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Introduction To Business Activities Commerce Essay

Business activities have been acknowledged for playing a great function in wealth and occupation creative activity, which are the key to economic development of the society. Besides leaders in Government policy shapers are concerned to see members of the society get employed in their ain concerns.

The private sector has contributed a batch in the growing and Development of Tanzania economic system. In acknowledgment of this of import function towards making an enabling environment for private sector growing, the Government has been implementing broad runing institutional and policy reforms.

The purpose of this paper is to discourse Bakhresa Group which owned by Tanzanian successful Entrepreneur.

Corporate Profile

Bakhresa Group is one of the taking Industrial Houses in Tanzania, East Africa. Started in a low mode with a little eating house in the Port City of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, in mid 1970ss, it has now emerged as a well-thought-of concern group in the Region. The Group has its operations spread in Tanzania, Zanzibar, Uganda, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia and most late in Mozambique. Plans are in topographic point to distribute its wings to other states. The group now boastsA of a turnover of more than Three Hundred Million United Sates Dollars and is a proud employer of more than two thousand employees associated straight. There are several companies under its umbrella and have investings chiefly in Food and Beverage Sector, Packaging, Logistics and Real Estate.

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Mission, Vision & A ; Value


To increase and prolong the life criterions of Africans by supplying them with indispensable merchandises and services of planetary quality atA low-cost monetary values.

To transcend clients ‘ outlooks through invention and tackling engineering.


To be one of the internationally respected and professionally managed companies in the African Continent.

To distribute our wings to the other parts of the Earth.


Passion for success

We are determined to be the best at what we do.

We are non content with the position quo.

We have a compelling desire to introduce.


We are witting of our duties towards all our stakeholders and dispatch them in missive and spirit.


We treat our employees as our assets, non an disbursal point in Profit & A ; Loss history.

We recognize that maintaining the employee morale high is the key for accomplishing our success.

Team spirit and synergism are the trademarks of our work civilization.

Our employees have a sense of ownership in what they do

Common Trust

We have respect for and assurance in each of our stake-holders, viz. , stockholders, employees, clients, providers, bankers, moneymans and others.

We believe thatA common trust is the foundation uponA which everything else rests on.

Social Responsibility

We recognise that corporate duty towards society is an built-in portion of making concern.

Therefore we actively take part in community development programmes.

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Question 1

In the Bakhresa Group, the organisation is treated as an instrument for accomplishing established ends, in which the members of the organisation are made to function these ends and wagess are given to actuate them. The organisation construction contributes to the laterality of the technology-push theoretical account of invention.

Bakhresa group usage classical attack in its direction. This type of direction is Built around traditional direction constructs with, bureaucratic theory ( Weber, 1964 ) and scientific direction ( Taylor, 1974 ) that is ;

The people can be combined with machines to bring forth an orderly end product.

The administration is an instrument for accomplishing established end – members of the administration function these ends

Wagess are given to actuate them.

Assumes all undertakings can be rationalised – ensuing in predictable flow of work

Innovation see a series of rational determinations – can be related to departmental phases of invention. ( Trott, 2005 )

This theory contributes to the technological-push theoretical account of invention.

The channel of communicating is extremely structured, there is restricted information flow, and operating manners are unvarying and restricted. Authority for determination is based on formal line direction place and the direction is loath to accommodate altering fortunes.

The Bakhresa company usage Mechanistic organisation construction. Organizational construction can suppress or further creativeness and invention. The job with organisational construction though, is that it is attendant of many factors, including history, organic growing, scheme, operational design, merchandise diverseness, logistics, selling, client base, supplier base and so forth. Therefore, what directors need, are non formulas for complete structural alteration, but penetrations into the belongingss of furthering constructions that can be adapted into the bing construction.

The theoreticians argued that organisations need different sorts of construction to command their activities that will let the company to accommodate and respond to alterations and uncertainnesss in the environment.

