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Introduction to Tissue Engineering

Tissue Engineering


Every twelvemonth, 1000000s of patients suffer from loss or failure of an organ or a tissue as a consequence of accidents or diseases. Problems associated to failure or loss of a tissue or organ represent a immense concern in human wellness attention due to the fact that they are quite frequent, dearly-won but specially annihilating because it interferes straight with the quality of patients.

The most frequent attack to this pathologies is the organ transplant of this tissues that can be harvested from the individual to be treated ( autologous transplant ) or from persons from the same coinage ( homografts ) [ 1 ] . Despite the efficiency of this technique, many disadvantages are associated to it in what concerns the handiness of givers and the compatibility between them.

Due to the demand of the human being to continue his quality of life for every bit much clip as possible and the increasing demand of campaigners for organ transplant and compatible givers, medical specialty has been garnering cognition from different Fieldss in order to carry through the demands of the patients doing this capable one of the most ambitious challenges for researches all over the universe [ 2 ] . In early 1990’s started to emerge a new field to turn to this sort of restrictions, tissue technology [ 3 ]

Tissue technology relies on the development of functional replacements for damaged tissue by using biological science and technology rules.

This work aims to clear up the constructs and applications of tissue technology, concentrating in the nervus regeneration.

Tissue Engineering definition

The term of tissue technology was ab initio defined by attendants of the first NSF ( National Science Foundation, USA ) sponsored meeting in 1988 as:

“… application of the rules and methods of technology and life scientific disciplines toward cardinal apprehension of structure-function relationship in normal and pathological mammalian tissues and the development of biological replacements for the fix or regeneration of tissue or organ function” .

A comprehensive reappraisal on tissue technology was given late and has addressed that tissue technology is:

“ an interdisciplinary field that applies the rules of technology and life scientific disciplines toward the development of biological replacements that restore, maintain, or better tissue or organ function” .

It means that tissue technology involves multi-disciplinary cognition between cell biological science, molecular biological science, biotechnology, chemical science, biochemistry, medical specialty, pharmaceutics, natural philosophies, biomaterials and technology ( including chemical, natural philosophies and biomedical technology ) [ 4-6 ] .

Current Main Applications of Tissue Engineering

Nowadays, there are three chief attacks in tissue technology, which are [ 4-6 ] :

  1. The use of isolated/segregated cells, which has the great advantage to replace merely the cells that are truly needed and to, finally, genetically pull strings them before extract and replacing of older cells.

This scheme allows for minimum invasive surgery, but there is ever the possibility of immunological rejection or failure in keeping new maps.

  1. The use of tissue-inducing substances to targeted locations like, for illustration, growth/differentiation factors or cytokines

However, drawbacks of this solution are purification and large-scale production issues, and it will ever be necessary to hold a system to present the bioactive molecule to its mark.

  1. The use of cells that are placed on, or within, matrices/scaffolds.

In this instance, one can hold “closed systems” where cells are entrapped within, or encapsulated with a biomaterial, and “open systems” where cells are attached on the external surface of an suitably molded biomaterial before, in both instances, being implanted in the receiving organic structure. Scaffolds represent the cardinal constituents of most tissue technology schemes

This sort of processs can be applied to different types of soft and difficult tissues, as for illustration, tegument, dentition, bone, sinew and ligaments, gristle, liver, bowel, gorge, valve cusps, musculus, lingua, different parts of vascular system, craniofacial defects, nervus tissues and bladder [ 4-6 ]

Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

Regenerative medical specialty and tissue technology represent an exciting research country that aims to detect new regenerative options to avoid tissues reaping for organ transplant. Biomaterials used in this field of research play an of import function as scaffolds should mime the features of extracellular matrix ( ECM ) , in the instance of permutation of a tissue, or be supportive in the lesion healing of an hurt tissue [ 7 ] .

In order to be successful, a scaffold should unite and equilibrate mechanical behaviour with the controlled bringing of the biofactors antecedently incorporated. This balance should supply a consecutive passage in which as the scaffold begins to degrade, the regenerated tissue should presume its map [ 3 ] . In order to be possible for the tissue regenerate, cells and foods should hold entree to it so scaffold permeableness to them is requested. They should besides hold an appropriate chemical science and surface construction to let cell fond regard., they should move as 3D templets for cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and, finally and as desired, for the formation of new tissue. Because of the involved complexness, there is a important challenge in the design and industry of biocompatible and/or biodegradable scaffolds, which should fulfill several indispensable demands over the period of tissue regeneration. As they are traveling to work as a templet, they should besides mime the excess cellular matrix.

To sum up with, scaffolds should be safe, non do inordinate immune response, possess acceptable biocompatibility and be non-toxic and carcinogenic [ 4 ] .

Scaffolds in Nerve Regeneration

Tissue technology concentrating on thein vitrofiction of autologous, populating tissues with the potency of regeneration is a promising scientific and clinical field. Peripheral nervus regeneration should include a multidisciplinary squad able to develop biomaterials, to develop cell therapies, and to lucubratein vitroanalysis and presymptomatic tests refering carnal public assistance and the most appropriate theoretical account before the clinical tests and clinical application blessing. [ 8 ] Preclinical tests are highly of import as the immune response from the host organic structure should be every bit minimum as possible in order to non bring on terrible redness which can ensue in the demand of remotion of the deep-rooted scaffold.

