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Reforming Management Education in India to Foster Native Experience

Abstraction

Management Education in India has non grown in an evolutionary mode. American experience was grafted on to an bing educational system and did non emerge from the native educational and concern context and civilization. Its development has been random and its aims, content, teaching method and other facets need re-examination in relation to the demands of India.

The statistics provided by All India Council for proficient instruction ( AICTE ) , the regulating organic structure of proficient and direction instruction in India provinces that there are 1608 institutes offering MBA grade and 391 institutes offering PGDM. For last two decennary immense rush has been observed in the figure of concern schools. Mushrooming of direction Institutes, with some noteworthy exclusions, have mostly become, mere concern entities distributing really hapless quality instruction.

Though All India Council for Technical Education ( AICTE ) is the regulating organic structure for proficient instruction in India, it is besides authorized as a regulating organic structure of direction instruction by making a direction instruction board as subordinate of AICTE. But as the figure of direction establishments has grown, AICTE is unable to make equal machinery for supervising the quality criterions in the direction establishments.

This will be clearer by the citation taken from ( Business Today, Oct. 3, 2010, From the Editor )

“ Professional for beautiful, slender MBA Punjabi girlaˆ¦Boy to be MBA, Engineer, CA. non excessively long ago, in the marital Ads herding our weekend newspapers, brides or grooms looking for a mate proudly proclaimed that they were “ BA base on balls ” , the key to a happy life. No thirster, though. India produces 1000000s of occupation searchers every twelvemonth, but many of them are non employable. We are get downing to endure painful muscular spasms caused by a accomplishments scarceness. We do non hold instructors or applied scientists, but we produce so many direction graduates that “ MBA base on balls ” is going the lowest common denominator. ”

From the above lines it is clear that merchandises of Indian B-schools are losing their credibleness in Indian market every bit good as in planetary market. The worsening province of abroad arrangement record in IIM-Ahmedabad, one of the best direction institutes in India can be considered as a cogent evidence of it.

The figure of offers by abroad companies in 2008 was 79.

Credences were 75.95 % .

The figure of offers by abroad companies in 2009 was 20.

Credences were 100 % .

The figure of offers by abroad companies in 2010 was 08.

Credences were 100 % .

So As the Indian B-schools are non able to carry through the of all time altering outlook of corporate universe with their present instruction form. And now it has become indispensable to re-examine the full construction, content, purpose and form of Management Education in India in order to bring forth skilled Indian directors.

Introduction

In this age of globalisation, altering economic conditions and cut pharynx competition, the function of direction instruction has become really important for the success of an person and organisation. So the academic plans in direction instruction needs a changeless alteration and up step to get by up with this changing and disputing concern environment. Earlier the direction instruction was seen as the most moneymaking grade for acquiring a good occupation but in late 90s the development of direction instruction in India began to lose the regard of using organisations and has created a negative image of the direction grades and sheepskin. Except from a few establishments that are known to keep there criterions of their academic excellence. Management instruction, at this occasion, needs a critical scrutiny as merely developing endowment can take India frontward. This paper examines the position of direction instruction, along with the issues that need to be addressed, and a possible way so that direction instruction in India can be rejuvenated. So it could recover its lost shininess.

Development of Management Education:

Global Scenario:

The first direction instruction plan started at MIT in 1931.The second was at Harvard, dating back to1943. The first reappraisal of concern instruction that has been reported in the public sphere was from University of Pennsylvania in 1931 ( McFarland1960 ) , which stated that schools of concern should set up a echt subject to be believable.

Indian Scenario:

In India it was started in 1954 by the Indian institute of societal public assistance and concern direction in Calcutta. It was a portion clip class for practising executives. Similar plans were started in the Delhi school of economic sciences in Delhi University and in Madras in Andhra University.

In 1959, George W. Robbins associate dean alumnus school of concern disposal, university of California, Los Angeles was invited at the case of the planning committee through the good offices of Ford foundation to urge on educational plan for direction. Who recommended the following-

“ An institute of direction should be established on an all India footing. It must be regarded as a high precedence national plus, indispensable in the development of the resources of direction, i.e. the adult male power to interpret natural resources, engineering and human endowment in to effectual organisations to bring forth wealth. Consequently, it must have fiscal support from industry and authorities adequate for its demands in a planned, phased development. Further, that the institute should be a station alumnus Centre of learning and research where attending is focused on the most hard jobs of direction instead than on the modus operandi of concern patterns, and where instruction and preparation include the acquisition of cognition, attitude and accomplishment of direction in concern ( Report by Dean Robbins submitted on December 20, 1959 to ford foundation, p.4 ) .

