For many English instructors grammar instruction may be a challenge. Not merely do they hold to make up one’s mind on the attack to learning grammar to a peculiar age group but they besides need to fix a figure of activities to enable pupils to pattern new grammar constructions.
The history of linguistic communication learning nowadayss a figure of methods of learning a foreign linguistic communication, and grammar in peculiar. The earliest one, i.e. the Classical Method, focused on larning grammatical regulations and memorisation. Then this method came to be known as Grammar Translation Method, where the chief accent was on learning grammar in a deductive manner, and besides on interpreting sentences. Today Communicative Language Teaching seems to be a outstanding instruction method. In CLT grammar is taught chiefly in an inductive manner, but the deductive attack is non excluded ( Brown 2007 ) . Deductive instruction of grammar seems a more suited for learning stripling scholars since their thought is logical, they are able to pull comparings, set up hypotheses and do tax write-offs ( Fontana 1991 ) . Implicit attack to instruction, where pupils are non straight asked to concentrate on signifier, appears to be more suited for immature kids ( Brown 1994 ) . Sometimes grammar is isolated from other linguistic communication abilities. However, grammar should non be treated as an stray system of regulations but it should be as much integrated into the course of study as possible. Learners should be provided with legion possibilities of utilizing grammar constructions to make their ain unwritten and written texts. Learners need to larn how to utilize grammar in a originative manner so as to further their lingual creativeness. To accomplish this the instructor has to supply pupils with proper feedback, praise their original thoughts and promote utilizing the Monitor.
The demand for probe in the field of lingual creativeness which might emerge from expressed grammar cognition has arisen, though small research has been done in this country. Furthermore, some instructors of English may non recognize they need to teach pupils how to work their grammar cognition and how to utilize grammar in a originative manner.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether lingual creativeness might emerge from expressed cognition of grammar among adolescent scholars. The paper is composed of two parts. The theoretical portion consists of three chapters. The first chapter depict adolescent scholar development at the age of 17. The 2nd chapter trades with acquisition of grammar, and grammar and creativeness, whereas in the 3rd chapter the originative usage of grammar and Krashen ‘s hypotheses are discussed. The 2nd portion of the paper is practical by nature as it constitutes the research. In this portion I describe the group of adolescent scholars I taught and exhaustively present L2 instruction processs followed by analysis of all collected informations. This chapter besides contains decisions and tips for instructors.
1. Adolescent development
Forisha – Kovach ( 1983, cited in Dakowska 2005:173 ) provinces that adolescence is “ turning into adulthood ” . Dakowska ( 2005:173 ) defines adolescence as “ the extremum of rational maps that require flexibleness and coordination ” . This extremum motivates the instructor to fix a broad scope of stuffs and undertakings for adolescent scholars ( op. cit. ) . Yet another definition of adolescence was proposed by Learner and Hultsch ( 1983 ) . They characterize adolescence as a period in which the procedures of biological, sociocultural and psychological dimensions are in a passage from childhood to maturity. The velocity at which these procedures are developed varies and is an single affair ( op. cit. ) . Adolescent scholar development is a complex procedure affecting a figure of facets that continues into maturity. Adolescent scholar development comprises neuropsychological, cognitive and personality development. All of these facets are of premier importance, and for this paper they are all discussed.
1. 1. Neurological development
Neurological development is a complex procedure of forming and progressing the nervous system, the human encephalon in peculiar.
1. 1. 1. Brain growing
Human encephalon, which is said to be the most complicated and of import organ, specializes in commanding homo ‘s physical activity, ideas and emotions ( Zawodniak 2005 ) . It develops into three parts. The lowest portion is called encephalon root, and it regulates all life maps. The limbic system, which is situated below the neopallium, is responsible for larning and memory procedures, and besides for emotions and the immune system. The upper portion of the encephalon is called the neopallium, and it regulates work outing jobs and pulling comparings ( op. cit. ) .
1. 1. 2. The specialisations of the two hemispheres
After making the phase of neocortical development, human encephalon undergoes encephalon dissymmetry ( Zawodniak 2005 ) . The two hemispheres of the encephalon are now dominant for certain maps ( Plotnik and Mollenauer 1986 ) . The left hemisphere controls linguistic communication abilities – address, reading, composing and spelling, every bit good as mathematics. On the other manus, the right hemisphere controls particular building and facial acknowledgment ( op. cit. 1986 ) . Zawodniak ( op. cit. ) besides argues that the right encephalon hemisphere specializes in gestural linguistic communication, thanks to which worlds perform emotions and ideas. In add-on, the right hemisphere is dependent on originative thought that leads to inventiveness ( op. cit. ) . Danesi and D’Alfonso ( 1989 ) add that the right hemisphere is better than the left hemisphere at treating new stimulations. The two hemispheres process information in a different manner. The left hemisphere processes information analytically, whereas the right hemisphere uses a holistic manner ( Levy and Trevarthen 1976, cited in Plotnik and Mollenauer 1986:69 ) . Gengross and Puchta ( 1992:3 ) support this thought, adding that since grammar involves analytical processing it is a “ left hemispheric sphere ” . Harmonizing to Herschensolm ( 2007 ) , vocabulary is a aggregation of nervous webs placed both in the right and the left hemispheres. Kurcz ( 1976 ) distinguishes between semantic, syntactic and phonological belongingss of every word. Logical invariables, such as and, or, no combine the set of semantic and syntactic belongingss of a word. If more that one such a set of belongingss is ascribed to a word it is semantically equivocal, nevertheless, if the same belongingss are ascribed to a word it is called a equivalent word ( op. cit. ) .
1. 1. 3. Broca ‘s and Wernicke ‘s countries
A Gallic doctor, Paul Broca in the 19th century discovered a part in the left hemisphere of the encephalon that is responsible for linguistic communication maps, and more accurately for grammatical processing and sentence structure ( Grodzinsky 2000, cited in Herschensolm 2007:184-185 ; Dworetzky 1988 ) . Broca discovered that the harm to this frontal country consequences in aphasia, a upset of address. “ Peoples with Broca ‘s aphasia find it hard to show themselves in a to the full formed or grammatical sentence. They besides have problem with verb inflexions, connective words, pronouns, and complex grammatical buildings ” ( Dworetzky 1988:282 ) . Wernicke, a German research worker, discovered another country responsible for linguistic communication processing. Wernicke ‘s country trades with semantics, and is located besides in the left encephalon hemisphere, nevertheless lower than Broca ‘s country. Phrases expressed by people with Wernicke ‘s aphasia make no sense, since the aphasics display troubles with semantics ( op. cit. ) . Broca ‘s and Wernicke ‘s countries are connected by angular convolution. When the three parts of the encephalon map usually and are non damaged, expressed sentences are grammatically right and comprehendible ( op. cit. ) .
