In line with the rapid socio-economic development in recent old ages, instruction in Cambodia has undergone major alterations in footings of course of study and learning stuffs every bit good as manner of instruction and acquisition. Meanwhile, new method of learning and larning in EFL was foremost introduced in Cambodia in 1992 by Quaker Service Australia ( QSA ) ( Vira, 2010 ) . The Kampuchean authorities has promoted a student-centered attack to learning since so and a national course of study was revised through the cooperation between the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sport ( MoEYS ) and non-governmental organisations. Based on course of study policy with the purpose of bettering quality of instruction, a new course of study policy has been endorsed that pursues a student-centered attack. The Ministry ‘s Curriculum Policy 2005-2009 ( MoEYS, 2004, p.7 ) provinces:
“ The instruction plan for the bringing of the national course of study in each school must be structured, systematic and student-centered, include in-classroom and out-of-classroom activities, involve pupils in both theoretical and practical acquisition and supply chances for the encouragement and development of creativeness ”
The English linguistic communication is of import vehicle for information and communicating in the current age of globalisation because English is the linguistic communication most often used across national boundaries and is therefore the planetary linguistic communication ( Crystal, 1997 ) . However, Naisbitt and Aburdence ( 1990 ) stress the function of English in relation to local linguistic communications: English is non replacing other linguistic communications. Parallel to the construct of Naisbitt and Aburdence, Hasman ( 2005, p.5 ) province:
“ Alternatively, it may supplement or co-exist with linguistic communications by leting aliens to communicated across lingual boundaries and unfastened window to the universe, unlocks door to chance and spread out our head to new thought. ”
In add-on, English is used as the lone functionary working linguistic communication of the Association of Southeast Asia ( ASEAN ) , unlike most other international organisations which take a multi-lingual attack. This has given a strong motive for Cambodia to develop English-speaking forces. Clayton ( 2007 ) observes: “ ASEAN ‘s linguistic communication policy has introduced what one Ministry functionary in 2000 termed ‘tremendous force per unit area ‘ in Cambodia. Simply put, Kampuchean representatives, delegates, and conferees must cognize English. ” English was introduced into the school course of study in Cambodia in 1989 ( Vira, 2002 ) . Prior to that, French was the dominant foreign linguistic communication. In today ‘s Cambodia, English is the most preferable foreign linguistic communication. It is the linguistic communication used in international concern and instruction.
In acknowledgment of this fact, MoEYS has introduced a assortment of learning methods for English instruction. Among these varied methods, “ communicative linguistic communication instruction ” ( CLT ) has been most strongly encouraged. The CLT attack advocates the development of communicative competency as a primary end through the extended usage of the 2nd linguistic communication as a agency of communicating during schoolroom lessons ( Mangubhai, Marland, Dashwood, & A ; Son, 2004 ) . Similar to Mangubhai et al. , Brown ( 1994 ) stressed the importance of real-life communicating, concentrating on eloquence and ad-lib linguistic communication public presentation.
1.2 Problem Statement
Although learner-centeredness has been widely applied in English as a Foreign Language categories through the publicity of communicative linguistic communication learning method, still a more traditional method of learning in which pupils are exposed to one-way communicating ( teacher-centered attack ) has strongly influenced instruction of English throughout Cambodia ( Vira, 2002 ) . As Vira ( 2002 ) points out, there is a disagreement between CLT theory and schoolroom patterns due to Kampuchean traditional constructs of instruction, high student-teacher ratios, interlingual rendition from English to Khmer linguistic communication, chorus repeat, memorisation, and Cambodians ‘ different manner of believing from Western people and teacher ‘s small clip to fix lesson programs. Cheang Sokha, caput of the Youth Resource Development Program, claims student-centered attacks exist on paper merely ( Samnang, 2010 )
1.3 Research Objective/s
While assorted surveies have explored the type of student-centered attacks being applied, few surveies have identified restraints to implementing CLT in Cambodia. That is, most surveies identify theories of CLT that are in circulation, but seem to disregard how communicative linguistic communication learning methods are really being applied by instructors, and what challenges for execution might be. Therefore this survey seeks to look into how the CLT attack is understood by those instructors of English, every bit good as the challenges they experience in implementing CLT.