This study was accepted by the Government of India and it was decided to put up two institutes one in Kolkata and the other in Ahmedabad. The institute at Calcutta was set up in November, 1961 in coaction with Alfred P Solan School of Management of MIT, USA. The institute at Ahmedabad was set up in June 1962 in coaction with Harvard Business School, USA. Subsequently six more institutes of Management were set up in Bangalore, Lucknow, Indore, Kozhikode, Shillong and in Ranchi etc.

Management Education:

In its simplest signifier “ Management is the art of acquiring things done by others even when they are non willing to make and besides keeping the quality of their work ” But it is non every bit simple as it sounds. For carry throughing these two a trough needs to hold certain qualities within him.

Global scenario of direction instruction:

Global competition is altering the relationship between direction instruction and concern. Continuous alterations in both engineering and economic systems, along with the velocity of alteration, require executives to be engaged in a changeless acquisition procedure. Management instruction has become a major profession that attracts considerable attending across the universe. Evidence of this is the origin of a new diary: aˆ•Academy of Management Learning and Education by Academy of Management in 2002. Though the market has been turning, there have been efforts to measure the adequateness of attempts at assorted points of clip. The planetary direction instruction market is estimated to be US $ 22 billion ( Friga, Bettis and Sullivan 2003 ) . It is turning at the rate of about 10-12 per centum per annum.

United states is the largest market, approximately 900 American Universities offer a maestro in concern ( Pfeffer and Long 2002 ) . Since the market is moneymaking and entry costs are comparatively low, there is uninterrupted growing of new entries. As competition is increasing the reputed schools are globalising and branding their merchandises. This is likely to look a reputative and trade name driven growing. Although the general value concatenation of concern schools has remained comparatively unchanged over the past 50 old ages, concern schools have created some alone features in their value concatenation that have molded their schemes over clip. The beginnings of value creative activity are branding and niche development. Simultaneously corporations are escalating their attempts for the development of direction instruction.

Indian Scenario of direction instruction:

Management Education in India has non grown in an evolutionary mode. American experience was grafted on to an bing educational system and did non emerge from the native educational and concern context and civilization. Its development has been random and its aims, content, teaching method and other facets need re-examination in relation to the demands of India. In an progressively globalising economic system, organisations are going more complex and concerns more competitory. The accomplishments demanded for the Indian directors are altering. It has become indispensable to re-examine the full construction, content, purpose and form of Management Education.

Current Status of Management Education in India:

The figure of B-Schools in India is mushrooming, The statistics provided by All India Council for proficient instruction ( AICTE ) , the regulating organic structure of proficient and direction instruction in India provinces that there are 1608 institutes offering MBA grade and 391 institutes offering PGDM. For last two decennary immense rush has been observed in the figure of concern schools.

The rate at which new establishments are coming up is shown in the figure below:

Figure: Management Institutions from 1950-2010

Beginning: www.aicte.org as visited on Friday, October 08, 2010, 3:40:00 autopsy.

The absence of any important enlargement in different sectors of higher instruction by the authorities has created a infinite for the growing of private suppliers. Mushrooming of direction institutes, with some noteworthy exclusions, have mostly become, mere concern entities distributing really hapless quality instruction.

While giving countenances to a big figure of establishments AICTE is unable to make equal machinery for-

Development and preparation of module to learn in direction classs.

Monitoring quality criterions in the establishments.

Development of research to do or accommodate educational classs relevant for Indian state of affairs.

Encouraging or commissioning development of learning stuff on the graduated table needed.

Location

Case 1

2008

Case 2

2009

Case 3

2010

Offers

Credences

% Credences

To Offers

Offers

Credences

% Credences

To Offer

Offers

Credences

% Credences

To Offer

Oversea

79

60

75.95

20

20

100

8

8

100

Domestic

336

182

54.17

283

225

79.51

331

271

81.97

Entire

415

242

58.31

303

245

80.86

339

279

82.30The image of current position of direction instruction in India will be clearer by holding a glance of abroad arrangement record of IIM-Ahmedabad one of the best direction institutes in India

Beginning: IIM-A, alumna, vol.52, no.2, June /July 2010, page no.43

Case1.

The figure of offers by abroad companies in 2008 was 79.

The credences were 75.95 % .

Case2.

The figure of offers by abroad companies in 2009 was 20.

