An online questionnaire was e-mailed to our available contacts working in a corporate apparatus at assorted places, and in different sections. They were farther encouraged to send on the same to their contacts who, harmonizing to them, would be suited mark population for the study. The respondents were asked about how they approach their occupation, how much satisfied they found themselves with their current occupation scenario, and what was their perceptual experience about their ain public presentation.
Findingss: There is a Partial Mediation of Job satisfaction in the interaction between Motivation Type and Job Performance. An employee ‘s place in the organisation excessively affects the Motivation- Performance relationship.
Research Limitations/Implications: The method of on-line questionnaire was preponderantly used for the intent of this study. Since this involves low degree of interaction between the respondents and the research workers, the truth degree of the replies is lower. It might hold been possible that the respondents could non understand some parts of the questionnaire, or filled certain responses driven by societal desirableness prejudice. Second, our theoretical account links a individual forecaster to a individual result via a individual go-between. This may do the underestimate of the relationship between these variable as there is a possibility of it being caused by more than one forecaster, or affected by more than one go-betweens, or consequence in more than one result.
Third, our theoretical account is unidirectional that is, it assumes the flow of the relationship to be from Motivation type to Job Performance. It is possible, as is discussed subsequently in greater item, that it is Job Performance which affects the Motivation Type of an person.
Future research could be based on a more comprehensive theoretical account. It could besides prove the way of the relationship and supply some sound empirical grounds in this connexion. Besides, there is ever range for increasing the sample size to acquire a more accurate response.
Practical Deductions: The consequences can be used by HR Managers to plan such public presentation assessment systems, and compensation bundles for the employees that meet their purpose of actuating the employees to execute better.
Originality/Value: Ample research has been done to happen the relation between Motivation and Job Satisfaction, Job Satisfaction and Job Performance, and Motivation and Job Performance. But to the best of our cognition, this is the first effort at pulling a relation between motive and occupation public presentation through occupation satisfaction, and besides to analyze how this relationship is determined. This is a research spread that we unfeignedly hope our survey would be successful in filling.
Keywords: Motivation Type, Job Satisfaction, Job Performance, Intrinsic Motivation, External Regulation, Integrated Regulation, Identified Regulation, Introjected Regulation, Amotivation.
Paper Type: Student research survey paper.
In the recent times, much ballyhoo has been created about the high sums of wages paid to executives. The legion newspaper articles ( Economic Times, 23 January 2010 ) stand as a testimony to the fact. Most times, these high wages are justified in footings of their ability to maintain employees motivated ( Agarwal. 2010 ) . Clearly this justification assumes that a high wage that is pecuniary wagess can in fact motivate people and hence cause them to execute good. If this premise is false, so organisations are unnecessarily disbursement immense sum of money on a ineffectual intent.
Some surveies reveal that occupation satisfaction plays an of import function in doing the employees to non go forth their bing occupations, and therefore they perform good on them ( Allent A. , Veena, and Talia, 2010 ) . Our survey builds on this disclosure and goes on to happen empirical grounds to back up the relationship between motive type of an person and his degree of occupation satisfaction such that it consequences in better public presentation.
Another quandary faced by behavioural scientists and HR directors is that of the struggle between Agency Theory and Intrinsic Motivation position. The former asserts the inclination of employees to value their ain involvements over those of the organisation, and therefore lays the demand to invent methods such as monitoring and incentive strategies to ease public presentation. This reminds one of McGregor ‘s Theory X single. Contrary to this, the intrinsic motive position believes in the built-in desire of an person to work good in order to be accepted and appreciated in the societal context. It speaks about actuating people through intrinsic mechanisms. ( Ren, 2010 ) This survey besides attempts to happen an appropriate response to this quandary.
