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Occupational Health And Safety Of Women Labourers Construction Essay

The building industry is one of the major industries of the universe.It contributes a big portion to Sri Lankan economy.The building industry spreads to Construct a edifice for residential/commercial intent, Renovation work or care work of bing edifice, Construction of highways/Bridges, Construction of H2O supply and drainage systems or other building work.

2. Traditionally building industry of Sri Lanka is a male dominated industry. But recent nowadays it is a common sight that adult females engagement in building industry. It is common to see in many building sites, main road building sites and route care sites there composing of female engagement is high. Although adult females engagement is high they surfer from unfairness working conditions and this a research determination of Sri Lankan Labour Department in 2007.

3. In building industry at least 60,000 people in the universe are fatally injured every twelvemonth. Many 100s of 1000s more suffer serious hurts due to falling objects, burning, trapped in diggings and accidents by vehicles. Major wellness jobs are back hurts musculoskeletal upsets, exposure to risky substances and hearing loss. 1 Identified job related to building industry in Sri Lanka is deficiency of attending to Occupational Health and Safety of employees who are functioning in the industry as laborers. This state of affairs is worse for the adult females in the industry and they are extremely affected in this scenario.

1Wijesundara W.L.S. , Occupational Safety in Construction Industry ( page 83 )

4. When comparing with other industries, building industry is a reasonably hazardous occupation supplying sector. Besides usually in a one building site assorted building activities on traveling on same clip. Eg: Electrical Work, Plumbing work, Masonry Work, Carpentry Work. So many bomber contractors employee these labors at the same clip. So that most of these employees non realized their employer. These cumulative undertaking agreements at one time increase this hazard. “ Construction industry consists of one of the most unsafe on the job activities. Many Occupational jeopardies are at the same time present at building sites. Accident hazards, dust, noise, quiver, radiation, chemicals and other jeopardies stuffs, heavy physical work and ergonomic jobs are common occupational jeopardies in building industry. Inadequate OHS is chief cause for absenteeism among the adult females laborers in the building industry.

5. Mr. Mahinda Samarasinghe ‘s research findings says that, In the twelvemonth 1999, 10 out of 37 fatal accidents and 103 out of 2142 serious accidents reported to the Department of Labour were from building sector. These statistics do non supply the exact state of affairs of the building industry nor does relay bespeak the state of affairs in other industries in the state. Most industries do non describe accidents to the Department of Labour, although it is a legal demand under Factories Ordinance of 42 of 1945. In regard of non coverage of accidents, we are good cognizant that covers the safety and wellness of workers in the building sector2.

6. The aim of this survey is to happen out the importance of Occupational Health and Safety constituent to adult females laborers in building industry to heighten productiveness. To heighten employee productiveness employee absenteeism should minimise. Absenteeism consequence low productiveness. Absenteeism occurs due to assorted grounds such as hapless working conditions, emphasis, conveyance jobs, etc.

2Samarasinghe M. , Are our building sites safe from Construction Hazards ( 2002.08.04 )

Through out this survey researcher seeking to happen out the relationship between Occupational Health and Safety and Absenteeism.

Chapter 2



1. The purpose of the research is to place the relationship between. Occupational Health and Safety and, Absenteeism of Women Labourers in the Construction Industry


2. Lack of attending to Occupational Health and Safety of employees who are functioning in the industry as laborers are identified jobs related to building industry in Sri Lanka. This state of affairs is worse for the adult females in the industry and they are extremely affected from this job. Whether this state of affairs has a correlativity with the absenteeism is a inquiry needs an reply.


3. The research hypothesis is that the Inadequate OHS is the chief cause for absenteeism among the adult females laborers in the building industry.


4. The research is focused to happen whether the Inadequate OHS is chief cause for absenteeism among the adult females laborers in the building industry.


5. To analyze the relationship between the OHS degree and the absenteeism of the female laborer engaged in building industry.