The credences were 100 % .

Case3.

The figure of offers by abroad companies in 2010 was 08.

The credences were 100 % .

It shows that the involvement among the pupils towards abroad companies has grown enormously but the appeals of abroad companies in Indian B-schools continue to worsen. Though rising prices can be considered as an of import factor during the twelvemonth 2008 and 2009, but it can non be true for the twelvemonth 2010. Above image gives a clear indicant that the Indian direction institutes are losing its appeal of planetary participants.

What is being served?

The directors, the torchbearer of capitalist economy seems to be in discredit. In the wake of the lag, the list of ailments is long- chancy moralss, the deficiency of ability to manage crisis ( existent 1s! ) , people direction merely in name, and a general crisis of trust.

Some even have asked is the director ‘s repute beyond fix? B-Schools globally are churning off to reply this inquiry. This crisis has brought into crisp focal point the inability of directors to efficaciously cover with existent universe issues.

Companies are now clearer about what their newest directors should be all about. They are seeking people directors non merely studious cognition ; they want workplace savvy MBAs who can hit the land running ; and they are demanding that alumnuss have a clearer sense of the many ethical issues they will confront.

Now a yearss as the degree of competition is really high, corporates are non willing to pass much clip and money over the preparation and development of fresh direction alumnuss.

As quoted by Dr. Rajan Saxena, NMIMS, Mumbai

“ These yearss corporate expect grads to present from twenty-four hours 1. They besides expect immature MBAs to be people directors. ”

Beginning: Mentality, Sept. 27, 2010, page no.68.

So there is a strong demand felt to do equal alterations in the form of current direction instruction system which can carry through the outlooks of the corporate universe. The direction instruction system in India emphasizes on the undermentioned aspects-

Theory Oriented Teaching Methodology:

Besides few establishments which update their plans and learning methodological analysis, most of the establishments are utilizing substandard learning methodological analysis which focuses on theoretical facet of the jobs and concerned with the map of direction such as Marketing, Operations and finance but did non develop accomplishments in critical thought, problem-finding and problem-framing, and are ill-equipped to place and border unstructured jobs directors routinely encounter. Furthermore, they focus on theory, theoretical accounts and statistics which develop analyst instead than leaders and enterprisers who know how to acquire things done.

Course Structure:

The class construction of Indian concern schools are based on American experience and it has non grown in an evolutionary mode in Indian concern and cultural context. That ‘s why the alumnuss of these Indian concern school are non equipped plenty to efficaciously cover with real-world issues of Indian concern context.

Inaccessibility of skilled module:

The dramatic growing in the figure of B-schools in India has created enormous challenges to happen quality module and to develop them harmonizing to modern concern thought.

Most of the Indian establishments engage parttime module or person on contract who teach a class and in most instances, have small engagement either with the establishment or the pupils. A few module members without any experience articulation institutes on low wage and transport a heavy instruction burden ; they have neither clip nor the necessary background to take up research or development of learning stuff. They give talks chiefly drawn from text books.

Problems and Suggested Models:

Here we have stressed over the jobs and suggestions are given flatly.

Alumni Network:

Alumnuss are considered as the representative of any institute who can assist the institute in the undermentioned ways.

Branding the image of institute

Aid in the arrangement of the pupil

Aid in the fiscal demands

Acquaint the institute with the current corporate state of affairs

Provide echt feedback.

Suggestions:

Every institute should develop a strong alumna web.

Alumni meet should be made compulsory and to be held sporadically.

Alumni support system should be developed for Channelization of fund by alumnas.

Benefits:

It will increase the connectivity among alumnas and will assist in the arrangement of the pupils.

Defects:

It needs to use excess adult male power and money which will be excess load to the disposal.

Course Structure and Teaching methodological analysis:

Course construction and learning methodological analysis of direction instruction should be designed in such a manner that it can make a balance between theoretical facet and its application which can hike creativeness and invention among the pupils. And could carry through the industrial outlooks.

Alumni may besides affect in the consultative commission. Alumni can supply better suggestion about altering corporate tendency, and may assist in the promotion of class and growing of the institute every bit good.

Suggestions:

While planing the class construction of direction instruction there should be a participative attack where the individuals from industry and academicians sit together and discourse the current tendency of the market.

The class construction of direction instruction should hold a proportion of practical and theoretical facet it may be in different ratios say 40:60.

The authorities of India should organize a research and development Centre, whose occupation is to analyse the industrial outlooks, market tendencies and to convey proper alterations in the class at regular intervals.

