Posted on

Internet Addiction Disorder

Theme : Science and Technology Topic : Internet Addiction Disorder Good morning, everybody. I’d like to show you a presentation about Internet Addiction Disorder. Let’s start. First of all, ask yourself “without your computer or the Internet what would you do? ” In the world of quickly advancing technology, it is hard to ignore the Internet which is becoming more and more important in lives of users worldwide. But the ugly truth is that the Internet is as addictive as it is useful.

IAD is a speculated mental disorder made and introduced by Ivan Goldberg in 1995. With the increased role of the Internet in society and business, some of its users have become addicted; these addicts show a set of symptoms that are accompanied by a variety of negative consequences. Internet addiction could be categorized into individual groups. Each group has their unique and distinct characteristics. For effective treatment it is essential to diagnose the correct type of Internet addiction. Soule, L. C. , Shell, W. & Kleen, B. A. in their article “Exploring Internet addiction: Demographic characteristics and stereotypes of heavy internet users” describe types of IAD (2003). They are Cybersexual Addiction, Computer Addiction, Net Compulsion, Information Overload, Cyber-Relational Addiction. Let’s look at some types in more detail. Firstly, Cyber-Relational Addiction. People who suffer from an addiction to chat rooms or social networking sites become over-involved in online relationships or can participate in virtual adultery.

Online friends quickly become more important to person often at the expense of real life relationships with family and friends. In many cases, this will lead to a marriage disagreement and family instability. Authors say that Net Compulsion is an addiction to online gaming, online gambling. It is quickly becoming new mental problems in the post-Internet Era. With the instant access to virtual casinos, interactive games, addicts loose excessive amounts of money and even destroy other duties connected with work or essential relationships.

Let me turn now to causes of IAD. Release of graphic intensive online games has lead to innumerable teenagers getting addicted with the Internet. Blogging and Youtube are also some of the temptations that many individuals find difficult to resist. However, these are just the obvious reasons. There are much more than it seems at first sight. Jennifer Ferris in article “IAD: Causes, Symptoms, and Consequences” describes several causes of IAD (2005). Firstly, it’s Psychodynamic and Personality.

Psychodynamic and personal opinions explain addiction through emotional shocks through childhood which has left a person with problems as an adult, together with other personality attributes and/or other disorders, and inherited psychological characters. Certain people, because of set of the reasons, are inclined to developing an addiction, such as heroin, gambling and sex. For example, even if a person only sometimes drinks alcohol, he may develop an addiction to alcohol if he increases consumption continuously. The same hypothesis remains for Internet addiction.

Given the right combination of time, person and case, addiction can take place. The next cause is Cyber-relationships. In almost 75% of cases, Internet addicts use applications like chat rooms, instant messaging, or online gaming as a safe way of establishing new relationships and more confidently relating to others. This is because some people may have lack the social skills that would enable them to meet people in person instead of online; hence they prefer to make friends without direct contact to people. In addition, they get rid of any stranger or people who they don’t want to chat with just by “blocking” them.

Another causes are anonymity, hunger for knowledge and convenience. I’d like now to say about consequences of IAD. Kimberly Young in her article “Internet addiction: Symptoms, evaluation, and treatment” says there are several consequences of IAD. The first is Familial Problems (1999). Dr Kimberly Young discovered that serious relationship problems were reported by 53% of Internet addicts surveyed. Marriages, dating relationships, parent-child relationships, and close friendships have been noted to be heavily damaged by Internet. The second is Academic Problems.

Survey has shown that 86% of responding teachers, librarians, and computer coordinators are convinced that the use of the Internet by children does not raise quality of academic performance. The next is Occupational Problems. Employees who are addicted to the Internet, can be fired, if they aren’t able to suppress the desire and are caught using network resources of companies for their own entertainment. Let’s look now at treatment of IAD. Kimberly Young gives some types of treatments. Firstly, Practice the Opposite. A reorganization time is a major element in the treatment of the

IAD. For example, if your habit involves you checking your e-mail or the Net first thing in the morning, try taking a shower and breakfast first instead. Then, make yourself a positive reminder card. Write a list of the five major problems caused by your addiction to the Internet. Next, write out the five major benefits of reducing your Internet use. This simple reminder will help you subconsciously. Next treatment is Family Therapy. It will be necessary for addicts whose family relationships have been destroyed under influence of Internet addiction.

