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Learning Elementary English in Overcrowded Classes for True Beginners

Chapter 1: Introduction

Learning to pass on in English is of great importance for the pupils of the modern linguistic communication plan at Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo ( UASD ) . However, the sum of pupils enrolled in the university is over 165, 000 which makes most of the classs to be overcrowded. This state of affairs goes in hurt of the acquisition procedure, specifically, in the simple degrees in which the pupils should hold on the footing to get the hang the linguistic communication. For that ground, it has become a demand to make some research about the effects of overcrowded categories in the acquisition procedure to acquire feasible solutions to the teaching-learning procedure of the English linguistic communication. Therefore, the designation of learning techniques will assist to better the proficiency of the pupils in simple English categories which are overcroweded due to the sum of pupils or the schoolroom conditions which can non be avoided due to the deficiency of budget and infinite.

Nature of the job

Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo ( UASD ) is the public university of the Dominican Republic which has faced a encouragement in the registration of pupils every twelvemonth due to the fact that going a unmarried man or acquiring a unmarried man grade is the demand to acquire a nice occupation chance in the state. Therefore, pupils in the Dominican Republic at the minute of analyzing at the university degree have two ways. One is traveling to a private university, and the other 1 is traveling to the populace university which has a figure of features, such as prestigiousness, tradition, low tuition, and subdivisions around the state among other elements. These features make UASD really attractive for most Black friars at the minute of taking a university. As a consequence, the figure of pupils has increased over165, 000. This sum of pupils has been maintained from 2007 to 2010 harmonizing to the statistic office of the university. For this ground, the professors of the Languages Department have to work with categories from 30 to over 50 pupils. This fact has made the instruction procedure hard to manage, so this state of affairs is damaging for the teaching-learning procedure in the simple English degrees in which true novices struggle to hold on the minimal cognition of the English linguistic communication in order to go through the degree, but non to larn the linguistic communication decently. Therefore, the intent of this research will be to find the troubles in larning simple English in overcrowded categories for true novices at UASD ( Santo Domingo ) in order to implement learning techniques to better the acquisition procedure.

Background and significance of the job

UASD is the public university of the Dominican Republic which in 1966 changed its doctrine to an unfastened and critical university for the multitudes ( Cuello et al. , 2007 ) . This doctrine and the demand of acquiring a grade made the enrolment rate triple the sum of pupils from 1995 to 2004 ( Brea, 2004 ) . In the last three old ages, the university maintained the figure of pupils over 165,000 from the twelvemonth 2007 to 2010 harmonizing to the statistic office of this university.

Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo

Planning University Office

_____________________________________________________

Old ages Total

______________________________Amount of students_______

2007-1 166,228

2008-1 166,603

2009-1 166,818

2010-1 170,530

_______________________________________________________

Note: Data taken from the statistical office of the university

These Numberss represent the sum of the pupils in the first semesters of these old ages. As a consequence, the categories in the university have to be arranged over 50 pupils per subdivision harmonizing to the assignment plan of this university. The Language Department is non the exclusion to this tendency of overcrowded categories ; so the simple English categories are allowed to be overcrowded which hampers the teaching-learning procedure of pupils. Harmonizing to Slavin ( 1989 ) showed that advantages of a decreased category size are more evident when the figure of pupils in the category was fewer than 20, ideally between 15 to 19.

Another state of affairs that the professors of the Language Department face is the physical conditions of most of the schoolrooms of the linguistic communication school. Harmonizing to Carreno ( 2007 ) , the figure of pupils is over the capacity of the linguistic communication school. Furthermore, in this survey Carreno points out that there are other conditions that make the topographic point overcrowded, such as noise and the deficiency of equipment which interphere the English linguistic communication instruction. This professor presents a tabular array in his survey with the capacity of pupils per schoolroom:

