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Globalization of business is forcing managers to grapple with complex issues


Globalization of concern is coercing directors to cope with complex issues as they seek to derive or prolong a competitory advantage. IHRM has become one of these Fieldss. IHRM loosely covers all issues related to direction of people in an international context. This assignment is a learning diary including all the chapters that we studied in our IHRM category.

These 11 diaries have been written based on my contemplations of the category work done during the International and Comparative Human Resource Management talk and by reading the text book International Human Resource Management ( 4 edition ) written by Peter J Dowling and Denice E Welch ( 2008 ) .

Introduction TO IHRM

On the first twenty-four hours of the IHRM category The lector Mr. Chandana Kumara discusses the unit out line and gave a brief about the topic IHRM. ( International and comparative human resource Management ) Before I came to the category I perceived that the unit would be the same as the HRM ( human resource direction ) unit that we did in Year 2.

While discoursing the unit lineation of the topic he highlighted many of import things to be remembered throughout the semester. Such as he discussed the appraisals that we will b assessed and besides gave the due day of the months for each of the appraisal. He advised that we should seek to run into agendas and non to prorogue the assigned work. By this I understood that the talks, assignments are good planned to a agenda and it ‘s of import to follow the agenda if we want to acquire good classs.

He discussed the manner in which he would carry on the hebdomad categories such as learning method which would be more of synergistic by affecting the category by often halting and inquiring inquiries. In my experience this is the best manner to travel, as when we have an synergistic environment it keeps us more attentive.

He discussed the APA referencing method and how to make mentions for both the category assignments. He purely advices us to non to give any old assignments to friends and farther stressed that the individual who asks for the assignments is non a good friend as it is non assisting the friend but instead assisting him/her to besides copy the same work and the terminal consequence would be zero Markss for both the pupils involved in plagiarism. I liked this portion really much as because he straight told us non to give assignments this will to some extent limit the pupils from inquiring for others assignments.

Most of the times we do n’t hit in assignments is due to we do n’t understand some of the significances of the words in the unit lineation regarded to the assignment such as larning results and alumnus properties. Harmonizing to my experience this was really true it is really of import to read and understand these points discussed under these headers to complete a good assignment.

Next he discussed the faculty one of the unit. This was the Introduction to IHRM. He discussed the key footings used in the unit. From this is learnt the footings of IHRM which will b used often in the remainder of the chapters, which I feel is really of import as it was the rudimentss to understand the unit. Factors which make IHRM different from domestic HRM were taught. I learnt that it ‘s ever of import to hold an apprehension of current personal businesss and what ‘s go oning around the universe. Before the terminal of the category He besides highlighted on etic and emic attack which he will further discourse in item in the following category.

2. Cultural Differences

The lesson discussed was on cultural differences At the beginning of the lesson we watched an picture on cultural differences between California civilization and Czech civilization specially the picture high spots on the differences between the manner they greet and smiling. The thing I learnt from this picture about salutation is Czech people do a really formal Greeting that is Hello and Goodbye, but the manner they greet in California is merely Hi or it is much more informal and about smiling is in Czech civilization they will smile a t people whom they know and aliens do non smile at each other in this civilization unlike civilization at California.

From this little picture cartridge holder I learnt the Assets and subtractions of both civilizations, I besides understood that no civilization is good or bad it ‘s merely differences and coming to decisions that this civilization is friendly and this civilization is non harmonizing to your perceptual experiences is n’t good.

Then we discussed Geert Hofsteds cultural value dimensions. The five dimensions of Hofstede are Power Distance, Individualism vs. Collectivism, Femininity Vs Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-term vs. Short- term orientation. This was a really familiar to me as I learnt these dimensions before in my HRM and civilization category as good. We besides discussed Confucianism which was latest added dimension to Hofsteds value dimensions.

When discoursing the dimension Masculinity and Feminity some of the pupils had confusion that maleness means that societies that are dominant by male and feminity means societies that are dominated by female. But after the lesson we understood that certain values are identified as values associated with male such as end oriented, success and certain societies associated with these values is known as masculine civilizations, and certain values are associated with features such as relationship oriented ; emphasized, maintaining contacts etc are known as feminist civilizations. After this account I was really clear that its nil related to Dominance.