A strong feeling of family support can help patient to recover from Internet addiction. To sum up, everybody should remember that Internet Addiction is a very real thing. It will not only continue to be a problem but it will become more popular as technology develops and becomes more widely used. However, despite of negative consequences of the Internet, it is very useful thing. The Internet is not bad just because people become dependent on it, Internet has many important and necessary advantages.

Posted on

Should Parents Be Responsible If Their Children Behave Badly?

Many crimes and social problems are caused by children. Despite the damage these teenage criminals cause, parents are not held responsible in most countries. This essay will discuss whether parents should be forced to pay for their children’s crimes. There are many reasons why parents should not be responsible for crimes committed by teenage children. First of all, teenagers today are independent. They often move out of the parent’s house at 18 years of age or younger. They are expected to learn to take care of themselves and make their own decisions, and not stay like small children attached to their parents.

Secondly, parents are working. They cannot watch their adolescent children all the time. Parents have done their job A third point is that even children from good families can sometimes commit crimes. Parents should not be responsible if they have worked hard to raise their children properly. However, because of the many problems young troublemakers cause, I feel we should make parents responsible. Firstly, most juvenile crimes are committed by adolescents whose parents do not care or make any effort to control their children. If parents had to pay fines, they might make more effort.

Another point is that even though the children may seem mature, they are not really able to make good decisions. Parents should be responsible for raising and teaching their children until they are fully grown. Furthermore, if children know that their parents will have to pay, they will think carefully before doing getting into trouble In summary, there are good reasons both for and against making parents pay for acts committed by their children. However, I feel strongly that if we want to reduce the number of such crimes, we need to make parents take more responsibility.

Posted on

The Four Theories of Government

Akira Simmons 3/5/09 Government There were fourdifferent theories of governments, the force theory, the evolutionary rule, the divine right theory, and social contract theory. The Force theory was when one person or group of people gained control of the area and forced others to submit to their rule. The evolutionary Rule basically said that the states would develop naturally out of family clans, tribes, ect. The divine right theory said that the state was created by God and God gave people of royal birth the “divine right to rule”.

The social contract theory was created by Thomas Hobbes and he believed that before the state people were British. People lived poorly and to improve their lives people could enter into a social contract where a superior person would rule over the rest. None of these four different theories of governments would be a best fit for the United States today. The force theory should not be a government for the United States. A dictator or a group of dictators would make all decisions and there would be no rights for U. S. citizens.

The people would have no say and would not be able to vote on anything. The dictator would have all control. In the United States today, we do not use the force theory, but rather a democracy. The Force theory would not be best fit for the United States because with one person having all control, the people of the United States would not have a government that would not be able to exercise their amendments. The evolutionary Rule would also not be a best fit for the United States because in the evolutionary rule, there is no one with control.

There would be no form of government and the states would be separate depending on what family you were born into. The area the family clan or tribe originated from would become part of that state. The states would develop naturally rather than families moving throughout each state. This theory would not be a best fit for the United States because there would be no form of government and the families would be born into a state. The divine right theory is mostly based on religion and would not be a good way to govern in the United States because people practice different religions.

God gave people of the royal birth the “divine right to rule”, but not all people believe in the same religion or God. Not only would religion be an issue but also the royal family factor. In the United States, there are no royal families, but there are wealthy, middle class, and the low class. The “divine right to rule” is not used in the United States because of the different religions. This theory would not be best fit for the United States because the United States does not rule based on religion and there are no royal families.

The Social contract theory was created by Thomas Hobbes and he basically stated that the state people were British. People were poor and to improve their lives people would enter into a social contract where one superior person ruled over the rest. This would not be a best fit form of government for the United States today because not everybody lives poor in every state. Each state has a different group of lower class, middle class, and upper class. This also would not be good government for the U.

S. because with one superior person ruling there would be no democracy. The United States does not use the social contract today because of these reasons. The four theories of forms of government were all different from one another. These theories are should not be used in the United States today because it’s a different time from when these theories were created. They also should not be used in the U. S. today because there are different reasons the theories would not work in the U. S.

