The educational aims of the Government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria as contained in Chapter 2, Section 18 of its 1999 Constitution, among others are to: ( 1 ) provide equal and equal educational chances at all degrees, ( 2 ) promote scientific discipline and engineering ; and ( 3 ) eradicate illiteracy. Since Nigeria returned to democratic administration in 1999 ( after protracted old ages of military regulation ) , the authorities embarked on a figure of instruction sector reforms. In acknowledgment of the demand to prolong the state ‘s economic growing and cut down poorness, it launched the plan known as the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy ( NEEDS ) in 2003 ( Federal Ministry of Education, 2008 ; IMF, 2005, ) . One of the cardinal elements of the schemes of NEEDS is to beef up the bringing of basic services, including acknowledgment of instruction ‘s cardinal function in economic growing and long-run political stableness.
Consequently, Nigeria ‘s developmental vision which is derived from its history, gifts, experience and aspiration, and inspiration from the positions of cross-section of stakeholders and constitutional commissariats is as follows:
To construct a genuinely great African democratic state, politically united, incorporate and stable, economically comfortable, socially organized, with equal chance for all, and duty from all, to go the accelerator of ( African ) Renaissance, and doing equal across-the-board parts, sub-regionally, regionally and globally. ( Centre for Democracy and Development, 2008 ; IMF, 2005, Akpobasah, 2004 ) .
Harmonizing to the NEEDS papers of March 2004, the Mission of President Obasanjo ‘s Government was to utilize the policy as “ a nationally coordinated model of action in close coaction with the province authoritiess and other stakeholders to consolidate the accomplishments of the last four old ages, 1999-2003 and construct a solid foundation for the attainment of Nigeria ‘s long-run vision ” . The ends of NEEDS are wealth creative activity, employment coevals, poorness decrease and value-orientation ( Yahaya, 2008 ; Akpobasah, 2004 ) .
Government recognized that instruction is a nucleus “ pillar ” of NEEDS and an of import instrument in the accomplishment of socioeconomic authorization ( Federal Ministry of Education, 2008 ) . It besides recognized the critical function of universities and third establishments in the development of quality manpower need particularly for “ progressively technologically goaded universe economic system ” ( NEEDS, 2004 ) . Furthermore, challenges confronting the universities in the executing of their ends are non besides alien to the authorities and which hence incorporated schemes for the reform of the universities in the NEEDS policy paperss.
The Vision 20-2020 of Late President Umaru Musa Yar’adua was an extension of the NEEDS which promises to do Nigeria one of the top 20 economic systems of the universe by the twelvemonth 2020 ( Centre for Democracy and Development, 2008 ; Yahaya, 2008 ) . Its cardinal ends or Vision statement is crafted as: “ By 2020 Nigeria will be one of the 20 largest economic systems in the universe able to consolidate its leading function in Africa and set up itself as a important participant in the planetary economic and political sphere. ” The Federal Ministry of Education in bend derived its vision from the national 2020 Vision and every bit indicated in its 10 twelvemonth Federal Education Plan ( 2006 – 2015 ) , the Ministry wants to function as a vehicle that would enable Nigeria to: “ go an emerging economic system theoretical account, presenting sound instruction policy and direction for public good ” .
Among the cardinal parametric quantities for accomplishing the vision 20- 2020 aspiration was for the state to heighten its economic development public presentation through “ modern and vivacious instruction system which provides for every Nigerian the chance and installation to accomplish his maximal possible and provides the state with equal and competent work force ” ( Vision 20-2020 functionary web site ) . The Centre for Democracy and Development besides noted the importance of instruction in accomplishing this vision particularly as it regards technological betterment and therefore the demand for the state to put more in research and engineering. The Centre ‘s chief economic statement for investing in instruction is that apart from increasing labour productiveness, instruction besides “ increases the productiveness of other workers as they co-operate with one another ” . This will increase the productiveness of the economic system. Another position by Professor Babs Fafunwa ( 1995 ) quoted by Ebuara et Al ( 2009 ) points to the fact that “ Nigeria instruction must of necessity relate to the demands and aspirations of the kid, the community and the state and so be tailored towards the re-inventing and the re-discovery of our cultural heritage ” .