Benefits:

It would assist to carry through outlooks of the corporate universe and will assist to better the quality of the pupils.

Defects:

American indians are psychologically resistive plenty, to follow alterations.

Pedagogical Changes will make scarceness of skilled module.

Faculty Development plan:

Skilled module is considered as the anchor of any good institute and it is seen as the scarcest resource in India. The installations for module development are extremely limited and are non effectual. Hence it ‘s a challenge in India to happen quality module and to develop them harmonizing to modern concern thought.

The universe category B-Schools have three types of faculty- regular module, sing module, accessory module, recently a few B-schools have besides developed called “ clinical module ” .

Regular module: The lasting research and learning module at the institute they form the bulk of the academic staff and are expected to set about research, instruction and some academic disposal.

Visiting Faculty: Visiting module is a group of faculty members from other schools who visit these schools for a limited period say ( six month, a twelvemonth ) .

Adjunct module: Adjunct module is a group of module from local school or from industry who may come to learn a class or more, during a specified term.

Clinical module: Clinical module is a group of module who have about all the privileges of a regular module except that they have been selected on the footing of outstanding instruction accomplishment.

Suggestions:

Faculty exchange plan should be made compulsory for all the establishments.

Certain eligibility standards must be defined for the assignment of module member and it should be purely followed by every establishments. Like

Each module member must be PhD.

Campaigners holding industry exposure should be given privilege.

Focus on the development and preparation of module to learn the direction classs.

Benefits:

It will assist to get the better of the scarceness of skilled module and will do module more productive and efficient.

Defects:

It will necessitate excess fund to run into the disbursals of such sort of development plan.

Faculty motive:

As module is the most of import factor for the success of any establishment. They must be motivated in the undermentioned ways-

Suggestions:

Institutions must hold a compensation construction based on demand/supply state of affairss and virtue. E.g. supplying lodging, insurance, medical installation, security etc.

On an one-year footing each module should be evaluated on their public presentation on certain dimensions such as- research, instruction and disposal.

Faculty should be rewarded for excellence and be punished for laxness.

The module should be motivated to self regulate them self and they does non hold to seek any permission to be off from campus. Having proper ground.

Benefits:

Faculties will take more involvement in dispatching their responsibilities.

Defects:

It will give birth political relations among the modules.

Regulating board:

Though All India Council for Technical Education ( AICTE ) is the regulating organic structure for proficient instruction in India, it is besides authorized as a regulating organic structure of direction instruction by making a direction instruction board as subordinate of AICTE. But as the figure of direction establishments has grown, AICTE is unable to make equal machinery to supervise the quality criterions in the direction establishments.

Suggestions:

A separate entity with the name of “ Indian Council for Management Education ( ICME ) * should be created ” that should hold the undermentioned cardinal component in its regulating system-

It should stand for an international group of professionals from concern and faculty members.

ICME* would authorise all the IIMs ( zone wise ) to supervise quality criterions in the direction establishments falling in their several zones.

* ICME is the suggested name

The suggested theoretical account would look like this:

Govt. of India

ICME

IIM-I

As regulating organic structure

IIM-B

As regulating organic structure

IIM-L

As regulating organic structure

IIM-A

As regulating organic structure

Their Respective Zone

Their Respective Zone

Their Respective Zone

Their Respective Zone

( e. g. RJ, GJ ) ( e.g. MP, MH ) ( e.g. KA, AP, Goa ) ( e.g. UP, UK, HP, HR, J & A ; K, PB, Delhi )

IIM-S

As regulating organic structure

IIM-R

As regulating organic structure

IIM-K

As regulating organic structure

IIM-C

As regulating organic structure

Their Respective Zone

Their Respective Zone

Their Respective Zone

Their Respective Zone

( e. g. WB, Sikkim ) ( e.g. Arunachal, Assam, ( e.g. Jharkhand, BR, ( e.g. Kerala, TN, LD, A & A ; N )

Meghalaya, Manipur, CH. Orissa )

Mizoram, Tripura, Nagaland )

Structure of the Suggested Model for Regulating Body

Benefits:

It will administer the duty and answerability and will assist in effectual monitoring.

Defects:

It will necessitate traveling through a complex legislative procedure and will take clip.

Infrastructure:

Infrastructural installations is the basic demand of the pupils every bit good as modules that must be fulfilled like-

Suggestions:

All colleges must hold in-campus residential installations for both male and female pupils and it should be made compulsory for everyone to take inn.