1.4 Research question/s
This research will concentrate on the undermentioned inquiries:
How do instructors comprehend CLT?
How do they specify it, what do they believe that it means?
What obstacles do instructors place to the successful execution of CLT?
1.5 Significance of the survey
This survey will spread out apprehension of teacher perceptual experiences of communicative linguistic communication instruction and the challenges for implementing CLT. It is hoped that it will besides supply penetrations to instructors and decision makers on troubles encountered in implementing CLT in EFL and place country where betterment is needed.
1.6 Specifying cardinal footings:
CLT: Communicative linguistic communication learning here refers to a student-centered attack in EFL, which focuses on communicative proficiency ( Quing-xue & A ; Jin-fang, 2007 ) . In this context, perceptual experience refers to the apprehension and the attitudes of one secondary school English-as-a-Foreign-Language ( EFL ) instructors about assorted facets of communicative linguistic communication instruction, observing troubles they encounter when learning English communicatively in EFL context.
1.7 Proposed Chapter
This survey is comprised of different subdivisions. The first portion contains an debut which includes background, job statement, and research aim, significance of the survey, research inquiry and definition of cardinal footings. The 2nd portion is a literature reappraisal conducted in both national and international surveies refering to the subject of this survey. After that, the research methodological analysis inside informations about the participants, method, instruments, tools, informations aggregation and information analysis, ethical considerations, strengths and restrictions. The last subdivision focal points on the mentions and appendices which describes the research tools, the permission missive, consent signifier, clip frame, and other necessary paperss.
Vira ‘s ( 2003 ) survey on English Language Teaching ( ELT ) in secondary instruction ( SE ) in Cambodia identified many troubles with using communicative linguistic communication learning methods. These troubles included the Cambodian alphabet which is different to the Roman alphabet, Kampuchean different ways of believing about learning and larning manner from the Westerners, a penchant for traditional methods, category size, teacher-student ratio and interlingual rendition. Harmonizing to Vira ‘s schoolroom observation of English lessons, instructors read English texts aloud to pupils and pupils repeated it in chorus. After reading, instructors translated the whole text to pupils. Most of the pupils could non to the full understand what they had heard. This type of rote acquisition is widespread through the state and traveling from old methods of learning to student-centered attacks is turn outing to be a slow procedure.
A study of Kampuchean secondary school instructors of English to happen out their penchant refering learning status identified some challenges for Cambodia instructors of English ( Vira, 2002 ) . Harmonizing to the findings, generated from a comparatively little sample[ 1 ], major challenges included unpleasant schoolroom atmosphere, limited handiness of learning equipment and stuffs, hapless resonance among co-workers, unprepared lesson programs, and deficiency of assurance in utilizing communicative pedagogical methods.
Igawa ( 2008 ) investigated the present state of affairs of the English linguistic communication instruction in Cambodia through a study conducted with 36 Kampuchean instructors of English who attended the CamTESOL conference in 2008. Igawa found that Kampuchean instructors preferred learning accomplishments and methods from a communicative attack.
Miller and Aldred ( 2008 ) conducted a survey on pupil instructors ‘ perceptual experience about communicative linguistic communication learning methods in Hong Kong, and described the motion or displacement from traditional learning pattern toward communicative learning methods as shown in Figure 1 below:
Miller & A ; Aldred found that many teacher instruction classs supported a learner-centered attack ; nevertheless, there were clearly mismatches between the theory and pattern of communicative attacks in Hong Kong where traditional rote acquisition still dominates pattern. Across the surveies, common lending factor impeding application of CLT were: pupils need a batch of counsel to finish the undertakings, instructors do non hold adequate clip to fix for utilizing CLT in category, CLT need a batch of preparation, category sizes are excessively large and schoolroom sizes are excessively little, which slows down the gait of lesson and pupils make a batch of errors when utilizing CLT. The state of affairs in Hong Kong seems to mirror the state of affairs in Cambodia.
