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Evaluate Debswana Diamond Csi Response Business Essay

CSI is seen to be used to: be used for reparations, a necessary response in a more accountable environment, charity ( without inquiring excessively profoundly as why `good cause ‘ exist ) , and every bit good concern sense. Take an organisation of your pick and measure their CSI response utilizing the 10 Stairss of Weeden and incorporating the article of Dickinson in 10 pages. Please do n’t seek to copy person ‘s assignment or do up a company that does non be.

Taking the theory of Corporate Social Responsibility ( as outlined in the lesson stuff and Dickinson ) into consideration why do you believe that it is of import for organisations to be involved in back uping HIV/AIDS programmes in organisations and communities from a CSI angle?

Table OF CONTENTS

Introduction… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .4

Debswana Diamond Company… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 4

Weeden Stairss and Dickinson Articles to Measure Debswana… … … … … … … … … ..6

Organizations Supports of HIV/AIDS Programmes: CSR/I Initiative… … … … … … ..14

Mentions… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 19

Introduction

Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ) is an advanced facet of concern organisations that undertakings beyond net income border concern enterprise. Ideally, CSR is incorporated into maps of an organisation whereby it is regulated in line with acceptable criterions in the community and its environment. In kernel, CSR activities focus on the community, environment, workers, and stakeholders involvements. CSR is a proactive long-run concern investing with wagess on the both sides of the community/environment and the concern administration. “ Corporate Social duty is a committedness to better community wellbeing through discretional concern patterns and parts of corporate resources ” ( Corporate Social Responsibility, 2007 ) .

Corporate Social Investment ( CSI ) is a narrow inclusive facet of CSR that could be described as corporate giving. It is merely organisation puting aside resources to fit the demand of community and the benefits accrued symbolize the image of the organisations. It will be a proper channel to heighten the historically deprived Africans during the colonial command laterality epoch. In the present periods when HIV/AIDS has its tentacles in all domains of life in twenty-first century, a common concern sense for any organisation will be to put in HIV/AIDS intercession schemes in the community. It makes the organisation to be relevant and as such holding on its docket issues paramount in the heads of the immediate community. Dickinson pointed out that response to HIV/AIDS in companies is mostly shouldered by in-between and low-level directors and this first of all time response came from Mining Company. ( Dickinson, 2007 ) .

DEBSWANA DIAMOND COMPANY ( PTY ) LIMITED ( DEBSWANA ) -GABORONE, BOTSWANA

Debswana Diamond Company, Botswana is the largest excavation company in Botswana with the largest figure of employees of about 6000. The company is every bit owned by the national authorities of Botswana and De Beers Centenary AG. Debswana mines diamonds in Botswana at three operation sites: Orapa, Letlhakane and Jwaneng mines and the company headquarter at Gaborone, Botswana capital. The company among its nucleus values holds the cardinal cardinal doctrine of CSR/I:

aˆ? The accomplishment of planetary criterions in operating public presentation and capital use through the best direction patterns

aˆ? Promoting a civilization and environment of invention and creativeness

aˆ? The development of people, including acknowledgment and grasp of attempt

aˆ? Conducting all operations with minimum impact on the environment

aˆ? Maintaining honestness and unity in all traffics

aˆ? Continuing the safety and wellness of employees

aˆ? Encouraging honest, unfastened, multidirectional, seasonably and clear communicating

aˆ? Treating each other with regard

aˆ? Encouragement of teamwork through engagement and engagement by all employees in affairs impacting them

aˆ? Carry throughing its societal duty as a corporate citizen by keeping high criterions and moralss. ( Adapted from: hypertext transfer protocol: //data.unaids.org/publications/IRC-pub02/jc769-debswana_en.pdf )

In line with Debswana nucleus ethical values, its CSI response is evaluated utilizing the Weeden`s stairss and incorporating this with article of David Dickinson.

Headquarterss of Debswana Diamond Company Ltd in Gaborone, Botswana ( hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File: Debswana_HQ.jpg )

WEEDEN STEPS AND DICKINSON ARTICLE TO EVALUATE DEBSWANA CORPORATE SOCIAL INVESTMENT ( CSI )

Corporate Social Investment non Corporate Philanthropy Giving

Philanthropy giving is froward motivated giving towards human development. This may non necessary fit the demands of the community members. In contrast, CSI is calculated effort to lend to community growing, investing in people and environmental development with purposes of return to the organisation.

