Abstract-This paper focuses on the importance of positioning ‘culture ‘ as one of the critical factors that influences the acceptance of ICT. The analysis of assorted theoretical accounts has made it to believe that cultural factors were non given importance to the development of acceptance theoretical accounts. But it is understood that the national civilization influences the existent behaviour and it can supply extra explanatory power in explicating the fluctuation of the behaviour towards following a engineering.
Keywords – Culture ; information & A ; communiction engineering ( ICT ) ; acceptance theoretical account
The growing of information and communicating engineerings ( ICT ) has been phenomenal and it vastly influences our twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours life every bit good. Individual credence of information and communicating engineering has been a cardinal and perennial subject in information systems research for more than two decennaries [ 1 ] . The rate at which the new engineering is adopted and incorporated into the organisational procedure is considered to be a major factor in driving the gait of economic growing. Understanding ICT credence is of import because the expected benefits of its use such as additions in efficiency, effectivity or productiveness can non be realized if single user does non accept the system.
By and large civilization has been extensively studied in the anthropology and direction subjects but behavioural theoretical accounts utilized to analyze the acceptance of engineering do non include the national civilization. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the rightness of the bing theoretical accounts and to suggest an ICT acceptance theoretical account.
empirical surveies on engineering credence
There are a figure of empirical surveies undertaken to look into the cardinal factors finding the single credence of engineerings. Out of these empirical surveies, a figure of research theoretical accounts have emerged such as Theory of Reasoned Action ( TRA ) , Technology Acceptance Model ( TAM ) , Theory of Planned Behavior ( TPB ) , Motivational Model ( MM ) , Combined TAM and TAB ( C-TAM-TPB ) , Model of PC Utilization ( MPCU ) , Social Cognitive Theory ( SCT ) and Innovation Diffusion Theory ( IDT ) .
TAM is arguably the most widely used theoretical account. This theoretical account developed by Davis [ 2 ] to explicate computing machine use behaviour. This theoretical account was derived from Fishbein and Ajzen ‘s [ 3 ] theory of reasoned action ( TRA ) . TRA demonstrates that a individual ‘s public presentation of a specified behaviour is determined by his or her behavioural purpose ( BI ) to execute the behaviour, and BI is jointly determined by the individual ‘s attitude ( A ) and subjective norm ( SN ) refering the behaviour in inquiry. Attitude ( A ) is defined as an person ‘s positive or negative feelings about executing the mark behaviour and the subjective norm is referred to the individual ‘s perceptual experience that most people who are of import to him/her believe that he/she should or should non execute the behaviour in inquiry. Harmonizing to the TRA, beliefs influence attitudes, which in bend lead to purposes, which so generate behaviours.
TAM adapted this belief-attitude-intention-behavior relationship to mensurate user credence of IT. TAM ( figure 1 ) proposes two peculiar beliefs, perceived usefulness and sensed easiness of usage that are the two primary drivers that determine engineering credence. He defined the former as “ the grade to which a individual believes that utilizing a peculiar system would heighten his/her occupation public presentation ” and the latter as “ the grade to which a individual believes that utilizing a peculiar system would be free of attempt ” [ 2, 14 ] . Harmonizing this theoretical account, both perceived utility ( U ) and sensed easiness of usage ( E ) influence the attitude of persons towards the usage of a peculiar engineering, while attitude ( A ) and perceived usefulness ( U ) predict the person ‘s behavioural purpose ( BI ) to utilize the engineering. Perceived utility is besides influenced by sensed easiness of usage ( E ) . Perceived easiness of usage ( E ) can indirectly impact the credence of engineering through perceived utility ( U ) , while behavioural purpose ( BI ) is besides linked to subsequent acceptance behaviour. TAM besides suggests that external variable intervene indirectly, act uponing both perceived utility ( U ) and sensed easiness of usage ( E ) [ 2 ] . As a consequence of its hebdomad correlativity with both behavioural purpose ( BI ) and perceived usefulness ( U ) , Attitude ( A ) was later omitted from the theoretical account by Davis et Al. [ 4 ] .
Perceived Usefulness ( U )
Perceived Ease of Use ( E )
Behavioral Intention to Use ( BI )
Attitude towards Use ( A )
Figure 1. Technology Acceptance Model ( TAM )
The Theory of Planned Behavior ( TPB ) [ 5, 6 ] is an extension of the TRA which was related to voluntary behaviour. Behavior is non 100 % voluntary and under control. Because of the restrictions of TRA in covering with behaviours over which people have uncomplete volitional control, a 3rd independent determiner of purpose, perceived behavior control ( PBC ) was introduced, and with this add-on the theory was called the theory of planed behaviour ( TPB ) .
TPB is a theory that predicts deliberate and planned behaviour and TPB is considered to be more general than TRA [ 7 ] . Cooper and Richardson [ 8 ] compared TAM and TPB found that both TAM and TPB predicted purpose to utilize an information system ( IS ) rather good, with TAM holding a little empirical advantage.