Posted on

Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2006

Spenser Garrison Strategic Management 3/17/10 Case 1: Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2006 The soft drink industry is very competitive for all companies involved. Recently the competition between established firms has only increased with the market nearing its saturation point. All companies in the industry, especially those thinking about entering, have to think about Porter’s 5-Forces model and the pressures it outlines; rivalry among establish firms, risk of entry by potential competitors, substitute products, suppliers, and buyers.

When talking about market share, PepsiCo and Coca-Cola have the lions share. They have dominated the industry over the past 40 years with Coca-Cola leading in the category in 2004 (C256). With little resistance from Cadbury Schweppes, the distant third largest company in the industry, the two companies’ main focus was to increase market demand by outdoing each other in promotions, advertisements, and corporate acquisitions. Rivalry and power struggle have defined the existence of PepsiCo and Coca-Cola, looking for a competitive advantage to gain an edge on the competition.

This rivalry has been to the benefit to the companies, the industry, and its consumers as a whole. Both have learned to not only stay afloat, but flourish in an industry that has constantly grown since Coca-Cola began advertising in 1891 (C258). They did this by increasing the demand in their products, and gaining brand loyalty by their consumers. In some instances, they were selling cases of Dasani (Coca-Cola) and Aquafina (PepsiCo) for less than the cost of bottling it (C267). The risk of entry by potential competitors isn’t a strong competitive pressure in the industry.

PepsiCo and Coca-Cola dominate the industry with their brand name and distribution channels, which makes it difficult for new entrants to compete with these existing firms. High fixed costs of production facilities, logistics, and economies of scale also deter entry. It’s difficult for a new firm with a small production capacity, and a high cost structure to compete when, as soon as their product is introduced to the market, the two leading firms drop prices below your cost structure.

Pepsi and Coke’s economies of scale allows them to do this since it costs so much less for them to produce their products than it would a new company. Substitute products come from competitors outside of the soft drink industry. These include: coffee, sports drinks, bottled water, tea, and juices. This is an increasingly growing force since consumers are becoming more health conscious in society. Most people are thinking about what carbonated soft drinks do to their bodies and replace them with sports drinks which appear to be healthier.

These drinks also allow for a larger variety of flavors the appeal to different consumers (C263). Coffee and tea may also be substitutes for the consumer who drinks soda for the caffeine they contain. Consumers can switch to coffee to decrease the amount of sugar and carbonation. These also come in a larger variety of flavors provided companies, such as Starbucks, that have become extremely popular over the past 20 years. These substitutes are a large and powerful force in the industry, especially since the switching costs (the cost to switch from one product to the next) are essentially zero.

Supplies to the industry don’t hold much competitive pressure. Bottling and packaging of the product don’t hold much of a bargaining position in the industry. Coca-Cola’s CEO Roberto Goizueta looked to consolidate a large number of bottlers in 1986, creating an independent bottling subsidiary called Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE), went public and sold 51% of its shares while retaining the remaining which enables Coke to have separate financial statements from CCE (C261). This vertical integration essentially made Coke its own bottler, which almost cut out suppliers entirely.

PepsiCo soon followed suit in the late 1980s with the Pepsi Bottling Group (PBG) and went public in 1999, retaining 35% of its shares (C261). By 2004 Coca-Cola had CCE bottling 80% of its North American bottle and can volume, while PepsiCo had PBG bottling 57% of their beverages in the region (C261). These consolidations took away much of suppliers’ bargaining power. The buyers of soft drinks range from Supermarkets, to mass retailers and supercenters, to gas stations. Soft drinks are sold to these stores which are, in turn, resold to customers.

Buyer power in the industry is very strong. Larger stores purchase soft drink in large volumes allowing them to buy at low prices. Gas stations have less bargaining power since they buy smaller quantities. Although soft drink demand is beginning to plateau which could cause a shift in bargaining power to the buyer because of decreasing demands in both Pepsi and Coke. Porter’s 5-Forces model completely encompasses all factors of the soft drink industry. It has shown that industry has been very profitable in earlier years, especially to Pepsi and Coke.

Demand for soft drinks is beginning to level off because of a new health conscious trend by the consumer which will inevitably affect profits. The industry has also been defined by intense rivalry by the two largest firms which leave little room for new entrants. The soft drink industry has reached its peak in society and will soon begin to decline soon because of the consumers decrease in demand for the product and increased demand in other healthier products. For both companies to stay profitable, they will have to curtail their products to the new health conscious trend of the consumer.