Scaffolds designed for peripheral nervus regeneration associate biomaterials like chitosan, collagen, for illustration, and other biomaterials to cellular systems, able to distinguish into neuroglial-like cells or even by modulating the inflammatory procedure, which might better nervus regeneration, in footings of motor and centripetal recovery, and besides, by shortening the healing period avoiding regional muscular wasting. [ 8 ]

In peripheral nervus regeneration, the most common process is to make a nervus conduit which will be connected to the two appendages of the nervus antecedently injured in order to supply a tract for the new tissue to spread out through a way, supply appropriate mechanical support for the regenerating nervus fibres, let the diffusion of neurotropic and neurotrophic factors antecedently secreted by the hurt nervus, be permeable to foods and waste merchandises, avoid the infiltration of hempen cicatrix tissue and make a microenvironment that should be equal to steel regeneration [ 9 ] ( figure 4 ) .


Figure 4 – Nerve Regeneration within a tubing

Besides the former reported maps of a nervus scaffold it should besides is to degrade through clip so by the clip the nervus is to the full regenerated the nervus conduit should be about disappeared. Furthermore, as the nervus conduit starts to degrade, steel growing factors are released. There are some attacks on the incorporation of nervus growing factors into these sort of scaffolds, as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5 – Park schemes to integrate growing factor in nervus conduits [ 10 ]

Nerve growing factors are molecules that are of course released in the procedure of nervus regeneration. They are released from the stoping particularly following a nerve hurt and have an consequence on nervus growing, distinction and surveillance.

The most common nervus growing factors used for this intent are the undermentioned 1s:

Table 1 – Most Common Growth Factors incorporated in nervus conduits [ 11 ]

Growth Factor


Nerve growing factor ( NGF )

Upregulated in the distal nervus stump after nerve hurt. Plays an of import function in the endurance of centripetal nerve cells and branch of their neurites

Glial Growth factor ( GGF )

Additions Schwann cell motility and proliferation

Fibroblast growing factor ( FGF )

Involved in cell growing and regeneration and are of course secreted by damaged nervus terminals after hurt

Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor ( GDNF )

Secreted by Schwann cells after nerve hurt. Improve motor and centripetal nerve cell endurance, neurite branch, Schwann cell migration and endurance of dopaminergic nerve cells.

Neurotrophin – 3

Effective in reconstructing sensory and motor conductivity speed

Stem cells besides represent an attractive category of cells for these sort of applications, as it is believed that they can be incorporated in nervus conduits and so distinguish into nerve-type cells and better nervus regeneration and diminish the clip needed in these sort of processs as sometimes a period of clip of 12 months is required for to the full recovery of the nervus and its map as it is motor or sensorial.


The hereafter of tissue technology and regenerative medical specialty holds the promise of custom-made medical solutions for injured or morbid patients, with familial ( re- ) technology as one of the most promising and besides most problematic facets of this field. There are three general elements that are associated to weave technology: stray cells or cell replacements, tissue-inducing substances and cells placed on or within matrices ( scaffolds ) . Because of this, this is a really promising field because due to its multi-disciplinary character, applications as the building of whole autologous variety meats are going world and they emerge as the ultimate end of these techniques as it would non merely be a solution for the deficiency of giver variety meats, but would besides reply the job of inauspicious host response and minimise the hazard of infection.

In what concerns, peripheral nervus regeneration, tissue technology has been a powerfull tool better all the process and cut down the clip of recovery. Besides many in vitro and in vivo surveies have been performed with this technique. Research workers are seeking to detect the best suited combination between conduit stuffs and biofactors incorporated but there is still the demand to understand such curious type of tissue regeneration.

To sum up, there is about no method or technique that could non be portion of tissue technology and it can be applied to handle different sorts of tissues. Tissue technology bases for the hereafter of regenerative medical specialty.


[ 1 ] Gorczynski, R. , Stanley, J. ( 1999 ) , “Clinical Immunology” , Landes Bioscience.

[ 2 ] Nijhuis, A. , Leeuwenburgh, S. , Jansen, J. A. ( 2010 ) , “Wet-Chemical deposition of functional coatings for bone implantology” , Macromolecular Diaries, 10, 1316-1329.

[ 3 ] HOLLISTER, S. J. ( 2005 ) , “Porous scaffold design for tissue engineering” , Nature Materials, 4, 518-524.

[ 4 ] Lanza, R. , Langer, R. , Vacanti, J. ( Eds ) ( 2007 ) , “Principles of Tissue Engineering” , 3rd Ed. , Academic Press, Elsevier, The Netherlands.

[ 5 ] Fisher, J. P. , Mikos, A. G. , Bronzino, J. D. ( Eds ) ( 2007 ) , “Tissue Engineering” , CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

[ 6 ] Meyer, U. , Meyer, T. , Handschel, J. , Wiesmann, H. P. ( Eds ) ( 2009 ) , “Fundamentals of tissue technology and regenerative medicine” , Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

[ 7 ] Ma, P. X. ( 2008 ) , “Biomimetic stuffs for tissue engineering” , Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 60, 184–198.

[ 8 ] Geuna, S. , Perroteau, I. , Tos, P. , Battistin, B. ( 2013 ) , “International reappraisal of neurobiology” , Academic Press.

[ 9 ] Xiaosong, G. , Ding, F. , Yang, T. , Liu, J. ( 2011 ) , “Construction of tissue engineered nervus transplants and their application in peripheral nervus regeneration” , Progress in Neurobiology” , 93, 204-230.

[ 10 ] Daly, W. , Yao, L. , Zeugolis, D. , Windebank, A. , Pandit, A. ( 2012 ) , “A biomaterials approach to peripheral nervus regeneration: bridging the peripheral nervus spread and heightening functional recovery” , J. R. Soc. Interface, 9, 202–221.

[ 11 ] Konofaos, P. , Ver Halen, J. P. ( 2013 ) , “Nerve Repair by agencies of tubulization: Past, Present, Future” , J Reconstr Microsug, 29, 149-164.

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