Physical Depart. Carreno Map of the L.S. Coordination

Room

Capacity

Measure

Capacity

Measure

Capacity

Measure

Capacity

Measure

EI-A

30

31.35

EI-B

40

52.80

66.12

EI-101

25

36

51.04

70.01

24

EI-102

20

48

48

32

EI-103

20

16

20.52

20.63

35

EI-104

48

30

31.35

30

31.75

30

EI-105

25

28

25.35

36.34

35

EI-106

35

32

45.43

40

40

35

EI-107

30

25

41.16

35

36.17

35

EI-108

15

15

20.14

25

20.43

40

In his thesis, Carreno ( 2007 ) quantified and measured some of the classroms due to the fact that the offices of the university in charge did non hold the precise information. Harmonizing to this survey, the schoolrooms have a capacity that goes from 15 to 48 pupils. Therefore, it is impossible to avoid the overcrowded conditions due to the cut down budget that the university recieves. For that ground, this research will show that implemeting learning teachniques is possible to better the teaching-learning procedure for English scholars who are true novices at UASD ( Santo Domingo ) .

This research will be carried out with the Elementary English degrees of the modern linguistic communication plan at UASD, and the consequences will be compare with the pupils of two private universities which hold the same plan but with ideal schoolroom ( less that 20 pupils ) . Therefore, the consequences will assist to understand the acquisition procedure that true novices face analyzing in overcrowded categories. Furthermore, this research will give possible solutions or penetrations to the Dominican Republic and other topographic points around the universe where the conditions are similar in order to better the teaching-learning procedure.

Purpose of the survey

The intent of this survey will be to find if there are differences in larning simple English for true novices in overcrowded categories. In these overcrowded schoolrooms will be implemented 5 pedagogycal learning tecniques to better the learning acquisition procedure. These consequences will be compared with the consequences of ideal clasrrooms of two different private universities of the Domiican Republic in which the same English plan is taught. Therefore, this survey will assist pedagogues and professors of the Dominican Republic and the whole word to understand if the application of predetermine pedagogycal techniques will hold an impact in the teaching-learning procedure of true novices in overcrowded conditions that can non be avoided because of the deficiency of budget and infinite every bit good as the great sum of pupils to learn.

Definitions of footings

In this thesis will be used footings that need to be explained in order to avoid any uncertainties in the reading of this research. The followerss are:

Learning. Through the old ages, many bookmans have given different definitions of the construct depending on their school of idea. In this research will be reviewed the most outstanding definitions in order to follow the definition of the construct that will be used throughout the research. The followerss definitions are:

Harmonizing to Hoy and Miskel ( 2005 ) , the modern behavioural attack to larning merged from the scholarship of Skinner and his Followings. The behavioural attack defines larning as a changed in behavior brought approximately by experience with virtually no concern for the mental or internal procedures of think ( Hoy and Miskel, 2005, p41 ) . Therefore, in this school of idea can be perceived that larning alterations the behaviour of the pupils.

Hoy and Miskel ( 2005 ) points out that the cognitive attack perceives larning as an active mental procedure of thought, acquisition, retrieving, making and job resolution. Therefore, this attack defines larning as an internal mental activity that can be observed straight through apprehension, retrieving and utilizing new information logically.

The societal constructivist attack perceives larning as a procedure in which the pupils have to be actively involved to detect rules, constructs and facts for themselves, therefore, the importance of promoting guessing and intuitive thought in scholars ( Brown et al. 1989 ; Ackerman 1996 ) . Furthermore, other pedagogues in the constructivist field agree that people get intending thru the interactions among them and with the environment around them. For that ground, they believe that cognition is a merchandise built by human existences thru societal and cultural interaction ( Ernest 1991 ; Prawat and Floden 1994 ) .

In the constructive field, McMahon ( 1997 ) besides states that larning is a societal procedure. Besides, he says that larning non merely is developed in our heads, nor is it a inactive act of our behaviour formed by external forces. He extrongly believes that meaningful acquisition appears when human existences are involved in societal activities.

Another point of position in the same dogma is stated by Vygotsky ( 1978 ) in which he besides highlighted the convergence of the societal and practical elements in acquisition by stating that the most important minute in the class of rational development occurs when address and practical activity, two antecedently wholly independent lines of development, converge. Therefore, through practical activity a kid constructs intending on an intrapersonal degree, while speech connects this significance with the interpersonal word shared by the kid and her/his civilization.