The value created by the soft drink industry is apparent and distributed across the industry in a variety of ways. Pepsi and Coke at first only produced their cola products, two companies each with one product line. The success of both companies led them to diversify their production capabilities and produce different flavors of soda; Fanta, Sprite, and Tab (1960-63) from Coke, and Teem, Mountain Dew, and Diet Pepsi (1960-64) from Pepsi (C259). These expanded product lines proved to be highly profitable and were continued and expanded on in the years to come.

By the late 1980s Coke and Pepsi each offered more than 10 major brands of soda in 17 or more sizes (C261). This product proliferationincreased profitability, rivalry, and barriers to entry. Soon both companies would break into markets other than carbonated soft drinks. Sports drinks such as Gatorade and Powerade, juices and juice drinks, energy drinks, tea based drinks, and bottled water. These new product lines all had substitute products from the other company to battle with. Pepsi and Coke had a vast understanding on game theory and demonstrated it with their sequential and simultaneous move games.

This led to an enormous selection for the consumer, whose only problem was choosing a flavor. Both Pepsi and Coke both have secret recipes to their flagship cola. Coke was the first to be imitated in its early years. The company constantly fought trademark infringements in court. There were as many as 153 barred imitation of Coca-Cola in 1916 alone (C259). When Pepsi proved to be a viable competitor to Coke, the company filed a suit against Pepsi claiming it was an infringement on the Coca-Cola Trademark.

From that point on the two companies engaged in competitive marketing campaigns to gain market share. In 1950, Coke controlled 47% of the US market, while Pepsi’s was only 10%. Coke and Pepsi are two gigantic companies that have flourished throughout their existence. They can be described as the definition of rivalry and competition in the modern business world. They are exact substitutes of each other and have battled to control the carbonated soft drink industry for over a century.

From the 1950s-present, the carbonated soft drink industry has steadily increased in terms of consumption by person in the US (C251). Both companies have spent billions in marketing, research, acquisitions, and promotions to meticulously exchange percentage points in the $66 billion a year industry that they have created (C250). Unfortunately times are changing, and the superiority that the carbonated soft drink industry once held among beverages is slowly fading. Schools are banning sodas from being sold in them, claiming they are unhealthy for children (C263).

People in today’s society are more health conscious than they were in prior years. This is why you see a health clubs left and right, and “0g Trans Fat” labeled on snack foods. A majority of the US population is very health conscious, which leaves little room for the sugary carbonated soft drinks that used to dominated beverage consumption. The stability of the Soft drink Industry as a whole is in jeopardy. Coke and Pepsi will have to find alternatives to increase market share, or break into new markets, if they want sales to keep increasing like they have in the past.

Non-carbonated beverages, such as juices, sports drinks, and energy drinks, are beginning to grow more rapidly than when they first were introduced, while carbonated beverages are leveling off. This health conscious shift will lead Coca-Cola and Pepsi executives to focus in these once thought auxiliary components of their business to pick up the slack that the carbonated industry is leaving behind. Coke and Pepsi will not be able to repeat their success with carbonated beverages in the water segment. Water can’t differ like soft drinks can.

There are simply too many similar substitutes for customers to turn to, and the brand loyalty diminishes. A mere 10% of consumers say they choose a brand of water because “it’s my favorite brand” when compared to the 37% of carbonated beverage consumers (C267). To compete in this new market, Coke and Pepsi will need a new competitive dynamic to stay profitable, one that won’t end in price wars. Fortunately for the market it is much cheaper to bottle and sell water than it is carbonated soft drinks, so competitive advantage will need to inevitably be realized in other parts of the business.

Posted on

Walmart Spot Rate

a. A. Walmart’s use of the spot market in China would allow the retailer to exchange their excess required holdings into other foreign currencies. The spot market makes the exchange of yuan into other currencies a seamless process. If Walmart consistently purchases home goods from manufacturing plants in Russia, the spot market will allow Walmart to convert their earned yuan into rubles to pay for Russian goods. b. c. B. Walmart may at sometime utilize an international money market in order to borrow short-term funds to build new retail outlets in emerging markets.