Consecutive Nigerian authoritiess ‘ acknowledgment of the importance of instruction cuts across all degrees though it has met many challenges in its attempt to leave educational cognition to its people. This acknowledgment is reflected in its assorted educational policies and attempts towards the realisation of the central ends of Education for All ( EFA ) motion of 1990 and the Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) . The Universal Primary Education ( UPE ) strategy was put in topographic point by the military government in 1976 ( Lawal, 2008 ; Aluede, 2006 ) to increase literacy degree of Nigerians. Despite the fact that the strategy did non execute as expected, it helped in raising the figure of Nigerians who could read and compose and were better informed ( Nigeria Country Report on advancement of EFA ends ) . In order to accomplish the aims of EFA and MDGs, the authorities established the Universal Basic Education ( UBE ) strategy in 1999 which made proviso for a 9-year free and mandatory basic instruction intercession at the primary and junior secondary school degrees ( Lawal, 2008 ; Obaji, 2005 ) . To demo farther the importance the Nigeria Government attaches to education, Nora Obaji, the former Minister of Education in Nigeria stated, “ The Government of Nigeria has been working in active coaction with International Development Partners such as the UNICEF, DFID, UNESCO, USAID, JICA, World Bank every bit good as Civil Society and Non-Governmental Organizations ( NGOs ) to accomplish the EFA/UBE ends ” . Furthermore, the Federal authorities established the National Commission for Mass Literacy ( NCML ) to raise the state ‘s literacy rate in line with 4th end of EFA for grownup literacy ( Country Report on EFA ) .
This bluish line shows you copied this from electronic mail. Do non go forth such Markss in your work. The National Open University of Nigeria ( NOUN ) was resuscitated by President Olusegun Obasanjo on 1st October, 2002 to widen entree to instruction and to guarantee equity and equal chance to instruction ( Ajadi, 2010b, NOUN, 2006 ) . This is in realisation of the fact that some persons who had received some signifier of formal instruction might necessitate to update their cognition and accomplishments for improved productive capacity. In this respect the Vision of NOUN is:
“ to be regarded as the foremost university supplying extremely accessible and enhanced quality instruction anchored by societal justness, equity, equality and national coherence through a comprehensive range that transcends all barriers ” ( NOUN, 2006 ) .
Its mission as stated in the same papers is: “ to supply functional, cost-efficient, flexible acquisition which adds life-long value to quality instruction for all who seek cognition ” .
3.2 The Goals of the Universities
After analysing the history of the argument on university ‘s battle with the “ tusk tower ” versus “ trade Centre ” as generated by Barret ( 1998 ) , Albert ( 2010 ) concluded that the image tends to propose that universities in the universe would differ in the precedence they give to each of the three basic university authorizations of advancing cognition and work force development through instruction ; spread outing the frontiers of cognition through research ; and supplying public or community service. Therefore, states have to find their outlook from their assorted university systems.
The ends of the Nigerian universities stated in Section 8 of the state ‘s National Policy on Education ( NPE, 2004 ) are as follows, to: Lend to national development through high degree relevant work force preparation ;
Develop and instill proper values for the endurance of the person and the society ;
Develop the rational capableness of persons to understand and appreciate their local and external environments ;
Acquire both physical and rational accomplishments which will enable persons to be autonomous and utile members of the society ;
Promote and promote scholarship and community service ;
Forge and cement national integrity ; and
Promote national and international apprehension and interaction.
The same policy gave a list of avenues through which the universities shall prosecute these ends. These are ;
I Teaching ;
two. Research and development ( R & A ; D ) ;
three. Virile staff development programmes ;
four. Generation and airing of cognition ;
v. A assortment of manners of programmes including full-time, parttime, block-
release, day-release, sandwich, etc ;
six. Access to developing financess such as those provided by the Industrial Training
Fund ( ITF ) ;
Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme ( SIWES ) ;
Care of minimal educational criterions through appropriate bureaus ;
Inter-institutional co-operation ;
Dedicated service to the community through extra-mural and extension services.
Section 11 of the Education Act of 1993 provinces that the intents of higher instruction in Nigeria are as follows: ( I ) The acquisition, development and ingraining of the proper value-orientation for the endurance of single and society ; ( two ) The development of the rational capacities of persons to understand and appreciate their environment ; ( three ) The acquisition of both physical and rational accomplishments to enable persons to develop into utile members of the community ; ( four ) The acquisition of an nonsubjective position of local and external environment ; ( V ) The devising of optimal parts to national development through the preparation of higher degree work force ; ( six ) the publicity of national integrity by guaranting that admittance of pupils and enlisting of staff into universities and other establishments of higher acquisition shall, every bit far as possible, be on a wide national footing ; and ( seven ) The publicity and encouragement of scholarship and research.
In acknowledgment of these ends, universities in Nigeria are seen as of import subscribers to the state ‘s industrial, political, technological, and economic growing ( Nakpodia, 2009 ; Ebuara et Al, 2009 ; Dabalen & A ; Oni, 2000 ) . As put together by Ebuara et Al, the vision or dream of the universities is “ chiefly to foster work forces and adult females of character and good judgement, who will put the foundation of good leading for our great state and set her upon the way of illustriousness through a university instruction that will prolong development and good values in our society ” . This is in line with the observations of the Ashby Commission of 1959 that noted that “ instruction is so the tool for accomplishing national development, economic enlargement and societal emancipation of the person ” and the 1990 Longe Commission on the Review of Higher Education in Nigeria which saw instruction as “ the most powerful instrument for societal reform ” ( Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1997 ) .