Lewis and McCook ( 2002 ) examined the positions of 14 Vietnamese high school instructors of English. Their consequences demonstrated that while instructors do implement new thoughts ( such as CLT ) , at the same clip as they besides value and utilize more traditional methods of learning such as memorisation and rote acquisition. Besides, the findings of this survey appear to mirror that of the survey in the Kampuchean context.
Herd ‘s ( 1995 ) survey on communicative linguistic communication instruction in China discovered a mismatch between what instructors believe about CLT, and the manner that instructors really pattern CLT. He summarized the mismatches in the undermentioned contrasts:
Eloquence, rightness, spontaneousness
Coskun ( 2011 ) conducted a survey on the probe of the application of Communicative Language Teaching in the English Language Classroom, a instance survey on instructors ‘ attitudes in Turkey. As the surveies introduced above demonstrates the mismatch between the attitudes they expressed and existent schoolroom learning due to big category room size, traditional grammar-based scrutinies and the tittle clip to fix LCT. Besides he listed some certain characteristic of CLT including: ( 1 ) brace and group work in which pupils can larn from each other and they can bring forth a big sum of linguistic communication without any force per unit area from instructors, ( 2 ) eloquence in which pupil can acquire involved in natural linguistic communication usage in order to bring forth meaningful interaction, ( 3 ) less error rectification in order to promote pupils to talk the linguistic communication without any break, and the function of instructors as a facilitator, organiser of resources, research worker and scholar. Coskun gathered informations through an observation checklist, open-ended questionnaire and questionnaire statement with merely two male English instructors who graduated from ELT section. The four characteristics of CLT as described above were formulated as statements in the observation checklist and questionnaires.
Bal ( 2006 ) conducted a survey to look into instructor ‘s perceptual experience of Communicative linguistic communication instruction ( CLT ) in Turkish EFL puting theory versus patterns. The consequence revealed that there is disagreement between theory and existent schoolroom pattern because of time-consuming grammar instruction and reading activities, the strangeness of instructors with CLT, unequal stuffs for using CLT activities and traditionality. The survey was conducted with 20 English instructors from five different public primary schools. This survey is based on informations gathered through the combination of triangulation methods: questionnaire, observation checklist and interview signifier.
3.1 Research design overview
Harmonizing to Richards and Rodgers ( 1986 ) , qualitative research in EFL field most frequently explores teacher ‘s ideas and perceptual experiences and how they influence the nature of linguistic communication direction. In this context, this survey chiefly focuses on instructors ‘ perceptual experiences about CLT in high school schoolrooms, researching major challenges they encounter when using CLT, a qualitative research design will be used. Since the survey concentrates entirely on one high school, instance study research design will be employed. To guarantee cogency of the research and to cut down prejudice, triangulation methods will be used. Therefore, this survey will be based on informations gathered through schoolroom observation, interviews and questionnaire.
3.2 Sampling and participants
This survey will be conducted with English instructors in a high school in Battambang state. To get information and in-depth apprehension of participants ‘ perceptual experiences of CLT and troubles they encounter, a purposive sampling method will be employed in this survey. The sample of this survey will be comprised of 4 English instructors from a high school in Battambang state. Furthermore, participants will be selected irrespective of age and sex.
3.3 Data aggregation
The information will be gathered through schoolroom observation, interviews and questionnaire. The interview and questionnaires will be structured around, and observation will be made in the connexion to four characteristics of CLT- brace and group work, eloquence and truth, mistake rectification and the function of the instructor, accommodating from Coskun ( 2011 ) .