Excess funds from sales in China could be placed into a foreign money market in anticipation of new operations in the respective country. Advantage of utilizing this type of money market is to secure better interest rate or the country’s currency may be expected to increase in the near future. Any advantage a company has in anticipation of expected currency appreciations, the better off they will be when operations begin, their money will go further. d. e. C.

Walmart may also choose to take on long-term debt with the use of the international bond market. Much like anticipating a foreign countries increase in currency in the money market, a bond market will allow Walmart to take in immediate debt in the respective country. Once operations begin in this new market, earnings received in the new currency can be used to pay off interest of this new debt. Walmart will also attract more attention from foreign investors, if they issue bonds in those foreign countries.

Walmart must use caution, depending on which way the exchange rate works in their favor, it may either prove to be beneficial or they may realize a loss due to currency deflation. Chapter 4 Problem 5 If Japan relaxes its import controls: a. A. The US demand schedule for Japanese yen will shift inward b. B. The supply schedule of yen will shift outward c. C. The equilibrium value will decrease Problem 21 1. Borrow 10 Million Singapore dollars 2. Convert the Singapore dollars to US = (10,000,000 x . 43) = 4,300,000 US Dollars 3.

Lend the US dollars @ 7%, which represents a over the 60 day period. After 60 days the bank will receive (computed as $4,300,000 x (1 + . 0117) = 4,350,310 4. (7 x (60/360)) = 1. 17 5. Repay the Singapore loan = 10,000,000 x {1 + (24% x 60/360)} = 10,400,000 6. Based on spot rate , US dollars to repay Singapore loan = 10,400,000 x . 42 = 4,368,000 7. After repaying loan the bank will have a speculative loss of 4,368,000 – 4,350,310 = 17,690 If the speculation is correct the bank will have done too much work for a loss in profit.

Posted on

Unconditional Love

Unconditional Love With jolting word choice and the effective application of imagery, the poem My Papa’s Waltz, written in 1948 by Theodore Roethke (1908 – 1963), presents the speaker as a child who is trapped in a world tragically affected by alcoholism and physical abuse yet who relentlessly attempts to attain love and affection from his drunken and violent father. The whimsical lyrics prompt the reader to recognize that although this poem depicts the essence of a child, the implication of a life of patterned torture is in deep contrast to the reality of a carefree childhood.

My Papa’s Waltz is written in quatrain form purposely echoing the sing song sound of idyllic childhood rhymes to contrast the meaning of the poem which illustrates a childhood experience with an alcoholic and abusive father who, despite the ongoing pain inflicted, is still loved unconditionally by his son. The speaker relates this experience in his childhood with his drunken father in an almost affectionate tone, yet with the distain of the alcoholism and violence soundly ringing through.

He states, “The whiskey on your breath, Could make a small boy dizzy; But I hung on like death: Such waltzing was not easy,” (lines 1-4). The speaker’s tone reveals that although his father drinks to the point of his breath being intoxicating and that the situation is confusing to the lad, he still “hung on like death,” grappling with his hope that if he continued “the waltz” – the relationship with his father – that he would retain his father’s love.

In the last line of the stanza, the speaker’s resolute determination of continuing with the difficult waltz lends credence to the optimism of his youth which is evident in his perseverance to experience the father-son relationship. The word choices throughout the poem, such as “death,” “battered,” “scraped,” and “beat” imply that the speaker’s childhood is certainly not a functional one and, moreover, is filled daily with the cruel interactions of his hardened father.

The speaker reflects, “We romped until the pans, Slid from the kitchen shelf; My mother’s countenance, Could not unfrown itself,” (5-8). This passage suggests through detailed imagery that although this young boy is being abused by his father, with household items being knocked from their places with the shaking of the violence, his mother shamefully remains a silent but disapproving bystander as she witnesses her child’s horrendous beatings.

The brutal scene continues to unfold as “The hand that held my wrist, Was battered on one knuckle; At every step you missed, My right ear scraped a buckle,” (9 –12). In a vivid display of terrifying progression, the father grasps the boy’s wrist with his hand in an attempt to land yet another steady blow, battering his knuckles even more. When his drunken state causes him to stagger, the boy’s ear scrapes against his belt buckle, instead.

