This proposal paper will try to discourse the position and application of what effects motive has in the low hierarchal or level organisation workplaces for the houses or companies making concern in Thailand ; little organisations that have less than 50 staffs fit this description. What are the factors that motivate the employee to win, is it money, occupation publicities, fringe benefits? Once the findings have been reached, would they be able to use to similar organisations?
With today ‘s delicate economic state of affairss along with ferocious competitions in virtually all market topographic points, little size companies need to be able to vie and react to the of all time altering environment in a much faster gait. To be able to vie efficaciously, companies need to cut through “ Red Tapes ” or short-circuiting unneeded bureaucratism and adapt rapidly to the of all time altering milieus in the concern environment. In Thailand, there are no differences when it comes to vie and vie ferociously – they do. The purpose of this proposal is to concentrate its findings particularly on little transnational companies making concern in Thailand. The ground being that transnational companies who are carry oning concern in Thailand, similar to their subordinates in other states, would wish to see their returns on investing and recognize their net incomes on a annual footing and anticipating growing every individual twelvemonth followerss. Efficiency is one of the keys for transnational companies to vie efficaciously. This proposal will besides turn to how motivation theories are being used to in these organisations where perpendicular publicities are practical non-existence. No corporate ladders to mount for most employees. If this fact does non be, so what actuate employees? The survey will concentrate on the research theories based on Herzberg ‘s Motivation Theory that he and his co-workers wrote about motive 50 old ages ago. The survey will try to plan questionnaires to turn to the inquiry on Hygiene factors every bit good as the others motive factors which will be hypothesized on their existent application in the work topographic point in Thailand. One of the hypotheses will concentrate on pecuniary compensation factor that it is or it is non the major influence in motive for such a level or low degree hierarchy organisations [ Prendergast, 2002 ] .
This survey will based in Thailand little size transnational companies where there are about three degrees of the hierarchy and there are less than 50 people working full clip. For the intent of the survey, 5 transnational companies will be chosen. Main standards are: the house needs to be transnational company ; they employ less than 50 staffs, and that they have no more than three working degrees in hierarchy for five old ages. Furthermore, 95 % of the employees must be Thai subjects. To solidify the survey, companies need to be runing in Thailand for no less than 5 old ages and that the organisational construction must suit the standards of equal to or less than three degrees.
Productivity, profitableness, efficiency are merely some of the cardinal drivers that companies are anticipating from their oversea staffs and implement them steadfastly in order to last. To be productive and efficient for little size transnational organisations, flatter and less hierarchal degrees have been adopted. It cuts down determinations times and increases more action clip which suit the little transnational companies ‘ profiles. However, this efficiency besides has its drawbacks when it comes to occupation publicity or others traditional motivational factors. With level organisation, there are fewer ladders for employees to mount. Which posts another inquiry that occupation publicity is a major key to actuate people in any organisation?
The findings based on this survey will assist reply some of the inquiries General Managers, Human Resources Managers or merely apparent manager/supervisors in many little size transnational companies in Thailand. With that benefit in head, directors will be able to pull off their forces more efficaciously, decently and with something to cite with. The findings, nevertheless, may offer other benefits to other organisations that themselves are a portion of a big organisation that occupation publicity within the organisation is limited or do non be ; they can use the findings to their ain environment. Further a big size companies whose hierarchal are rather limited and/or occupation publicity are scarce, the findings based on this proposed survey could benefits the direction in those organisations every bit good.
Many directors are seeking the replies to the inquiry of “ How to maintain people motivated in today organisation where good effectual people are difficult to happen and retain ” . To both use the motive at the same clip seeking keeping, are the one of the human resource organisation ends. To acquire some of these replies, questionnaires based on the Employee Satisfaction Survey ( ESS ) will be used. This study is being used by many houses. However, there are many version of ESS. The ESS was foremost documented by “ The National Business Research Institute ” or NBRI [ NBRI, 1982 ] . It is used to estimate the satisfaction of the occupation of the employee has with the current company, compensation, acknowledgment, relationship, environment, etc [ Prendergast, 2002 ] . The questionnaires in this survey will be designed to cover many countries in the organisation as possible in an effort to deduce at the replies about what caused motive and the consequence it has to the organisation. How would the directors in similar organisations benefit from the findings? The reply lies in the fact that there are many similar construction of organisation although do non prosecuting in the same concern as the house chosen, nevertheless, with the background of the Thai people in this survey, the writer want that it can be applied get downing with the people in Thailand.