Another dimension to look at university ends is by sing the aims for puting up the NOUN. Looking at its vision and mission statement, it is expected that NOUN should be an “ instrument for poorness relief particularly in rural communities, by supplying chances that support Education For All ( EFA ) and lifelong-learning ” ( NOUN, 2006, p.3 ) . NOUN is expected to accomplish this incrementally and consistently through proviso of flexible and qualitative instruction for all class of scholars.
Banjo ( 2006 ) , during a national acme on higher instruction in 2002 gave a sum-up of what should be the vision of university instruction in Nigeria. Traveling by his preparation, it is implied that the universities have the authorization to: ( I ) Teach, “ which must include moral and rational formation ” ; ( two ) research, that is, “ to make more wealth and comfort for society ” ; and ( three ) provide public services, which means that faculty members should non restrict their attending entirely on the tusk tower. He explained how the universities could concretize the in agreement vision. These include production of equal figure of educated elites in the instruction profession ; production of well-trained forces in the medical profession ; production of other high-ranking forces demands in proportion to be determined by authorities ; runing through a system of countenance and influence in order to instill the right moral formation in the pupils ; development of the emotional and religious capableness of the pupils ; proviso of a broad-based programme in order to do donees of instruction become “ more to the full take parting members of the community to which they belong ” , devotedness to applied research in order to make wealth ; doing the university a theoretical account for the remainder of the state in footings of administration ; bring forthing the immature work forces and adult females imbued with the right attitudes to supply good leading and followership.
It was observed by Albert ( 2010 ) that some spreads do be in the discharge of the authorizations of the universities in Nigeria. Sing learning as the first map of a university, he pointed out that the “ consistent unemployability ” of graduating pupils from the universities evidenced by their deficiency of accomplishments suggests that there is something incorrect with the system. One of the identified jobs has to with hapless course of study development which is barely reviewed in the visible radiation of altering planetary developmental schemes. In the country of research, the spreads are in the country of quality of PhD theses which is believed to be falling, reduced involvement in research by Nigerian professors who, on achieving the professorial cell tend to concentrate more on learning entirely therefore cut downing the quality of mentoring available to approaching bookmans. He was of the position that community service was ill emphasized by universities in Nigeria which tend to concentrate more on learning and research. Faculties in Nigerian universities were hence called upon to reflect critically on ways of integrating community services as portion of the pupils developing procedure.
The former main executive of Nigeria ‘s National Universities Commission ( NUC ) , Okebukola ( 2008 ) was of the position that for the Nigerian university system to have early arrangement in the top planetary ranking of universities, it has to turn to seven jussive moods. These were:
Care of stable academic calendar ;
Stimulating a vivacious research civilization ;
Improvement of installations for learning and research ;
Conformity with transporting capacity criterions and turning away of over-enrolment ;
Extinction of cultism ;
Encouraging of universities to concentrate on programmes where they have strength ;
Strong international linkage with foreign universities.
3.3 Key Successes of the Universities
Despite the generalised sentiment on the decay in Nigerian university instruction system, it is necessary to indicate out some of its accomplishments. Between 1960 and the mid 80s Nigeria had a good developed university system comparable to extremely rated universities all over the universe with the University of Ibadan and Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria gaining planetary acknowledgment for research in wellness and agribusiness severally. ( Okebukola, 2010 ; Saint et Al, 2003 ) . In fact, Okebukola pointed out that “ between 1965 and 1970, Nigeria contributed the highest to the international literature in scientific discipline, technology, medical specialty, societal scientific disciplines and humanistic disciplines ” , and besides had model instruction quality, community and extension services.
From Nigeria ‘s independency in 1960 to day of the month, Nigerian university instruction sector has witnessed detonation both in the figure of universities and academic registration. At independency in 1960, merely one third establishment existed in the state, that is, the University of Ibadan, which harmonizing to Okebukola had about 1000 pupils and 300 staff. He farther stated that between 1960 and 2010, there had been rapid addition in the figure of universities and registration. This was apparent with the representation of 104 universities by their Vice-Chancellors at the 25th meeting of the Association of Vice-Chancellors of Nigerian Universities held on 20th April, 2010 at Osun State University, Oshogbo. As at 2005, the Federal Ministry of Education recorded a entire undergraduate registration of 780,001 in the assorted universities in the state, with the entire figure of academic staff in the system put at 23,535 ( Federal Ministry of Education, 2007 ) . In a paper presented at a session of the Council for Higher Education Accreditation in 2008, the incumbent Executive Secretary of NUC, Professor Julius A. Okojie indicated the current entire registration in the universities to be 1,096,312 and entire staff as 99,464 consisting 27,394 academic staff and 72,070 non-teaching staff.