As the father’s tension and fury explodes from the failed strike, the speaker recounts that his father “beats time on my head… then waltzed me off to bed,” creating a vision of a frenzied rage as he is repeatedly hit until he is thrown violently into his room at the end of the beating (13, 15). Throughout this instance of abuse it is quite clear that this child’s love for his father is steadfast and unwavering. Regardless of the incessant beating, the last line of the poem is the boy’s emphatic plea for love and acceptance as he was “still clinging to (his) shirt,” (16).

While he notes his father’s “palm caked hard with dirt,” the excusing tone suggests that he recognizes the hard life his father lives and thus pardons his cruelty. As is often the case with an abused person, no matter the depths of the abuse that is endured, a longing and a resilient hope for a functional, loving and nurturing relationship with one’s parent continues, as is displayed in My Papa’s Waltz. Works Cited Roethke, Theodore. My Papa’s Waltz. Literature for Composition, 8th ed. Eds. Sylvan Barnet, William Burto, William E. Cain. New York: Pearson Longman, 2008. 807.

Posted on

Does Social Inequality Exist in Jamaica

Introduction “Social Inequality allows for the exclusion of individuals and the formation of prejudices and discrimination. Carefully analyze and discuss the validity of this statement based on current events in the Jamaican society. ” Social Inequality is the existence of socially created inequalities; it occurs when ideology and power combine to make one group of people feel inferior to another.

From a sociological perspective people are able to assess both opportunities and constraints that characterize their lives as it relates to age, sex, gender, race and class and based on this, many ills that the world faces today are derived from some person’s blatant disregard for differences. A prejudice is a preconceived belief toward a particular group while discrimination is a behavior (an action), with reference to unequal treatment of people because they are members of a particular group. Some theories suggest that racism is a characteristic of an abnormal minority of the population and that this abnormality is psychological.

This prejudice may lead to racial discrimination. We may be familiar with this form of discrimination being more prevalent in recent times (Apartheid, Hitler vs. Jews) than now. In answering the question this report will outline the causes of social inequality and show that Social Inequality is prevalent in all societies including Jamaica. Race & Ethnicity Within sociology, the term ethnic, race, minority, and dominant group have very specific meanings, different from the meanings the terms have in common, their usage.

These concepts are important in the development of a sociological perspective on race and ethnicity. Race A race is a group of people treated as separate in society on the basis of certain characteristics, some of which may be biological, that have been assigned social importance. Because of presumed biologically or culturally inferior characteristics, a race is typically singled out for its uniqueness and unfortunately succumbs to unfair treatment. Therefore it is not biological characteristics per se that defines racial groups, but how groups ave been treated historically and socially over the years. Societies assign people racial categories such as Black, White, and so on. Not by science, logic or fact, but by opinion and social experiences. In other words, how racial groups are defined is a social process. This is what is meant when we acknowledge that race is “socially constructed”. The use of biological differences to judge an individual seems some what arbitrary. For example we differentiate people based on skin color and not other characteristics such as personality traits or culture.

Jamaica is made up of several races, but the majority is dark skinned. Most people interact with their own kind and do not get the opportunity to interface with others of a different race. However, for the ones who do, they may say that we are not a racist society but would more likely discriminate based on a persons’ socio-economic status. This may be true but there remains the irony that individuals with high socio-economic statuses are usually the light skinned (Caucasian, Indian, Chinese). Ethnicity

This refers to a social category of people who share a common culture, for example a common language or dialect; a common religion; and common norms, practices, customs and history. Ethnic groups have a consciousness of their common cultural bond. Jamaicans, Americans, Trinidadians, Japanese, Mexican Americans and so forth, are examples of ethnic groups. However ethnic groups are also found in other societies, such as Pashtuns in Afghanistan or Shiites and Sunnie in Iraq whose ethnicity is based on religious differences. An ethnic group does not exist simply because of the common national or cultural origins of the group.