Another aim for this survey is to touch on the fact that organisation demands people who are dedicated, intelligence, diligence and productive to turn the company. Is he or she possessing the right backgrounds, has the right instructions, does he or she has the proper attitude toward the company, the workplace and the civilization? Of class brief interview with any possible campaigner for any occupation can non find the campaigner is the right for the occupation. Job probation construct was designed to filtrate out the incorrect pick employees. Although it is non in the range of this proposed research, the fact remains that you need to actuate these people foremost and seek to retain the 1s the houses want to maintain ; trusting that might be able to somehow convey those qualities out of the possible campaigners [ Herzberg, 1987 ] .
The survey in this paper will be utilizing portion of Frederick Herzberg the Hygiene Factor Theory of Motivation as portion of the design of the questionnaire. The Survey inquiries ( see sample in Appendix I ) are specifically designed to suit the size of the organisation and to reflect upon the demands to happen out on whether or non the employees are satisfied with their occupations in general and will besides utilize the consequences to deduce what are the motive factors the employees in the little, low hierarchal organisations have in common. This will besides show an chance if the findings can besides be applied to other similar in the demands organisations. Further, based upon the Hygiene Factor of Herzberg motivational theory, the findings will besides either to reenforce or dispute his theory? With the consequences obtained, although limited in size proposed at presence, it does non intend that the survey can non be extended to foster the survey in the hereafter. The premise is that chiefly the Motivation is the Independent variable. With the right sort of motive applied, productivenesss increase. The occupation itself or the consequences, the growing of the company becomes Dependent variable.
Restrictions of the Research
This research proposal is focus on little size, transnational companies who has about three degrees in the current organisation that must be in working order for the last 5 old ages. The sample size is besides the restriction in this survey since the proposed survey call for little size companies that has about 50 employees or less. This proposal is besides bound to five companies. The entire figure of employees is 250 employees in estimate. Due to the fact that some of the nature of the companies chosen which contained field forces who might non be available for the clip of the questionnaires is being distributed, difficult transcripts will be used in combination with electronic mails to the persons. The consolidation of the informations will be collected after two hebdomads of distribution and will be utilizing SPSS Regression method to assist cipher the consequences in quantitative presentation.
In order to acquire the persons of these companies cooperate with the survey, a formal missive will be written and addressed to the General Managers and/or Human Resources Managers of each houses inquiring permissions to carry on a study for research survey on what motive has on their employees. The consequences of the findings will be made available for the direction in the houses to carry on farther surveies if chosen.
Significant of the survey
The survey is design to analyze what motive factors employees have in the low hierarchal organisation taking into consideration that there are virtually a lesser sum of corporate ladders to mount, in the traditional sense, comparing to the organisations of old. There are Numberss of similar size of these companies carry oning their concerns in Thailand and more so in the adjacent states that may benefits from this paper one time the findings are presented. In add-on to the lesser degrees in the current organisations, there are other factors that companies need to fix themselves in viing every bit with others. Companies of this size pride themselves to be thin and effectual organisations ; besides the nature of the transnational companies forces them to be excess efficient while carry oning concern in other states. Tax returns on Investment ( ROI ) are ever on the Senior Management heads, actuating people caused them to be productive, therefore bring forth more net incomes. One of the demands that 95 % of the employees in each companies need to be Thai subjects, this will show clearer images of the motive factors. One of the premises that one of more of the direction of these houses is exiles running the concerns in Thailand. However, due to the restriction of the survey that the proposal called for five companies to be conducted, expatriates directors for these houses are non required. Even though this fact will assist see the contrast when comparing to Thai subjects direction squad, this is non a major demands in this survey. Educational backgrounds of the single employees are non the major factors since some of these houses possess field forces. However, this is important since the employees at this degree hold even less corporate ladders to mount, hence, occupation publicities with rubric and duties may non be adequately accommodate their civilization norms for Thai workers. The survey will so try to concentrate besides that the pecuniary wagess which will be portion of the questionnaires used in the studies. Once concluded, the findings will be made available to the houses that give permission to carry on the survey so they may benefits from the findings. In most of the transnational companies should already hold some kind of employee survey studies, nevertheless, the one straight related to what consequence motive has to the employees in the low hierarchal organisations may be scarce.