Debswana has since got involved in HIV/AIDS enterprises since 1987 which encompasses showing of blood for HIV, syndromic direction of STI and timeserving infections, rubbers distribution, pre-test HIV guidance, educating and giving information. The spectrum of the support has grown and involved all stakeholders-government ministries and sections, nongovernmental organisations ( NGOs ) , community based

Organizations ( CBOs ) , faith-based organisations ( FBOs ) , people populating with HIV/AIDS, and the private sector.

Debswana investing in people of Botswana in the epoch of HIV/AIDS pandemic has brought a great wages to the organisation as reflected in the mean immature Botswanas could prefer to work in the largest excavation company. In this proportion, long term investing is get downing to give returns. Although Botswana has non got many educational establishments like South Africa, patrons through authorities coactions have seen many immature Botswana through higher instruction abroad. Many of these immature forces have returned place to lend vastly to the national growing. Possibly, the jangles of motivating South African authorities to nationalize its Mines through Africa Nation Congress Youth League ( ANCYL ) leading could hold been eyed from its neighbor, Botswana: a success partnership between De Beers and the national authorities. But a call for cautiousness is of import, as there are different national policies for different states and Botswana is merely a population under two million.

Significant Reason for Every Corporate Duty

“ Botswana transformed itself from one of the poorest states in the universe to a middle-income state with a per capita GDP of $ 14,100 in 2008. Two major investing services rank Botswana as the best recognition hazard in Africa. Diamond excavation has fuelled much of the enlargement and presently histories for more than tierce of GDP, 70-80 % of export net incomes, and about half of the authorities ‘s grosss. Botswana ‘s heavy trust on a individual luxury export was a critical factor in the crisp economic contraction of 2009. ” ( CIA, 2010 )

In add-on, the rate of HIV/AIDS prevalence tends to increase among mine workers because of the distinctive feature of their work. Having to work belowground and populating about do displacement place around Mine, frequently clip off from place.

Debswana stated its run against HIV/AIDS during 1987 following the incidences of HIV studies from its Jwaneng Mine Hospital and Orapa Mine Hospital. HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality in the company among the workers has increased from 40 % in 1996 to 75 % in 1997. The paths of intercession taken by Debswana includes: cognition and consciousness pattern, organizing seminars, workshops, motivational talk by PLWHA, assignment of full-time HIV/AIDS coordinators, development of HIV/AIDS workplace policy, work topographic point HIV/AIDS prevalence surveies.

It is rather supportive, honoring and as a long term program to see Debswana puting educating its younger population. CSR/l is a long term investing where many could be channelled through Geographical surveies, Geology, Mining Engineering, Environmental Biology and other Mining related of import academic chances. It is investing in the right way.

CSR/I should be limited to Public Institutions

Although Weeden stated that CSR should be limited to non-profit organisations and entirely public establishments, Debswana is non uniformly conformed to this recommendation as it is a net income devising organisation and partially owned by the national authorities of Botswana. Nevertheless, its standing functions, its uniqueness and as a leader among all Mining Companies in globally is firm.

Dickinson in his article pointed out that Mining Companies are the first set of companies to hold ab initio responded to publish of HIV/AIDS in work topographic point. Due to the huge figure of PLWHA in Africa, Mining Companies and net income devising organisations should all embraced CSR/I as related to HIV/AIDS. CSR/I should be embraced and contributed unto by all life in Africa, a continent where authorities services are at distressing places and poorness is at the highest of all continents ( WBI Series, 2003 ) . Many private and authorities companies are profit goaded and such return should be enjoyed by the community members. Apart from recommendations, there should be standing regulations and ordinance steering CSR/I in other for proper answerability. For illustration, it is non merely the public establishment that are lending to the widely damage study of ozone beds doing the up-rising in the planetary climatic status. Persons with vehicles contribute to air pollution from their auto fumess and non merely concern environment. South Africa was ab initio be aftering to originate revenue enhancement for C emanation this September, this has non been commenced yet, otherwise it would hold been the first African state to present responsible environmental protection policy. Corporate societal duty should be bustles of all the member of the society that lives at that place in.