1. 2. Cognitive development
Jean Piaget ( 1896 – 1980 ) was one of the greatest psychologists who was interested in kid ‘s thought. Educated at the Universities of Paris and Geneva, the Swiss constructivist Piaget investigated the cognitive development of kids for many old ages. Papalia and Olds ( 1986 ) every bit good as Child ( 1991 ) inform that Piaget observed his ain kids ‘s rational development, and so he elaborated on a theory of cognitive development. Papalia and Olds ( 1986:34 ) define cognitive development as “ alterations in kids ‘s idea processes that consequence in a turning ability to get and utilize cognition about their universe ” . Piaget enumerates three factors thanks to which the following phases of cognitive development appear. These are as follows: biological factors, educational and cultural transmittal, and the activities kids perform ( Child 1991 ) . Harmonizing to Piaget, a kid performs actions interacting with the environing universe. The kid develops schemes, that is cognitive constructions within human head ( op. cit. ) . Schemata are forms of behavior of a individual who acts in a certain manner in certain fortunes, and inform the manner the individual trades with new objects. Schemata become more and more complex with the rational development ( op. cit. ) . Schemata are organized and systematized by agencies of version, i.e. the procedure of how people deal with new information. Adaptation consists of two procedures: assimilation and adjustment. The former is a procedure of integrating new scheme into the old constructions, whereas the latter is a procedure of modifying the old scheme to a new experience. When the kid is unsure after absorbing a new construct, the province of disequilibrium appears. After adjustment the kid reaches the phase of equilibrium when he or she lives in balance with the environing universe ( op. cit. 1986, op. cit. 1991, Zawodniak 2005, Brown 2007 ) . Brown ( op. cit. ) besides argues that the province of disequilibrium may actuate the kid to accomplish concluding equilibrium which is understood as the ability to meaningfully run new cognition.
1. 2. 1. Piaget ‘s phases of cognitive development
Harmonizing to Piaget, a kid ‘s thought is first marked by executing simple actions. Then the kid becomes to believe in symbols. They are called representational scheme. The kid internalizes the scheme when he or she “ is able to stand for the universe mentally, by agencies of memory, imagination or symbolic linguistic communication ” ( Child 1991:146 ) . After the kid has developed the ability to believe in symbols, he or she reaches the degree of logical thought. Piaget suggests cognitive development in four phases ( op. cit. ) :
( 1 ) Sensori – motor ( 0 – 2 old ages )
( 2 ) Pre – operational ( 2 -7 old ages, with farther division into
preconceptual ( 2 – 4 old ages ) , and intuitive ( 4 – 7 old ages )
( 3 ) Concrete operations ( 7 – 11A? old ages )
( 4 ) Formal operations ( 11A? onwards )
For the intent of this paper, the formal operations stage that characterizes striplings is exhaustively considered below.
1. 2. 2. Formal operations phase ( age 11A? onwards )
Formal operations is the highest phase kids are able to develop. Papalia and Olds ( 1986:360 ) argue that kids reach the formal operations stage one time they are capable of believing in abstract footings. Learner and Hultsch ( 1983 ) besides add that at this phase of development kids start to interact with world and get down to organize hypotheses. Equally far as the concrete operational kid is concerned, he or she can talk about things that really exist. In contrast, the formal operational kids “ become able to follow the signifier of an statement or to put up on hypothesis without necessitating existent experience of the concrete objects or state of affairss upon which it depends ” ( Fontana 1991:48-49 ) . Such an stripling is now able to believe and speak about legion possibilities and abstract phenomena, such as authorities, household, friendly relationship, society ( op. cit. 1983, op. cit. 1986 ) . When the stripling draws decisions from antecedently generated hypotheses and ranges solutions to certain jobs, we can speak about hypothetico – deductive logical thinking ( op. cit. 1991 ) .
The development of L1 starts from about six months of age, when the kid begins to do one – syllable vocalizations. It is called babble. By about 12 months, the babe is able to express first words. They normally relate to objects in the surrounding environment. From two old ages of age, the kid utters two – word phrases. The kid omits articles and prepositions in his or her phrases. In this instance, one can speak about telegraphic address. By about 4 or 5 old ages, the kid acquires simple grammatical regulations. The kid tends to overgeneralise the regulations when he or she adjusts them falsely ( Plotnik and Mollenauer 1986 ) .
1. 3. Personality development
Numerous facets of personality development, such as gender differences, age, self – regard, motive or suppression may be taken into history when discoursing this issue. All of these influence the acquisition procedure. However, in this paper self – regard, motive and suppression are discussed exhaustively.
1. 3. 1. Self – regard
Harmonizing to Fontana ( 1991 ) , kids do better if they have high ego – regard. Since they are ensured that they can accomplish more, they are more demanding towards themselves. High ego – regard may be generated by parents, if the kid is frequently approved of and encouraged, every bit good as by the instructor, when the scholar is encouraged to bury about failure ( op. cit. ) . Brown ( 2007 ) employs the thought of undertaking self – regard. Harmonizing to Brown ( 2007:155 ) , undertaking self – esteem “ relates to peculiar undertakings within specific state of affairss ” . It may besides mention to self – rating when geting a 2nd linguistic communication ( op. cit. ) .
1. 3. 2. Motivation
Motivation is divided into intrinsic and extrinsic. Consequently, the former means an internal thrust that pushes scholars to research the universe and achieve their purposes. Fontana ( 1991 ) suggests that immature scholars are likely to go more efficient grownups when their demand for an internal wages is fulfilled. The latter, the extrinsic motive, is an expectancy of an external wages. At school such a wages constitutes classs, awards, trials and most significantly the instructor ‘s blessing. Learners who are motivated, both internally and externally, win, whereas some pupils may neglect either due to moo self – regard, excessively much competition in the schoolroom or excessively long expectancy for consequences of their work ( op. cit. ) .