The term acquisition can be viewed or defined depending on the point of position that is adopted for its reading. Other bookmans that have given a definition to this construct are:

Woolfok ( 1999 ) , and Hoy and Miskel ( 2005 ) expresses that larning occurs when experience produces a comparatively lasting alteration in the person ‘s cognition or behaviour, alteration that can be deliberated or non, to acquire better or worse.

Another definition is given by Brown ( 2000 ) who perceives this construct in a complex manner impossible to be summarized in a simple definition. Therefore, he shows each one of larning ‘s features, such as acquisition or acquiring, keeping of information or accomplishments, cognitive organisation, memory, witting focal point on and moving upon, comparatively lasting but capable to forgetting, reinforced pattern, and a alteration in behaviour.

In this research, acquisition is understood to be a complex construct. However, the definition that will be taken along the probe is the one given by Hoy and Miskel ( 2005 ) in which they perceive that larning happens when experience produces a stable alteration in person ‘s cognition or behaviour.

Overcrowded categories. This term is besides referred as big categories. For that ground, it will be defined utilizing the facts given in some articles:

In an article online Paulsen ( 2006 ) shows the determination in which The Vancouver Secondary Teachers ‘ Association provinces that a schoolroom with more than 30 pupils is overcrowded. Therefore, it exceeds new provincial bounds.

Another article in which the term overcrowded categories is used to show that a category with more than 25 is Overcrowded categories haltering Kerry childs ( 2008 ) in which a Killarney Town Council member, Sean O’Grady told:

“ There is no maximal size for categories in Ireland but it should be reduced, as a affair of utmost urgency, to the European norm which is 25 per category and 15 per category where there is chronic disadvantage. ”

Another bookman who gives a definition about overcrowded categories or big categories is Hess ( 2002 ) . She defines big categories ( overcrowded categories ) as categories of 30 or more pupils in simple, secondary, grownup, and third scene.

In this research, it will be assumed that an ideal category is composed of less than 20 pupils as it was stated by Slavin ( 1989 ) . Therefore, it will be assumed that an overcrowded category is composed by 30 or more pupils in a schoolroom as Hess ( 2002 ) has difined.

False Beginners. Some bookmans have given their definitions about the term false novices. The undermentioned definitions are:

The definition of this construct provided by Helgesen ( 1987 ) says that false novices understand the footing of the linguistic communication and can be involved in activites which need some truth of the linguistic communication. However, they have limited accomplishments in the linguistic communication when they are involved in activities that need eloquence of the linguistic communication to be developed.

Harmonizing to Richards, et Al. ( 1985 ) , false novices are pupils who have had some sort of direction in the linguistic communication, but they have developed limited linguistic communication proficiency. For that ground, they have been classified at the get downing degree. False novice pupils can be compared with true novice pupils, as true novices do non hold any cognition of the linguistic communication to be studied.

The term has besides been studied in Japan due to the large sum of pupils that they receive each term. Harmonizing to Peaty ( 1987 ) , false novices are those pupils that enter a university in Japan usually with a background of six old ages of school English based on the survey of grammar and interlingual rendition of sentences. However, the true novices have ne’er learned or have wholly forgotten the linguistic communication. For that ground, this writer explains that false novice pupils in Japan knows a batch of English, so they can utilize this cognition to develop hearing and speech production accomplishments which were non to the full developed at school.

True beginners.The term is defined by Peaty ( 1987 ) as pupils who have non been exposed to the English linguistic communication earlier or have wholly forgotten the linguistic communication.

Chapter 2: Reappraisal of the Literature

This research will analyse the effects of overcrowded categories in simple English degrees in the learning procedure of true novices. The subject of overcrowded categories is non new and it has appeared many articles around the universe which denounce the damaging effects in the teaching-learning procedure. However, some surveies have dedicated to demo that the best solution in English linguistic communication instruction and other countries is category size decrease as it is expressed by Graham ( 2009 ) :

“ Class size is a comparative factor. Traditionally, category size was 30-35 or even 40 pupils but those conditions assumed that all pupils were of equal background and all started at the same degrees, with few or no disadvantages. ”

Whereas, a few surveies and books have been dedicated to analyse and happen solutions to overcrowded categories due to the fact that in many topographic points around the universe can non be avoided the overcroding conditions. The most frequent reeasons to hold overcrowded schoolrooms are deficiency of infinite, budget, and instructors which are valid grounds to go oning with the overcrowding conditions. This reappraisal of the literature will be presented in four parts. The first portion will demo articles denoucing the issue, surveies based on this field, negative consequence of overcroded schoolrooms, and techniques to learn overcrowded categories.

