Posted on

Identifying The Influence Of Leadership Practices Commerce Essay

The intent of this research was to place the influence of five leading patterns on organisational committedness among directors in Malaysia. The five dimensions of leading patterns were ( a ) Challenging the Procedure, ( B ) Inspiring a Shared Vision, ( degree Celsius ) Enabling Others to Act, ( vitamin D ) Modeling the Way, and ( vitamin E ) Promoting the Heart. This survey was specifically analyzing the relationship between these leading patterns and organisational committedness. The five dimensions of leading patterns were identified by Posner and Kouzes ( 1988 ) . On the other manus, Mowday, Steers and Porter ( 1979 ) developed the organisational committedness ( Woods, 2007 ) . A three portion questionnaire was designed and distributed to 100 directors of selected assorted organisations in Malaysia. Contain of the questionnaire included demographic characteristic questionnaire, organisational committedness questionnaire ( OCQ ) and Leadership Practices Inventory-Observer ( LPI-O ) . This chapter would show the analysis of the responses.

4.1 Response Rate

As discussed in chapter 3, the participants in this survey were intended to be directors from assorted organisations in Malaysia. Questionnaires were distributed to 100 directors of different organisations in Malaysia. A sum of 100 sets of questionnaires were collected back. The response rate was 100 % as the information was collected through e-mail and face-to-face study.

4.2 Demographics

In order to roll up informations about respondents, the demographic questionnaire was computed. There were eight classs stated in the questionnaire which were gender, age, matrimonial position, race, business, monthly income, instruction degree, and working experience. The descriptive analyze of demographic variables was illustrated in table 1 through the utilizing of SPSS 19.0. Table 1 illustrated the frequence and per centums of the respondents in informations aggregation.

Table 1: Frequency and Percentage of Demographic Characteristics

Demographic

Frequency

Percent ( % )

Gender

male

47

47.0

female

53

53.0

Entire

100

100.0

Age

20 & lt ; 29

35

35.0

30 & lt ; 39

30

30.0

40 & lt ; 49

21

21.0

a‰?50

14

14.0

Entire

100

100.0

Marital Status

individual

41

41.0

married

51

51.0

divorced

8

8.0

Entire

100

100.0

Race

Malay

18

18.0

Chinese

71

71.0

Indian

11

11.0

100

100.0

Occupation

authorities

23

23.0

private

77

77.0

Entire

100

100.0

Income

2001 & lt ; 3000

12

12.0

3001 & lt ; 4000

26

26.0

4001 & lt ; 5000

29

29.0

5001 & lt ; 6000

19

19.0

a‰?6001

14

14.0

Entire

100

100.0

Education

secondary

12

12.0

sheepskin

32

32.0

university

46

46.0

maestro

9

9.0

Ph.d.

1

1.0

Entire

100

100.0

Experience

1-5 old ages

24

24.0

6-10 old ages

23

23.0

11 old ages and above

53

53.0

Entire

100

100.0

The entire figure of respondents in this survey was 100 directors, which can besides be interpreted through the per centums. After the information aggregation, the part of male respondent was 47.0 % , while female was 53.0 % .

For the intent of this survey, age was grouped into four classs ( a ) 20-29, ( B ) 30-39, ( degree Celsius ) 40-49, and 50 and supra. The per centums were 35.0 % , 30.0 % , 21.0 % , and 14.0 % severally.

In footings of matrimonial position, there were 41.0 % of the respondents were individual. The respondents who were married stood for 51.0 % , and there were merely 8.0 % of the respondents who had divorced.

For the race demographic, there were three races of the respondents, which were Malay, Chinese, and Indian. Out of the 100 respondents of the research, the bulk were Chinese, 71.0 % , 18.0 % were Malay, and 11.0 % were Indian.

Most of the respondents of this survey worked in private sector which occupied 77.0 % of the research. On the other manus, 23.0 % of the respondents worked for authorities sector. There was a prejudice in footings of business because there were assorted types of private organisation provided feedbacks for this survey.

Income demographic was divided into 5 subsets. There were ( a ) RM2000- RM3001, ( B ) RM3001- RM4000, ( degree Celsius ) RM4001- RM5000, ( vitamin D ) RM5001-RM6000, and ( vitamin E ) RM6001 and supra. The per centums were 12.0 % , 26.0 % , 29.0 % , 19.0 % and 14.0 % severally.