Companies confronting a dynamic and unsure environment may hold to develop or keep an organic organisational construction, whereas companies runing in a stable environment may profit from developing or keeping a mechanistic organisational construction.

The ground for this is that organic constructions can treat and administer information and cognition faster within the organisation, which therefore consequences in an increased ability to react or respond to alterations in the environment.

However, mechanistic constructions may move as an effectual and efficient organisational construction for companies runing in a more stable and certain environment. Companies runing in a stable environment may non necessitate to do determinations rapidly. Likewise, many of the daily determinations and operating processs may be formalized and centralized, because there is no built-in demand for changeless alteration or invention

Mechanistic organisation tends to offer a less suited environment for pull offing the creativeness and the invention procedure. ( T. Burns and G.M. Stalker, 1961 ) .

To get down, it is utile to analyze the preferable constructions against the non so preferable. There are many definitions of types of organisational construction, but one illustration is:

a ) Mechanistic constructions ( by and large non preferred ) – includes centralised control and authorization, clearly defined undertakings, perpendicular communicating links, obeisance to supervisors, rigidness and inflexibleness.

B ) Organic constructions ( by and large preferred ) – decentralization of authorization, undertakings slackly defined, horizontal communications, greater single authorization, flexible, adaptable.

Experience shows that the above can be deceptive. For illustration, level administrations are by and large preferred and hierarchal 1s non preferred, nevertheless, even level administrations are in world hierarchical.

Importantly, if we have a mechanistic construction, what factors allow us to travel in the right way without sweeping alteration?

Some replies include:

Direct communicating links to determination shapers.

Communication and information flow between sections.

Tangible patterned advance of thoughts from job to solution, merchandise development to commercialization.

Creative squads working outside but linked into the organisation, whose civilization, processes etc diffuse into the bing construction.

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Invention approch used by Bakhresa companies is technological push. Adopting a engineering push attack to merchandise inventions can let a company to aim and command premium market sections, set up its engineering as the industry criterion, construct a favorable market repute, find the industry ‘s future development, and achieve high net incomes. It can go the centerpiece in a company scheme for market leading. It nevertheless dearly-won and hazardous. Such an attack requires a company to develop and comercialize an emerging tecnology in chase of growing and net incomes. To be successfull, a company needs to ensureits engineering is a bosom of its competetive scheme. ( Trot 4th erectile dysfunction. Pg 499 )

Question 2

On the one manus Bakhresa Group requires stableness and inactive modus operandis to carry through the day-to-day undertakings expeditiously and rapidly and on the other manus, Bakhresa Group besides needs to develop new thoughts and new merchandises to be competitory in future and it needs to foster a originative environment where thoughts can be tested and developed.

Harmonizing to the above statement its shows Bakhresa Group have a quandary in developing new thought and new merchandises ( invention ) and stableness and modus operandi to carry through the day-to-day undertaking expeditiously.

The Dilemma of Innovation Management

Within organisations there is a cardinal tenseness between the demand for stableness and the demand for creativeness. On the one manus, companies require stableness and inactive modus operandis to carry through day-to-day undertakings expeditiously and rapidly. This enables the organisation to vie today. For illustration processing of 1000000s of checks by Bankss everyday.

On the other manus, companies besides need to develop new thoughts and new merchandises to be competitory in the hereafter. Hence they need to foster a originative environment where thoughts can be tested and developed. This poses one of the most cardinal jobs for direction today. ( Trott, 2008 )

Pull offing the tenseness between the demand for creativeness and efficiency.