Table: Students enrolment in Nigerian Universities ( 2006/2007 )
Beginning: Okojie ( 2008 )
Table: Staff strength in Nigerian Universities ( 2006/2007 )
5,483 ( 20 % )
6,475 ( 23.6 % )
Lecturer 1 and below
15,436 ( 56.4 % )
30,275 ( 42 % )
41,795 ( 58 % )
Grand total all staff 99,464
Beginning: Okojie, 2008.
Another country of accomplishment is in the modernisation and enrichment of course of study ( Nnoli, 2001 ) . In this respect, cognition in the capable countries of mathematics, chemical science, natural philosophies, biological science, pharmaceutics, medical specialty, technology etc, compares favorably with other opposite numbers in other states and is apparent in the ability of the Nigerian Post-Graduate pupils in other states to vie favorably with their co-workers. Saint, Hartnett & A ; Strassner ( 2003 ) , on a survey of Nigeria ‘s higher instruction system indicated as follows, that: “ by 1980, Nigeria had established a well-regarded higher instruction system offering direction at an international criterion in a figure of disciplinary countries ” . The above remark by aliens goes to demo how much see the university instruction in the state had during this period. Further, Banjo ( 2002 ) noted that in footings of widening of course of study base, Nigerian universities are paying more attending to this demand by doing proviso for the co-existence of specialisation and a broad-based programme. The compulsory General Studies class for all pupils in the universities, for an illustration, is seen as an effort to enrich the pupils ‘ experience.
The outgrowth of assorted organized groups in the university sector is besides one of the cardinal accomplishments of the universities. These groups act as force per unit area groups to guarantee that things work good in the system for the intent of accomplishing the authorizations of the universities and determining the state ‘s policies for instruction and democracy in general ( Nnoli, 2001 ) . Such groups include the Committee of Vice-Chancellors, the Committee of Pro-Chancellors of universities, Alumni Associations, Academic Staff Union of Universities ( ASUU ) , Non-Academic Staff Union of Universities ( NASU ) , Senior Staff Association of Universities ( SSANU ) , National Association of Nigerian Students ( NANS ) , etc. It is besides pertinent to acknowledge the modernisation of learning stuffs, installations and methods in the state ‘s universities. There has been great consciousness in computing machine literacy and other digital installations in the bringing of cognition.
3.4 Key Challenges of the Universities:
The Nigerian university system has suffered a batch of reverses. Many writers have identified the challenges confronting the system in the discharge of its authorization to run from hapless leading and administration ensuing in ineffectualness and incompetency to inadequate support, deficiency of entree to university instruction by secondary school departers and hapless quality of university alumnuss, politicization and proliferation of academic programmes that could non be sustained, deficiency of inducements for staff, unequal substructure, university liberty issue, increasing pupil registration, encephalon drain, ceaseless work stoppages and struggle between brotherhoods and direction ; etc. ( Ebuara, et Al, 2009 ; Ogwuche, 2008 ; Saint, Hartnett & A ; Strassner, 2003 ; FME, 2003 ; Ekong, 2001 ; Moja, 2000 ; NUC, 1994 ; Nwabueze, 1995 ; etc ) . Many of these challenges had been long standing issues which day of the month back to periods of military disposal in the state.
3.4.1. Poor Leadership and Governance: Alubo ( 1999 cited in Ekong, 2001 ) observed that drawn-out military regulation succeeded in militarising former civil construction, including the universities. Ekong reported that in a survey conducted in 2000/2001 in 11 Nigerian universities to look into the direction manners adopted by the Vice-Chancellors ( VCs ) during the period 1992- 1999, revealed that bulk of them appeared to hold used a dictatorial/authoritarian direction manner. Further analysis indicated that in 8 out of the 11 universities studied, the chief officers scored their disposal as autocratic. Besides, the analysis showed a positive correlativity between direction manners and stableness, staff satisfaction, and just entree, while there was a negative correlativity between direction manners and mean disaffection, productiveness, figure of pupils, figure of academic staff and non-academic staff. This history is in consonant rhyme with the observation of Okecha ( 2008 ) who reported that the diminishing development in some of the universities could be traced to the hostile administrative system in which some Vice Chancellors are considered to exhibit dictatorial direction manners
Lack of answerability in the direction of authorities installations have besides been identified as an issue which has to make with leading. It has been observed that most universities do non set much thought into their undertaking planning likely because they take it for granted that fiscal support will ever come from authorities. Aminu ( 1987 ) observed that many universities tied their capital fund to undertakings designed without proper planning and which had remained incomplete.