Articles denouncing the issue

This portion of this research is used to back up that overcrowded categories and conditions are impacting the learning acquisition procedure. This will assist understand that the Dominican Republic is non the eception to this tendency. The undermentioned articles are:

In the United States, in 1999 Vice President Al Gore criticized the pattern of “ crowding all pupils into overcrowded, factory manner high schools ” and Education Secretary Richard Riley suggested cut downing school size to turn to issues of pupil disaffection. Riley told the National Press Club that the state needs to “ make little, supportive acquisition environments that give pupils a sense of connexion. That ‘s difficult to make when we are constructing high schools the size of shopping promenades. Size affairs. ” ( Gore and Riley cited in Mitchell, 2000, p.12 ) .

Furthermore, Winerip ( 2003 ) in an article states that public schools opened in New York studies of widespread schoolroom overcrowding. Another article with denounces about this subject is written by Rezonable ( 2007 ) in which he mentions that the California State University is confronting jobs with overcrowded English categories for freshers every bit good as in Chicago where Chicago Public Schools have ordered all 595 of its schools to convey category sizes under control and the Chicago Teachers Union has vowed to look into crowding ailments ( Dell ‘ Angela 2005 ) .

The same state of affairs is stated in Ireland in an article of The Kingdom ( 2008 ) in Which Killarney Town Council member, Sean O’Grady, show that 20.5 per cent Kerry pupils learn in categories of 30 or more, in blunt contrast to European norm of merely 25 per category in countries of chronic dis-advantage. O’Grady has called for politicians in the county to take stock of where they stand in relation to category size and the status of the adjustment of the schoolroom. Furthermore, another article from Vancouver denounces troubles of larning in overcrowded categories. This article written by Paulsen ( 2006 ) shows that a survey finds 30,000 Vancouver pupils are in overcrowded categories.

Surveies on overcrowded categories

Research has shown that the advantages of a decreased category size are more evident when the figure of pupils in the category was fewer than 20, ideally from 15 to 19. In a 1989 Slavin survey, categories of fewer than 20 pupils were compared to well larger categories, and pupils in both groups were comparable in demographics and educational ability. Therefore, Slavin ( 1989 ) found that decreased category size had a little positive consequence on pupils that did non prevail after their decreased category experience.

In a survey to turn out the advantages of cut down or ideal categories, Finn ( 2002 ) found some advantages to better pupils ‘ teaching-learning procedure. The advantages of ideal categories are that instructors ‘ lesson is high in these schoolrooms ; schoolroom direction is easier for instructor and the instructors can give more clip to learn contents of the topic ; instructors face fewer breaks and less undiscipline in these schoolrooms ; pupils are more focussed on the teaching-learning procedure ; and educational establishments have fewer dropout instances.

Another research is the Tennessee ‘s Project STAR ( Student-Teacher Achievement Ratio ) spent four old ages looking at kindergarten, first- , second- , and third-grade schoolrooms, which began in 1985. STAR compared categories of 13 to 17 pupils with categories of 22 to 26 pupils. Participating instructors did non have any professional preparation on learning reduced-size categories, and were indiscriminately assigned to the categories. The survey included 79 schools, more than 300 schoolrooms and 7,000 pupils.

The consequences of the experiment showed that pupils in the smaller categories outperformed those in the larger categories on both standardized and curriculum-based trials. This was true for white and minority pupils in smaller categories and for smaller category pupils from inner-city, urban, suburban, and rural schools. These consequences have besides been supported by Hanushek ( 1994 ) .

