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Julius Caesar

The following question is based on the accompanying documents (1 – 6). It is designed to test your ability to examine and interpret the meaning of the documents. Then you will write a final essay which uses important information from the documents you have analyzed. Directions: Write an introductory paragraph. Use specific details from at least four documents in Part A. You may include any other outside information that you have learned. Finish with a concluding paragraph. Historic Background: Ever since Julius Caesar was a child he dreamed of having great power.

During his early political years he used many ways to gain power including bribery, intimidation, and manipulation. He took Romans to new heights while he made Roman long lasting dreams finally come true. He fought many battles and gained Rome many resources and land. When he finally returned to Rome he settled down as dictator for life. This angered many politicians and he was later brutally stabbed and killed. Task: For Part A, read each document carefully and answer the question or questions after each document. Then read the directions for Part B and write your essay.

For Part B, use your answers from Part A, information from the documents, and your knowledge of social studies to write a well organized essay. In the essay you should: Document 1 100 B. C. Born Gaius Julius Caesar 84. Marries Cornella, daughter of Cinna 80. Travels to Asia, where he becomes involved in scandal with Nicomedew, king of Bithynia, and wins Civic Crown at the battle of Mytilene. 73. Becomes member of the board of priests 69. Serves as quaestor ( provincial administrator ) in Further Spain 67. Marries Pompeia 65. Becomes curule aedile in charge of buildings and public order 63.

Wins office of pontifex maximus ( chief priest ) 62. Elected praetor (state judge) 61 Becomes governor of Further Spain 60. Forms First Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus 59. Serves as consul 58. Begins eight-year military campaign in Gaul; defeats the Helvetii and German tribes led by Ariovistus 57. Defeats a Belgic tribe called the Nervii 56. Crushes revolt of the Veneti 55. Conducts massacre of the Usipetes and the Tencteri; crosses Rhine River; launches first expedition to Britain 54. Second expedition to Britain; daughter, Julia, dies 53.

Crassus killed while invading Parthian empire 52. Caesar defeats united Gallic armies led by Vercingetorix at Alesia 49. Crosses the Rubicon River, igniting the Civil War Pompey retreats to Greece; Caesar appointed dictator Aug. 9, 48 Defeats Pompey at Pharsalus Oct. 48 Pompey is murdered in Egypt 47. Caesar enters Alexandria; becomes involved with Cleopatra and fights successful campaign against her political opponents Aug. 47 Defeats Pharnaces II in Asia Minor March. 17, 45 Defeats last remnants of Pompeian army at Munda Oct. 5 Returns to Rome, where he is appointed dictator for life March. 15, 44 Assassinated at the Senate house in Rome Based on the document above name 4 political positions Julius Caesar was in. Julius Caesar was a quaestor, curule aedile, pontifex maximus and praetor. Based on the document above what year does Caesar start the Roman civil war and what year does it end? Julius Caesar starts the civil war in 49 BC and it ends in 45 BC. Document 2 [pic][pic] Based on the document name one way Julius Caesar became a major force in politics.

Julius Caesar became a major force in politics by gaining much public support in a series of lavish public games. Document 3 [pic] Based on the document what was one of the rewards Julius Caesar brought back to Rome from the Gallic wars? Julius brought back many slaves from the Gallic wars. Document 4 [pic] Based on the document what is Caesar doing? Julius Caesar is refusing the crown and he is also refusing to become the king of Rome. Document 5 [pic] Based on the picture above what is happening to Caesar in this picture? Julius is being stabbed and attacked by angered senators. Document 6 pic][pic] Name 5 provinces that Julius Caesar conquered or gained territory for Rome. Julius Caesar conquered Gaul, Africa Nova, Cyrene, Crete and Syria. Part B: Directions: Using the documents, the answers to the questions in Part A, and your knowledge of social studies, write a well-organized essay about the life and accomplishments of Julius Caesar. In your essay, remember to: Talk about Julius Caesar’s life and accomplishments. Include an introduction, body and a conclusion Include details, examples, or reasons to develop your ideas Use the information from the documents in your answer.

Life and Accomplishments of Gaius Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar was a brilliant general, a great politician, and a powerful dictator of the Roman republic. He was born on July 17, 100 BC and he was assassinated on March 15, 44 BC. Caesar’s rise to power was not an easy one, in 73 BC he was made a pontiff in Rome. He gained a lot of popularity because of this and because he sided with those seeking power outside the circle of nobles, who at that time dominated the Roman senate. He gained even more popularity by gaining public support from large lavish public games(doc. 2).

