Outline briefly what is meant by the Best Practice/High Commitment HRM paradigm, and critically reexamine this as a manner of looking at HRM. Provide examples from different pattern countries of HRM to back up your reply, and indicate clearly the cardinal methodological issues that recent research has addressed.
The impression of ‘High Commitment ‘ HRM has been promoted as ‘Best pattern ‘ by bookmans and employers who believe that patterns connected with this impression would assist to better an administration ‘s public presentation. The footings have been used interchangeably by different bookmans who see them as patterns that aid actuate workers to turn and portion their cognition and accomplishments. However, this country of HRM has been debated in recent old ages. Arguments have sprung away as to which HR pattern should consist the high committedness package, their combination and synergism, how attractive they are to workers and employers likewise and most significantly if the patterns are universally applicable.
A outstanding set of definitions of best pattern is associated with Pfeffer ‘s ( 1994 ) 16 patterns. These patterns are summarised to include employment security, selective hiring and sophisticated choice, extended preparation and development, employee engagement and engagement, self managed squads, high compensation contingent on public presentation, decrease of position differences, public presentation assessment and work life balance. The patterns are to assist make competitory advantage and better public presentation of houses. However, Boxall and Purcell ( 2000 ) maintain that if Best Practice is about making sustained competitory advantage, merely a limited figure of houses would be able to achieve it while others would be disadvantaged.
It is imperative to observe the patterns mentioned supra can non boom in isolation. Rather bookmans argue that they should complement one another. The complementary patterns are regarded as the HR package which when combined helps to advance an Organisation ‘s public presentation. For illustration, preparation is a demand for ego managed squads to work efficaciously. Besides, in most Administrations, compensation is linked to public presentation. Furthermore, workers might be attracted to working in squads if they are convinced they would be rewarded with inducements and preparation chances and privileges. There is therefore the belief that the more patterns are adopted, the better for administrations.
However, are these HR patterns applicable in all administrations? I would neither state yes or no, but the catholicity of HR patterns has been challenged by assorted national, regional, and local civilizations. HRM patterns might change in different states, sector, by size and ownership and what might work good in one state or sector might non win in another.
For case, administrations following the invention scheme would necessitate really high degrees of creativeness ; concerted and hazard oriented people. As a consequence the house ‘s HR patterns might emphasize the demand for choosing extremely skilled people, use minimum control, allow and even reward failure, and measure public presentation for its long tally deductions. On the other manus, administrations practising the cost decrease scheme might plan occupations that are rather insistent ; preparation of workers might be less practical ; decrease of workers to the lower limit to cut costs and in conclusion merely reward high end product and expected behavior ( Boxall & A ; Purcell, 2003 ) . This makes it obvious that Best pattern tantrum otherwise with assorted administrations.
One of import HR pattern is employment security which claims that it is unjust to layoff an employee who is skilled, committed and hardworking. Harmonizing to Pfeffer ( 1998 ) , instead than put off employees, companies should take to cut down working hours to distribute the hurting of decreased employment cost, cut down rewards to minimise labor costs and stop dead enlisting to forestall overstaffing. While Pfeffer ‘s statement is acceptable, it is of import to observe that there are bounds to which employment security can really be guaranteed. For illustration, an administration confronting prostration might be forced to cut down its work force. This should non be seen as sabotaging the rule of employment security. Many companies have been forced to do some cuts to their work force as a consequence of the economic meltdown. Retailers like Mervyn ‘s and the Circus metropolis shops Inc. closed locations, some filed for bankruptcy, and others shut down wholly. Even the big companies like American Express, Yahoo, Google, Motorola and Royal Bank of Scotland ( one of the biggest victim of the recognition crunch ) have had to cut down on their work force. Conversely, in Nigeria, monolithic occupation losingss have become a daze therapy as administrations are cutting costs of inputs. In the last two month, over 4000 workers lost their occupations in reputable Bankss. What does that state of the HR pattern of employment security as those who still got occupations can non hike of it for fright of losing it shortly. To me, the whole thought of employment security is now regarded as some signifier of wagess that employers give those workers who do exceptionally good.
Administrations besides need to enroll outstanding and exceeding endowments. This is considered critical for a house and could be done through sophisticated usage of techniques such as psychometric trials, structured interviews which are used to measure societal, interpersonal and squad working accomplishments possessed by appliers. However, the pattern of enrolling utilizing sophisticated techniques and so on to acquire the best campaigner does n’t use everyplace. In some administrations, contacts and influence gets you a occupation you are non needfully skilled for. There are many instances where vacancies are filled before they are advertised. Even some administrations in Nigeria engage new employees such as household and friends without truly holding vacancies and the demand for them. It is hence hard for an person with exceeding accomplishments to acquire a occupation if he does non hold contacts with some people in an administration. For case, it is possible to happen some troughs with no managerial makings taken up occupations in certain administration based on either referrals or who they know. This undermines the hour patterns of enrolling the right people. In a recent CIPD Magazine, there was the instance of an HR Manager at NHS, Kerrie Devine who was found guilty for lying about her makings and therefore sentenced by the Exeter Crown Court. It baffles me because I wonder how she got on the occupation with three bad makings. Then once more, it should be noted that the system of referrals and influence does n’t use to all houses, there are still some administrations that use good designed interviews and aptitude trials and employ people who deserve a place.