The findings demonstrate that in early classs the pupils who attend ideal categories with less than 20 pupils per category have better chances to organize a solid backgrown. These facts are expressed by Promising Initiative to Better Education in Your Community ( 2000 ) :

“ A turning organic structure of research demonstrates that pupils go toing little categories in the early classs make more rapid educational advancement than pupils in larger categories, and that these accomplishment additions persist good after pupils move on the larger categories in subsequently classs. ”

Grave, Rauscher, and sherfinski ( 2009 ) studied during 3 old ages 27 schoolrooms in 9 schools to understand the interaction of category size decrease and schoolroom quality. The consequences of this survey provided that chances of ideal categories are activated by forming and implementing high-quality schoolroom pattern. They besides demonstrated that both elements produce a synergism for acquisition.

Harmonizing to Archilles, Finn, and Pate-Bain ( 2002 ) , minority and low income pupils in ideal categories obtain excess benefits in the instruction procedure. Furthermore, these ideal categories cut down keeping in class and pupil subject every bit good as pupils dropout rates which were lower in high school. Finally, in this survey the consequences provided that the graduation rates were significatly higher.

In an execution survey of category size decrease in Wisconsin, Burch, Theoharis, and Rauscher ( 2010 ) discovered the importance of the principals ‘ aproval in ideal schoolroom scenes. The findings of this survey showed that principals ‘ influence has to be with the usage of infinite, functioning the demands of diverce scholars and edifice instructors ‘ capacity. These school leading patterns are related to bettering accomplishment degrees.

Christopher and Steven ( 2009 ) made a survey to understand the effects of California ‘s billion dollar class-size-reduction on pupil accomplishment. Their findings showed that there is a type of betterment in mathematics and reading. However, they found that instructors without anterior experience and full enfranchisement dampened the benefits of smaller categories. These findings were supported by Graue and Rauscher ( 2009 ) that recommended in their survey that:

“ Future enquiry focuses on mechanism of alteration, peculiarly instruction- both in footings of instructional schemes that capitalize on resource of a smaller group and the types of support needed for instructor and administrator professional development ” .

Class size decrease is a programatic and instructional reform as explained by Graue et Al. ( 2007 ) . In their reseearch, they explored this ideal scene in nine high poorness schools. They found that category decrease plans ( less than 20 pupils per category ) to work required specific professional development to advance any type of alteration in the pupils. The same findings were shown by Bascia and Fredua-Kwarteng ( 2008 ) in which these writers recognized the enormous benefit of category size decrease. However, these plans are non cure at all if the educational establishments do non put in professional development for instructors to assist them internalise new learning accomplishments required. These types of plans every bit good as the educational establishments have to hold the avalability of appropiate school suites. These facts are supported by Promising Enterprises to Better Education in your community ( 2000 ) where it is stated that:

“ The Class-size decrease is a new enterprise to engage extra, extremely qualified instructors so that pupils can go to smaller categories in the crusial early classs and acquire solid foundation for larning. ”

Therefore, the benefits of ideal categories can non be dinied, but it is highly of import that these plans should be managed with financess that allow the educational establishment to develop pupils ‘ capacity. This means that is non so simple to hold a group of pupils ( less than 20 ) and the pupils are traveling to acquire all the benefits of the teaching-learning procedure. Schools demand trained teacher and principals in this type of plans every bit good as infinite and equipment to assist pupils in their acquisition procedure.

Acoording to Fletcher ( 2009 ) who replicated the category size decrease randomized experiment of Tenessee of the mid 1980s. He obtained sustantial grounds corroborating that pupils in ideal category ( less than 20 pupils ) increased in some facets of high school engagement in contrast with those pupils in big categories. These findings were similar in a survey conducted by Tienken and Archilles ( 2009 ) . They analysed 123 pupils during 3 old ages in in-between classs. The consequences were that those pupils that received the intervention of the ideal schoolrooms outperformed significantly pupils that received this treament for one twelvemonth and those pupils who did non received it.

Negative effects of overcrowded categories

There are many bookmans who have spoken about the negative effects of overcrowded categories on pupils ‘ academic public presentation, such as Snow ( 2000 ) in the McGill Tribune in which he expresses that harmonizing to his learning experience, in big, particularly overcrowded categories, pupils do non make every bit good as those in little categories. He besides states that pupils learn more in little categories and Markss tend to be better. However, in big categories, the lone thing a instructor can make is to talk. The instructor can non hold much treatment with pupils.