The paper used in this survey was written by Nigel Bassett-Jones, Oxford Brookes Business School, Oxford, UK and Geoffrey C. Lloyd, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka. The paper was published in the Journal of Management Development in 2005. The paper seeks to analyze the issue of Herzberg ‘s two-factor motive theory which will be used as mention theory in this paper.
The paper referred to the challenges in today organisation factors such as downsizing led ways to concentrate on employee empowerment [ Bassett-Jones et. Al, 2005 ] . Bassett-Jones ‘s paper raised the inquiry about the job to actuate people to lend thoughts within the context of work-based suggestion strategies [ Bassett-Jones et. Al, 2005 ] . With companies sing overpowering alterations after World War II, therefore the debut of globalisation and technological development has prompted the invention in engineering and overplus of new thoughts [ Ilinitch et. Al, 1996 ] . Parolini ‘s work in 1999 has besides been cited by Bassett-Jones [ 2005 ] that these on-going advancements prompted work forces to go on to better merchandises, systems and processes to vie reasonably.
To back up Herzberg ‘s position in fiscal wagess can be viewed negatively, commendation by Hiltrop ( 1995 ) was used to emphasize that psychological contract by employers hinder employment continuity and chances for calling patterned advance [ Bassett-Jones, et. Al, 2005 ] . This determination by Hiltrop ( 1995 ) will be used as portion of the survey in this paper to find whether or non pecuniary wagess are non the motive factor in the low hierarchal organisation in Thailand. This paper based on the study consequences obtained, analyze the statement made in Bassett-Jones ( 2005 ) paper cited Hiltrop ( 1995 ) that based on their combative proposition, money does non actuate [ Bassett-Jones et. Al, 2005 ] .
Bassett-Jones ‘s [ Bassett-Jones, et. Al, 2005 ] besides cited Taylorism in their paper that fundamentally people are lazy and faineant and stimulation to actuate them comes externally. The writers besides cited Hawthorn findings that people are motivate to work good for its ain interest, every bit good as for the societal and pecuniary benefits they received, and this is internally stimulated [ Bassett-Jones, et. Al, 2005 ] . In this paper will besides utilize these two findings as based to analyze farther to reason its findings. Many theoreticians had been cited by Bassett-Jones in her paper such as McClelland, Locke, Vroom, and Alderfer. Unfortunately, this paper will exclude their findings due to the constrained of this paper and its Scopess. This paper will utilize some of Peter and Waterman ( 1982 ) work on authorization and squad work as portion of the cogent evidence of this paper. Bassett-Jones ( 2005 ) cited that anticipation theory every bit good as equity, end scene and support resulted in the development of a simple theoretical account of motive alliance [ Locke, 1978 ] . Important suggestions that one time identified and aims are defined, wagess can be determined following to both function the organisation aims and satisfied employees [ Bassett-Jones et. Al, 2005 ] . On the other manus Herzberg maxim stated that unequal fiscal wages can demotivate and money [ Behling et. Al, 1968 ] is yet another hygiene factor that could do dissatisfaction [ Herzberg et. Al, 1959 ] . To emphasize this point farther, Herzberg ( 1959 ) stated that an betterment in one or more of a scope of factors including wage, supervising and chances for publicity would ensue in a move towards increased satisfaction, whilst a impairment would motivate a move in the opposite way ; dissatisfaction was a consequence of an absence of factors giving rise to satisfaction [ Bassett-Jones et. Al, 2005 ] . Sense of accomplishment, acknowledgment and work itself will be the cardinal focal point.
Bassett-Jones ( 2005 ) wrote that Herzberg suggested that motive is like self-charging battery and that employees become motivated themselves. Energy or want must come from within and that motive, by Herzberg definition, is internally generated non externally stimulated by inducements [ Prendergast, 2002 ] . Most significantly the statement suggested that persons do non necessitate incremental inducements to drive the internal engine [ Prendergast, 2002 ] . Critical success factors came from and integrating of preparation, assessment system, publicity and redundancy policies [ Bassett-Jones et. Al, 2005 ] .
