entrepreneurial purpose.

To measure the relationship between ego efficaciousness and entrepreneurial purpose.

To analyze whether positive attitude towards entrepreneurship have an impact on entrepreneurial purpose.

To measure the relationship between hazard taking attitude and entrepreneurial purpose.


The survey was conducted in Ajmer and Jaipur metropolis. For informations aggregation both primary and secondary beginnings were used. For roll uping primary informations, a structured questionnaire was prepared which was filled by 120 respondents belonging to the age group of 17 to 18. This peculiar age group was selected as these are the most likely old ages when a individual decides about his/her future calling options ; convenience trying method was used to make the respondents. The sample profile is summarized in Table 1.

( Table 1 about here )

Entrepreneurial purpose was measured utilizing a five-item graduated table in which each point assessed the sensed likeliness of an person to take an entrepreneurial calling. The sample responded on a five point Likert graduated table runing from ‘strongly disagree ‘ to ‘strongly hold ‘ . Higher tonss reflect stronger entrepreneurial purposes. Similarly the sample responded on a 5-point Likert graduated tables wherein they answered inquiries refering to self efficaciousness, general attitude towards entrepreneurship and hazard taking behavior. Chi-Square and correlativity were used to pull important findings. Data was analyzed utilizing SPSS.


H1: There is a relationship between hazard taking attitude and entrepreneurial purpose

Interpretation: Variables like “ would you like to put your money in a high hazard and high return undertaking ” etc. were responded on a five point Likert graduated table to find the hazard taking attitude of the respondents. Entrepreneurial purpose was judged on statements like “ You will take a calling as a freelance enterpriser ” etc. The current survey revealed that there exist a high positive correlativity of.703 between hazard taking attitude and positive entrepreneurial purpose. This can be attributed to the fact that running one ‘s ain endeavor involves hazards of failure, shut downs etc. It besides involves puting a good sum of money and hence a hazard of losingss excessively. So it may be hard for a individual with a hazard aversive attitude to take entrepreneurship as a calling.

Hypothesis 2: There is an impact of gender on Entrepreneurial purposes

Interpretation: To cognize the impact of gender on entrepreneurial purposes, respondents from both the genders were taken. Chi-square was used to cognize the consequence of gender on entrepreneurial purposes. Table 2 shows the consequences. As the critical value ( 3.841 ) is less than calculated value ( 19.068 ) , we can non reject the hypothesis. Result indicate that gender do hold a important impact on entrepreneurial purposes. This can be used to deduce that males as compared to females are more likely to take entrepreneurship as their calling.

( Table 2 about here )

Hypothesis 3: There exists a positive relationship between high ego efficaciousness and positive attitude towards entrepreneurial calling

Interpretation: Variables like “ You do experience that you have the endowment of going a successful enterpriser ” were responded on 5 point Likert graduated table to find the ego efficaciousness. Study revealed that there exists a high correlativity of.756 between ego efficaciousness and positive entrepreneurial purpose.

Hypothesis 4: There exists a relationship between positive attitude towards entrepreneurship and positive entrepreneurial purposes.

Interpretation: Statements such as “ entrepreneurship leads to the development of the economic system ” , “ being an entrepreneur/self employed is better than holding a occupation ” , etc were used to find the respondent ‘s general attitude towards entrepreneurship and what they think about it. It was found that there exists a positive correlativity of.492 between positive attitude towards entrepreneurship and positive entrepreneurial purposes. It shows that a favorable attitude towards entrepreneurship strengthens one ‘s purposes of prosecuting it as a calling.


The survey investigated the relationship of gender, self efficaciousness, positive attitude towards entrepreneurship and hazard taking behavior with entrepreneurial purposes. It corroborates with old findings of some researches in the country of entrepreneurship.

The survey revealed that persons with a hazard taking attitude are somewhat more inclined to take up entrepreneurship as a calling as they depict positive entrepreneurial purposes. The analysis besides suggests that males are more inclined to entrepreneurship than females. This is rather apparent in Indian patriarchal society. Though females show lower leaning towards entrepreneurship, modern-day tendencies do demo that females are easy but certainly taking their paces towards self employment. However this can be debated as whether such a tendency is a consequence of pick or demand of personal or household state of affairss.

We besides find that persons who hold a positive attitude towards entrepreneurship show positive entrepreneurial purposes. So in order to foster entrepreneurial endowment, an attempt can be made to construct positive attitude towards entrepreneurship by furthering entrepreneurial instruction. As confirmed by assorted other surveies ( Boyd and Vozikis, 1994 ) , this survey besides finds that people who have strong beliefs sing their capablenesss i.e. with higher entrepreneurial ego efficaciousness will be more relentless in their attempts and will be intended to take up entrepreneurship as a calling. Belief in one ‘s ain capablenesss motivates a individual to prove and expose oneself to disputing state of affairss.