Another article that mentions the negative consequence of overcrowded categories in California is The Crisis ( 2008 ) . This article states that pupils in overcrowded schools pay less attending, achieve less, and experience more force.

Furthermore, Konare ( 1994 ) in the English Teaching Forum states that the first job concerns the existent engagement of all the pupils in the reading activities set by the instructor. What happens all excessively frequently in big ( overcrowded ) categories, when the replies to comprehension undertakings are given orally, is that the activity is dominated by a little minority of the best pupils. Most of the category does non even hold adequate clip to complete reading, allow entirely to explicate their replies, before the quick, bright, or pushful few are beckoning their weaponries about and coercing the gait of the lesson, forcing the instructor to name on them to reply. Furthermore, Konare ( 1994 ) states that the defeat of the weaker pupils causes them to choose out of more and more reading activities cognizing that they will non hold clip to finish them and most probably will non be asked to reply. Therefore, the spread between the few best pupils and the soundless bulk widens steadily, even though the instructor is puting the right kind of undertakings to develop all the pupils in the reading procedure. The instructor may be cognizant that many pupils are non take parting, but the instructor may experience it is their mistake because of their degree.

In add-on to the troubles mentioned above, Hughes ( 2006 ) in an article for the English Teaching Forum states that a well-known and relentless job with learning English as a Foreign Language ( EFL ) in overcrowded categories is the deficiency of resources, and that such conditions are an mundane world for many instructors around the universe. However, he found the challenges in Indonesia to be about overpowering.

Finally, UNC Charlotte Faculty Center for Teaching ( 2000 ) lists the types of challenges to learn a big ( overcrowded ) category. These challenges are the followerss:

1. Paperwork which means that instructors have to look into assigments, grade tests, fix lesson programs, fix their categories, etc.

2. Deal with distractions in the schoolroom, such as pupils ‘ speaking, acquiring late, and go forthing early.

3. Learn pupils ‘ names in order to take attending, actuate them to take part in category, motivate pupils to make assigments on clip,

4. Lack of flexibleness in category activities at the minute of altering activities, making group work and actuating critical thought and composing accomplishments.

5. Divers pupils ‘ degrees and background.

On the other manus, pupils in overcrowded categories besides experience of import challenges in their acquisition, particularly if they are new to the college experience. These include:

1. Trouble to understand wheather information is relevant.

2. Doubtful at the minute of inquiring inquiries and in some instances demoing deficiency of cognition.

3. Uncomfortable to be smart in forepart of schoolmates ( the swot expletive ) .

4. Trouble to pull off clip to analyze and miss of accomplishments necessary for success.

5. The usage of namelessness to dispute authorization and to force boundaries.

Techniques to learn overcrowded categories

Harmonizing to Duppenthaler ( 2000 ) overcrowded categories are non needfully something to fear. However, instructors face a figure of challenges, such as identifying pupils among several overcrowded categories at the same clip, supervising pupils ‘ single advancement, placing pupils ‘ single linguistic communication strengths and failings, being able to react to the pupils as persons, with involvements outside the schoolroom.

Duppenthaler ( 2000 ) presents a manner to work out these challenges of big categories. Therefore, he has created exposure axial rotation cards which are a fluctuation on the standard axial rotation book, and they are really effectual in placing, monitoring, recording, and reacting to pupils. Therefore, they make larning and learning more effectual and more gratifying.

UNC Charlotte Faculty Center for Teaching ( 2000 ) describes some options to utilize Technology in a assortment of ways in big or overcrowded categories. These options are the followerss:

1. To utilize power point or a similar plan to do presentations in category. This allows instructors to show lineations, and lists of cardinal constructs.

2. To utilize Excel or a similar plan to pull off category lists.

3. To fix a set up a category newsgroup or an electronic mail list ( through listserv ) , Students can inquire inquiries and acquire aid from other pupils.