Bal ( 2006 ) used a questionnaire to derive information about participants, their general apprehension of CLT and grounds act uponing their perceptual experiences of CLT. Besides the questionnaire will be included in the present research with specific inquiries about participants ‘ age, academic backgrounds, and learning patterns and particularly include some challenges which occur in the execution of CLT. Open format inquiries will be utilized in the questionnaire which purpose to specify the participants ” perceptual experience of CLT every bit good to place major challenges when using CLT. A sum of 4 instructors from high schools in Batambang state will be given the questionnaire.
In add-on, in-class observation is an appropriate and effectual tool to garner informations for covering with subject in schoolroom because research workers obtain informations by merely straight watching the natural environment as lived by participants ( Gay, Mills and Airasia ( 2009 ) . Creswell ( 1998 ) suggest that research worker could garner fieldnotes by carry oning an observation. In the survey, a sum of about 2 hebdomads or 3 hebdomads of observation will be done in English lesson Sessionss, detecting the lessons of each instructor for about a 45 minute lesson period. More significantly, the observation can be a tool to look into responses in the questionnaires with the existent instruction environment. During all observation session, observation checklist will be used. This observation checklist includes a specific point about CLT features and activities in schoolroom. Furthermore, note-taking will be used along with the checklist.
Apart from observation, interviewing is necessary for garnering informations about the feelings, beliefs, perceptual experiences and sentiments, which can non be observed ( Merriam, 1998 ) . In this survey semi-standardized ( semi-structured ) interviews which are located between the extreme of the wholly standardised and wholly unstandardized interviewing constructions ( Berg, 2009 ) will be utilized to derive in-depth apprehension of instructors ‘ perceptual experience of CLT. A sum of 4 English instructors will be interviewed and the interviews will last up to 1 hr and a half for each participant. Conditional to participants ‘ permission, the interviews will be tape recorded.
3.4 Data Analysis
Harmonizing to Gay, Mills and Airasian ( 2009 ) , informations analysis starts from the initial interaction with participants and prosecute the interaction and analysis throughout the whole survey. It is time-consuming to travel through a multi-stage procedure of forming, categorising, synthesising, analysing and construing. Berg ( 2009 ) raises many types of qualitative analyses including discourse analysis, content analysis and others. Among those, content analysis will be applied in this survey to place subjects and develop classs based a careful cryptography of informations. Harmonizing to Berg ( 2009 ) , content analysis is applied to analyze and look at the form of the linguistic communication used in the communicating exchange. Thus the information collected through questionnaires, observation and interviews will be categorized into four subjects which are pair and group, eloquence and truth, mistake rectification and the function of instructor. Immediately after informations are collected from the participants, it will be carefully examined and reexamined in hunt of subjects and grouping them in four subjects supra. Besides, prior informations and newer informations will be continually compared to cut down less utile informations. The research worker will listen to the tape recordings and take notes cardinal subjects every bit good as transcribe the interviews. To guarantee the truth of the informations Interview tape recordings will be transcribed into Khmer foremost and translated into English into English linguistic communication which involves the procedure of coding and categorising the information. To avoid misinterpretation of the informations, the responses will be read carefully once more and once more to place the chief subjects and constructs and to code them later.
3.5 Ethical consideration
To vouch that the research is ethical, first research worker will subject the proposal to the Royal University of Phnom Penh for blessing to continue with the survey and so inquire Royal University of Phnom Penh to publish petition letters ( consent signifier and permission missive ) for our research. More significantly, our duty is to explicate clearly what the research is approximately and how it will be disseminated. The observation, interview and questionnaire will be administered merely to accepting participants. The name of participants or establishments will be kept anon. and confidential and participants will be given anonym. Prior to carry oning questionnaire or interview participants will be asked to subscribe a consent signifier to bespeak their willingness to take part in the survey. At all phases of the research, participants have the right to decline or discontinue participating.
As a qualitative survey, the proposal has some restrictions. First, the research worker will concentrate this survey in one high school in Batambang state, questioning and detecting the schoolroom of 4 English instructors. Furthermore, as a novitiate research worker, some jobs with informations aggregation may happen. Finally, some activities which occur at specific period of the school calendar may non be captured during the short observation period of the research worker.