Research Background and Hypothesis
Understanding Motivation – The Predictor Construct
Work motive is understood as a set of energetic forces that originate both within every bit good as beyond an person ‘s being, to originate work related behaviors and to find its signifier, way, strength, and continuance ( Latham and Pinder, 2005 ) . The effort to analyze motive behavior at work was foremost made through Hawthorne surveies. This was followed by an array of theories like Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands, Herzberg ‘s two factor theory, et cetera. Of late, the turning belief is that there are different types of motive procedures ( Deci, 1992 ) . It is loosely defined into the undermentioned three classs:
Extrinsic Motivation – Motivation caused by external factors such as sensed equity of the pecuniary and promotional parts of the compensation system ( Herpen, Praag, and Cools 2005 )
Intrinsic Motivation – When people are involved in an activity for the interest of involvement generated by the activity itself ( Gagne and Deci, 2005 )
Amotivation – Non-intentional behavior or impersonal causing of motive ( ( Deci, 1992 )
Now, we have many theories prevalent as to what drives this motive. Some research workers suggest that wagess do non harm intrinsic motive ( Eisenberger and Cameron, 1999 ) . Some others maintain a impersonal point of view by merely stating that their surveies have proved that workers working not-for-profit displayed much higher intrinsic motive as compared to those working for-profit ( Lanfranchi, Narcy and Larguem, 2010 ) . While a 3rd school strongly asserts that expressed inducement strategies are bootless in the long tally because they injure an person ‘s intrinsic motive by cut downing the built-in value of the undertaking to him ( Benabou and Tirole, 2003 ) . It is because of this argument that the recent times have witnessed an addition in the attempts to mensurate an person ‘s motive behavior. The measuring facet is discussed in greater item when we mention the graduated table used by us for the same intent. Many other feeders of motive types have flown out of the three basic 1s discussed above.
In the position of the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic motive, it was concluded that motive takes topographic point within an person at three hierarchal degrees of generalization: Global ( Personality ) , Contextual ( Life Domain ) , and Situational ( State ) ( Vallerand, 2001 ) . It is from here that we derive our moderator for this survey.
Role of Moderator
The moderator we have chosen is – the respondent ‘s place in the organisation. We have derived this from the 3rd hierarchal degree mentioned above that is, Situational. Situation, harmonizing to the same article by Vallerand, refers to the here and now of motive in the sense of the current province. We take the current place in the organisational hierarchy as the determiner of the current state of affairs. Assorted researches have proved that there is an ascertained difference between motive type displayed by employees at different degrees. For illustration, the consequences of one survey show that workers with low incomes in non-supervisory places were most concerned with money, while workers with higher incomes and higher organisational places were motivated more by the work and its quality ( Rai, 2004 ) . It has besides been found that in-between degree directors are severely squeezed under work force per unit area, and their desire to travel higher up in the organisation ladder leads to an increasing loss in the sense of individuality ( Gebler and David, 2009 ) . Clearly, such a different work environment is faced at senior degrees. It is these conditions that an person is subjected to, that impact his current motive type. From the position of work motive, we are merely interested in current province of motive because that is what of course plays the biggest function in finding their public presentation. Therefore, we have our first research hypothesis whose cogency we seek to turn out:
H1 = The impact of motive type on occupation public presentation is contingent upon the place of the respondent in the organisational hierarchy.
Understanding Job Performance – The Outcome Construct
Performance is said to be viewed from three positions: the maps fulfilled, behaviors displayed, and functions performed by an employee ; the traits and accomplishments of an employee ; and the determinations taken by the employee ( Borman & A ; Brush, 1993 ) . The sphere of occupation public presentation is invariably under the lens of the research workers. Newer methods of measurement and explicating it are invariably being created. One really interesting position adopted is that of contextual facets of occupation public presentation. This impression believes that in add-on to executing of certain undertakings laid down by the occupation description, occupation public presentation besides includes a series of other organisational activities ( Arvey and Murphy, 1998 ) . This impression is in line with the progressively accepted through empirical observation supported belief that public presentation is multidimensional in nature. For case, following are the eight specific dimensions of occupation public presentation ; these could besides be understood as the constructs used to specify Job public presentation as a construct: diligence, thoroughness, agenda flexibleness, attending, off-task behavior, unruliness, larceny, and drug abuse ( Hunt, 1996 ) . In this mode, assorted other research workers have attempted to develop dimensions and imputing them to public presentation, therefore widening the sphere of this concept.