Omoregie and Hartnett ( 1995 ) observed that there was deficient control among the universities on the constitution of sections with some of them established around a personality. Further, some of the universities established new programmes on the motivation of prestigiousness or around their particular country of involvement without respect to proper planning and constantly sustainability. The deduction of all these is that much of the university grants from National Universities Commission is tied up in these countries lending to fiscal emphasis in the system. This is in line with the observation of Ebuara and co-workers who noted that this creates monolithic inflow of unprepared pupils who are admitted without equal resources to take attention of their particular demands. They besides cited the Nigerian Tribune of 17th June, 2007 that traced the hapless province of Nigerian universities to nescient leaders who misappropriate the gross allotment meant for the sustainable development of higher establishments.
3.4.2. Lack of Access and Poor Quality of University Graduates:
With respect to the job of entree to the universities in Nigeria, Okebukola ( 2005 ) had this to state:
“ The full university system in Nigeria can merely suit about 15 per centum of those seeking admittance. The state of affairs will decline when alumnuss of the Universal Basic Education Scheme ( UBES ) come strike harding on the doors of the universities ” . Okebukola, 2005.
In order to widen entree and equal chance for university instruction, the Federal Government has taken such steps as the debut of an admittance quota system to turn to regional and category instabilities ( Ebuara et al, 2009 ; Okecha, 2008 ; FederalMinistry of Eucation, 2003 ; Saint et Al, 2003 ) . The policy of quota system implies that pupils must be admitted from each province of the state even if they are non among the best pupils in the Joint Admission and Matriculation Examinations. This is to guarantee that the university system gives reasonably equal chance to pupils from all parts of the state to have university instruction. However, the quota system is believed to hold a negative deduction on the quality of end product of universities.
The admittance of campaigners into the universities lies within the regulative authorization of the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board which some people believe topographic points accent on quota at the disbursal of virtue for admittance ( Okecha, 2008 ) . This is because, in order to supply just entree to limited infinites, proviso for admittance is based on the undermentioned expression: occupant of the immediate geographical or “ catchment ” country, 30 % ; educationally disadvantaged pupils, 20 % ; admittance at the Vice Chancellor ‘s discretion, 10 % and merely 40 % is left on the footing of virtue ( Saint et al 2003, Moja, 2000 ) . It was further observed by Moja and Okecha ( 2008 ) that in order to derive entree to the limited topographic points, unwholesome patterns such as cheating in the scrutinies, graft for admittance, and use of scrutiny tonss have become marked.
Adeyemi ( 2001 ) evaluated the equality of entree and “ catchment ” country admittance policy and discovered that there were “ important differences in academic public presentation between pupils admitted on virtue and those admitted on other standards. Besides, “ the drop-out and repeat rate for the latter group was three times higher than for the merit-based group ” . This tendency is believed to hold affected the quality of alumnuss of the universities and hence their position. Poor quality of university end product, discovered to be a consequence of multiple factors apart from the issue of quota policy, is responsible for high rate of unemployment of current university graduates over the decennary ( Dabalene & A ; Oni, 2000 ) . These writers, while analysing the labour market statistics observed that the unemployment rate for Nigerian university alumnuss might be around 25 per centum and that their chances for employment was worsened over clip.
3.4.3 Poor Incentive for University Staff and Quality: Poor wage and deficiency of other basic inducements for employees in the universities are common issues in most literature on university disposal in Nigeria. Lack of motive and hapless conditions of service of university workers have been identified by many authors as one of the cardinal issues of Nigeria ‘s university instruction ( ASUU, 2009 ; Osagie, 2009 ; Ekundayo & A ; Ajayi, 2009 ; Okecha, 2008 ; Saint et Al, 2003 ; Nwabueze, 1995 ; NUC, 1994 ; Longe Commission, 1990 ) . The Longe Commission of 1990 on the reappraisal of Nigeria ‘s higher instruction reported the hapless wages and conditions of staff in the third establishments which were non comparable to those in other sectors of the economic system, like the “ organized private sector, Bankss and the wellness services forces within the public service ” ( Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1991 ) . Conditions of service have been one of the major issues that had caused confrontation between the assorted brotherhoods in the universities and the university disposal and authorities which had frequently resulted to strike action among the workers conveying about deformation in the academic calendar. For case, in a imperativeness conference in 2009, the President of ASUU, Professor Ukachukwu Awuzie gave grounds that led to the industrial difference between the brotherhood and the Federal Government. One of them was the hapless salary and non-salary status of service of the academic staff which he reported had over the old ages resulted in the loss of the state ‘s best faculty members to other states like Europe and America including African states like South Africa. In his ain words he pointed out that:
“ The demand to do the conditions of service – salary and non-salary, attractive plenty for Nigerian bookmans to remain at place even though they are non making every bit good as they would make if they were in Europe and America, was the major ground the negotiating commission agreed and even insisted that Nigerian faculty members should be paid the African norm, i.e. the degree of wage near to what obtains in the African states to which Nigerian faculty members emigrate ” . ASUU, 2009.