6. The specific aims are

To place Occupational Health and Safety conditions of adult females laborers in Construction Industry

To place the specific Occupational Health and Safety conditions specifically impacting the adult females laborers which lead to occupational hurts faced/ environmental and Occupational Health Hazard and Diseases

To place whether there is a relationship between OHS and Absenteeism

To urge the options to elate the Occupational Health and Safety conditions of adult females laborers in Construction Industry


7. The needed informations for the research was collected from the undermentioned beginnings ;

a. Primary Sources. Primary beginnings will include informations and information.

Statistical Data. Statistical informations were collected from administrative studies, facts and figures of Department of Labour.

( 2 ) Interviews. Officials of assorted assignments of Department of Labour and supervisors of sites were interviewed to roll up information.

( 3 ) Questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed among 20 adult females employees who were absent to the work really frequently of three sites as the sample.

B. Secondary Sources. Information was gathered from relevant books and net sites of the cyberspace.


8. The paper will be structured as follows:

a. Chapter I. _ Introduction.

B. Chapter II _ Methodology.

c. Chapter III. _ Literature Review and Theoretical Frame work.

d. Chapter IV. _ Data. Presentation.

Chapter V. _ Data Analysis, Discussion and Findings.

f. Chapter VI. _ Conclusion and Recommendations.


9. Available clip period for this research is merely 03 months and research paper is limited to 5000 words. This study merely covers the Colombo District and can non be taken as representation of the full industry. Some employers are loath to interview their employees in sites as they are purely on marks. It was a hard undertaking to turn up the employees who absent to the work because they were employees in another site.

Chapter 3



It is of import to look into how Occupational Health and Safety patterns help to accomplish organisational ends and aims. To understand the relationship developed theories can be used. Throughout this chapter research worker has concentrate how occupational wellness and safety constituent importance and relates with the industrial dealingss by utilizing theoretical accounts.


Since 1950, the International Labour Organization ( ILO ) and the World Health Organization ( WHO ) have shared a common definition of occupational wellness. It was adopted by the Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health at its first session in 1950 and revised at its 12th session in 1995. The definition reads: “ Occupational wellness should take at: the publicity and care of the highest grade of physical, mental and societal wellbeing of workers in all businesss ; the bar amongst workers of goings from wellness caused by their on the job conditions ; the protection of workers in their employment from hazards ensuing from factors adverse to wellness ; the placing and care of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological and psychological capablenesss ; and, to sum up, the version of work to adult male and of each adult male to his occupation. ”

Relationship between Working conditions and HRM

Theoretical Explanations Related to occupational Health and Safety

Common Causes of accidents

Relationship between Working Conditions AND HUMAN Resources Management

3. It is of import to understand the how on the job conditions interrelated with Human Resources Management and how it affect the ultimate organisation public presentation. Better working conditions are guarantee the efficient and effectual use of Human Resources in the organisation and increased productiveness. Worker motive is the chief fact behind the productiveness. Therefore motives theories can explicate this scenario.

a. Herzberg ‘s two factor theory of Motivation- From this research, Herzberg suggested a two-step attack to understanding employee motive and satisfaction

Hygiene factors- Hygiene factors are based on the demand to for a concern to avoid unpleasantness at work. If these factors are considered unequal by employees, so they can do dissatisfaction with work. Hygiene factors include:

Company policy and disposal

Wagess, wages and other fiscal wage

Quality of supervising

Quality of inter-personal dealingss

Working conditions

Feelingss of occupation security

Motivator factors- Motivator factors are based on an person ‘s demand for personal growing. When they exist, incentive factors actively create occupation satisfaction. . If they are effectual, so they can actuate an person to accomplish above-average public presentation and attempt. Motivator factors include:


Opportunity for promotion

Deriving acknowledgment


Challenging / exciting work

Sense of personal accomplishment & A ; personal growing in a occupation

b. Maslow ‘s Motivation Theory-Abraham Maslow ( 1954 ) attempted to synthesise a big organic structure of research related to human motive. Prior to Maslow, research workers by and large focused individually on such factors as biological science, accomplishment, or power to explicate what energizes, directs, and sustains human behaviour. Maslow posited a hierarchy of human demands based on two groupings: lack demands and growing demands. Within the lack demands, each lower demand must be met before traveling to the following higher degree. Once each of these demands has been satisfied, if at some future clip a lack is detected, the person will move to take the lack. The five degrees are:

1 ) Physiological: hungriness, thirst, bodily amenitiess, etc.