Understanding Job Satisfaction – The Mediator Construct
Confirmation/ Disconfirmation paradigm is a widely accepted procedure to understand the possible ways in which an person develops a feeling of satisfaction or dissatisfaction ( Chowdhury, Roy and Ghose, 2008 ) . Following are the three ways:
Confirmation: The instance when existent outcomes merely fit up to the criterion or benchmark degree.
Satisfaction: The instance when existent results are better than the criterion or benchmark degree.
Dissatisfaction: The instance when existent results are much below the criterion or benchmark degree.
The same article besides mentions that satisfaction degree of an employee is affected by the figure of old ages he has spent in the peculiar industry. Harmonizing to this, the employees are classified in three classs: the newlyweds, the dissatisfied midterm, and the experient veterans. The first type are new to the industry and therefore due to the exhilaration of newness of things, have really high satisfaction degrees. The 2nd type has spent some clip in the industry and is now in the stage of disagreement sing the procedures and the manner things are done. They have the lowest satisfaction degrees among the three types. The 3rd type has spent considerable clip in the industry and has become used to the procedure, it has besides learned ways to do the existent results fitting outlook. They are in a content province with respects to satisfaction.
Many questionnaires have been devised to mensurate the occupation satisfaction degree of persons. We ‘ll discourse them shortly.
Relationship between Motivation Type and Job Satisfaction
It is widely believed, and besides through empirical observation upheld by assorted research workers that intrinsic motive leads to occupation satisfaction ( Saleh, Hyde 1969 ) . The basic logical thinking behind this belief is that a rational single utilizations is known accomplishments to the fullest extent in order to continuously prosecute personal growing. At the same clip there are surveies which reveal that motive to work on occupations with intrinsic features leads to occupation satisfaction merely in richer states. On the contrary, motive to work on occupations with extrinsic features leads to satisfaction in all states ( Huang and Vliert, 2003 ) .
A Our group has chosen to continue with the former position that intrinsic motive leads to higher occupation satisfaction. In add-on to back up from literature reappraisals, this understanding is besides driven by intuition. The concluding literary support in favor of the hypothesis put away based on this analysis comes from a survey conducted in France where it was concluded that satisfaction can be enhanced by doing pecuniary benefits attractive, but this in bend injures the employee motive degree. The writer of this research paper called it a sort of Rejection Effect among employees which suggested that the degree of their being excited about the benefits is reciprocally relative to their degree of motive in work ( Igalens and Roussel, 1999 ) . Therefore, we now propose our 2nd hypothesis to be validated in the research:
H2 = There exists a positive relationship between the degree of intrinsic motive displayed by an employee and the degree of satisfaction he derives from his occupation.
Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Performance
Surveies on, effects of contingent wages on intrinsic motive, work-life balance, effects of complex organisations on the attitudes and satisfaction and abilities of public presentation, etc. all in some manner suggest the possibilities for growing in the relationship between Job satisfaction and Performance.
Job satisfaction is an indispensable manner to do an employee perform. In his paper on Feedback, Baird says that every employee likes being recognized for his good work and expects some sort of award, either touchable or non. The privation for this acknowledgment, if adequately given, makes him execute even more, Therefore, it is really of import to do an employee feel satisfied at his workplace. Through his research he besides says that Job satisfaction and public presentation are non related and non able to bring forth public presentation in instance where no feedback is given even when the satisfaction degree is high. On the other manus, occupations with low satisfaction degrees but feedback generate public presentation.
Some research workers put forth the statement that satisfaction comes out of intrinsic wagess and feelings of accomplishment with nil to be controlled by external bureaus. But as per undertaking features by Lawler and Hackman ( 1969 ) , public presentation leads to sense of achievement when the undertaking is high on assortment, individuality, liberty and feedback and therefore, eventually delivers satisfaction.
Green and Haywood ( 2007 ) in their article on Performance wage argue that, Performance wage is an instrument for bring forthing satisfaction and eventually public presentation. Though, the consequences may be negative excessively for ill designed subjective systems, for hazard averse employees, etc.