Next a pupil raised a inquiry That Women rights are non recognized by Saudi Arabia ; does it hold any mention to Masculity or Feminity dimension of the Geert Hoftsteds cultural value dimensions? This opened up a farther treatment and he showed a picture where an etic attack used to understand the Saudi civilization. What I understood from the picture was that most Muslim states this was an issue but it ‘s nil related to the faith Islam and that organizing an sentiment merely seeing the manifest bed of a society can misdirect us with the incorrect information.

The lector farther discussed this is a topic to analyze with confusion, and within the confusion have to understand the background of it. I learnt that when replying the inquiries we have to explicate to the extent that any civilization and restriction of these dimension for a rich content of reply. I farther believe that I can use this theoretical cognition I gained from this chapter to its upper limit in future in workplace when covering with people of different civilizations.


Today ‘s lesson was the organisational context before discoursing the lesson we did 2 instance surveies in groups. The long March instance survey and the staffing oil company instance survey. When making Long March instance study most of the pupils found it really easily as the instance survey was short and it was easy to happen the reply and interrelate it to the theories we learnt in category. Further after making the instance study the lector discussed the instance replies in category by giving assorted illustrations. From this I learnt that when we work in groups in work outing a job is really effectual as it is a good method to portion thoughts and larn from each other.

The 2nd instance survey ( staffing oil company instance survey ) was a spot long instance survey as we were taking excessively long to read and happen the replies for the instance inquiries our lector gave us a good manner to try instance surveies. Normally we try to foreground the things which we find of import and once more come back to the highlighted points to seek for the reply but our lector advised alternatively of foregrounding and once more coming back to read the highlighted points it ‘s wise to compose the keywords individually which u discovery of import shortly. This method was really helpful and is less clip consuming. And he besides told to complete the replies for this instance study following hebdomad and each group can subject the replies which will number for the category engagement Markss.

As today ‘s subject was the organisational context, the aims of the lesson were to understand how to distinguish civilization and trade with these cultural models and to understand and besides know that any one model does n’t assist to understand civilization. Structural responses to international growing that is how the organisation construction would hold to be made in order to react to cultural every bit good as other factors. Besides control and coordination mechanisms including cultural control in certain sections will be really high but other possibly non, based on the originative facet, innovativeness these factors have to be considered. We should besides hold a clear apprehension if an organisation is holding more control whether the construction would back up and if non what other mechanisms can be used. Management demand of international growing we learnt of import factors such as:

Host state civilization and workplace environment: If the parent company civilization is really different from the host state, localisation would be advisable since the workers would hold trouble in accommodating to a wholly different civilization. For illustration if Bolshevism is practiced in the host state ( e.g. China ) promoting single public presentation and single betterment might non be accepted.

Mode of operation: When it is a entirely owned subordinate there is more chance to standardise than in an international joint venture.

Size and adulthood of the house: The importance of standardisation additions as the house becomes larger and more mature. We farther learnt the way to planetary success that is why precisely we need to alter the organisations construction.


Today is the twenty-four hours the squad contracts were due. And the lesson to be covered was HRM in the host state context. Before the lesson he discussed how engagement Markss would be awarded. And he besides told us that each hebdomad he would be e-mailing some inquiries and we have to b ready with the replies for the following category and he will b indiscriminately choosing a pupil and inquiring. And if we could give the appropriate and good reply we would be acquiring engagement Markss.

This unit chiefly focused on issues held in the host state when set uping a subordinate. Some of the issues that were given more concentration in the talk were expatriation, subordinate issues, manner of operations and work patterns.

It was further discussed about standardisation and localisation. Standardize means the determination that you have to do in the host state whereas localize refers to actuate host state directors to hold locally developed patterns.

And he took the illustration of HSBC. Where they are more seeking to standardise there operations this can be easy understood when we visit any HSBC office located in Sri Lanka. The manner they greet and welcome people are to keep their corporate civilization, aims and policies.

Localization and standardisation both have its assets and subtractions. The determination to standardise or non is a cardinal determination that has to be made by any transnational based on the decision which method would be more good and successful for the organisation and subordinate.

In my position this lesson would assist me in the determination of placing or standardising an administration in future and this cognition will assist me to construction an administration in a most good method in maintaining the existent universe illustrations discussed in category in head.

And the remainder of the headers such as developing, retrenching and retaining staff countries were asked to read at place and convey any inquiries to the category following hebdomad to discourse.