Equally, the National President of the Senior Staff Association of Nigerian Universities, Piwuna ( 2006 ) noted that grounds for most industrial agitation in the universities are varied but “ about ever it is either dissension between the staff and authorities or between staff and university directors over public assistance affairs ” . The state of affairs and its end point low morale on staff have been linked to a batch of issues including hapless quality of university alumnuss. Akindutire ( 2004 in Ekundayo & A ; Ajayi, 2009 ) ; Saint et Al ( 2003 ) besides reported the comparative low degree of academic wage and the end point “ encephalon drain ” of academic staff, which besides prevented enlisting of new staff.
Other affairs associating to incentive as reported by many writers include hapless instruction and infrastructural installations for learning and research, inability of staff to profit from development programmes locally and abroad, etc. For illustration, Ogwuche ( 2008 ) while look intoing effects of support on universities in Nigeria observed that apart from the job of support, one of the major causes of crisis in the university system has to make with unequal academic and non-academic installations likes research labs, studio, library stocks, inn infinites and their consequence on occupation satisfaction.
The quality of alumnuss affects the position accorded some of the universities by the populace and is in itself an incentive issue. This is because it will impact the willingness of persons ( staff and pupils ) to be associated with such universities. Those universities that produce “ half adust ” pupils are regarded, in the general public impression as ‘glorified secondary schools ‘ . As a consequence of hapless wage and other working conditions, many of the academic staff are demoralized and in order to do terminals run into, they engage in some other uneven occupations utilizing periods meant for learning for these activities. The limited attending paid to learning affects the quality of merchandises of the universities.
3.4.4 Support: The job of support of university instruction in Nigeria has been a shrewish issue and one of the cardinal crises and issues of misconstruing between the brotherhoods and the Federal Government. Funding jobs in the system have been reported by legion writers like Osagie, 2009 ; Ekundayo & A ; Ajayi, 2009 ; Ogwuche, 2008 ; Okecha, 2008 ; Yaqub, 2007 ; Saint et Al, 2003 ; ASUU, 2004 ; Abdu, 2003 ; Nwabueze, 1995, etc. For case, Abdu ( 2003 ) observed that funding of higher instruction in Nigeria had been “ rose-colored ” at the initial phase with the authorities holding the political will to fund the establishments adequately. This was in the mid 1970s. However, the prostration of universe oil monetary value coupled with diminution in crude oil end product of the state resulted in the diminution on its oil export gross, force per unit area on its balance of payment, impairment in its public funding, unemployment, etc and made the state embark on Structural Adjustment Program ( SAP ) in 1986 ( Ayadi, Adegbite & A ; Ayadi,2008 ; Anyanwu, 1992 ) . SAP brought about devaluation of the Naira, the state ‘s currency and led to the depreciation of the money available to the universities by about 200 % ( Okebukola, 2010 ) . Okebukola and besides Abdu farther observed that credence by African Leaderships of the advice of economic experts ( Breton Woods institutions-the World Bank and IMF ) that support of the instruction sector should non include the higher instruction sub-sector besides reduced the measure of fund made available to the universities. Consequently, the exiles started traveling back to their states as their wages became non-competitive, and purchase of research lab equipments and books with foreign exchange became a job. As a consequence, diminution in quality of instruction offered in the universities started puting in.
Harmonizing to ASUU ( 2001 in Ogwuche, 2008 ) , between 1994-2000, Nigeria has, on the norm met merely 10 % of the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO ) benchmark of 26 % of national budget for funding instruction in every state. The job of support was apparent non merely in the federal universities, but besides in the province universities. Part of the observations made by ASUU at its 13th National Delegate Conference 2004, as presented by its National President, Dr. Oladipo Fashana was that province authoritiess were non funding their universities to work decently.
Another scenario to the support job is the rush in registration for university instruction. In malice of the troubles experienced in the 1980s, there has been of recent, additions in fund allotment to the universities but this has remained unequal to provide for their recurrent and capital outgo partially due to the monolithic registration of pupils. Abdu ( 2003 ) noted that the high support form has non absolved the sector of legion jobs and that it “ falls short of the sum required particularly in the countries of abandoned capital undertakings that litter all the Nigerian establishments and creative activity of more incentives and inducements for instructors in the sector ” . Still on the job of funding, Fagbulu ( 2003 ) observed that the jobs of cost of instruction and its funding have led to what people refer to as falling criterions of instruction in Nigeria. However, she had reserve with the mention to falling criterion because she believed it is “ a comparative premise or at best a nostalgic comparing with the past since there is barely any informations to corroborate the statement ” . Agring that support of instruction in Nigeria had seen bad yearss, she noted that the confusion about who is funding what has led to “ a state of affairs where the instruction system is fraught with decay in substructure and equipment, deficiency of motive for learning and acquisition and even policy execution ” .