Polish of engineering credence theoretical accounts
Research workers believe that engineering credence is more complex and have investigated a figure of variables that influence credence behaviours. Individual user can accept or reject the system and understanding why they behave so has proven to be one of the most ambitious undertakings for information system research workers [ 9 ] . Among figure of theoretical accounts that try to exhibit the procedure of user credence of information system, the engineering credence theoretical account ( TAM ) is one the most cited theoretical models.
Legris et al. , [ 10 ] , in a critical reappraisal and meta-analysis of the engineering credence theoretical account concluded: “ TAM is a utile theoretical account, but has to be integrated into a broader one, which would include variables related to both human and societal alteration procedures, and to the acceptance of the invention theoretical account. ” Benbasat and Barki [ 11 ] argue that the independent efforts by several research workers to spread out TAM has created a province of theoretical pandemonium and confusion, in which it is non clear which version of TAM is the normally accepted one. Lee et al. , [ 12 ] noted that the intense research focused on TAM seems to hold diverted research workers ‘ attending off from more relevant research.
Venkatesh et al. , [ 13 ] noted that most of the surveies had been conducted in voluntary contexts, while usage of information systems in real-life organisations is, to most extent, mandatary and they have identified a figure of restrictions of the old surveies and formulated a incorporate theoretical account holding through empirical observation compared the outstanding eight theoretical accounts and their extensions. The incorporate theoretical account is called the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of engineering ( UTAUT ) . This theoretical account that comprises all the variables found in the eight bing theoretical accounts and a selected subset of extra concepts and was validated utilizing both bing informations, from the old TAM surveies, and informations obtained in two new studies.
The UTAUT purposes to explicate user purposes to utilize an IS and subsequent use behaviour. The theoretical account is presented in figure 2. The theory was formulated with four nucleus determiners of purpose and use, and four moderators of cardinal relationships. Three nucleus determiners ( public presentation anticipation, consequence anticipation, and societal influence ) find the behavioural purpose to utilize engineering and the other nucleus variable ( easing status ) straight determines the usage behaviour. The concepts, definitions of the concepts and root concepts of UTAUT have been shown in Table I.
Figure 2. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology ( UTAUT )
Voluntariness of usage
Gender, age, experience, and voluntariness of usage are posited to intercede the impact of the four key concepts on usage purpose and behaviour. Gender and Age influence public presentation expectance, attempt expectance, and societal influence. Age and experience moderate the facilitating conditions. Experience moderates attempt anticipation, societal influence, and easing conditions. Voluntariness of usage moderates the consequence of societal influence in UTAUT [ 13 ] .
Table 1 Definitions of concepts of UTAUT
( Adapted from Venkatesh et. al. , 2003 )
Concepts of UTAUT
Concepts in other theoretical accounts
The grade to which an person believes that utilizing the system will assist him or her to achieve additions in occupation public presentation
Perceived usefulness ( TAM )
Extrinsic motive ( MM )
Job-fit ( MPCU )
Relative advantage ( IDT )
Outcome outlooks ( SCT )
The grade of easiness associated with the usage of the system
Perceived easiness of usage ( TAM )
Complexity ( MPCU )
Ease of usage ( IDT )
The grade to which an person perceives that of import others believe that he or she should utilize the system
Subjective norm ( TRA, TAM, C-TAM-TPB )
Social factors ( MPCU )
Image ( IDT )
The grade to which an person believes that an organisational and proficient substructure exists to back up usage of the system
Perceived behavioral control ( TBP, C-TAM-TBP )
Facilitating conditions ( MPCU )
Compatibility ( IDT )
From a theoretical position, UTAUT [ 13 ] provides a refined position of how the determiners of purpose and behaviour evolve over clip. An extended reappraisal of past surveies [ 14 ; 15 ] has shown that the UTAUT theoretical account can explicate up to 70 % of the discrepancy in usage purpose [ 13 ] which is an highly a higher anticipation ability ( R2 ) and a major betterment. This is comparatively a new theoretical account that has been validated by Venkatesh et Al. [ 13 ] based on historical informations from old acceptance researches and informations obtained from two new studies. By bring forthing a significantly higher per centum of engineering invention success, the UTAUT is ranked to be a superior theoretical account than others.
National civilization and engineering credence
We live and work within a certain cultural environment and the civilization can act upon existent behaviour and heighten the acceptance and usage of ICT. Moghadam, & A ; Assar [ 16 ] suggests from the grounds of the literature and empirical surveies that the state ‘s national civilization is the of import factor restricting the acceptance of ICT. Differences in national civilizations have been found to explicate some fluctuations in perceptual experiences and acceptance of information engineerings [ 17 ; 18 ; 19 ] .