4. To make a class web site that contains pattern jobs, replies to try test inquiries or prep, a glossary of footings, etc.

5. To make a searchable trial bank of inquiries ( utilizing FileMaker Pro, for illustration ) . This is particularly utile when you have to give multiple versions of the same inquiries.

6. To widen your office hours through electronic mail.

7. To give quizzes or trials.

Research inquiries

1. Which is the difference in tonss between true novices in overcrowded categories with intervention and true novices in ideal schoolroom?

2. Which is the difference in tonss between false novices in overcroweded categories with intervention and false novices in ideal categories?

3. How do pupils who are in overcrowded categories with intervention mark in comparing with pupils in ideal categories?

4. How pertinent is the execution of the treament to the pupils ‘ teaching-learning procedure in simple degrees?

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

Participants

UASD is the public university of the Dominican Republic, and the figure of pupils from 2007 to 2010 is over 165,000 harmonizing to the statistics office of the university. This sum of pupils has made that most of the subdivisions in this university are overcrowded. Therefore, the linguistic communication section is non the exclusion to this tendency, so most of the subdivisions of Elementary English 1 have increased from 35 to 50 or more pupils per subdivision which hampers the teaching-learning procedure of these pupils. However, the overcrowded categories every bit good as the overcrowded conditions can non be reduced due to the deficiency of infinite and budget. Another of import feature to this research is that the pupils in these English subdivisions are Dominicans, and many of them have small or no cognition of the English linguistic communication. These subdivisions are composed of pupils of both genders ( masculine and fememine ) and their ages go from 18 to 40.

For this survey the sum of pupils to be studied will be about 180 pupils. These pupils will be divided as follows: an overcrowded category for this survey will be formed from 35 to 50 pupils or more. Whereas an ideal category for this survey will be formed from 15 to 20 pupils. For that ground, it will be two groups or seccions of overcrowded categories with execution which will hold from 70 to 100 pupils. Morover, this survey will do the comparing with the pupils of two private universities of the Dominican Republic in which the English plan is taught. Therefore, from each private university will be selected two groups of ideal categories. In this ideal categories will non be execution to the pupils and the sum of pupils to be tested will be from 60 to 80 pupils.

Instruments

The information will be collected through a pre-test to find the degree of the pupils. This pre-test will demo whether the pupils are true or false novices whereas a post-test will be used to find the pupils ‘ degree at the terminal of the procedure which will demo whether there are troubles or non for the pupils who study under oevrcrowded categories and conditions in comparing with the pupils in ideal categories and conditions. These trials will be prepared by the research worker utilizing the Test Generator of the book Touchstone ( 2005 ) with the permission of the Publishing House ‘s representative ( Regional Manager Central America and The Caribbean of the Cambridge University Press ) following the plan of the university for simple English 1. This research has the blessing of the manager of UASD linguistic communication plan

Procedures

To find the effects of larning English in overcrowded categories, it will be prepared a quasi-experimental survey in which will be selected three groups composed of two subdivisions each. These groups will be called group A, group B, group C.

The first group or group A will be composed of two subdivisions of overcrowded categories taken fron UASD which will be taught utilizing the intervention or teachniques to learn overcrowded categories, and it will be given a pre-test to find if there are true and false novices. Finally, the post-test will be applied to obtain the intervention ‘s consequences.

The 2nd group or group B will be two subdivisions of ideal categories composed from 15 to 20 in which will non be used the intervention or techniques. These two seccions of pupils belong to a private university which will keep anonimous. These two subdivisions will be given a pre-test to find if there are true and false novices, and a post-test to obtain the consequences of how the novices learn under the ideal conditions in comparing with novices in overcrowded categories with intervention.

The 3rd group or group C will be two subdivisions of ideal categories composed from 15 to 20 pupils. These seccions belong to the 2nd private university which will keep anonimous. These subdivisions will be given a pre-test to find which pupils are false and true novices. Finally, these subdivisions will have a post-test which will demo how novices learn under ideal conditions.

Furthermore, all the groups will be observed and the research worker will non upset them while working. Therefore, their professors will give the pupils the pre-test and station trial, and the pupils will comprehend those tests as portion of the learning acquisition procedure.