Bassett-Jones ( 2005 ) paper concluded that with Herzberg research consequence, whilst repeat produces defeat and disaffection, it can besides bring on penetration and apprehension. These consequences from the research can used to swerve the keeping and skill dilution and usage to better morale and increase employee voice in the organisation. The writers besides cited the economic system factors every bit good as socio-psychological position to human dealingss on cultural based and should be understood by direction and unluckily can non be shared with the people at the underside of the organisation hierarchy [ Bassett-Jones et. Al, 2005 ] . This paper besides demonstrated that incentives associated with intrinsic drivers outweigh movers linked to fiscal incentive. Finally the inquiry is raised that whether employee demand for acknowledgment has become a hygiene factor in the modern-day employment competition? [ Bassett-Jones et. Al, 2005 ] Authors ‘ reply is while some incentives can travel some employees to lend thoughts ; the Numberss involved are significantly less than those who are motivated through a desire to get the better of defeat and contribute to organisational success. The organisation needs to draw a bead on to bring forth high commitment civilization is likely to turn out elusive without Taylorist paradigm continuity. In add-on, systems and processes that enable employees to work together to specify jobs and overcome defeats will resulted in great organisation [ Bassett-Jones et. Al, 2005 ] .
The independent in this survey is Motivation. Motivation as described by Robbins and Judge ( 2009 ) is “ The procedure that history for an person ‘s strength, way, and continuity of attempt toward achieving a end. ” To utilize this description in this survey for little, transnational houses carry oning concerns in Thailand where the organisational constructions are rather level, virtually no room for perpendicular publicity upward for employees. So to use motive by inquiring the employees to mount the corporate ladders is out of the equation wholly. The survey will turn the focal point upon an single strength of how concentrate the person is about his or her calling way. The continuity to remain with the aims to achieve the set end will besides be portion of the survey to happen the motive factors [ Locke, 1978 ] .
The work itself and the effectivity of the workplace will be the dependent variables study toward the decision of this survey based upon the theory related to the survey, what motive technique the writer may propose for direction to utilize in their houses. The effectivity of work itself can be farther comparison between the effectivity within the group or single ( Robbins and Judge, 2009 ) . What standards used to specify the degree of the effectivity in the workplace? Based upon effectivity in a group, certain determination must be made. Obvious determination made would be group determination, the undermentioned inquiry is that how could we estimate it truth in the determination made by the group. Would it take to successfully finishing the undertakings on manus? To be effectual, should the group be focus more on faster respond to any alterations in the environment – would this in itself one of the motive factors? Would an single determination devising in the little house studied be widely used alternatively of group determination? Further, would group determination lead to creativeness, possibly yes since there are many others with thoughts and if ends of organisation are the ultimate end [ Locke, 1978 ] . With these dependants in head, the survey can pull a concluding model based on the suggestions and nature of the findings based on the survey. The chief inquiry that will be focus upon still be the inquiry that ‘what are the motive factors of the people in the low hierarchal organisation ‘ ? Any efforts made by the direction to assist actuate their people? The findings hopefully will benefits some of these inquiries. If they chose to implement them, are at that place other effectual tools or methods to utilize, possibly. Would similar construction type organisation would benefits from this enterprise, may be.
Theory related to Independent Variable
There are many theories of Motivation ; the writer will concentrate utilizing the Herzberg Motivation Theory and will besides advert the Hygiene factors that may do the dissatisfaction in the occupation itself, therefore lead to employee dissatisfaction or de-motivation ( Herzberg et. Al, 1959 ) factors as the base theory to analyze this capable house of a little retail market audit in Thailand.
Based on Employee Satisfaction Survey ( ESS ) , questionnaires will be designed based general on this with major focal point to orient to seek to reply the inquiry about motive in such environment with demand in these houses. Factors mentioned in Herzbergs ‘s will be tailored to be the major portion of the questionnaires ; factors such as Company Policy, Supervision, work conditions [ Stead, 1972 ] , salary [ Behling et. Al, 1968 ] , relationship with Boss [ Brown, 1976 ] and equals likewise are the cardinal focal point countries that the study questionnaires were designed to concentrate on these factors. This by far represent merely one side of the constructs by Herzberg, others such as Job Satisfactions, Recognition, Achievement, Advancement, Responsibility and occupation itself will besides be tailored in the questionnaires. That raised yet another inquiry, that for companies this size, would this be the motive factors are used right or falsely used are they become the de-motivation factors?
Discussion of Dependent Variable
Other portion of the questionnaires touch base on work conditions, wage of the employees in these houses, once more are they motivation factors, strictly, or could it go the opposite factors that drive down moral among the employees. From the consequences, are relationships with coworkers and the engagement of the director or senior directors of import? Do employees appreciated this [ Brown, 1976 ] ? The occupation itself is the motive factors? The study will be touched upon occupation stimulation and disputing in many countries. Are accomplishments and acknowledgment for the occupation good done is the cardinal incentives? Is occupation quality among the employees ‘ frame of heads?