They must hold the handiness to library for 24 hours.

Every pupil should hold a laptop with the latest engineerings, and these campuses must hold radio calculating web so that pupil can entree the laptop anyplace in campus.

Benefits:

It will supply a universe category substructure to Indian B-Schools.

Defects:

Fundss provided by the authorities will pull malpractices.

Internal environment:

Internal environment of institutes have its direct influence both on pupils and modules. It includes the relationship among the pupils, every bit good as relationship between pupil and module, module pupil engagement will shoot new thoughts and will do pupil end oriented.

Suggestions:

In campus lodging of pupil and module will beef up their inter-personal relationship.

Cultural activities, one-year meet must be organized sporadically ( say, one time in twelvemonth, half annually, quarterly etc. )

Students must be motivated to take the existent universe issues as a challenge which will hike comprehensibility, analytical power and determination doing ability of the pupils.

Tormenting should be confined in three words i.e. debut, interaction and welcome. For this there must be a platform of unfastened interaction between seniors and juniors that will do a healthy relationship among the pupils and will make a healthy environment in campus.

Benefits:

It will make a congenial environment in campus.

Administration:

Administrative attack of Indian direction institutes looks really similar to the bureaucratic set up of Indian universities irrespective of whether the institute is a portion of a university or non. There are many administrative jobs that have posed as disabilities to the development of the section. The sections of direction are considered as similar to the other section in the university which is chiefly concerned with schoolroom instruction. And most of the clip the module ( most scarce resource ) is wasted in making other occupations much below their ain accomplishment

Suggestions:

The section should be treated as separate entity and it should non be under the direct control of university.

The functions of manager demand to be redefined and he must be empowered to take determinations independently and pull off financess related to academic activities. Director should be asked to put out their vision for the hereafter of the school and should be made accountable.

The financess generated by the section of direction should non unify with the general budget of the university and this money should be available to the section for their development activities.

Faculty of direction section should ne’er be engaged in other activities ( viz. Admission, coordinator of different activities etc. )

Benefits:

It will do disposal self dependent and accountable.

Defects:

Independence in fund direction related to academic activities may affect corruptness.

Social Responsibility and Ethical motives:

Management institute should bring forth a director non merely for the concern intent but besides to dispatch societal duties. Because a director has more chances than others to put ethical tone for companies. They are the key

Peoples to move ethically or unethically. The values held by the top directors are of import in advancing ethical activities.

Suggestions:

The direction institutes should form workshop to learn their pupils moral values and moralss.

Course should be design as that it can learn how the values and moralss can be applied in concern.

While doing a determination a director may inquire himself three cardinal questions-

Will it work? ( Pragmatic attack ) .

Is it right? ( Ethical attack ) .

Is it pleasant? ( Affective attack ) .

Benefits:

It will actuate pupils to dispatch their societal duty.

Student public assistance plan:

Students are the chief concern of any direction institute, so institute must

Focus on the undermentioned issues refering to pupil public assistance.

Suggestions:

Student exchange plan should be made compulsory among direction institutes.

Management institute should develop creativeness and invention among the pupils through assorted plans.

Management institute should advance student-faculty engagement so pupils can portion their positions with module members without any vacillation.

Institute should seek to make such an environment where pupil experience encouraged to take part in different activities i.e. cultural activities.

Institute should seek to make a sense of squad work by using them to work out the existent universe jobs.

Benefits:

It will do pupil more Creative and advanced.

Defects:

Success of this will depend upon the common attempt of module and pupils.

Choice Procedure:

There are tonss of defects in the pupil choice process. Which need to be

Addressed-

Suggestions:

There should be a common admittance process at all India footing.

25 % of seats should be reserved for the campaigners holding minimal 2 old ages of industry experience.

Benefits:

Common choice process will ensue good consumption.

Defects:

It will de actuate the pupils holding no industry experience.

Assorted:

Stop the mushrooming of concern schools by decreasing the function of private participants.

Institute can move as a consultancy for the companies by assisting them in scheme preparation for their merchandise for that peculiar part where the institute is located. And in return companies would supply fiscal aid.

Institutes should bind up with companies and train their modules so that they can acquire cognizant of present concern environment and can model their pupils consequently.

Decision:

Though directors can non be created in schoolrooms and merely Practicing directors can deeply better their capablenesss. So in order to carry through the of all time altering outlook of corporate universe it has become indispensable to re-examine the full construction, content, purpose and form of Management Education in India in order to bring forth skilled Indian directors.

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