Open Statements that Endorse Social Investment

In line with this, among its ethical and work topographic point values, Debswana has set in topographic point policies that are laid down as club in order to better the quality of life of its workers and the community people. Here are some of the relevant points as antecedently stated above:

aˆ? The development of people, including acknowledgment and grasp of attempt

aˆ? Conducting all operations with minimum impact on the environment

aˆ? Continuing the safety and wellness of employees

aˆ? Encouragement of teamwork through engagement and engagement by all employees in affairs impacting them

aˆ? Carry throughing its societal duty as a corporate citizen by keeping high criterions and moralss.

All these work topographic point values are presented to all freshly recruited workers at Debswana so as to familiarize them with the work topographic point equity and criterions. The unfastened statements are non merely mere words on documents, but policies to be maintained. Organizations populating up to its words are primed with community support and promote the better representation of the company in the community.

Messages from CEO declaring organisation stands about CSR/I

Leadership by illustrations is one the qualities of a good leading. Cases and clear message should flux from the Organization managers, Business Executives, Directors and Chief Executive Officers looking organisational bases about CSI/R. The chief aim of Debswana has briefly highlighted this point, though this has to be invariably buttress by the leadings.

In the workshop and meeting of Debswana Executive Committee held in August 2000, it agreed on the undermentioned issues as related to workforce sole concerns:

aˆ? the issue of HIV/AIDS and its effects on operations should be included as a regular point for consideration in the company ‘s quarterly audits

aˆ? the company should develop criterions for AIDS direction that were similar to ISO 14000

aˆ? an ‘AIDS test’-an scrutiny on persons ‘ cognition of HIV/AIDS before employment and publicity to certain levels-was to be put in topographic point ;

aˆ? Debswana should utilize its market place to take a firm stand that its contractors adopt criterions of quality confidence with respect to their ain policies in relation to HIV/AIDS ( therefore contractors would be expected to follow good pattern with respect to their ain work force ) .

Annual Reports of Corporate Social Responsibility

Consistent coverage and rating of organisation CSR/I quickly checks advancement and impacts made in the society. Possibly the CSI is been channelled in incorrect way, one-year rating could heighten organisation CSI activities in the following one-year budgeting.

On an one-year bases, towards the terminal of the twelvemonth, Debswana reviews its current twelvemonth CSI and accomplishment and generalize this to be after for approaching twelvemonth. This concise with the recommendation by Weeden.

In what is called terminal of the twelvemonth coverage and proposal for the coming twelvemonth, in the one-year executive meeting, extended company reappraisal is considered and one other major consideration is the CSR/I. Amendments and recommendations are made at this meeting. In whatever angle CSR/I is considered, consistency nurturing is important for its growing and profitableness. It depends on how strong and steadfastly the organisation CSR/I, its maps could be reviewed quarterly or every six month.

Annual Profit Percentage Committednesss to CSR/I

There should be a spelt out per centum of net income border that should be committed in CSR/I.

It merely helps for be aftering for expected mark. In Africa, where more than 70 % of PLWHA resides ( Foreign Policy in Focus, 2005 ) , poorness is at its highest ranking with scarce resources, corporate organisation take parting in CSR/I particularly every bit related to HIV/AIDS has to undoubtfully necessitate set mark to modulate its operations. Furthermore, the set mark of such fiscal committedness should be publicly known, possibly the organisation underperforms ; the community and other stakeholders could barometer of cheque and balance.

In the Weeden attack, he considered 2.5 % of company last three twelvemonth net income before revenue enhancement be appropriate to be invested into CSR/I. In the existent capital bend out yearly, Debswana generates 50 % of Botswana Public gross, 33 % of its gross domestic merchandises and over 80 % of foreign earning ( Mining Weekly.com, 2010 ) . This lone depicts how immense is Debswana: the largest Diamond Mining Company globally.

It is a clear apprehension that many organisations do non declare their one-year net income devising per capital twelvemonth publicly and it becomes powerful undertaking for the community to cognize what is expected of such organisation in footings of CSR/I. Nevertheless, those that do expose their net income border in the dailies, how can one clearly substantiate the genuineness of the study? For cases, there are companies in South Africa that sometimes failed to run into the dead line for one-year revenue enhancement return to South Africa Revenue Services ( SARS ) , what sort of credibleness is worthy of such company when denoting its one-year net income return? Transparency in the direction of CSR/I to really reflect what is contributed is cardinal to any organisation. There and so can the community focal point on keeping the company accountable.