Enrolling exceeding endowments is non sufficient ; these endowments have to be given extended preparation so as to stay relevant in an administration. Companies such as the NHS, IBM, BP, and Rolls Royce spend tonss of money on leading programmes because they know the value of Training. Yet, others have come to follow the pattern of developing worker as a manner of carry throughing all righteousness ( others are making it so we have to make it excessively ) . Even when they do, what is the quality and relevancy of this preparation? Do the administrations see them as short or long term ends to assist hike public presentation? It is of import to province that even within the administration, the chance is that some workers would be trained, others might non. Besides, in some topographic points where it does use, really small counsel is offered to employees in their attempt to obtain new accomplishments. In recent old ages, preparation has been used in administrations as a wages for employees who do non needfully necessitate them. In most administrations in Nigeria, preparation is normally tied to public presentation. A worker who does satisfactorily is rewarded and could be selected for a preparation programme. Though this is good, in some instances it is offered to those close to direction who are sometimes non-performing employees and do non merit it. Managerial opinion on who should travel for preparation and who should non has become a norm. It appears that developing to some administration is regarded as a cost instead than an investing. Besides, in instances of economic meltdown ; it ‘s one of the first points to be deleted from an administration ‘s budget. From my personal experience at work in a bank in Nigeria, I had really small developing prior to going a client service officer. Most of the acquisition and preparation I got was on the occupation. I practically had to larn on my ain. However some administrations still value preparation and give adequate chances to employees to take portion in preparation Sessionss but they are instead few, an illustration is the transnational companies in Nigeria. Small wonder people are so acute on working in this MNC ‘s.
Furthermore, Information sharing through unfastened communicating on scheme and public presentation aid employees feels that they can be trusted and allows them to lend thoughts. It is considered as really of import in some companies who take enterprises such as employee satisfaction study, monthly direction meetings and suggestion strategies. An illustration is Sainsbury who launched the “ Tell Justin Scheme ” and organised “ The Big Pitch ” in 2005 as a manner of promoting co-workers to set forth their thoughts to better the concern. The Hr manager for Sainsbury, Imelda Walsh agrees that employee battle should be recognised in administrations in order to better public presentation ( CIPD November 2009 ) .
While some recent surveies agree that this pattern is been adopted in some administrations, other surveies province otherwise reasoning that workers voice is frequently non recognised and ignored. In my sentiment, due to the current recession, employees should ever be kept informed. The procedure of information sharing is possibly one of the most of import HRM functions. At present, occupation security is been threatened as a consequence of the fiscal crisis and workers need to be updated about the position of the concern and their destiny. When communicating channel is left unfastened, it bridges the spread for HRM that would hold widened if finally retrenchment took topographic point.
In add-on, advocators of “ Best pattern ” are besides convinced that self managed squads would convey approximately greater thoughts, guarantee better determination devising and supply better and originative solution to jobs. This has been identified by different administrations as a foundation for success. However, although working in squads leads to the riddance of supervisors, some workers see the whole thought of teamwork as an “ Iron Cage ” where been in a squad is atrocious because most of the clip one individual who likely does n’t hold the greatest thoughts dominates.
It has besides been affirmed that compensation and wagess ( fillips, vacations, etc ) aid to pull and retain really skilled employees and maintain them motivated. Well, in so many developing states like Nigeria and Mozambique, what is applicable is that compensation and wagess are tied to position and length of service ( increases as one progresses in the administration ) instead than on public presentation. From the diaries I read, I gathered that administrations have different composing of reward bundle and that administrations that employ the wages system of public presentation related wage are more likely to pull job resolution and entrepreneurial employees than those who merely offer basic wage.
Besides, in a less progressive work environment really small attending might be paid to the attention for workers. Some administrations take on comparatively cheap programmes so as to ease the weight associated with employment and besides show regard for their work force while some others do n’t truly care about the whole thought of work-life balance as they run inflexible agendas, inconsiderate system and direction manner. For illustration, a survey of the Royal College of Nursing showed that a big figure of nurses who were making hard displacements wanted to retire at the age of 50 because they did non hold entree to switch forms and could non work portion clip on the same occupation degree. ( Torrington et al, 2005 ) .
Last an HR pattern non truly recognised in all administrations is the decrease of position difference. While some administrations pattern it by holding common canteens, auto park infinite, other administrations still hold on to the power distance between directors and common workers. In developing states for case, power distance is seen as of import and should be respected ; employees do non see it as a large trade as they perceive it to be a privilege for those who attain a certain degree. Where I worked in Nigeria, the Regional Head and the directors had their auto park infinite, they ne’er sat with us to eat and it was non seen as anything extraordinary because it was the belief that they are entitled to it.
Most of the diaries reviewed built on bing research on HR patterns ; informations was collected through administered questionnaires, interviews and concentrate groups from directors and employees of different administrations. These administrations range from the car industry, service sector, infirmaries, and the banking industry. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in the analysis. Majority of the surveies had different positions to the HR patterns such as preparation, public presentation etc as the research varied from different administrations and sectors and what was appropriate in one administration was non precisely appropriate in the others. The restriction nevertheless is that most of these diaries did non compare large companies with the little companies as studies was taking in largely big administrations. Besides, most of the diaries did n’t truly travel into the catholicity of these HRM patterns.
The impression of “ Best Practice ” as it seems is merely more in theory than in pattern. Taking an in-depth expression at them, one would detect they are merely nice words and are barely of all time achieved. What applies in one state, sector or administration does non needfully use in another. Besides in instance of crisis, administrations might be given to flex the regulations in their favor or take to disregard these patterns.