In footings of instruction degree, most of the respondents achieved university degree which was 46.0 % . It was followed by sheepskin degree which was 32.9 % . The per centum of secondary, maestro, and PhD degree was lower which were 12.0 % , 9.0 % , and 1.0 % severally.

The working experience was divided into three classs. Most of the respondents had worked for 11 old ages and above, and occupied 53.0 % of the respondents. From the study, 24.0 % was between 1-5 old ages and 23.0 % was between 6-10 old ages.

4.3 Test of Reliability

Table 2: Cronbach ‘s Alpha Test for LPI-O Five Practices Coefficients and Organizational Commitment

Leadership Practices

Dependability Coefficients

No. of Items

Challenge the procedure

0.804

6

Inspire a shared vision

0.772

6

Enable others to move

0.732

6

Model the manner

0.723

6

Promote the bosom

0.790

6

Organizational Committedness

0.673

15

Cronbach ‘s alpha was calculated for the points retained for each dimension to entree the dependability of steps. Cronbach ‘s alpha was used to prove the dependability where an alpha coefficient of 0.7 or higher was considered acceptable ( Peterson, 1994 ) . Table 2 illustrated the end product of Cronbach ‘s Alpha Test for Leadership Practices Inventory Observer ( LPI-O ) and Organizational Commitment. The consequence indicated that the dependability for each of five leading patterns in LPI-O was important. However, the Cronbach ‘s Alpha Test for Organizational Commitment indicated that the dependability for the 15 points in the questionnaire was at the lower acceptable degree.

4.4 Data Analysis

Table 3 shows the descriptive statistics of mean and standard divergence of all the variables in this survey through the utilizing of SPSS 19.0.

Table 3: Descriptive Statisticss

Variables

Mean

Standard Deviation

Organizational Committedness

3.44

0.48

Challenge the Procedure

3.55

0.82

Inspire a Shared Vision

3.70

0.74

Enable Others to Act

3.79

0.68

Model the Way

3.63

0.71

Promote the Heart

3.77

0.80

The mean is an index of frequence of usage. The higher mark, the more often a leading pattern was used ( Sandbakken, 2004 ; Kouzes and Porner, 2002b ) . As shown in Table 3, the mean of five leading patterns ranged from the highest which was enable others to move, 3.79. It was followed by promote the bosom, 3.77 ; animate a shared vision, 3.70 ; and pattern the manner, 3.63. The lowest mean indicated by the leading patterns of challenge the procedure, 3.55 which shows that this peculiar leading pattern least engaged in by the directors.

The standard divergence of five leading patterns ranged from the highest which was challenge the procedure, 0.82. It was followed by promote the bosom, 0.80 ; inspired a shared vision, 0.74 ; and pattern the manner, 0.71. The lowest standard divergence was shown by enables others to move, 0.68.

For the dependant variable, mean of organisational committedness was 3.44, and its standard divergence was 0.48.

4.4 Hypothesiss Testing

Table 4: Pearson ‘s Simple Correlation Analysis

Variables

01

02

03

04

05

06

01

Organizational Committedness

1.00

0.497**

0.518**

0.370**

0.428**

0.354**

02

Challenge the Procedure

1.00

0.738**

0.532**

0.731**

0.618**

03

Inspire a Shared Vision

1.00

0.663**

0.690**

0.587**

04

Enable Others to Act

1.00

0.656**

0.580**

05

Model the Way

1.00

0.667**

06

Promote the Heart

1.00

Note: ** Correlation is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed )

Each of the hypotheses was analyzed by utilizing the Pearson ‘s Simple Correlation Analysis ( Table 4 ) . This trial was used to measure the relationship between each of the five leading patterns and organisational committedness. The consequences are illustrated in table 4. The values range from -1 to +1. The closer to one agencies there is a stronger positive relationship between two variables ( Hyatt, 2007 ) .

Hypothesis 1 proposes leading pattern of “ Challenge the procedure ” has a positive important influence on organisational committedness. Statistically important correlativities with committedness can be seen for leading pattern of “ Challenge the procedure ” ( r=0.497, P & lt ; 0.01 ) . Therefore, hypothesis 1 is supported.

Hypothesis 2 proposes leading pattern of “ Inspire a shared vision ” has a positive important influence on organisational committedness. Statistically important correlativities with committedness can be seen for leading pattern of “ Inspire a shared vision ” ( r=0.518, P & lt ; 0.01 ) . Therefore, hypothesis 2 is supported.