Today about everyone was nervous as today he was traveling to randomly choice pupils and inquire inquiries for engagement Markss. I was nervous excessively. But we were rather comfy when he came and started today ‘s subject which was prolonging concern operations and staffing methods. In this chapter I learnt that there are 4 chief staffing attacks and each of the attack has its advantages and disadvantages. They include ethnocentric attack, polycentric attack, geocentric attack and regeocentric attack

Ethnocentric attack is where few foreign subordinates have autonomy and strategic determinations are made at central offices. ( Dowling & A ; Welch, 2008 ) From this attack the cardinal points I learnt is that holding an ethnocentric attack does n’t intend that they do non use HCN ‘s but instead determination devising and cardinal maps are held and operated by the PCN ‘s and that it will be given less authority to subordinate. Polycentric attack is where each subordinate is a distinguishable national entity with some determination doing liberty. ( Dowling & A ; Welch, 2008 ) From this attack I learnt that determination doing ability is really much higher than the subordinate which has adopted an ethnocentric attack. Geocentric attack is a planetary attack and it included world-wide integrating. From this attack I learnt that staffs are selected based on their accomplishment and competencies instead than nationalities. Regeocentric attack is staff traveling from specific part instead than globally.

Further the lector discussed the grounds for international assignments. This included 3 chief points, place filling, direction development, and organisational development. Discussed the assorted types of international assignments short, drawn-out and long term assignments. And non criterion signifiers such as commuter, rotational, contractual and practical assignments.

He farther discussed what wholes vs. portion theory were and as really limited information was given on slides he asked us to read the text book. From this our lector checked whether we are able to catch the information from text edition with the exact significance of it. From that I learnt that it ‘s of import to read the text edition instead than to the full trusting on the slides. Finally merely before weaving up he asked inquiries indiscriminately.


At the beginning of the category our lector asked whether we had any inquiries to clear up about the first assignment and he answered some of the inquiries raised by the pupils, besides said that he will be completing the lesson small early in order to demo us some of the sample assignments and diaries which was done by some past pupils.

Today the subject discussed was enlisting and Selection. Recruitment and Selection are two of import map of HRM section of any organisation. It is critical to the HR directors to guarantee that they have the right figure of people at the right topographic point at the right clip. ( Stone. 2005 ) This lesson helped me to place extra demands that have to be taken into history when concerned with IHRM.

During this topic the country which captured my attending was about Global Manager. He farther asked the inquiry what the difference between planetary mentality and planetary director was, and the benefits of holding a pool of planetary directors in an organisation. These inquiries helped me to believe more out of the box and acquire more involved in the lesson.

I learnt that by holding a pool of planetary MNE will be holding a batch of experience in batch of flexibleness in get downing up operations in other states, every bit good as the choice of the planetary director from this pool will b easier from this pool so MNEs will love to hold larger pool of Global directors because it helps them in foreign assignments. Besides the opportunities of a planetary director who have already reached the position of planetary director seting to other civilization are far greater than other individuals.

He farther discussed and illustration Where MNE is get downing an operation where specialised machineries are used, in foreign state where the chief staffing attack may be polycentric attack but they will be widening their proficient cognition to the subordinate. When you install the machinery but before commissioning the machinery the individual who comes to leave the cognition and accomplishment of runing it will be the exiles. Through this illustration I learnt that exiles can be used as trainers under polycentric staffing attack.

These inquiries to excite the treatments will assist me to do my replies powerful by citing relevant illustrations. And I believe that this subject will be really helpful to me when I enter the work topographic point environment. Equally good as if I decide to make a occupation in abroad, these facets would assist me farther to develop my calling.

He farther discussed how international assignments can be a signifier of occupation rotary motion and how this can be a direction determination tool. Besides discussed who is a place based director and an internationally nomadic director.


Our lector began the lesson by a inquiry “ Whether there is any difference between preparation and development, and he asked us to give a definition for them. By this treatment I understood that preparation is a cardinal map of HRM to better the accomplishments of an employee, hence helping them to execute undertaking better in the hereafter. Whereas development of employees is task done to keep and utilize the accomplishments that were learnt during preparation, I besides understood that preparation is a portion of development. Up until now I thought that preparation and development were rather the same and through this treatment I learnt that merely because a individual is trained does n’t intend it will develop the person.

Supplying pre-departure preparation is a really of import in international assignments. When we are plan to work on an international assignment in a state like Japan. Pre-departure preparation in English linguistic communication, the state ‘s concern etiquettes and imposts becomes really of import. I besides understood that the length of the pre going preparation would depend on the length of stay of the exile and the place held by the exile. Pre-departure preparation would include cultural consciousness plans, preliminary visits, linguistic communication preparation, and practical aid.