These groups develop because of their unique historical, cultural origins or social experiences. These experiences become the basis of the group’s ethnic identity. PREJUDICE A prejudice is a preconceived belief, opinion, or judgment toward a group of people or a single person because of race, social class, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, disability, political beliefs , religion, line of work or other personal characteristics. It also means a priori beliefs (without knowledge of the facts) and includes “any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence. Although positive and negative prejudice both exist, when used negatively, “prejudice” implies fear and antipathy toward such a group or person. •Cognitive Prejudice refers to what people believe to be true: for example, in adherence to a particular metaphysical or methodological philosophy at the expense of other philosophies which may offer a more complete theoretical explanation. •Affective Prejudice refers to what people like and dislike: for example, in attitudes toward members of particular classes such as race, ethnicity, national origin, or creed. Conative Prejudice refers to how people are inclined to behave. It is regarded as an attitude because people do not act on their feelings. An example of conative prejudice may be found in expressions of what should be done if the opportunity presents itself. These three types of prejudice are correlated, but all need not be present in a particular individual. Someone may believe that a particular group possesses low levels of intelligence, but harbor no ill feeling towards that group. A group may be disliked because of intense competition for jobs, but still recognize no differences between groups.

DISCRIMINATION Discrimination is a sociological term referring to the treatment taken toward or against a person of a certain group that is taken in consideration based on class or category. The United Nations explains: “Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection. Discriminatory laws such as redlining have existed in many countries. In some countries, controversial attempts such as racial quotas have been used to redress negative effects of discrimination Farley also put discrimination into three categories: Personal / Individual Discrimination is directed toward a specific individual and refers to any act that leads to unequal treatment because of the individual’s real or perceived group membership. •Legal Discrimination refers to “unequal treatment, on the grounds of group membership, that is upheld by law. Apartheid is an example of legal discrimination, as are also various post-Civil war laws in the southern United States that legally disadvantaged Negros with respect to property rights, employment rights and he exercise of constitutional rights. •Institutional Discrimination refers to unequal treatment that is entrenched in basic social institutions resulting in advantaging one group over another. The Indian caste system and European feudal system are historical examples of institutional discrimination. As with prejudice generally, these three types of discrimination are correlated and may be found to varying degrees in individuals and society at large. Many forms of discrimination based upon prejudice are outwardly acceptable in most societies.

What is Gender? Gender is a social classification that divides individuals into one of three categories (masculine, feminine, androgyny) as defined by behaviour, cultural and/or physiological traits learnt and expressed. The Difference between Gender and Sex Sex is a biological classification the divides individuals into categories (Male, Female, Hermaphrodite) as defined by their Chromosome make-up, reproductive organs, external genitals, hormonal states, internal genitals and secondary sex characteristics.

Therefore sex is fundamentally different from gender on the basis that sex is determined by sex from birth and gender is determined by socialization after birth. Gender: Functional History The gender roles in society today are as a result of thousands of years of social evolution going back to the beginnings of society. Lets us take a look at how gender evolved into what it is today. The first type of society that existed, hunter/gatherer societies, men and women shared equal roles as the food gatherers in society.

Women secured the more stable sources of food such as ground provisions grains and fruits while men secured the less stable sources of food from hunting game. This is due to the fact that hunting is a physically intensive activity and thus more naturally suited for the men in society however both sources of food were important to the welfare of the society and therefore both men and women had comparable roles. However while comparable, these roles would go on to influence society through the ages as the gathering of food tended to be relatively close to the settlement and the hunting of food would be further away.

We see therefore that women were socialized to stay close to home and men were socialized to journey away from the home. This comparable role relationship remained similar in pastoral and horticultural societies however a huge shift came when people began to form agrarian societies. Men took the role of primary food gatherers in society freeing women from the task of food gathering. Thus women adopted alternative roles in the home to occupy their time. This however elevated the role of men in society while at the same time decreasing the roles of women.

Men became more educated and took on more complex jobs within society. Women became the nurturers and home-makers of society. Thus the sexual division on labour became institutionalized ( Lengerman and Wallace, 1985) In industrial society women were reintegrated in the workplace however they were typically low paying unskilled jobs and their male counterparts were typically paid more for the same work. The role of women in society was slowly increasing at this point. Gender: Functional Analysis of Jamaican Society Traditionally in Jamaican society women are seen to be the home-makers and men the bread winners.

This is due to the fact that the two genders play a complimentary role to each other (Talcott Parsons 141, 1964; orig 1951). In other words a complex Co-dependency between each gender that fulfils the economic social companionship, and social placement needs of a family unit thus holding and shaping society and. Each gender is socialized from birth to fulfil their respective roles. Boys are socialized to be competitive and aggressive through sports and aggressive role-models and yard work thereby allowing them to compete and survive in the working world as part of the labour force when they become Men.