Efficiency Addition

The efficient twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours operations within an organisation require stable modus operandis which can be achieved in stable and controlled environments

The development of new products/services requires creativeness and room to seek out new thoughts this is achieved in a loose and flexible environment

Creativity additions


Take any medium to big company and analyze its operations and activities. Every company has to guarantee that their merchandises are carefully manufactured to precise specifications and that they are delivered for clients on clip twenty-four hours after twenty-four hours. In this feverish, insistent and extremely organized environment, the demand to squash out any slack or inefficiencies is important to guarantee a house ‘s costs are lower than their rivals ‘ . However the long-run economic growing is dependent on the ability of houses to do betterments to merchandises and fabrication procedures. The houses need to do room for creativeness and invention, that is, allow black in the system. These so is the quandary: how do houses seek to cut down costs and slack to better fight on the one manus and so seek to supply slack for invention on the other? The house has to make reconciliation: The house needs to guarantee there is a changeless force per unit area to drive down costs and better efficiency in its operations. At the same clip it needs to supply room for new merchandise development and betterments to be made the most obvious manner forward is to divide production from R & A ; D. However there are many betterments and inventions that arise out of the operations of the house.

Question 3

The direction of the Bakhresa Group is committed to long-run growing instead than short-run net income and the organisation is willing to put in the long-run development of engineering and is cognizant of its menaces and chances.

Organizational Features that Facilitate the Innovation Process

Growth Orientation

Is characterized by a committedness to long-run growing instead than short-run net income. Not all companies ‘ first and first aim is growing. Some companies are established simply to work a short-run chance, other companies would wish to keep the company at its bing size: the aim of advanced companies is to turn the concern the actively program for the long-run.


It is characterized by the ability of the organisation to be cognizant of its menaces and chances. Vigilance requires continual external scanning e.g. within the selling map the activity would organize portion of market research and rival analysis roll uping valuable information is one thing, but relaying it to the necessary persons and moving on it are two necessary associated demands.

Committedness to Technology

It is characterized by the willingness to put in the longterm development of engineering. Most advanced houses exhibit forbearance in allowing thoughts to reduplicate and develop overtime. This needs to be accompanied by a committedness to resources in footings of rational input without a longterm attack it would be highly hard for the company to pull good scientists.

Credence of Hazards:

It is characterized by the willingness to include hazardous chances in a balanced portfolio. It means the willingness to see carefully hazardous chances. Ability to take deliberate hazards and include them in a balanced portfolio of undertaking

Cross-functional Cooperation:

It is characterized by common regard among persons and a willingness to work together across maps. Inter-departmental struggle is a good documented barrier to invention. Often struggle has been observed between selling and R & A ; D maps as the two groups frequently have really different involvements.


It is characterized by the ability to be cognizant of, to place and take effectual advantage of externally developed engineering. Most engineering based inventions involve a combination of several different engineerings. It would be unusual for all the engineering to be developed inhouse. That is why concern are witnessing an inchasing figure of joint ventures and confederations.


It is characterized by an ability to pull off the invention quandary and supply infinite for creativeness while organisations place a great accent on the demand for efficiency, there is besides a demand for a certain sum of ‘slack ‘ to let persons room to believe, experiment, discourse thoughts and be originative.


It is characterized by a preparedness to accept the alterations. The development of new merchandise inventions willpower constantly lead to breaks to set up organisational activities. Major or extremist inventions may ensue in important alterations, although the two are non needfully associated. The organisation must be set to accept alteration in the manner it manages its internal activities. Otherwise proposed inventions would be stifled due to a reluctance to amend bing ways of working or to larn new techniques.

Diverse Range of Skills:

It is characterized by a combination of specialisation and diverseness of cognition every bit good as accomplishments. Organizations require persons of a intercrossed nature who are able to understand a assortment of proficient topics and do possible the transportation of cognition within the company. It is the ability of the organisation to pull off this diverseness of cognition accomplishments expeditiously that lies at the bosom of the invention procedure. ( Trott, 2008 )

Question 4

The Bakhresa Group engages commercial scanner, gatekeeper and undertaking leader and patron to ease the invention procedure.

All of the above is the function of single in the Innovation group. With above statement its shows that Bakhresa group are implementing them in their different field.

The Role of the person in the invention Procedure

Innovation procedure is basically a people procedure and that organisational construction, formal determination devising procedures, deputation of authorization and other formal facets of a alleged well run company are non necessary state of affairs for successful technological invention. The survey of Rubenstein has revealed that certain persons have fulfilled a assortment of functions that had contributed to successful technological invention.