Cultural consciousness plans are designed to cognize more about the parent state civilization and host state civilization making concern, to understand their work patterns and these consciousness plans are of import to construct and understand the work outlook of the both states. Preliminary visits length may change depending on the complexness of the host state civilization, normally the length of these visits are 1 hebdomad period. These visits are particularly of import when making concern in complex civilizations like China because it is really hard to understand these civilizations without practically sing it. Practical aid includes support given by the organisation to relocate and assist the exile to settle down in the host state.

Today, after the lesson, I understood the significance of preparation and development and from the cognition I have gained from the subject I would sum up that Training and Development helps in optimising the use of human resource that farther helps the employee to accomplish the organisational ends every bit good as their single ends. This subject can be important for me in hereafter in the workplace environment in developing preparation and development programmes every bit good as it can be helpful for me personally to acquire trained and developed for a specific undertaking to accommodate into the occupation more absolutely and as a consequence to make an more effectual and efficient occupation.


The lector started by inquiring a inquiry whether there is any differences between public presentation assessment and public presentation direction rating? At the clip I thought that there is no differences between the two but now after the treatment in category and by lectors remarks understood that there is a difference between these two methods, and I understood that public presentation assessment and public presentation direction rating can be interchangeably used but public presentation assessment direction is covering the broader mark.

After the preparation and development procedure in my position it is of import to follow up by an effectual public presentation direction procedure. I understood that farther though most of the organisations are established for the aim of deriving net incomes some of the organisations may be established for a different intent. Through this apprehension, my premises and perceptual experiences have changed and I learnt that public presentation ratings can non be measured by seeing the net income factor entirely but we have to see other factors excessively.

Furthermore the MNE public presentation ratings will depend on these factors, the volatility of the planetary environment, separation of clip and distance between subordinate and parent company and degree of adulthood of subordinate all have effects on the public presentation of the subordinate.

Normally public presentation assessment is influenced by both the extrinsic and intrinsic motive of employees and their attitude towards the company. Typically, employees are appraised by their immediate higher-ups and one of the most of import incentives for public presentation assessment is constructive feedback given on a uninterrupted footing.

Further the differences between the public presentation assessment of exiles and non exiles was discussed and I learnt that assessment concerns related to non exiles have been utile to remind us that there are many dimensions to international concern and things we need to maintain in head when planing an effectual public presentation assessment system.

In today ‘s lesson I learnt the importance of public presentation direction, how the assessment should be done, the difference between public presentation assessments and public presentation rating direction and further this chapter helped me to understand the complexnesss sing public presentation rating in IHRM.


Re-entry into to their place state is an sole map of HRM. This can be besides called as repatriation. One of the major stages which a individual will travel through at this clip is cultural daze. Cultural daze is merely a common manner to depict the confusing and nervous feelings a individual may hold after go forthing a familiar topographic point to a different civilization.

The repatriation procedure comprises of four stages which are readying, physical resettlement, passage and readjustment. In each of these phases it is of import that the organisation provides support to its repatriate and his household. Such aid would besides assist to minimise re-entry daze.

The occupation related factors include calling anxiousness, inability to set to the new work environment, trouble in get bying with new function demands and loss of position and pay received during the stay abroad. Career anxiousness occurs because many repatriates expect to have publicity after they go back to their place state, but the company is unable to make so as there are no vacancies. trouble in seting into the work environment and processs of the place state, as he/she is accustomed to the work topographic point of the foreign subordinate he worked for

Social factors includes the consequence on spouses calling, effects kids as they have to acquire accustomed to the alteration of milieus, find new friends and travel to a different school

So overall from this lesson I learnt that as to minimise the hinderance of repatriates to endure from re-entry daze we should give more importance to minimise the occupation related and societal factors which lead to the re-entry daze. Helping them to set to home state and work environment is indispensable as these repatriates can be a great plus for an organisation. And besides I learnt that it ‘s critical for an organisation to utilize the cognition of the repatriate in transporting out their operations as this cognition and experience of the repatriate in international assignments can convey batch of benefits to an organisation.