Relationship of the Independent variable to the Dependent variables
The relationships between the both the Hygiene factors and the Motivation factors can be summed up as correlated [ Brenner et. Al, 1971 ] . The hygiene factors such as work conditions [ Stead, 1972 ] , salary [ Behling et. Al, 1968 ] if non implemented carefully, and so these factors will go hinder to maintain employees motivated. The relationship with the equals and the immediate supervisor are they in the acceptable scope [ Brown, 1976 ] ? Would the educational backgrounds make them closer in the workplace, hence it is one of the factors?
Methods to utilize in this survey
The questionnaires were designed to cover many countries such as occupation satisfaction, compensation, acknowledgment, engagement, direction, relationship, working environment, the quality of work as the cardinal indexs besides on how prosecute the employees are with the organisation. The questionnaires will be directing via electronic mails to the single employees one time the permission letters have be approved by the houses. For those houses that contain field forces which some clip do non hold entree to computing machines or email histories while on the roads, paper signifiers of questionnaires will be used in stead of electronics email. The study inquiries will establish on the Likert system. In the inquiries about personal growing or invert looking of the employees, Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree and Strongly Disagree will be used to tally the consequences. Good, Average, Poor and Very Poor will be used in inquiries about environment. Questions refering to employee battle will besides be used. Do they believe the company handling them right? Would they go forth the organisation the first opportunity they get? Engagement besides referred to how the organisation treats its employees. Does it care about basic conditions [ Stead, 1972 ] of the organisation ; is it excessively hot or excessively cold. Do people acquire a opportunity to participated in the determination doing procedure? This aims to mensurate the keeping and the step if some of the motive factors are being applied.
As mentioned, the questionnaire will be distributed via electronic mail to all employees – supplying that they have entree to e-mail. If non difficult transcripts will be used. The employee has approximately two hebdomads to finish the questionnaires. The questionnaires are in Thai linguistic communication every bit good as English linguistic communication. Once the employees fill the questionnaires in which by the manner was design based on the Likert system of graduated tables. With the size of the organisation, the survey would anticipate 100 % respond. When the run is completed the consequences will be group into each class based on the responses. Approximately 250 responds will be expected and the Regression method of SPSS will be used to find the consequences. Results will be stand foring in Microsoft Powerpoint format for easiness of understanding. The presentation file so will be given to the senior director in charge and actions to be taken discuss.
Results- sum-up of the informations to be collected
100 % respond is expected since there are little Numberss of houses chose and at the same clip little figure of employees in each house. However, the Numberss expected in this survey should non travel below 200 responses to be conclusive to the findings. The information tallied will travel through the procedure of arrested development analysis to reason the findings and the concluding information prepare and present in Microsoft Powerpoint format.
H1 – Money is a cardinal incentive
One of the premise or Hypothesis is: for the low hierarchal or level organisational construction the money [ Behling et. Al, 1968 ] would be the cardinal incentive – H1.
Herzberg ( 1959 ) in his theory about the money entirely does non actuate [ Herzberg et. Al, 1959 ] . Would this survey turn out otherwise?
H2 – Is Job itself a incentive
Job satisfaction in making a good quality occupation itself is self carry throughing?
H3 – Promotion, personal accomplishment a cardinal incentive
Career and Training demand from the employees every bit good as Responsibility particularly in the Authority for determination devising, are these cardinal motive factors.
The on the job environment is besides of import. Per Herzberg ‘s ( 1959 ) theory, if non implemented right, the on the job environmental would go an issue as a Hygiene factor, hence demotivate the employee or at least caused the degree dissatisfaction to lift [ Brenner et. Al, 1971 ] . In the little group of people, the relationship in the work topographic point ranked high. Is this due to fact that the bulk of the employees are in the same age group and largely male dominated workplace environment with similar educational background contribute to this fact? Support between divisions and strong working relationship are they have been established? Compensation and other benefits such as fillips have taken any portion [ Blakemore et. Al, 1987 ] ? Normally bonus for these houses is being given at the terminal of the twelvemonth. The fact that most fillips are net income based, the sum of fillip pool depends on the house public presentation for the full twelvemonth. Would the motive factors link to the terminal consequences at twelvemonth terminal? Further to the sum given to the person besides based upon the consequences of the Performance Appraisal that is being done twice a twelvemonth. Department ends and company vision take portion in lucidity for employees of non? This would bespeak that the employers have fulfill their portion in the company or division aims and willing to guarantee its success [ Locke, 1978 ] .