1. 3. 3. Inhibition
Many human existences who want to protect their self-importance construct certain walls of suppression. Brown ( 2007:69 ) provinces that striplings develop suppressions as a consequence of physical and cognitive alterations and development so as to “ protect their delicate self-importance ” . Any talker of any linguistic communication develops his or her linguistic communication self-importance. It was referred by Brown ( 2007:69 ) to as “ the individuality a individual develops to the linguistic communication he or she speaks ” . Harmonizing to Brown ( op. cit. ) , the linguistic communication self-importance inhibits an stripling ‘s acquisition of a 2nd linguistic communication to protect his or her self-importance. As they learn by test – and – mistake, and come to understand the linguistic communication, a 2nd individuality is developed ( op. cit. 2007, Brown 1994 ) . As a consequence of developing a 2nd individuality, the scholar experiences individuality struggle. Language acquisition may besides be inhibited when the scholar is ambiguity intolerant. The scholar rejects the constructs that contradict cognitive organisation they possess. In contrast, Brown ( op. cit. ) informs that people who are ambiguity tolerant are more eager to see and get differences between some external thoughts and their ain cognition or positions. Tolerance of ambiguity is of import in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition, including grammar, since it enables scholars to accept contradictory constructs of a 2nd linguistic communication, which consequences in linguistic communication acquisition being successful ( op. cit. ) .
1. 4. Decision
In this chapter a complex procedure of stripling development is exhaustively discussed. Adolescent development includes the procedures of neurological development, cognitive development, and last but non least, personality development. Since an stripling ‘s encephalon has already undergone encephalon dissymmetry, certain maps are processed either by the right or by the left hemisphere. It is of import that every L2 instructor know that linguistic communication, including grammar, is processed by the left hemisphere, which besides specializes in analytical processing. Personality factors, such as suppression, self-esteem and motive, are every bit of import in the instruction procedure since their cognition might ease pupils ‘ acquisition.
2. Acquisition of grammar
Grammar acquisition is a complicated procedure that starts in babyhood when the kid is exposed to adult address, and extracts the regulations of grammar which are so internalized and used to organize new sentences ( Papalia and Olds 1986 ) . Consequently, the chapter that follows is focused on Second Language Acquisition, every bit good as grammar and creativeness, with a particular respect to metalinguistic hypothetico – deductive position on acquisition, Critical Period Hypothesis, Chomsky ‘s impression of creativeness, divergent thought, grammar consciousness, and eventually the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis.
2.1. Second Language Acquisition
One of the early phases of L2 acquisition proposed by Ellis ( 1994 ) is the soundless period. It is the first phase of L2 acquisition. The soundless period is non necessary for L2 acquisition, nevertheless, many scholars make usage of it because it may fix them for a better L2 interaction. The 2nd phase of the 2nd linguistic communication acquisition is the formulaic address, i.e. the usage of short unanalyzed phrases which can be employed in many state of affairss. Hakuta ( 1976, cited in Ellis 1994:84 ) distinguishes between modus operandis ( vocalizations used as memorized balls ) and forms ( vocalizations with at least one unfastened slot ) . Learners who are utilizing modus operandis, such as I do n’t cognize, are non being originative since such scholars know small about inflectional morphology. Since forms, such as Can I have… ? , are partly analyzed, scholars who are utilizing them are being originative. The last early phase of SLA is semantic and structural simplification. When scholars omit content words ( nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs ) one can state that they use semantic simplification. In contrast, when scholars do non utilize grammatical functors in their vocalization, one calls it structural simplification. There may be two grounds for linguistic communication scholars to utilize semantic and structural simplification. One may be that scholars are still unfamiliar with lingual signifiers they should utilize. The other may hold ground in scholar ‘s inability to entree the lingual signifiers during the production of vocalizations ( op. cit. ) .
In The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics one can happen the definition of metalanguage as the linguistic communication used to speak about another linguistic communication ( Matthews 1997 ) . Trask ( 1999 ) and Matthews ( op. cit. ) distinguish between metalanguage and object linguistic communication. The former is “ the linguistic communication which we are speaking about ” ( Trask 1999: 184 ) . Harmonizing to Trask ( op. cit. ) , we must utilize proficient constructs and nomenclature if we want to utilize English as a metalanguage. Matthews ( op. cit. ) argues that English as a metalanguage is used to depict regulations of English grammar. Komorowska ( 2002 ) states that since stripling scholar thought is logical and abstract, the instructor can present grammar nomenclature when learning grammar. Learners analysing the linguistic communication possess some metalinguistic cognition. This is cognition of different facets of a linguistic communication, such as the construction or signifiers ( Richards, Platt, Platt 1992 ) . Language user besides possesses metalinguistic abilities, thanks to which he or she is able “ to believe about linguistic communication independent of his comprehension and production abilities ” ( Owens 1988:349 ) . Metalinguistic abilities make it possible for linguistic communication user to make up one’s mind whether an vocalization is grammatically acceptable or non. A kid at school age can already rectify unacceptable vocalizations ( Bowey 1986, cited in Owens 1988:350 ) .
2.1.2. Hypothetico – deductive position on larning
Brown ( 2007 ) informs that deductive logical thinking is traveling from a general regulation to inside informations. Richards et Al. ( 1985:73, cited in Nunan 1991:156 ) qualify deductive acquisition as using antecedently learned regulations by scholars when they communicate. Learners possess witting consciousness of formal belongingss of the linguistic communication, which is called expressed cognition ( Nunan 1991 ) . Harmer ( 1987 ) argues that in expressed grammar learning the regulations of grammar are straight presented to the pupils. The instructor may utilize metalanguage ( i.e. a linguistic communication used to depict another linguistic communication ) when he presents grammar regulations ( see chapter 2.1.1. ) . Learners form hypotheses with respect to L2, and so those hypotheses are verified in a assortment of activities, such as communicative activities ( function – drama, simulations, narrative reconstructuring ) .
2.2. Grammar and creativeness
Ur ( 1988:4 ) defines grammar as “ the manner a linguistic communication manipulates and combines words ( or spots of words ) in order to organize longer units of significance ” . Harmer ( 1987 ) explains that the grammar of a linguistic communication is how words are organized to organize the plural or negative signifiers, every bit good as different sorts of sentences.
There are two attacks to learning grammar, viz. the deductive attack and the inductive attack. Explaining grammar regulations and so showing illustrations is called deductive attack because specific cases of linguistic communication are deduced from a general regulation ( Dakowska 2005 ) . The inductive attack characterizes detecting regulations from the information scholars are provided with ( Brown 2007, Brown 1994 ) . Generating fresh thoughts from the already bing 1s is called creativeness ( Plotnik and Mollenauer 1986 ) . Dell ( 1963 ) states that every human being is able to be original and originative by showing their ain feelings and ideas. Dell ( op. cit. ) besides enumerates and depict three Levels of Teaching – the enlightening degree, the interesting degree, and the originative degree. At the enlightening degree the instructor presents basic information of the class. At the interesting degree, after the pupils have memorized the new information, the instructor makes this information interesting by stating gags, watching movies or fixing category undertakings. At the 3rd degree, the originative degree, the pupils need to show their ain original ideas on the footing of the basic information they have acquired during the two old degrees.