2 ) Safety/security: out of danger ;

3 ) Properties and Love: affiliate with others, be accepted ; and

4 ) Esteem: to accomplish, be competent, addition blessing and acknowledgment.

5 ) Self Realization

Theories on Common Causes of Accidents

5. Possibly the most influential theory of accident causing has been Heinrich ‘s Domino Theory of the 1920s. Basically, the theory states that and accident taking to injury or damage is the consequence of a five phase sequence. Each Domino hence represents a linked cause. Remove any one of them and the sequence can non run its class, and hence harm or hurt will non be incurred.

6. Over clip, consensus has built up about the types of cause represented by each Domino phase. By now, we know plenty about the last two phases ( the accident and ensuing hurt or harm ) , but some typical illustrations of the first three causes are:

Work situationA

Mistake of individual

Unsafe act

Inadequate direction control

Insecure system design

A Lack of suited criterions

Faulty or unequal equipment

Business pressuresA

Insufficient accomplishment or cognition

Failure to followA processs

Personal problemsA

Lack of motive



Procedure mistake

Taking short cuts

Taking unneeded hazards

Removal of safety equipment

Failure to utilize safety equipment

7. The organisational factors in Reason ‘s theoretical account include resource allotment, wellness and safety ends, deputation of duty and authorization, workplace design, procurance of equipment, etc. These are communicated throughout the organisation as workplace factors, such as policies and processs, work agendas, instructions, preparation, and so on. These factors affect the frontline worker and ( in accident scenarios ) may act upon them to cut corners for case, to run into an pressing deadline, or to presume that a cardinal care action can be left for person else to carryout. .

8. Reason ‘s theoretical account may be less attractive to the wellness and safety practician than Heinrich ‘s because it offers less pick about where to get down undertaking safety in the organisation, and because the get downing point it offers ( organisational scheme and civilization ) may non be easy for the wellness and safety practician to influence. Even more discouraging is the belief among some experts, that the causing of accidents in certain bad systems, is excessively complex even to turn to from the point of view of organisational factors.

Relationship between Occupational Health and Safety and Absenteeism

9 In this competitory environment, employees undergo nerve-racking state of affairss and failure to describe to work. “ A important ground aside from unwellness of employee absenteeism is physical and mental stress1

10 Physical and Mental occupation emphasis person is likely to hold greater occupation dissatisfaction, addition absenteeism2

11 Above two studies have substantiated the relationship between Occupational Health and Safety and absenteeism.

12 This research describes the relationship between Occupational Health and Safety and Absenteeism. Researcher is seeking to turn out the necessity of standard Occupational Health and Safety patterns to an organisation to cut down employee absenteeism. Conceptual Framework is developed placing independent and dependent varies.

13 Every organisation efforts to maximise their net incomes and wealth. For this effort they use assorted direction schemes. Under the strategic formation they should keep concern and legal demands. Occupational Health and Safety is one of those chief demands. It is necessary to Human Resources Management a batch in an organisation. Organizations try to make a safe and healthy work environment for their employees for chief three grounds. The first is selflessness ; that is the organisation truly cares for all its members.

The 2nd is the fiscal and non fiscal benefits for the company. Lower absenteeism and turnover, higher productiveness, reduced insurance rates, better employee morale and enhanced entreaty to occupation applications. The 3rd ground is conformities with federal province, and local ordinances. Misdemeanors of wellness and safety Torahs can intend big mulcts, bad publically and even gaol senses for top directors.

14 For maintain Occupational Health and Safety demands organisations should command and minimized Occupational hurts faced by employees, cut down Environment and Occupational Health jeopardies, bar methods should transport out for occupational diseases, should supply Safety equipments and Health and safety preparations should supply to employees.

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