Therefore, we can now province our 3rd Hypothesis:
H3: There exists a positive relationship between the degree of occupation satisfaction received and the public presentation delivered by an employee.
Relationship between Motivation Type and Performance
Performance is a map of Motivation and ability. Vroom ‘s Expectancy Theory besides talks about Motivation and Management playing a critical function in the public presentation of an employee. Hackman and Lawler ( 1971 ) identified three psychological provinces of of a occupation to do it actuating: experient Meaningfulness, experienced Responsibility for work results and the cognition of the consequences. The MPS ( Motivating Potential Score ) by Oldham and Hackman and SDT ( Self-determination Theory ) by Deci and Ryan, all emphasize on Motivation and its sorts since, it plays an of import function in Job Performance.
Gillet, Rosnet and Vallerand ( 2009 ) speak about foretelling the future public presentation of the participants based on the Motivational Clusters the participants have at the beginning of the season. This basically is seeking to prolong the statement for our following hypothesis:
H4: There exists a positive relationship between the sort of Motivation received and the public presentation delivered by an employee.
Performance through Motivation with Job Satisfaction as the mediator- A Research Gap
We, through this research paper shall seek to bridge the research spread on set uping the relationship between Motivation and Performance when Job Satisfaction acts as a go-between.
Therefore, saying the Fifth Hypothesis:
H5: The consequence of Motivation Type on Job Performance is mediated by the Job satisfaction.
The Sample comprised of professionals from assorted industries including Information Technology, Manufacturing, HR Firms, Banking, etc. working at different degrees, under different sections. They were basically the industry contacts of the research workers and contacted through electronic mails. Questionnaires were sent to the respondents and the consequences therefore, farther worked upon.
The questionnaire calculated the value for the three concepts utilizing the undermentioned information.
Motivational Behavior: This has been measured by the Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale ( WEIMS ) . WEIMS consists of 18 points which correspond to six types of motive postulated by Self-Determination Theory ( SDT ) , assigned different weights ( Blanchard, Tremblay, Taylor and Pelletier ) . These motive types are: intrinsic motive, integrated, identified, introjected, and external ordinances, and amotivation. SDT was given by Deci and Ryan, and it focuses on the “ nature ” of motive of an person, that is the “ why ” of the behavior. WEIMS asks the participants to bespeak the extent to which a given point represents the ground why they are soon involved in their work, on a 5-point Likert Scale. ( Appendix A )
We had besides considered utilizing the Situation Motivation Scale ( Guay, Vallerand and Blanchard ) for this intent. But WEIMS covers the motive behavior in greater and more thorough item. Integrated Regulation and Introjected Regulation are two extra signifiers of Motivation Behaviours that are covered by WEIMS and non by SIMS. In add-on to this, WEIMS has a broad pertinence in varied organisation scenarios.
Job Satisfaction: The graduated table to mensurate this was Brayfield & A ; Rothe ‘s ( 1951 ) index of overall occupation satisfaction.This instrument consists of 5 points which utilize a 5-point Likert Scale. ( Appendix B )
Job Performance: Performance was measured utilizing a self assessment version of Mahoney et Al ‘s ( 1963, 1965 ) nine-dimensional managerial public presentation evaluation graduated table. The nine dimensions include 8 sub-dimensions of public presentation and one individual overall evaluation ( Adler and Reid ) . ( Appendix C )
General Information: This subdivision required information about the participant. It besides covered the facets that act as moderators while analyzing the consequences in the procedure of the survey.
The CronBach Coefficient for the graduated tables has been calculated utilizing the responses to the inquiries and the SPSS Software. The values, as disclosed subsequently were greater than.7 for all.
The survey uses the Four measure mediation method by Baron and Kenny.
Multiple Regression Analyses were carried out to understand the consequence and mutuality of assorted concepts, with and without Moderation. The first Analysis is the Effect of Motivation Type on Job Performance with Job Satisfaction moving as the Mediator. Thereafter, Using the Moderator, Position in the organisation, taking it as Senior Position, the Mediator consequence is recalculated. Last, merely for place as Junior, the Mediator consequence is once more calculated.