The frame work or this survey based it happening on the Employee Satisfaction Survey of a little size of transnational companies carry oning concerns in Thailand where the figure of employee is about 50 people each and 5 of these companies will be chosen. Approximately 250 responses are expected. Once the study is done, informations will be collected and tally for conclude the findings. The inquiry asked will be at any given clip what motivates people in a level or low hierarchal organisation construction in Thailand will be the focal point. The consequences from the study will be shared to the direction of the houses to assist better the houses. This survey can besides be used to further analyze on cardinal factors that employees seek as motive themselves. Besides based on Herzberg ‘s findings and besides to see the study consequences, this survey will besides see this from Taylorism point of position in an effort to reason its findings.
To reason what are the motive factors in the low hierarchal organisation in Thailand, the survey need to set up that the houses meet the standards. Standards such as little size, no more than 50 employees, transnational organisation carry oning concern in Thailand, three degrees of hierarchy within the organisation working for five old ages. These are some the demands. Besides the facts that houses chosen have fulfilled their ain lucidity demand to their employees are necessities. Even though fillips for each person are significant and should be taken in to consideration as portion of the pecuniary compensation, these facts remain the unknown factors due to the nature of the pecuniary compensation can non non be revealed by the house ‘s direction [ Prendergast, 2002 ] . Is it making a good occupation that what actuate the employees? Does stimulation come from the occupation nature, this is the inquiry posted. Is a opportunity to assist do a determination a motive factors? This motive factor needs farther consideration since the company is run by direction and by its nature ; it can non afford to be democratic. The intimacy in working relationship [ Brown, 1976 ] , is it besides a factor? The findings in this survey hopefully will reply these inquiries. Aforementioned, if the findings will assist the direction in the selected houses ‘ benefits from its findings, the survey will be proven most successful. Further, if the findings can somehow finds its manner to assist other similar organisation, this would be the ultimate accomplishment.
Bassett-Jones, Nigel and Lloyd, Geoffrey C. , ‘Does Herzberg ‘s motive theory have remaining power? ‘ , Journal of Management Development, 2005, Vol. 24, No. 10, pp. 929-943
Behling, Orlando, Lobovitz, George, Kosmo, Richard ‘The Herzberg Controversy: A Critical Reappraisal ‘ , The Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1 ( Mar. , 1968 ) , pp. 99-108
Blakemore, E. , Low, Stuart A. Ormiston, Michael B. , ‘Employment Bonuss and Labor Turnover ‘ , Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 5, No. 4, Part 2: The New Economics of Personnel ( Oct. , 1987 ) , pp. S124-S135
Brenner, Vincent C. , Carmack, Claude W. , Weinstein, Mark G. , ‘An Empirical Test of the Motivation-Hygiene Theory ‘ , Journal of Accounting Research, Vol. 9, No. 2 ( Autumn, 1971 ) , pp. 359-366
Brown, Matha A. , ‘Values – A Necessary but Neglected Ingredient of Motivation on the Job ‘ , The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 1, No. 4 ( Oct. , 1976 ) , pp. 15-23
Herzberg, F.I. 1987, ‘One more clip: How do you actuate employees? ‘ , Harvard Business Review, Sep/Oct87, Vol. 65 Issue 5, p109-120
Herzberg, F. , Mausner, B. and Snyderman, B. ( 1959 ) ‘The Motivation to Work ‘ , New York: John Wiley and Sons,
Locke, Edwin A. , ‘ The Ubiquity of the Technique of Goal Setting in Theories of and Approaches to Employee Motivation ‘ , The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 3, No. 3 ( Jul. , 1978 ) , pp. 594-601
Prendergast, Canice, ‘Uncertainty and Incentives ‘ , Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 20, No. 2, Part 2: Compensation Strategy and Design ( Apr. , 2002 ) , pp. S115-S137
Stead, Bette A. , ‘Berlo ‘s Communication Process Model as Applied to the Behavioral Theories of Maslow, Herzberg, and McGregor ‘ , The Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 15, No. 3 ( Sep. , 1972 ) , pp. 389-394
hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Business_Research_Institute
July 11, 2009