Critical Period Hypothesis
Chomsky ( 1972 ) suggests that kids are equipped with linguistic communication acquisition device, which exists in the human encephalon. By that Chomsky means a familial sensitivity in kids to express new sentences utilizing antecedently analyzed grammatical constructions. The grammatical constructions come from cosmopolitan grammar – innate rules similar in all linguistic communications ( Lightbown and Spada 1993 ) . Harmonizing to Lightbown and Spada ( op. cit. ) , Lennenberg argues that the linguistic communication acquisition device maps successfully when it is activated at the clip called critical period. Critical Period Hypothesis claims that the clip for linguistic communication acquisition is limited. Harmonizing to the strong version of CPH, if kids do non get the first linguistic communication before pubescence, they will ne’er be able to get it. The weak version provinces that kids will hold trouble in geting the first linguistic communication after pubescence, and, hence, the linguistic communication will be uncomplete. Penfield and Roberts ( 1959, cited in Ellis 1999:107 ) suggest that linguistic communication is acquired best by the age of 10 when the encephalon is still fictile ( i.e. both hemispheres are involved in linguistic communication acquisition ) . Due to encephalon lateralisation that malleability disappears, and the linguistic communication is acquired by the left hemisphere of the encephalon. Lennenberg employs his hypothesis with trust on L1 acquisition, nevertheless, he states that with age there comes more trouble in geting the 2nd linguistic communication ( Herschensolm 2007 ) . Ellis ( op. cit. ) argues that stripling scholars get grammar better than grownups because during the lateralisation procedure different linguistic communication characteristics are affected.
Chomsky ‘s thought of creativeness
The great American linguist Noam Chomsky elaborated on his ain theory that worlds are able to bring forth and understand linguistic communication in a originative procedure ( Beilin 1975 ) . Chomsky ( 1972 ) claims that people who know the linguistic communication, i.e. a finite set of regulations, are capable of expressing and groking an infinite figure of fresh sentences. Using the linguistic communication in this manner is a originative activity, which differentiates human linguistic communication from carnal communicating. Harmonizing to Chomsky ( op. cit. ) , an infinite figure of construction descriptions ( i.e. some objects with sound and significance relationship ) are generated by the regulations of grammar. Chomsky ( 1975 ) proposes the thought that human head has a cognitive capacity, which can restrict an person ‘s act of creative activity when that originative head is near to the bound of cognitive capacity. A individual who operates a linguistic communication uses the regulations of the surface construction and the deep construction. The former is a phrase related to the physical signal, while the latter is a phrase a individual has in his or her head. Chomsky ( op. cit. ) argues that to organize an infinite set of fresh sentences one has to be able to internalise the regulations of the surface construction and the deep construction.
2. 3. Divergent believing
The manner of believing that leads to bring forthing a figure of solutions to a given job is called by Guilford divergent thought. In divergent believing it is every bit of import that the responses be original, advanced, inventive and legion ( Child 1991 ) . Sternberg ( 2001 ) argues that after a human being generates many solutions to a job ( employs divergent thought ) , he or she needs to use another type of believing – the convergent thought to accept merely the proper solution to the job. Sternberg and Spear-Swerling ( 2003 ) discuss the thought of analytical, originative and practical thought. In analytical thought scholars define and analyze a given job or theory and see how they are traveling to work out them. Analytic thought is usually followed by originative thought, and it requires of pupils using the regulations and planing an experiment, turn outing a theory or making an original thought. The last type of believing – practical thought, involves a presentation or execution of the solved job. The three thought processes likely to climax in critical thought, should be employed in a balanced manner in the instruction procedure so as to acquire to single pupils ( op. cit. )
2.4. Grammar consciousness
Awareness in SLA is defined by Brown ( 2007:292 ) as witting “ acquisition, in which scholars are in knowing control of their attending to some facet of input or end product. ” Learners are cognizant of their acquisition procedure, and use metacognitive schemes to be after and believe about their acquisition, monitor their end product and the acquisition procedure, and last but non least, measure whether peculiar schemes are successful ( Purpura 1997, cited in Brown 2007:134 ; Ellis 1994 ) . Brown ( op. cit. ) proposes the undermentioned metacognitive schemes: progress organisers, directed attending, selective attending, self – direction, functional planning, self – monitoring, delayed production and self – rating. All of the above metacognitive schemes are of import, nevertheless, for the intent of this paper self – monitoring and self – rating are discussed in more item. Consequently, self – monitoring refers to being witting of one ‘s address and rectifying it for truth in grammar or vocabulary. Self – rating is a scheme employed to measure scholar ‘s advancement in linguistic communication acquisition. Learners are capable of make up one’s minding which metacognitive scheme to take thanks to metacognitive cognition. It is “ cognition of the mental processes which are involved in different sorts of acquisition. ” ( Richards, Platt, Platt 1992 ) . Metacognitive cognition helps scholars to make up one’s mind which undertakings are more hard than others and which scheme to take to work out them ( op. cit. ) . Analyzing the linguistic communication consequences in the development of metalinguistic cognition ( i.e. cognition of signifiers and constructions ) . Learners besides encounter contradictory facets between L1 and L2. When they accept those differences they become ambiguity tolerant ( Brown 2007 ) .
2.5. The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis
Harmonizing to Wardhaugh ( 1983 ) , The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis, is utile for instructors of a foreign linguistic communication. There are two versions of the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis to be distinguished – the strong version, which is said to be impractical, and the weak version, which is rather utile ( op. cit. ) . The strong version of the hypothesis tells that contrasting the systems of grammar, phonemics and vocabulary of two linguistic communications on a priori evidences is possible. This contrast enables the instructor to foretell countries in which a talker of L2 will hold trouble in larning the L1. It would besides demo the instructor what stuffs should be used to assist the scholar overcome these troubles ( op. cit. ) . The weak version of the hypothesis requires of the instructor merely the designation and account of the troubles encountered when larning the 2nd linguistic communication, hence it is a posteriori nature.
2. 6. Decision
Acquisition of grammar may get down in early childhood and go on boulder clay regulations are internalized. With age there comes more trouble in geting both L1 and L2. Learners of L2 frequently possess metalinguistic cognition and usage metalanguage to speak about the 2nd linguistic communication. When linguistic communication users employ their cognition of grammar constructions to organize new vocalizations they are originative. Additionally, advanced responses imply the significance of furthering in pupils divergent thought. L2 users are frequently cognizant of grammar and may utilize the schemes of self-monitoring and self-evaluation when utilizing the 2nd linguistic communication. They may hold trouble in larning the L2 because of the contrast between L1 and L2, which should be explained by the instructor.