Further on the issue of support, Dabalene, Oni & A ; Adekola ( 2000 ) were of the position that though relentless agitation and increase in anti-social behaviors tend to be the chief issues that draw public attending sing jobs in the universities, “ systemic under-funding and worsening quality of higher instruction ” is by and large believed to hold generated the phenomena. Besides, Ogwuche ( 2008 ) found that unequal support of Nigerian Universities resulted in hapless quality of instruction, hegira of academic staff in the encephalon drain syndrome, ceaseless work stoppages actions, famine of installations, cultism, hapless and out-of-date Diaries and disused instruction and research equipments.
Table: Grants to Federal Universities through the NUC ( 1992-2002 ) and Capital through ETF ( 1999-2002 ) .
Beginning: Okebukola ( 2003 in Abdu, 2003 ) . Issues in Funding University Education in Nigeria.
Though irregular, there was addition in entire fund allotment to universities from 1992 to 2002 as indicated in the tabular array above, with the highest being 34,621,267,696.09 Nigeria Naira ( about 138,485,070 British Pounds at a transition rate of N250 to ?1 ) . However, this increase is considered unequal to get the better of the legion jobs facing the universities. For illustration, ASUU ( 2010 ) indicated that in 2009, the entire allotment to instruction sector was 7.6 % of the entire Federal Government budget. Based on its 2009 understanding with the Federal Government to increasingly increase allotment to the instruction sector, its outlook was that at least 13 % of FGN proposed national budget for 2010 shall be allocated to instruction. This was non to be as merely 6.1 % of the entire national budget was allocated to instruction as reported by the brotherhood.
3.4.5 University Autonomy:
The job of university liberty and academic freedom has been an of intense argument between several Nigerian authoritiess and the universities. It was more marked during the military epoch and had been one of the major issues of difference between the brotherhoods particularly the ASUU and authorities ( Ajayi & A ; Awe, 2009 ; Ekundayo & A ; Adedokun, 2009 ) , an issue that seemed hard to decide. The job of liberty in the universities can be looked at in three wide countries sing the Torahs that set up the universities. Harmonizing to Ajayi & A ; Awe ( 2008 ) , by virtuousness of the statutory commissariats of Nigerian universities, they seem to hold liberty in three wide countries: academic liberty, administrative liberty and fiscal liberty. They observed that the legislative acts made proviso for “ Council, its composing, life and maps ; the Finance and General Purpose Committee ; the Senate ; the Congregation ; the Convocation ; organisation of academic work in the university ; Academic Boards ; Boardss of Studies ; Deans of learning units ; choice of certain chief officers of the university ; creative activity of academic stations ; assignment of academic staff and assignment of administrative and proficient staff ” . Besides, the Senate by virtuousness of the legislative acts is empowered to take charge of the academic activities of the universities including admittance and subject of pupils,
and to advance research. These powers invested in the universities had been capable to authorities intervention.
In the country of administrative liberty, the announcement of the Decree No. 23, of 1975 tends to be a menace to the powers of the Council in the assignment of the Chancellor, Pro-Chancellor/ Chairman of Council and the Vice Chancellor ( Ekundayo & A ; Adedokun, 2009 ; Ajayi & A ; Awe, 2008 ) . The assignment of these persons presently have become political with the Visitor ( Proprietor of the University ) executing this map. This implies that in the instance of federal universities, the President makes the assignments, while the Governors have the concluding say in the instance of the province universities and the Proprietor decides in the instance of private universities.
The liberty of universities was besides considered eroded in the country of academic affairs which by statutory right, was the freedom invested in the Senate of the universities to form and command instruction, admittance and subject of pupils, and promote research. The constitution of JAMB in 1978 which now conducts entry scrutinies into the universities alternatively of the Senate of the assorted universities is farther considered eroding to academic freedom. The debut of the quota system for admittance by this organ alternatively of accent on virtue is another dimension of the contention on liberty as observed by many writers like Onyeonoru ( 2008 ) .
Prior to the constitution of the NUC in 1962 and its reconstitution in 1974, constitution of academic programmes in universities was the map of the university senate which comprised of the Registrar, all professors, all caputs of sections and module representatives ( Ekundayo & A ; Adedokun, 2009 ) . However, this is no longer the current pattern. Rather, the universities were required to obtain blessing from NUC before a programme was established. Onyeonoru ( 2008 ) lamented that “ in several countries, universities have lost their power to develop new programmes, realine their classs, and the content of their curricular to fit labor market demands. Changes in undergraduate programmes, debut of new grade programmes and even alterations in the names of university sections must pull the blessing of the NUC ” . The same observation was made by Ajayi and Awe ( 2008 ) who pointed out that the NUC is now executing other maps other than its authorization at origin. It is the organ of the Federal Government that accredits programmes of universities. In executing this function, it uses Minimum Academic Standard as benchmark to measure public presentation of academic programmes in the universities thereby forestalling universities from developing their ain single course of study and course of studies. The extent of engagement of NUC in the personal businesss of the universities was lamented by ASUU who in 2004 through its National President, Dr. Oladipo Fashana noted that: “ the NUC is infringing into the maps of Senate and Academic Research Committees in the universities. It is now taking over the control of research in universites ; it is seeking to find the conditions of employment of lectors ” .