The survey focused merely on a few variables, nevertheless there are other factors besides like instruction, household background, anterior entrepreneurial experience, etc. that have an impact on entrepreneurial purposes. There is a range of a comprehensive research covering all such factors. The survey tries to measure some factors act uponing entrepreneurial purposes but purposes may non needfully take to existent taking up of entrepreneurship as a calling. However an attempt is made to cover some metropoliss of Rajasthan, a larger sample could be taken to better generalise the consequences. This opens up an chance for farther research in the complex country of entrepreneurial research.


Ajzen, I. ( 1985 ) . From purposes to actions: A theory of planned behaviour. Heidelberg: Springer.

Armitage, C. J. , & A ; Conner, M. ( 2001 ) . Efficacy of the theory of planned behavior: meta-analytic reappraisal. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 471-499.

Bandura, A. , Adams, N. E. , Hardy, A. B. , & A ; Howells, G. N. ( 1980 ) . Trials of the generalization of ego efficaciousness theory. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4, 39-66.

Bandura A ( 1986 ) , The Social Foundations of Thought and Action, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Boyd, N. G. , & A ; Vozikis, G. S. ( 1994 ) . The Influence of Self-Efficacy on the Development of Entrepreneurial Intentions and Actions. Entrepreneurship Theory & A ; Practice ( summer ) .

Douglas, E. J. , & A ; Fitzsimmons, J. R. ( 2005 ) . Entrepreneurial Intentions towards Individual versus Corporate Entrepreneurship. Paper presented at the SEAANZ 2005, Armidale, NSW

Douglas, E. J. , & A ; Shepherd, D. A. ( 2002 ) . Self-employment as a calling pick: attitudes, entrepreneurial purposes and public-service corporation maximization. Entrepreneurial Theory and Practice ( Spring ) , 81-90.

Eccles, J. ( 1994 ) . Understanding adult females ‘s educational and occupational picks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 585aˆ?609.

Gatewood, E. A Shaver, K. and Gartner, W.B ( 1995 ) . A ” A longitudinal Study of Cognitive Factors Influencing Startup Behaviors and Success at Venture Creation. ” A Journal of Business Venturing 10: 371-391

Gartner, W. B. , Shaver, K. G. , Gatewood, E. J. , & A ; Katz, J. ( 1994 ) . Finding the enterpriser in entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18 ( 3 ) , 5-10.

Kolvereid, L. , & A ; Isaksen, E. ( 2006 ) . New concern start-up and subsequent entry into self employment. Journal of Business Venturing, 21 ( 6 ) , 866-885.

Krueger, N. 1993. Impact of anterior entrepreneurial exposure on perceptual experiences of new venture feasibleness and desirableness. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 18 ( 1 ) :5-21

Lent, R. & A ; Hackett, G. ( 1987 ) . Career self efficaciousness: Empirical position and future waies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 347aˆ?383.

Lynn R ( 1991 ) , The Secret of The Miracle Economy: Different National Attitudes to Competitiveness and Money, the Social Affairs Unit, London.

Moriano, J.A. , Gorgievski, M. , Laguna, M. , Stephan, U. & A ; Zarafshani, K. ( 2011, published online first ) . A transverse cultural attack to understanding entrepreneurial purpose. Journal of Career Development. Department of the Interior: 10.1177/0894845310384481

Popli, G. S. “ A Study of Entrepreneurial Orientation & A ; Inclination for Entrepreneurial Carrier of Management Students in India: An Empirical Analysis ” ( March 29, 2010 ) .

Rauch, A. , & A ; Frese, M. ( 2007 ) . Let ‘s set the individual back into entrepreneurship research. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 16, 353-385.

Reynolds, P. , Storey, D.J. & A ; Westhead, P. , “ Cross-national comparing of the fluctuation in new house rates ” , Regional Studies, vol. 28, p. 443-456, 1994.

Schumpeter J A ( 1934 ) . Theory of Economic Development: An Enquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest and the Business Cycle, Harvard University Press, New York.

Soetanto D P, Pribadi H and Widyadana G A ( 2010 ) , “ Deciding Factors of Entrepreneurial Intention among University Students ” , The IUP Journal of Entrepreneurship Development, Vol. VII, Nos. 1 & A ; 2, pp. 23-37.

Storey D J ( 1994 ) , Understanding the Small Business Sector, Routledge, London.

Teng B S ( 2007 ) , “ Corporate Entrepreneurship Activities through Strategic Alliances: A Resource based Approach toward Competitive Advantage ” , Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 44, No.1, pp. 119-42.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.