3. The originative usage of grammar
As it has been suggested in the old chapter, Chomsky ( 1972 ) proposes that scholars are able to bring forth a great figure of sentences from their cognition of a finite set of grammar regulations. Chomsky calls it creativeness. This chapter deals with more item with grounds of lingual creativeness, every bit good as it is exhaustively focused on some facets of Krashen ‘s Monitor Model. For the intent of this work Communicative Language Teaching ( CLT ) is besides discussed.
3. 1. L2 grammar acquisition and acquisition by stripling scholars
Adolescent scholars both get ( by agencies of communicating in the mark linguistic communication ) and learn ( by presentation of regulations and corrections ) regulations of grammar. This subdivision deals more closely with Krashen ‘s larning – acquisition hypothesis every bit good as with the input hypothesis to exemplify how acquisition progresses.
3. 1. 1. Krashen ‘s larning – acquisition hypothesis
Krashen elaborated on an Acquisition – Learning Hypothesis, harmonizing to which scholars can develop their ability of L2 in two ways, viz. subconscious acquisition and witting acquisition ( Pawlak 2006 ) . Krashen ( 1981 ) states that the procedure of acquisition of a 2nd linguistic communication is similar to child first linguistic communication acquisition. Acquirers focus on meaningful communicating in the mark linguistic communication, instead than on the signifier. They are non cognizant of regulations of grammar they use, and as a consequence they “ may self – correct merely on the footing of a feel for grammaticality ” ( Krashen 1981:2 ) . Learning involves a great demand for rectification and presentation of explicit regulations ( Krashen and Seliger 1975, cited in Krashen 1981:2 ) . In the instance of acquisition, scholars focus on the regulations and signifiers of linguistic communication ( op. cit. ) . Krashen ( Ellis 1994:356 ) believes that the learned cognition and the acquired cognition are separated, intending that “ learned cognition can non be converted into acquired cognition ” . This belief came to be known as the non – interface place. Harmonizing to Krashen ( op. cit. ) , acquired cognition develops provided scholars concentrate on conveying the message. What is more, he claims that while scholars generate sentences utilizing the acquired system, they employ the erudite system merely to supervise the end product ( op. cit. ) .
3. 1. 2. The input hypothesis
Harmonizing to Pawlak ( 2006 ) , Krashen states that scholars get a 2nd linguistic communication thanks to acquiring a comprehendible input. It is represented as i+1, where I stands for the current cognition, and 1 bases for following phase of development. Acquisition is fostered and successful when scholars process and comprehend linguistic communication and are able to travel along the natural acquisition phases. In other words, input must be beyond competency degree, where scholars are encouraged to do advancement. On the other manus, acquisition is non fostered when the input is beyond scholar ‘s range ( e. g. i+3 ) or when scholars already know the construction ( I ) ( op. cit. ) . Krashen ( 1981 ) argues that linguistic communication acquisition derives from consumption, which is characterized by Krashen as an understood input. What is more, Krashen ( 1981:102 – 103 ) asserts that “ we get by understanding linguistic communication that is a small beyond our current degree of competency. ” Input signal can be qualified as consumption merely when it is natural, intending that it is a communicating linguistic communication ( op. cit. ) .
3. 2. Lingua franca theory
The term lingua franca was foremost introduced by Selinker in 1972, intending both that an lingua franca is “ the internal system that a scholar has constructed at a individual point in clip ” ( Ellis 1994:350 ) , and that lingua franca continuum is a series of those systems, harmonizing to which a pupil ‘s advancement over clip can be assessed. From the position of cognitive theories of lingua franca, scholars interpret and arrant sentences as they have constructed mental grammars of L2, which enables the talkers to concentrate on the regulations of those grammars. A set of overlapping grammars is called the lingua franca continuum since the regulations of each grammar are contained in the old grammar that has been constructed by the scholar. In this sense, the undermentioned grammars are more complex. The regulations can be viewed as a hypothesis that competes with other hypotheses ( op. cit. ) . Although lingua franca develops bit by bit, L2 learners fail to make the degree of competency native talkers reach. This phenomenon is called fossilisation. Fossilized points may be eliminated for some clip, nevertheless they reappear when scholars use the linguistic communication. This phenomenon has been referred to as lapse ( op. cit. , Pawlak 2006 ) .
3. 2. 1. Hypothesis proving
Corder ( 1976, cited in Ellis 1994:351-352 ) argues that linguistic communication scholars build hypotheses about the mark linguistic communication provided they are exposed to input. When the message the scholar produces is comprehendible, the antecedently generated hypothesis is accepted. However, the hypothesis is rejected if their message is wrong ( op. cit. ) . In this manner, the hypotheses of the L2 are tested in a few ways: receptively, fruitfully, metalingually or interactionally. A individual regulation is frequently formed due to at least two hypotheses. Feedback needs to be provided in order to accept one concluding hypothesis, which is internalized as an L2 regulation. The other hypotheses are rejected. The procedure of hypothesis – testing is subconscious ( op. cit. ) . In contrast, scholars may be encouraged to explicitly or implicitly concentrate on signifier of the linguistic communication, either by direct instruction ( e.g. deductive instruction of grammar regulations ) or by proper responding to learner ‘s mistakes ( e.g. feedback ) . The attempt of promoting scholars to pay attending to organize has been called signifier – focussed direction ( Pawlak 2006, Brown 2007 ) . The term signifier itself refers to syntax and morphology ( op. cit. ) . Approaches to organize include metalinguistic accounts, unwilled mentions to organize, noticing, and last but non least grammar consciousness elevation ( “ the incorporation of signifiers into communicative undertakings ” ) ( Brown 2007:276 ) .