When to Postpone Social Investment?

Weeden has justly recommended that portion or all societal investing should be postponed when concern status warrants. This is to avoid compromising the functionality and sustainability of concern. In the aftermath of planetary economic downswing presently on, of which many counties have merely emerged, Debswana has deepened into the worst economic recession and loss of net income border. Then the inquiry here is where does CSR/I bases? Is it a necessity or societal duty out of comfort?

“ In this enlightened twenty-four hours and age, whether times are good or bad, companies must be socially responsible. That ‘s a given. But tough economic conditions underscore a blunt world. A company ‘s foremost duty is to make good. That may sound politically wrong, but the ground is grim. Wining companies create occupations, wage revenue enhancements, and beef up the economic system. Wining companies, in other words, enable societal duty, non the other manner around. And so, right now-as always-companies should be seting profitableness foremost. It ‘s the necessity that makes every other necessity possible ” ( Bloomberg Businessweek, 2009 ) .

It is surprising that despite the planetary recession, Debswana societal duty throughout 2009 and 2010 has non dwindled. The great fiscal base of Debswana worth noticing in the difficult economic clip when many companies are folding-up, human development direction in the community is still prioritized. Not that the company has overstressed its resources, this difficult clip could hold been forecasted and as we see the present solution. However, in understanding with Weeden recommendation, should recession acquire tougher, Debswana might re-strategize.

Team Leaderships should be portion of Corporate Social Responsibility Programme

There are different strata of work force and the issues of concern among different groups differ. The attitude of the top executives and directors tend to be influenced by their accomplishment, duty and holding to be involved in subject of junior workers with abnormality. In response, the in-between director and junior employees tend to banish themselves from senior staff leaders. This creates clash at workplace and squad spirit is deficiently missing.

Corporate societal duty programmes are non privileges of single or few set of people. CSR/I cater for demand of big set of populations and corporate attempt is important. In planing the workplace policy and CSR/I, it is every bit of import to delegate responsible leaders to be in-charge of CSR/I. The community members see these people ( leaders ) as the image of the organisation they represent before sing the CSR/I programmes. In the same vena, internal contemplation to the fellow employees ( in-between and lower category ) affects their engagement in the company societal investing.

The squad spirit ought to flux down from the leading to the lowest subsidiaries. Attitudes and sentiments of people about the frontiers of organisation CSR/I is really of import to the success of any CSR/I. Illiteracy has frequently been seen as portion of what is fuelling the HIV/AIDS pandemics

Daily Management of Social Investment.

For every concern, consistent part and direction is cardinal to success. So ought the organisation societal duty to be maintained on day-to-day modus operandis. Apart from the one-year coverage as earlier discussed, daily look into on the CSR/I serves as a club to the programme to success.

Teams of employee are specially deployed for these undertakings and day-to-day feedback to be reported to superior subsidiaries is recommended. Merely as the work agendas are deem to be effectual and standard are day-to-day optimized, day-to-day cocks of employees who will be daily assigned with specific responsibilities with day-to-day coverage should be outlined. There should be day-to-day marks set to be accomplished and a formulated day-to-day form of describing should include day-to-day activities and problems/obstacles to proper execution of CSR/I.

Furthermore, statistical prognosis can be enhanced in planning and put to deathing undertakings and policies of organisation.

Merely as daily direction of an organisation is paramount, the day-to-day direction of organisation societal duty is every bit of import. Success in all the domains of concern enterprises is a cardinal factor to uniform development.

Decision

In a broader term, CSR/I is appropriate for all communities. However, in the context of Africa, human resources are missing and environmental debasement is common factor across Africa, this is the continent where societal investing is needed by far. It means that, Africa needed to be assisted to stand to its pess. Despite all the excavation activities traveling on in the different African countries-Niger Delta in Nigeria, Rustenburg in South Africa, Kinshasa in Congo, and Accra in Ghana: environmental safety is the major concern. The companies that take from the environment should be responsible for lending back to the people and the environment.