Technical Pioneer:

This person is an expert in one or else two Fieldss. Generates new thoughts and sees new every bit good as different ways of making things, besides referred to as the ‘mad scientific. ‘

Technical/Commercial Scanner

This single acquires tremendous sums of information from outside the organisation, frequently through net working. This may good include market and proficient information.


This single keeps informed of related developments that occur outside the organisation through diaries, conferences, co-workers and other companies inside informations. Base on ballss information to others, finds it easy to speak to co-workers. Serves as an in formatted resource in favour of others in the organisation.

Merchandise title-holder:

This single sells new thoughts to others in the organisation. Acquires resources. Aggressive in defending his/her cause and takes hazards.

Project Leader:

This single provides the squad with leading every bit good as motive. Plans and organizes the undertaking ensures that administrative demands are fitting. Provides necessary enthronement among team members sees that undertaking moves frontward expeditiously and balances Project ends with organisational demands.


This single provides entree to a power base inside the organisation. Senior individual. Buffers the Project squad from unneeded organisational restraints and helps the undertaking squad excessively acquire what it needs from other parts of the organisation. It provides legitimacy and organisational assurance in the undertaking. ( Trott, 2008 )

Question 5

The Bakhresa Group, given the importance of invention, has spent tremendous amounts of money seeking to develop an environment that fosters invention. The Bakhresa Group is cognizant of developing a repute for invention which helps propagate a virtuous circle that reinforces Group ‘s abilities.

Its shows that Bakhresa Group support the invention which lead them to hold a different group of companies within and outside and it ‘s besides want to maintain its good repute for invention which help do the group stable.

The construction of an organisation is the sum sum of ways in which it divides its labor into distinguishable undertakings and after that achieves coordination among them. One of the job is acknowledging to different groups within an organisation behave otherwise and interact with different parts of the wider external environment. Non the less, there have been legion helpful surveies researching the nexus between the organisational construction and advanced public presentation.

Organization Structures against Innovation


There is some grounds of opposite relationship between formalisation and invention. That is an addition in formalisation of processs will ensue in a disease in advanced activity.


Where these are several different type of professional groups working in an organisation, it would stand for a complex organisation


It refers to the determination devising activity and the location of power inside an organisation. In a decentralised organisation fewer degrees of hierarchy are normally required and this tends to take to more antiphonal determination doing closer to the action.

Organizational Size

A little concern with fewer employees differs significantly on footings of resources from an organisation which is large size is a proxy variable for more meaningful dimensions such as economic and organisation resources, together with figure of employees.

Establishing an advanced environment and Propagating this virtuous circle

Given the importance of invention, many concerns have spent tremendous amount of money seeking to enlarge an environment that fosters invention.

Making a virtuous circle of invention agencies acquiring competitory advantage over others.

Virtuous circle of invention

The organisation ‘s

Repute for invention

High morale and Attraction of

Retention of originative originative people


Motivates people and organizational

Reduce defeat encouragement of

Creativity and


A willingness in the

Org. to accept new


Development of



Repute of the Administration

It takes many old ages to develop the repute of an organisation. It is strongly linked to overall public presentation of an organisation. Some companies are able to accomplish broad exposure of new merchandises or new research and others are non.

Attraction of originative people

Creative people will be concerned to those companies that themselves are viewed as originative. Top scientists and research workers will seek employment with such companies.

( Trott, 2008 )


Bakhresa group is among the most successful company which operate in Tanzania and other different African states and World Wide. All these success are due to good set up construction of a company. The members of the organisation are made to function these ends and wages are given to actuate them.

On the one manus Bakhresa Group supports the invention and creativeness. It has spent tremendous amounts of money seeking to develop an environment that fosters invention. Besides the company creates a good merchandise from fabricating nutrient and drink to all other sector which keeps the good repute of the company. Due to all this the Bakhresa Group becomes a market leader because of invention and entrepreneurship

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