3. 3. Fostering creativeness
Harmonizing to Dakowska ( 2005 ) , furthering creativeness in scholars involves constant praising their ain original thoughts, supplying them with many unfastened – ended activities and promoting divergent thought. Furthermore, the instructor should provide for scholar ‘s single involvements, concentrating at the same clip on their strengths and antagonizing stereotypes. It is critical to add at this point what function affectional feedback and cognitive feedback drama in the acquisition procedure, and therefore creativeness. The general term feedback refers to an information from an middleman about the message. Cognitive feedback is the existent apprehension of the message. When talkers support obtained messages, they use affectional feedback. When the middleman shows that the message is comprehendible, the talker continues the conversation, nevertheless, when the message is non understood, the talker aborts the message. In this manner, the talker is more watchful in production. Too many corrections ( negative cognitive feedback ) may ensue in involuntariness in production. In contrast, if mistakes are non corrected, they may be internalized and hard to extinguish with clip ( Brown 2007 ) . Learners frequently monitor their vocalizations so as to be more watchful with their end product. Krashen proposes the Monitor Hypothesis, harmonizing to which merely by agencies of utilizing the learned cognition can linguistic communication users monitor their end product before or after the vocalization ( Pawlak 2006 ) . The Monitor can be successfully used merely when the performing artist has clip, is focused on the signifier, and knows the applied regulation ( Krashen 1981 ) . He besides states that scholar ‘s address or authorship is due to the acquired cognition ( Ellis 1999 ) . For Krashen acquisition is far more of import because it initiates natural communicating. Peoples get the 2nd linguistic communication by agencies of utilizing it in communicating. Contrary to this position, larning involves error rectification every bit good as being watchful to the regulations. Learning most normally takes topographic point in a foreign linguistic communication schoolroom ( Lightbown and Spada 1993 ) .
3. 4. CLT
Communicative Language Teaching ( CLT ) is exhaustively discussed below since it has been applied to carry on the Research.
The term Communicative Language Teaching is hard to explicate, therefore to exemplify this attack some of its features are presented ( Brown 2007:241 ) :
1 ) “ schoolroom ends are focused on all of the constituents of communicative competency ” ,
2 ) “ linguistic communication techniques are designed to prosecute scholars in the matter-of-fact, reliable, functional usage of linguistic communication for meaningful intents ” ,
3 ) “ eloquence and truth are seen as complementary rules underlying communicative techniques. At times eloquence may hold to take on more importance than truth in order to maintain scholars meaningfully engaged in linguistic communication usage ” ,
4 ) “ in the communicative schoolroom, pupils finally have to utilize the linguistic communication, fruitfully and receptively, in ad-lib contexts ” .
Overt presentation of grammatical regulations is less common in CLT ( Brown 1994, op. cit. ) . Since the thought is to construct eloquence, the instructor needs to utilize reliable linguistic communication most of the clip ( Chambers 1997, cited in Brown 1994:43, Brown 2007:242 ) . The instructor is besides to steer pupils in self-generated state of affairss ( op. cit. 1994, op. cit. 2007 ) .
Activities in CLT engage pupils to utilize the linguistic communication in existent communicating. Attention is paid to accomplish the purpose of the communicative undertaking instead than to accuracy. In CLT activities pupils should desire to pass on, and there should be a intent for communicating. For pupils the content, non the signifier, should be greatly taken into history. A assortment of linguistic communication is to be applied in those activities. Ultimately, teacher intercession in the activities and control of stuffs must be excluded from CLT activities ( Harmer 1991 ) .
For the intent of this paper merely a few activities are briefly presented. Role – drama is employed to reflect a existent – life state of affairs, and it enhances pupils ‘ unwritten eloquence. The instructor provides pupils with the information whose function they are traveling to play. Co – secret agent authorship ( narrative and narrative Reconstruction ) engages all pupils to strictly cooperate in groups to make an activity. In narrative Reconstruction the instructor may demo the category a image, and their purpose is to compose a narrative based on the image in little groups. Alternatively of a image, the instructor could besides read a narrative and ask pupils to compose their ain version. Mind maps look to be utile in the schoolroom for supplementing lexical cognition for pupils portion their cognition with equals. The last discussed type of activities is permutation drill, in which pupils need to alter one component in a repeatedly used theoretical account ( op. cit. ) .
3. 5. Decision
In this chapter the originative usage of grammar is exhaustively discussed by showing a figure of hypotheses. Krashen ‘s hypotheses illustrate the manner scholars get and larn a foreign linguistic communication and the manner scholars deal with the obtained cognition of the linguistic communication. Selinker introduced an lingua franca theory mentioning to a system of the linguistic communication constructed by a scholar. This theory is connected with hypothesis – testing for scholars build mental grammars of L2 by internalising antecedently tested hypotheses as L2 regulations. Thankss to the ownership of L2 grammar regulations scholars are able to bring forth new sentences. Their production is successful and fostered provided proper feedback is employed. Ultimately, scholars ‘ originative production can be encouraged by legion communicative activities which provoke natural communicating.
4. The research
The research constitutes the last, practical portion of this paper. It is aimed at analyzing the theoretical cognition from the first portion on empirical evidences. This chapter includes motive behind the research, purpose of the research, group description, informations assemblage tools, learning processs and informations presentation followed by its rating.
4. 1. Motivation behind the research
During my instruction pattern I had an chance to detect and carry on a figure of lessons to a group of adolescent pupils. I noticed that they did non cognize how to work their grammar cognition and utilize the known constructions in new contexts. This interesting observation aroused in me wonder of analyzing whether adolescent L2 scholars are capable of utilizing grammar in a originative manner, and how to further their production enabling them to utilize grammar constructions in many possible ways.
4. 2. Aim of the research
The purpose of the research is to analyze whether lingual creativeness might emerge from adolescent L2 scholar explicit cognition of grammar.
Furthermore, I would wish to analyze whether the deductive attack to learning I applied during the research is more good for adolescent scholars. I am besides traveling to look into how they make usage of grammar cognition obtained thanks to the deductive attack. Besides, I aim at analyzing the usage of the Monitor ( see 3.3. ) and whether scholars self – correct their errors. Consequently, by making a positive clime in the schoolroom and implementing a figure of group activities, I would wish to actuate the scholars, lower the degree of suppression, better their ego – regard.
4. 3. Group description
Before I conducted the lessons included in the research, I already had an chance to detect and learn a group of stripling scholars in a High School in Sulechow.
The group consisted of 12 17-year-old scholars. These were 6 male childs and 6 misss. The bulk of them were at the get downing degree of English. Out of the whole group merely one pupil admitted holding English at school before. For the remainder of pupils larning English was a wholly new experience. The group had three lessons of English a hebdomad, and during my observations I noticed that they were larning about entirely from the coursebook. Sometimes, the instructor wrote some exercisings on the chalkboard. There were no subject jobs since the instructor maintained good resonance with the pupils. However, I noticed that the instructor did non provide for single pupils ‘ demands and did non step in when person from the group did non understand a certain portion of covered stuff. As a consequence, merely a few pupils participated in the lessons. The others were non interested and were afraid of speech production and doing errors. I could besides detect deficiency of production – pupils chiefly learned the new stuff in a receptive mode. There was non adequate speech production, nor authorship.
4. 4. Datas assemblage tools
I chose to use action research to roll up all the necessary informations from the research. Nunan ( 1992 ) refers to action research as a research conducted by the instructor on a group of schoolroom scholars. He proposes seven stairss of action research: induction, preliminary probe, hypothesis, intercession, rating, airing and follow up.