The universities by statutory proviso had the liberty to bring forth and pay out fund ( Fabunmi, 2007 ) . This is non the instance soon as the universities rely on authorities for fund. Accommodating university liberty with authorities control of fund is basic issue the universities have to cover with. Like Onyeonoru ( 2008 ) observed, since authorities is responsible for fund that goes to the university system, it is sensible that it allots such fund in a manner that ensures “ efficiency of the educational system and the economical usage of available resources ” . This dependence on authorities for fund is the ground why many believe that accomplishment of full liberty by universities might non be that easy.
3.4.6 Brain Drain:
For a university to bring forth and convey cognition requires that it has its pool of endowment and pupils interacting in the teaching-learning procedure and research ( Oni, 1999 ) . Among the many challenges confronting universities in Nigeria in the discharge of their authorization is the encephalon drain syndrome. The Study Group on Brain Drain in Nigerian Universities ( 1994 ) defined the phenomenon as “ big scale motion by lectors and senior non-academic staff off from the Nigerian University System in chase of self-actualization ” . The group identified five classs of staff involved in encephalon drain as:
Nigerian faculty members that have transferred their services to foreign constitution, universities, infirmaries, research institutes, international organisations, etc.
Nigerian faculty members who have moved to more moneymaking activities and political assignments in Nigeria and who, by so making have disengaged from learning and research ;
Young academicians who refused to return to Nigeria after their studies/leave abroad ;
Young graduates with potencies who are loath to prosecute higher grades in readying for employment as lectors, etc but choosing for callings in financially more moneymaking sectors of Nigerian economic system e.g. Bankss and fiscal houses ;
Exiles who have returned to their place states or emigrated to other states in chase of higher rewards.
The group besides found, like some other authors ( Okecha, 2008 ; Yaqub, 2007 ; Study Group, 1994 ; etc ) that the chief Fieldss affected by the phenomenon were professionals like, in order of magnitude, medical specialty and related subjects ; designers ; applied scientists and related technicians ; societal scientific disciplines, scientific disciplines and athleticss. As Olufemi ( 2007? ) of Olabisi Onabanjo University pointed out, international labour migration of unskilled labor is of less importance to political economic analysis but motion of skilled workers or professionals represent a great loss to the state that has invested so much in their preparation and accomplishment development. He cited Oladapo ( 1988 ) who described as “ broad ” , an estimation that 1500 Nigerian doctors are in Europe entirely. The World Bank Report of 15th September, 1996, indicated an estimation of 10,000 Nigerians employed in the United States entirely. Apart from salary and other public assistance bundles, the migration of these professionals is induced by the chance to develop their calling and maintain abreast with what is go oning in their field of cognition.
Peoples believe that the current state of affairs of Nigerian universities is unattractive for ambitious persons to work. The drawn-out economic downswing experienced by Nigeria affected its budgetary allotment to the universities taking to the rationalisation or cancellation of certain services provided for staff ( Yaqub, 2007 ) . Such services included back uping and patronizing staff to conferences, stationary points, working tools, points for information and communications engineering, etc. All these were in the thick of high pupil registration, conveying approximately low morale and issue of faculty members who could non postulate with the state of affairs. Different policies put in topographic point by authorities to turn to the issue of quality in the university system have non achieved their intent due to shortage of qualified academic staff ( Saint et al, 2003 ) . The Federal Ministry of Education ( 2003 ) reported academic staff deficit of 46 % in Nigerian universities in the twelvemonth 2000. The Study Group on encephalon drain observed that the phenomenon weakens the programmes of the Nigerian university system and demoralizes possible immature faculty members, and besides frustrates both pupils and staying staff. Further, as staff/student ratio beads due to high registration and deficit of staff, work burden became increased taking to low morale ( Yaqub, 2007 ; Saint et Al, 2003 ) .
To reason this subdivision, it is worthwhile to mention Ibidapo-Obe ( 2010, p.247 ) , a former Vice Chancellor and the President of the Nigerian Academy of Science, who observed while measuring the Nigerian university system since independency that:
“ the Nigerian University System that emerged at par with the best in the universe at independency in footings of quality instruction and outstanding research sank into a great abysm of desperation in the 1980s and 90s due to entire disregard by authoritiess and this led to evitable encephalon drain of the same human resource that made Nigeria the enviousness of other states of the universe at independency ”