However, if there will be returns back to the people and the communities, authoritiess should ordain Torahs modulating CSR/I in order for proper answerability and transparence. In add-on, Weeden`s ten stairss rule should be adopted and Dickinson article be every bit consulted with other mentions.

It worth retrieving that, the same set of people working in the Mines and other companies are members of the same community which they pollute, hence, the schemes for a sustainable CSR/I should be a corporate duty.

Investing in people ( human resources and development ) and in the environment could sometimes take longer than anticipated to give wagess, but an act of staunchness and forbearance should be the appropriate attack.

ORGANIZATIONS SUPPORT OF HIV/AIDS PROGRAMMES: Corporate SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY INITIATIVES

Introduction

HIV/AIDS is the greatest drawn-out pandemic in the history of world. It has no gender, age nor racial favoritism. Although it was common belief that the disease started in the United States of America ( USA ) among the homosexuals, the form of the spread in Africa is non the same. The greatest figure of people populating with the virus resides in Africa: HIV/AIDS could hold links with the patterns, believes, imposts, attitudes of African. Poverty and illiteracy will be other conducive factors. National HIV/AIDS prevalence statistics in different African states are rather lurid and incredible. Southern African part have the largest of the epidemic than any other universe part. The wake effects ; under productivity, sick wellness, increased rate of spread of the virus, decease, increased orphan population, kids heading households, addition incidences of colza ( holding sex with virgins has been falsely linked to bring around ) and many other ruinous effects are major problems in the continent.

There are diverse efforts in the yesteryear to offer solution to the pandemic, yet none has end the tendency of the disease. “ ABC ” ( Abstinence, Be faithful to sexual spouses, Condom usage ) of bar schemes is every bit old as the pandemic, anti-retroviral therapy ( ART ) although arrest the grade of the viral generation, solution is still elusive. Strategic partnership and organisations engagement in corporate societal duty to ease the load of HIV/AIDS is other attack that should be considered. This is an act to safe the live of the population, the life of employees, to further the net incomes which is the life-line most organisation and to keep a good image of organisations in the community. Some of these purposes could be achieved through some of the channels:

Education, preparation, bursary and Scholarship

Environmental protection

Health publicity

Employment chances for the community members

Community infrastructural ascent.

HIV/AIDS IMPACTS ON POPULATION

The act of corporate societal duty should be foster in every African community. Although African population is the scope of billion, the bulk are kids and non yet fit for labour market. The mean life expectance in many African states pre the epoch of HIV/AIDS pandemic were more than 60, this has dropped significantly for South Africa now as 48 for work forces and 49 for adult females ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) .

Africa Population distribution ( hypertext transfer protocol: //africaclimate.org/about/population/ # awp: :about/population/ )

HIV/AIDS related is the furthermost cause of decease among black South Africans. No admiration there are many sedate paces in the state and many of which are over full. Recently in East London, it was announced on the wireless that most of its grave pace have no more infinite to bury dead. Our population could be harnessed from the scuttle of HIV/AIDS pandemic.

Corporate organisations should be straight be involved in run and activities that will ease the load of the pandemic. The population today serves as the cardinal hope of tomorrow. We merely have to continue what we have. The people in the community are frequently times the direct consumers of good, merchandises and services of the organisations, in bend, the agencies to livelihood should be protected for sustainability.

EMPLOYEES LIVES SHOULD BE SAFEGUARD

The precedence and ranking of what are the utmost of import to any functioning organisation are the lives of employees. Without the labor force, no company has got any good hereafter. The services and mental art of the workers are the beginning of nutriment of organisations. Therefore should persistent and relentless attempt be taken in order to safeguard the lives of employees.

Debswana in the critical timing, as the Numberss of its employees with HIV/AIDS started intensifying, rapidly to move and made the wise determination. It took studies of its employees in 1996 and later in order to cognize how many people are populating with the virus and besides to find how this has undermined its productivenesss. What a surprising result, HIV/AIDS workplace was rapidly launched and different workplace HIV/AIDS safety safeguards were introduced. Free HIV testing and guidance and ART became available. Seminar and symposiums were organised to efficaciously control the spread of the disease. It suffices that Debswana realised the impacts of so emerging disease.