He also gained popularity with the Gauls in 68 BC by supporting them for Roman citizenship. Caesar became the governor of Spain in 61 BC after Crassus had helped pay his creditors after some financial issues(doc. 1). Military actions in Spain helped further restore Caesar’s financial security. Caesar outwitted his political enemies by passing up his triumph. He did this in order to win the election to the consulate with the support of Pompey and Crassus. At this time Crassus was the richest man in Rome. Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus formed what was known as the first triumvirate, which means a government of three men, in 60-59 BC(doc. ). These actions were taken to further their political success. While the triumvirate ruled , the senate became very angered. This led to the breakup of the senate, which gave the triumvirate even more power(oi). Caesar also received the governorships of Lllyricum, Cisalpine Gaul, and Transalpine Gaul. He was also given control over a large army that he used to rule over Gaul. He gained a lot of political strength from the Gallic Wars which lasted from 58 to 51 BC(doc. 3). Caesar gained lots of riches and fame from those wars including slaves and vast treasures(doc. ) With Caesar spending most of his time in the north, Pompey gathered most of his power by making a good relationship with the senate. The Gallic Wars were not Caesar’s most famous wars, the wars with Pompey probably hold that title. Although Caesar’s daughter, Julia, was married to Pompey, friction between the two developed. This friction was encouraged by Crassus. The death of Julia in 54 BC and the death of Crassus in 53 BC destroyed Caesar and Pompey’s relationship(oi). In 52 BC Pompey was made sole consul. In 50 BC Pompey joined with Caesar’s political enemies, and ordered Caesar to disassemble his army(oi).

Instead, Caesar crossed the Rubicon River into Italy and fought against Pompey, which created another civil war in Rome. In many battles Caesar defeated Pompey which caused Pompey to flee to the east. Caesar secured Spain and then fought Pompey in Greece, defeating him at Pharsalus(oi). Pompey escaped with some of his soldiers to Egypt, where he was eventually murdered. Caesar followed Pompey to Egypt and soon made civil war there. Caesar made Cleopatra his mistress and also made her the queen of Egypt(oi). Caesar led many campaigns in which he won victories all over the Roman empire.

At one of these victories he used the famous words, “Veni, Vedi, Vicci”, which meant, “I came, I saw, I conquered”(oi). Meanwhile, back in Rome, Caesar gained complete control of the Roman government. He earned himself many political honors. In 49 BC he was appointed dictator, and eventually he became dictator for life. He was also elected sole consul in 48 BC. Even with all this power he refused to be the king many times(doc. 4). From 47-46 BC he was made tribunician sancrosanctity. Because of these accomplishments Caesar was honored by being represented on coins and many statues(oi).

A temple was also built in his honor in 45 BC. Caesar introduced many reforms, such as limiting the distribution of free grain, founding citizen colonies, introducing the Julian calendar, and enlarging the senate(oi). At the same time he reduced debts, changed taxes, and let non-Italians become Roman citizens(oi). He met the common peoples needs which strengthened his control of the state. In 44 BC people began fearing that Caesar would become an absolute king, because of this people who once loved him planned to murder him.

These people led by Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus, stabbed him at a meeting of the senate in Pompey’s theater on March 15, 44 BC(doc. 5). Caesar’s life was one of the most important in Roman history. He had a great impact on the world and the Roman empire. He gained lots of land for the Romans and including Gaul and Further Spain(doc. 6). Even though he was killed to stop the Romans from having an empire his murder led to a long and bloody Roman civil war. At the end of the war Rome became an empire ruled by one person. He was perhaps the greatest ruler ever. ———————– Gaius Julius Caesar

In the essay you must talk about the life and accomplishments of Julius Caesar Chronology of Julius Caesar’s life Before thousands of cheering spectators, charioteers race at the Roman circus. Appointed in 65 B. C. as curule aedile, the official in charge of public works and entertainment, Caesar organized a series of lavish public games. This made Julius Caesar more popular than he already was. The defeat of the Vercingetorix completed Caesar’s conquest of Gaul. The Gallic campaigns brought tremendous riches to Rome and supplied thousands of slaves to markets like the one pictured here.

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