10. Compensation

Today ‘s subject was about compensation. And before the lesson he reminded us the day of the month of the concluding test and advised us to be prepared for it. And before the lesson, he highlighted the of import things we should remind when replying the concluding test inquiries, how to explicate an reply and he said the first subject to follow is to halt on clip. He farther highlighted that we lose Markss non because that we do n’t cognize but as we ca n’t show the reply good. He took a sample inquiry as well and showed how to reply and near to the inquiry. This truly helped me a batch. One thing I love about the talk is he does everything really much planned and works his best to give the upper limit within the 4hrs of the talk. This helps us to larn to be on agenda and acquire the maximal cognition about a peculiar subject.

He began the lesson with a really interesting quotation mark “ this subject is really interesting as a professional and really deadening as a pupil ” . First discussed compensation and benefit in Sri Lankan context such as footings CCPI ( Colombo consumer monetary value index ) is determined by cardinal bank per hebdomad. Customss of Sri Lanka may non be same with India. In order to use the most current COM. How is the day-to-day pay calculated? Why is it of import to cipher day-to-day pay? The lector emphasized that these little inside informations are of import when it comes to compensation because you are traveling to pay lesser or pay more either manner it ‘s damaging.

Next he tested our cognition on Sri Lankan employment jurisprudence. I learnt that the jurisprudence regulating Sri Lankan employment was called the store and office employees act. I besides understood that though I am a Maldivian understanding the employment jurisprudence of Sri Lanka every bit good as other states as good is every bit of import when sing to compensation. And this was one country that I need to concentrate on.

Compensation of exiles is done either harmonizing to the Traveling Rate Approach or Balance Sheet Approach. The traveling rate attack suggests that exiles should be compensated based on local market rates, and the basal wage and benefits could supplemented by extra payment for low-paying states. This method brings para with local subjects and is a relatively simple method. But as a down side it would convey fluctuation between assignments to same employee and fluctuation between exiles of same nationality in different states, which would finally take to high competition to acquire assignments in high paying states.

There were many factors that can straight impact for the expatriate compensation, were asked to read more and understand and come up with any inquiries sing this subject by following hebdomad.


In the first half of the category he gave the pronounced assignments to each group and said to travel through the assignment and to come up with any uncertainties and elucidations sing the Markss and the feedback remarks. In fact one by one he went to each group and discussed the uncertainties and explained further why they have n’t scored in a peculiar country.

He farther highlighted that he hold marked our assignments in two major ways that is analytically and synthetically. And the chief mistakes that most of us did were non holding a consistent flow in the study and he told holding a proof read of the whole study by one or more individuals from the group in order to understate this mistake. He farther advised professionalism is really of import when we deliver any formal studies.

Second half of the category he taught us concern etiquettes and societal imposts which was the subject of the twenty-four hours. Business etiquettes are proper behaviors that are accepted in societal and concern state of affairss. It includes acquisition of cultural fluctuations in doing debuts, interchanging concern cards, acknowledging places and position, intercultural communicating, booming patterns, tipping etiquettes, giving gifts and going. I learnt that what ‘s proper behavior to one state may non be proper in another state. The interesting portion of it is when you know the cultural fluctuations you can act decently. Customss are the socially recognized behavior. This includes salutations, verbal looks, male/female relationships, frock and visual aspect, usage of temper, belief in superstitious notion, particular nutrients and ingestion of tabu.

We further discussed what a border for mistake is, and we learnt that if we leave a border for mistake those the episodes become easier and simple. E.g. – if a US individual is making concern with

Showed picture cartridge holders, the first picture was about how personal infinite distance is kept. From this picture I learnt if you are from Mexico to be near to person during concern treatments can be a normal thing but for other civilizations where distance affairs, it may be violative thing to make.

Second picture was a picture that he has already shown when making the lesson cultural differences.

Third picture was an interesting picture as it showed the differences between the E and west civilizations in a amusing mode. It was a picture which chiefly compared the two civilizations taking different facets such as how they read, swim, behave in gym etc. From this picture I learnt that for west people minding your ain concern, being nonsubjective and being disciplined are of import behaviors.

From this chapter I learnt that the importance of larning about concern etiquettes and imposts when making concern, as at the origin it is the worlds who inter face, so at this point of clip it can be the foundation for fruitful concern. This impacts how good you set up a concern.


In decision I would wish to advert that this survey of IHRM has given me the chance to believe beyond the boundaries of domestic HRM, into understand the practical issues when runing in a planetary context. It has been apparent that the function played by the HR director in an MNE is a undertaking which requires accomplishments and cognition to manage employees from different civilizations and accomplish administration aims whilst assisting the administration to do net incomes. These really complexnesss conveying out the beauty of the occupation of an International Human Resource Manager.

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