Mentioning to Table 1, all the concepts show a positive and strong correlativity with each other, the highest correlativity being between, Job Satisfaction and Motivation.
( 0.86 )
( 0.87 )
( 0.75 )
( ) implies the CRONBACH ‘s Value for the graduated table
Mediation without Moderation:
The Following Table 2, provide the different Statistical values calculated during the Multiple Arrested developments:
Step1: The Dependent Variable Job Performance is regressed against the Independent Variable, Motivation sort. The dependance is found to be important with a R2 value of 23.9 % , P & lt ; .001 and F=31.177. There is a possibility of Mediation, doing such great impact. The Hypothesis, H4 therefore, stands true that Job Performance is straight affected by the Motivation Type.
Step2: The Dependent Variable, which is the go-between in the research proposition, Job Satisfaction is regressed against the forecaster, Motivation. This besides consequences in significance with P & lt ; .001, R2=38.3 % and F=62.945. Therefore, we can travel in front with the Analysis. The Hypothesis, H2 that Motivation type affects Job Satisfaction, stands true.
Step3: The Dependent Variable, Job Performance is regressed against the Mediator as a forecaster to look into the significance of the relation. The significance is once more sustained with a arrested development of 20.1 % , P & lt ; .001 and F=24.9. H3 saying that Job Satisfaction has a important impact on Performance besides is verified.
Step4: Finally the impact of both the independent Variables, Motivation and Satisfaction ( as a go-between ) is together regressed against the Dependent Variable Job Performance. The Trial is still important but less than that in Step1. The Unstandardized Beta has decreased by.062 connoting a six per centum lesser impact on Performance via the Moderator, therefore, the Mediation consequence. Beta value has excessively significantly gone down by 0.146.
Therefore, it can be said that there is Partial Moderation by Job Satisfaction for the interaction between Motivation Type and Job Performance. The Hypothesis, H5 saying that Motivation Type affects Job Performance, mediated by Job Satisfaction can be assumed to be true seeing the partial consequence.
Moderator Affected Mediation
The Hierarchical Position of an Employee as to his Job Responsibility and answerability which come with the Level, affect the Motivation Type, the Job Satisfaction and therefore, the Performance. The Moderator ‘s affect is studied through another set of arrested development wherein merely the employees in senior degrees are considered for response and the tonss.
Stairss stated above are so repeated to happen Mediation under Moderation.
It can be observed that, the Standardized Beta value comes higher for those in senior Positions, connoting that the impact of Motivation is more on Performance for employees in senior places. The Tests remain important with B=.177, P & lt ; .001, F=6.432.
The Hypothesis, H1, saying that Motivation Type affects Job Performance, contingent on the place in the organisation is therefore, proved.
Discussion and Deductions:
While earlier surveies have strengthened the fact that Motivation and Performance are positively correlated, the research here non merely supported the relation but besides proved the interceding affect of Job Satisfaction. The Motivation sought by Human head as loosely categorized above is converted to a motive mark which represents, Self Determination ( Deci and Ryan ) , and it can be herewith concluded that this Motivation leads to Job Satisfaction in an employee, which finally leads to Performance.
Although, the nature of mediation is partial, which can be explained as, there can be factors other than satisfaction which generate public presentation from a good motivated employee.
Out of the several sorts of Moderators, viz. Global, Contextual and Conditional, the one taken into history here, which could impact the concepts most is, the situational moderator of place. The place of an employee in an organisation straight impacts what motivates him to work more and expeditiously. As proven, for a senior degree employee, the Job Performance affected straight or indirectly by Motivation, is more than that at a Junior Level. With the addition in duties and liberty, the Job satisfaction additions and therefore, the public presentation is boosted.
The Research within its restrictions and drawbacks, if any, has tried to indicate towards a manner to replying the public presentation issues at workplace. A fresh manner to look at the public presentation could be to fit the Motivation demands of the employee with the Job provided, so that this could take to a status of satisfaction at work and efficient Performance.