In other workplaces, particularly among heath attention suppliers, there are basic lower limit of protections should be offered to protect workers from reaching the virus. This is known as Universal Precaution. This safety safeguard workplace etiquette outweighs the corporate societal duty, it has gone to the degree of been assigned as right of each wellness worker. In the context of corporate societal duty, if the organisation would be relevant at all clip and in the community, the lives of its employees ought to be prioritized. Education, HIV/AIDS consciousness runs, workplace attitude to deter stigma and favoritism against PLWHA, allotted clip off responsibility for sick-leave, work related HIV exposure/infection compensations should be among other considerations for all employees.

Net income MARGINS OF ORGANIZATIONS

Weeden has justly put it that organisations should partially or wholly suspend its corporate societal duty when the state of affairs deems unfit. For proper answerability, every employee has got something to lend towards the growing of the company he/she represents. So besides, every employee infected with HIV/AIDS has direct impacts on the net income border and farther fiscal outgo on the organisations. Dayss of sick-leave absenteeism from plants, unmet work marks, financess of engaging new employees and retraining of such straight weigh on the organisations. If the impetus of the disease continues unbridled, net income borders begins to endure set back.

“ AIDS amendss concerns by squashing productiveness, adding costs, deviating productive resources, and consuming accomplishments. Company costs for health-care, funeral benefits and pension fund committednesss are likely to lift as the figure of people taking early retirement or death additions. Besides, as the impact of the epidemic on families grows more terrible, market demand for merchandises and services can fall. The epidemic hits productiveness through increased absenteeism. Comparative surveies of East African concerns have shown that absenteeism can account for every bit much as 25-54 % of company costs.

A survey in several Southern African states has estimated that the combined impact of AIDS-related absenteeism, productiveness diminutions, health-care outgos, and enlisting and preparation disbursals could cut net incomes by at least 6-8 % . Another survey of a 1000 companies in Southern Africa found that 9 % had suffered a important negative impact due to AIDS. In countries that have been hit hardest by the epidemic, it found that up to 40 % of companies reported that HIV and AIDS were holding a negative consequence on net income.

Some companies, though, have implemented successful programmes to cover with the epidemic. An illustration is the gold-mining industry in South Africa. The gilded mines attract 1000s of workers, frequently from hapless and distant parts. Most unrecorded in inns, separated from their households. As a consequence a booming sex industry operates around many mines and HIV is common. In recent old ages, excavation companies have been working with a figure of organisations to implement bar programmes for the mineworkers. These have included mass distribution of rubbers, medical attention and intervention for sexually transmitted diseases, and awareness runs. Some excavation companies have started to replace all-male inns with adjustment for households, in order to cut down the transmittal of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. “ ( Avert, 2010 ) .

IMAGES OF ORGANIZATIONS IN THE COMMUNITY

One of the purposes and aims of organisations engagements in corporate societal investing is to give a good image of the organisations in the community. In South Africa, at the terminal of apartheid government station election in 1994, CSR/I was ab initio believed as an act of mending the bad image of the old government. It was difficult to be accepted among the historically deprived black communities. Could this be bribe or violations of rapprochement?

Africans frequently believe that they are all members of one extended big household, claiming a common degeneracy. This norm is besides applicable in most African societies where many PLWHA have direct or indirect impacts on the other. HIV/AIDS has reunified Africans: all holding a common supporter, HIV/AIDS. Based on this theory of relativity, it is rather a common sense for organisations to surmise bravery to acquire involved in HIV/AIDS programmes in African communities. In instances where such companies has been antecedently been severely represented, CSR/I in HIV/AIDS could redefined their reputes.

Decision

Among the different HIV/AIDS preventative methods, CSR/I is the proactive activities giving consequences. If companies could lend more of their clip, net incomes, and human resources and Fosters more dedication, HIV/AIDS load will be ease off our public. Although the disease has got no remedy as of present, corporate organisations can still make more by diverging some of their net income into farther scientific researches so as to happen remedy to the ailing status.

Despite all the parts in the bar and intervention of HIV/AIDS, it is like a bead of H2O in an ocean, the impacts of the parts are non so antic. However, every avenue through which solution could be offered to stop the pandemic has to be continuously explored. In the same attitude, CSR/I programmes have to be kept alive in every able organisations. Possibly, remedy for HIV/AIDS might be seeable.

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