Hypothesis 3 proposes leading pattern of “ Enable others to move ” has a positive important influence on organisational committedness. Statistically important correlativities with committedness can be seen for leading pattern of “ Enable others to move ” ( r=0.370, P & lt ; 0.01 ) . Therefore, hypothesis 3 is supported.

Hypothesis 4 proposes leading pattern of “ Model the manner ” has a positive important influence on organisational committedness. Statistically important correlativities with committedness can be seen for leading pattern of “ Model the manner ” ( r=0.428, P & lt ; 0.01 ) . Therefore, hypothesis 4 is supported.

Hypothesis 5 proposes leading pattern of “ Promote the bosom ” has a positive important influence on organisational committedness. Statistically important correlativities with committedness can be seen for leading pattern of “ Promote the bosom ” ( r=0.354, P & lt ; 0.01 ) . Therefore, hypothesis 5 is supported.

4.5 The Relationships between Each of Five Leadership Practices

Table 4 showed that there was a important positive inter correlativity between each of five leading patterns. This means that there was a relationship within the independent variables which were Challenge the Process, Inspire a Shared Vision, Enable Other to Act, Model the Way, and Promote the Heart. The values of the analysis scope from -1 to +1. The closer to one agencies there is a stronger positive relationship between two independent variables ( Hyatt, 2007 ) .

The leading pattern of Challenge the Process showed a important positive relationship with the other four leading patterns mentioned about which were Inspire a Shared Vision ( r=0.738, P & lt ; 0.01 ) , Enable Others to Act ( r=0.532, P & lt ; 0.01 ) , Model the Way ( r=0.731, P & lt ; 0.01 ) , and Promote the bosom ( r=0.618, P & lt ; 0.01 ) .

Furthermore, the leading pattern of Inspired a Shared Vision showed a important positive relationship with Enable Others to Act ( r=0.663, P & lt ; 0.01 ) , Model the Way ( r=0.690, P & lt ; 0.01 ) , and Promote the bosom ( r=0.587, P & lt ; 0.01 ) .

The leading pattern of Enable Other to Act besides showed a important positive relationship with Model the Way ( r=0.656, P & lt ; 0.01 ) , and Promote the bosom ( r=0.580, P & lt ; 0.01 ) . Last, the leading pattern of Model the Way indicated a important positive relationship with Encourage the Heart ( r=0.667, P & lt ; 0.01 ) .

The consequences of the analysis showed that the five dimensions of leading patterns were interact with each other and influenced by each other.

4.6 The Relationships between Each of Five Leadership Practices and Organizational Commitment

The aim of this research was to find the extent of the influent of Kouzes and Posner ‘s ( 2003 ) five dimensions of leading patterns independently on organisational committedness among directors in Malaysia. The relationships between the five independent variables, leading patterns and one dependant variable were analyzed. The five independent variables were challenge the procedure, animate a shared vision, enable others to move, pattern the manner, and promote the bosom. The dependent variable was organisational committedness. The consequences of the analysis were illustrated in Table 5.

Table 5: Simple Linear Regression of the Five Leadership Practices and Organizational Commitment

Leadership Practices

Standardized Coefficients ( I? )

Coefficients Determination ( r2 )

Challenge the Procedure

0.497

0.247

Inspire a shared vision

0.518

0.268

Enable others to move

0.370

0.137

Model the manner

0.428

0.183

Promote the bosom

0.354

0.126

Note: Significant at the 0.0001 degree

Table 4 indicated that all the five leading patterns were significantly related with organisational committedness. All of those relationships were important at P & lt ; 0.0001 degree. The tabular array showed that leading pattern of inspired a shared vision has the strongest relationship with organisational committedness ( I?=0.518, r2=0.268 ) . It was followed by challenge the procedure ( I?=0.497, r2=0.247 ) , model the manner ( I?=0.428, r2=0.183 ) , and enable others to move ( I?=0.370, r2=0.137 ) . The weakest relationship was illustrated by promote the bosom ( I?=0.354, r2=0.126 ) .

4.7 Drumhead

The intent of this chapter was to analyse the relationship between each of five leading patterns and organisational committedness. In peculiar, attending was given to the following five leading patterns: Challenge the procedure, Inspire a shared vision, Enable others to move, Model the manner, and Promote the bosom. The consequences include demographic information on 100 respondents and relationship between each of the five leading patterns and organisational committedness among directors. A important positive relationship was established by this survey.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.