Before the research, I made an informal observation of the pupils. After the five lessons I conducted, I administered a questionnaire that helped me to roll up subjective sentiments about larning grammar in general, every bit good as about the five lessons in inquiry.
4. 5. L2 instruction processs
I conducted five lessons to accomplish the purpose set in 4.1. I concentrated on the deductive attack to instruction, and invariably reminded the pupils of utilizing merely the needed signifiers of the Present Simple Tense, Present Continuous Tense and the construction have got. The pupils had an chance to pattern them in a figure of activities, including CLT activities.
4. 5. 1. Procedure 1
( see appendices 1, 2, 3 )
The purpose of this lesson is to revise the pupils ‘ cognition of the Present Simple, Present Continuous and have got, every bit good as to demo them that they can use regulations of those constructions to organize many sentences.
At the beginning of the lesson the instructor conducts a tune-up: the instructor asks the pupils to believe of some nouns and verbs and writes them on the chalkboard, adding some thoughts of his ain.
Then the instructor gives the pupils handouts with 10 sentences ( see appendix 2 ) and asks each of them to make full in a word or a phrase from the chalkboard. There are ever a few possibilities so that the responses differ. The instructor nominates the pupils indiscriminately and asks them to read their sentence.
After this activity, the instructor distributes another press release with a short text about Jane and Mary working in the office ( see appendix 3 ) . Some of the looks in the text are highlighted, and the pupils ‘ undertaking is to alter them with their ain thoughts. Each pupil is asked to make and read one illustration. The undertaking is being done boulder clay all the pupils have answered.
In the last exercising the instructor draws a tabular array on the chalkboard and divides it into four Fieldss. In the first field, there are topics ( I, people, kids, Canis familiariss, parents ) ; in the 2nd field, there are adverbs of frequence ( frequently, ne’er, sometimes, normally, ever ) ; in the 3rd field, there are verbs ( eat, drama with, sit on, pigment ) ; and in the concluding field, there are nouns ( the floor, meat, chairs, dolls, cocoa, balloons ) . The instructor asks each pupil to take one look from each field and organize a sentence with them. The instructor besides highlights that there is a figure of possible solutions.
Till the terminal of the lesson the pupils form legion sentences.
4. 5. 2. Procedure 2
( see appendices 4, 5 )
The purpose of this lesson is to revise/teach nouns connected with the verb drama and verbs connected with the noun books, every bit good as pattern both unwritten and written forming of sentences with the tenses and have got.
As a short tune-up the instructor writes five uncomplete sentences on the chalkboard and asks each pupil to take one sentence and finish it with a missing phrase.
The instructor now draws a head map on the chalkboard. It contains the verb drama. The instructor asks the whole category to believe of every bit many nouns that can be used with drama as possible. After that the pupils are asked to organize sentences incorporating the verb drama and one of the collocating nouns. They are informed that they need to organize either an affirmatory, an interrogative or a negative, and utilize the two tenses or have got. The activity is done orally, and replies are elicited indiscriminately.
After this activity, the instructor conducts a similar activity, nevertheless, this clip the head map contains the noun books, and the pupils are asked to organize similar sentences but in 3rd individual remarkable merely. Each pupil is asked about his/her ain sentence.
Another activity is done in groups – there are two groups. Each group receives a image of a street ( see appendix 5 ) . Their undertaking is to compose a short narrative on the footing of the image. After they finish composing, one individual from each group reads aloud their narrative.
4. 5. 3. Procedure 3
( see appendix 6 )
The purpose of this lesson is to pattern composing utilizing known constructions.
First, the instructor conducts a tune-up: the pupils are asked to believe of something pleasant or unpleasant, so a few pupils are nominated to state the remainder of the category what they have been believing of and why.
The following measure is composing about something the pupils hate or love ( making ) . The instructor writes on the chalkboard a sentence: “ Something I hate/love ( making ) … ” , and asks the pupils to compose a short paragraph on the subject. When they finish composing, they exchange their paragraphs with co-workers from the desk and read aloud their work. The remainder of the category is listening.
After that, the instructor conducts another activity – the pupils are asked to take out a piece of paper and compose a sentence on it. They have 30 seconds to compose their sentence. After this clip, they need to turn up the sentence and base on balls the paper to another individual. Another individual unfolds last sentence and adds his/her ain to go on the narrative. The activity is done boulder clay every pupil receives his/her original sheet of paper.
If there is some clip left the instructor reads a few narratives to the category.
4. 5. 4. Procedure 4
( see appendices 7, 8A, 8B, 8C )
The purpose of this lesson is to pattern speech production and surrogate unwritten production by organizing sentences incorporating Present Simple, Present Continuous and have got.
At the beginning of the lesson the instructor conducts a short tune-up: the pupils are asked to conceive of they are person celebrated. In brace they need to inquire the other individual some inquiries, such as: “ Are you a singer? “ , “ Are you an histrion? “ , “ Are you from the US? “ , and seek to think their picks.
Then the instructor asks two voluntaries to execute another activity. The voluntaries sit at a separate tabular array and are provided with instructions to this activity. The instructor instructs them that they have to conceive of they play functions of person else – one individual is an interviewer, and the other individual is person celebrated ( this pupil needs to believe who he/she wants to be ) . The interviewer receives instructions on a little piece of paper what to inquire about during the interview ( see appendix 8A ) . They perform this state of affairs and the remainder of the category is listening to.
After the interview the instructor nominates four pupils to make another state of affairs. This clip two pupils need to conceive of that they are parents of one kid. They want to make a field day. The 4th individual plays a function of a wood Texas Ranger. Their undertaking is to execute the whole state of affairs harmonizing to the instructions given on little pieces of paper ( see appendix 8B ) . The activity is open-ended so the pupils need to hold on the result.
During the staying portion of the lesson the last scene is performed by two pupils nominated by the instructor. One individual plays the function of a driver, and the other individual of a police officer. Again, they receive instructions what to make and state, every bit good as agree on the result ( see appendix 8C ) .
4. 5. 5. Procedure 5
( see appendices 9, 10 )
The purpose of this lesson is to revise all the stuff covered during last four lessons every bit good as to further written production by making and reconstructuring the text.
As a warm-up the instructor asks the pupils to organize a few sentences with their favorite word, and state them to their neighbors. They do non hold clip to believe and hold to react instantly.