It can be noted that the most of the surveies were conducted in the United States and in Canada and when it was tested particularly in Switzerland, Japan, Arab states and Hong Kong, the theoretical accounts have been found to be less prognostic [ 20 ; 19 ] . This is because of the cultural differences in these states. Many surveies have determined that civilization has a strong contextual influence on whether and how persons, organisations and societies employ ICT [ 19 ] . Harmonizing to Meso et al. , [ 21 ] significance of cultural factors in the development states even becomes deeper. Therefore civilization is suggested as of import factor in explicating IT usage behaviour [ 22 ] and Leidner & A ; Kayworth [ 23 ] proposed that surveies need to travel beyond seeking to utilize cultural values to foretell IT acceptance.
Culture has been defined harmonizing to several positions but the most common definition of civilization is from Hofstede position. Hofstede [ 24 ] has provided an in-depth treatment on civilization and the assorted dimension of civilization which have been widely accepted and used in a assortment of subjects [ 25 ; 26 ] and validated straight or indirectly by many other researches in different scenes [ 27 ] . Hofstede ‘s ( 24, p. 5 ) position of civilization is that it is “ learned, non inherited. It derives from one ‘s societal environment, non from one ‘s cistrons. The corporate scheduling of the head that distinguishes the members of one group or class of people from another. ” He argues that culturally everyone belongs at the same time to several different sorts of groups and is diversely influenced by different beds of mental scheduling within themselves. The dimensions of the civilization are Power Distance, Individualism/Collectivism, Uncertainty Avoidance and Masculinity/Femininity.
Power distance ( PD )
Power distance is “ a step of the interpersonal power or influence between ( a higher-up ) and ( a subsidiary ) as perceived by the ( subsidiary ) ” ( Hofstede, 24, p.71 ) . The power distance dimension refers to the inequality of the distribution of power in a state. Large PD-cultures are hierarchal and autocratic whereas little PD-cultures demonstrate level organisation and value engagement. Therefore it is assumed that states with a high PD mark will hold a lower rate of ICT acceptance than states with a low PD mark.
Uncertainty turning away ( UA )
Uncertainty turning away describes the extent to which persons feel threatened by unsure or unknown state of affairs. Hofstede ( 24, p. 83 ) defines uncertainness turning away as “ The grade to which members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainness and ambiguity ” . Adoption of a new engineering involves hazard and uncertainness. Strong UA-cultures are characterized by small hazard pickings, minimum invention, stableness, conservative, and thorough planning. Weak UA-cultures are advanced and originative, and tolerant of differences in positions and behaviour. Therefore it is assumed that states with a high UA mark have a lower rate of ICT acceptance than states with a low UA mark.
Individualism/Collectivism ( IC )
Individualism vs. Collectivism describes the interactions between persons and the group to which the person belongs. Peoples in individualistic states are more concerned by themselves while people in collectivized states conform more readily to the norms of the group. Persons in individualistic states feel free to show their ain positions. Therefore it is assumed that states with high individualistic civilization mark to hold a higher rate of ICT acceptance than states with collectivized civilization.
Masculinity/Femininity ( MF )
Masculinity/Femininity which focuses on the differences between societal functions attributed to work forces and adult females and expected behaviour of the two sexes. Masculine cultures concentrate on accomplishments and success. Feminine civilizations are characterized by solidarity, equality, consensus seeking and concern about societal relationships. Harmonizing to Hofstede [ 24 ] , organisations in masculine civilizations focus on wagess, acknowledgment, preparation and betterment of the person. These are features common to advanced organisations. Therefore, it is assumed that states with a high maleness civilization mark to hold a higher rate of ICT acceptance.
The UTAUT – and its predecessors leave out civilization as a cardinal ancestor to engineering credence [ 28 ] . Zakour [ 27 ] suggested that persons were conditioned by their civilization, so the impact of cultural factors on the usage behaviour should be considered when analyzing engineering credence ( such as TAM ) in states outside the U.S. Hofstede [ 24 ] stated that civilization, shapes single value and affects behaviour and was seen to be different across states or continents. Peoples may act otherwise depending on their civilization. Any research theoretical account that is to be applied in a multi-cultural context demands to be evaluated by doing theoretical connexion between the acceptance theoretical account and national civilization concepts.
Figure 2. Proposed Model
Uncertainty turning away
The concept ‘social influences ‘ in the UTAUT theoretical account represents social force per unit area on users to affect in a certain behaviour but single behaviour varies by civilization and the civilization will supply extra explanatory power in explicating the fluctuation of user ‘ purpose to utilize a engineering [ 29 ] . Therefore an ICT acceptance theoretical account ( figure 2 ) incorporating cultural factors into the refined theoretical account ( UTAUT ) is proposed to be evaluated in the later survey.
It is understood the engineering acceptance behaviour is more complex and research workers have investigated a figure of variables that influence the single acceptance behaviour. The theoretical accounts emerged out of the empirical surveies left out civilization as a cardinal ancestor to engineering acceptance but civilization influences the existent behaviour and it can supply extra explanatory power in explicating the fluctuation of the behaviour towards following a engineering. This paper proposes a theoretical account integrating the cultural factors into the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology ( UTAUT ) and to be evaluated by an empirical survey in the hereafter.