Another point for this research is that the techniques used in the experimental groups will be chosen and explained by the research worker to the professors. The techniques to be used are:

A web log page in the cyberspace which allows the pupils to pattern the English linguistic communication.

Radio and Cadmiums to work the lessons.

Electronic mail to direct their prep to pattern short composing at the pupils ‘ degree.

Movies for the pupils to place words and constructions at the pupils ‘ degree.

Cooperative group work activities in category.

Restrictions

Some of the restraints that can be encountered are that the pupils at the minute of taking the pre-test are nervous and their mark will be different in footings of their cognition or that some of them miss the pre-test. Another issue can be that some of the pupils do non cognize how to utilize the cyberspace. In the treament groups, it is possible that some of the pupils do non hold adequate money to purchase the stuff ( pupil ‘s book, workbook, and Cadmium ) .

Anticipated Results

This research will demo the effects of larning simple English in overcrowded categories and conditions which will assist educational establishments and pedagogues in the Dominican Republic and around the universe in which the English linguistic communication is taught in similar conditions to form the simple English degrees to relieve the teaching-learning procedure of novices, particularly, true novices.

Timeline

The construct paper will be presented every bit shortly as NOVA ‘s registration missive will be received that should be in August 2010. Thus, after the credence of the construct paper, the proposal will be submitted three month subsequently to the commission. For that ground, the proposal will be presented in September 2010. Once the proposal will be accepted which is hoped to be in November 2010. The applied thesis will be finished in June 2011.

Evaluation program

This research will be a quasi-experimental survey in which will be selected three groups composed of two subdivisions each. First, the professors will hold an introductiory workshop in which they will go acquainted with the intervention to be applied. In all the groups will be given a pre-test to find the pupils ‘ degree ( either true or false novices ) , and the professors of these groups will be in charge of giving the test to the pupils. The name of the pupils will be maintained in secret to esteem the pupil ‘s individuality. After that, these informations will be analysed by the research worker. Then, the execution of the plan will be observed and notes will be taken during the execution face that will last 18 hebdomads. Furthermore, during the intercession, the professors will hold three workshops in which will be discussed subjects related to the techniques to be applied, possible alterations to the plan, and the professors ‘ perceptual experiences. Finally, the consequences will be collected with a station trial ; these informations will be analysed by the research worker to finish successfully the applied thesis.

Execution Matrix

Time

Terminal Aims

Procedure Aims

Activities

Actor

Evaluation

First hebdomad

1st Workshop to the professors

Learn and discourse the different techniques to be used

The research worker

Use a pre and station study to happen out the professors ‘ perceptual experience

2nd hebdomad

Determine the pupils ‘ degree ( true novices or false novices )

Give the stuff to the professor and quantify and sort the informations

The professor and research worker

a pre-test and utilize statistical methods- computing machine -programs-etc

2st -16th hebdomad

Execution of the plan

Use of web log page in the cyberspace which allows the pupils to pattern the English linguistic communication.

Radio and Cadmiums to work the lessons.

Electronic mail to direct their prep to pattern short composing at the pupils ‘ degree.

Movies for the pupils to place words and constructions at the pupils ‘ degree.

Cooperative group work activities

The professor

2nd to 16th hebdomad

Determine the effects of larning simple English in overcrowded categories

Determine the true novices ‘ public presentation in simple English degrees in overcrowded categories

Execution of the plan

Travel to the schoolrooms

The research worker

Take notes

Week 4th/ 9th and 13th

2nd -3rd and 4th workshop to the Professors

Discus about The professors ‘ experience and their thoughts about new techniques, and future programs to be implemented

The research worker

Use questionnaires to happen out the professors ‘ perceptual experiences

17th hebdomad

Determine the consequences

Give the station trial to the pupils

The professor

Post trial

18th hebdomad

Determine the effects of larning simple English in overcrowded categories

Determine the true novices ‘ public presentation in simple English degrees in overcrowded categories

Determine the consequences and the informations will be contrasted among the groups

Quantify and sort the informations

The research worker

Use statistical methods- computing machine -programs- etc

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