Another activity is composing about yourself. The instructor asks the pupils to take a sheet of paper and compose every bit much about themselves as they can for ten proceedingss. They are instructed to utilize Present Simple, Present Continuous and have got, and as many looks from old lessons as they remember. The instructor writes on the chalkboard a few countries on which to compose. These include: me and my household, my hometown, free clip activities, avocation, animate beings.
After they finish composing, the instructor nominates two pupils to read aloud what they have written.
The undermentioned phase is Reconstruction of “ Romeo and Juliet ” . First, the instructor reads a sum-up of Shakespeare ‘s drama to remind the pupils its secret plan and characters ( see appendix 10 ) . Then pupils are divided into two groups in which they need to compose their ain version of “ Romeo and Juliet ” . Before the terminal of the lesson, a leader from each group reads the narrative to the whole category.
4. 5. 6. Procedure 6 – questionnaire
( see appendices 11, 12 ) .
I decided to transport out a questionnaire after I had conducted all five lessons included in the research. The purpose of the questionnaire was to roll up subjective sentiments about the pupils ‘ attitude towards grammar, larning grammar at school, self – rectification and the lessons I had conducted to them.
There were eleven open-ended inquiries in the questionnaire, and some of them required of the pupils supplying longer replies.
4. 6. Datas presentation
In this sub-chapter all informations gathered from the processs is presented. It includes the informations form the five lessons and the questionnaire I conducted. In this portion I exhaustively depict my observations.
4. 6. 1. Datas obtained from process 1
Lesson 1 – Changing sentences
( see appendices 1, 2, 3 )
The first exercising was a tune-up to acquire all the pupils watchful and involved in the lesson. When I asked them to believe of some verbs and nouns and name them out, I could see that they were really involved and funny about what the activity could be approximately. Some pupils were looking through the coursebook to happen interesting words. I added some thoughts of my ain to do the list of verbs and nouns even more interesting. These are sample thoughts that appeared on the chalkboard: school, hairstylist, books, smart, jobs, eat, wash, money, cat, flour, bananas, read, newspapers, shoulders, a physician, tally.
When I distributed the press releases with 10 sentences, the pupils seemed to be interested – some of them asked me what they were traveling to make. When I explained the activity and everyone understood what they were supposed to make, I did non hold to give them much clip to believe – they filled the spreads in sentences straightforward. The bulk of the pupils did non even compose their replies on the press releases and did the whole activity orally.
There were a few voluntaries at the beginning. All their replies were right so I besides nominated some other pupils who performed reasonably good excessively. I noticed that even shy and reserved pupils enjoyed the chance to talk in forepart of the whole category.
When all the pupils answered and all the thoughts were exploited, I moved on to another activity – a text about Jane and Mary who were working in the office. When I was administering the press releases I could see that the pupils ‘ involvement was lifting. The text contained 11 phrases to replace. After I explained this activity, I noticed that the pupils from the first two rows were about completing it. I decided to supervise the remainder of the category to do certain that everyone had understood what to make. Some pupils asked me about vocabulary which indicated that they wanted to hold a figure of different replies in each illustration and make an original text.
When they finished replacing the underlined phrases in the text I nominated the pupils randomly to read illustrations with replaced phrases. I asked “ What have you got ( Bartek ) ? ” Answers were legion, some of them being amusing. For illustration, the first phrase was replaced by eating, firing, composing ; 5th phrase was replaced by work, computing machine games, jobs, household.
The pupils were truly involved in the activity, and some of them called the replies out to be better than others.
When I drew and completed a tabular array on the chalkboard some of the pupils asked me what game they were traveling to play. I explained that it was a undertaking with at a loss sentences, where their undertaking was to organize sentences utilizing one component from each field. Unfortunately, non all the pupils were involved in the activity. They seemed to be a small tired. I had to arouse replies from them because there were no voluntaries. However, each pupil managed to organize at least one sentence.
At least four pupils asked me inquiries whether they were giving right replies. They had the thought but wanted to do certain to avoid doing errors. Generally, I consider the activities were a great warm-up before following lessons. A assortment of permutation drills gave them much pleasance and forced them to believe. Activities were controlled which enabled most of the pupils to make them without much trouble.
4. 6. 2. Datas obtained from process 2
Lesson 2 – Mind maps
( see appendices 4,5 )
The pupils found this undertaking easy and did non hold any trouble in finishing provided sentences with their ain thoughts. This activity was a alteration of last lesson and woke my pupils up.
When I said that I was traveling to pull a head map on the chalkboard the whole category knew what I meant by the term head map. They informed me that they were making a similar activity during their Polish categories. I merely explained that I was looking for all possible nouns that collocate with the verb drama. The pupils were really involved in supplying me with replies. There were so many replies that I did non pull off to follow them. Most pupils called replies out, while some were looking for proper nouns in the coursebook. Here are some replies: the guitar, volleyball, football, cheat, fiddle, computing machine games, hide-and-seek, hoops.
After I made certain that all the replies were elicited, I instructed the pupils to organize one sentence utilizing the verb drama and one of the nouns. They needed to organize a sentence in Simple Present, Present Continuous or with the construction have got. Although I was anticipating a straightforward unwritten reply and nominated the pupils indiscriminately, most of them found this activity rather easy. For some pupils it was disputing and there were some minor errors. I noticed that all the pupils personalized their replies utilizing “ I ” , and that they were afraid of organizing a sentence in 3rd individual singular.
These are some sample replies:
Bartek formed such a sentence: “ I play hide-and-seek with my female parent ” .
MiA‚osz formed a different 1: “ She has to play the guitar ” .
Grzegorz said: “ I ‘m playing computing machine games now ” .
The pupils asked whether they liked the activity showed a batch of enthusiasm and answered that they loved it and would wish to make another head map, but with a different word.
When I drew another head map on the chalkboard and gave the noun books, one of the best pupils in the category provided me with as many five replies. This clip the pupils were even more eager to make the activity than earlier. They called out some more replies. Some of them are as follows: burn, transcript, bargain, purchase, sell, have got.
Before I said to them that they had to organize sentences with the noun books and one of the verbs from the head map, I decided to dispute the activity by inquiring them to organize sentences in 3rd individual remarkable merely. As I expected, this clip there were more errors than in the old head map. Merely a few pupils self – corrected, the others did non recognize they were doing errors. However, all the pupils managed to organize one simple sentence. Some illustrations include:
Kasia: “ She like read books ” . That pupil did non recognize she did a error even after bespeaking at that place was a error. I helped her to rectify it.
Tomek formed another sentence: “ Bartek sometimes steals English books ” .
The following phase of the lesson was a group work. I asked the pupils to split themselves into two groups. After everyone took their seats with their group, I asked them why they divided in such a manner. One group answered that they wanted to be in a group with Weronika b