Girls are socialized to be sensitive and caring through dolls and house chores so that once they become Women they are better able to run the household and rear children. In a family unit these roles compliment each other and act as a stabilizing force for the unit and by extension for society. These stabilizing forces are perpetuated through various schemes of social control. Individuals who fail to show appropriate levels of masculinity or femininity are ridiculed and ostracised by society, this produces guilt and fear of rejection in the individual and serves to reinforce gender classes.

Gender: Functional Analysis – Critical Comments The functionalistic view of gender is unable to proper explain many occurrences of modern society. With the post-industrial society we see that women are increasingly taking on more complex roles in society due to the reduction in the amount of physical labour needed to perform complex tasks through industrialization, the ability to control contraception, the feminist movement and poverty level (women in poorer household work out of necessity). Indeed most households now reply on a two person income.

This however has left women with the dual roles of home-maker and breadwinners. This is a very daunting task as such many women remain single to avoid such a scenario. Alternatively since women have become a large part of the labour force we see that in couples, men have now either partly or in rare cases fully taken over the tasks of nurturing and caring for a child so as to fill the void created by the absence of the mother Traditionally androgyny was a socially ostracised gender however lately there has been a blurring of the roles separating the genders.

We see this in ‘the sensitive new age guy’, ‘the metro sexual’, in women with short hair (short hair was traditionally a masculine feature), in male bleaching and male earrings (both of which were initially feminine traits). Gender Discrimination Though gender discrimination and sexism refers to beliefs and attitudes in relation to the gender of a person, such beliefs and attitudes are of a social nature and do not, normally, carry any legal consequences. Sex discrimination, on the other hand, may have legal consequences.

Though what constitutes sex discrimination varies between countries, the essence is that it is an adverse action taken by one person against another person that would not have occurred had the person been of another sex. Discrimination of that nature in certain enumerated circumstances is illegal in many countries. Currently, discrimination based on sex is defined as adverse action against another person, that would not have occurred had the person been of another sex. This is considered a form of prejudice and is illegal in certain enumerated circumstances in most countries. Sexual discrimination can arise in different contexts.

For instance an employee may be discriminated against by being asked discriminatory questions during a job interview, or because an employer did not hire, promote or wrongfully terminated an employee based on his or her gender, or employers pay unequally based on gender. In an educational setting there could be claims that a student was excluded from an educational institution, program, opportunity, loan, student group, or scholarship due to his or her gender. In the housing setting there could be claims that a person was refused negotiations on seeking a house, contracting/leasing a house or getting a loan based on his or her gender.

Another setting where there have been claims of gender discrimination is banking; for example if one is refused credit or is offered unequal loan terms based on one’s gender. In todays Jamaican society, it is debatable as to whether ones sex influences their position or status in life. A feminist Shulamith Firestone believed that women were disadvantaged by their biology, due bto the fact that they bear children and as s result they become dependent on the male species for survival. This dependence ion men produced unequal power relationships.

Local journalist Peter Espeute, believes that boys face challenges due to inequality from as early as Primary school level. He disputes that girls are usually seated at the front of the class, while the boys sit at the back where they idle and play instead of learning. He also states that the entrance test given to children to decide what High school they go to is given at the wrong stage in their life cycle. It is a fact that at age eleven (11), girls are mentally more developed that boys, therefore the girls would outperform the boys, get the scholarships and be placed at the “best” schools.

A study done by Kevin Harper of Howard University show that gender biases occur even in doctor offices. Doctors are deemed upper class statuses in Jamaica, and see themselves as “the almighty healers” (Payne-Jackson 1997). The study revealed that doctors were more apologetic to male patients who were kept waiting. More so males of high statuses. Female patients tended to be treated more like children needing instructions. Another example of gender bias may be seen in the workplace. In Corporate Jamaica, males in high positions (CEO,GM, etc. ) are paid higher wages than their female counterparts.

As you go down the scale you will find that the salaries are usually level. However in some institutions such as factories and industrial complexes, because of the nature of the job, men are favoured. Even if females are among them, night shifts and overtime are usually approved for the men. The United Nations had concluded that women often experience a “glass ceiling” and that there are no societies in which women enjoy the same opportunities as men. The term “glass ceiling” is used to describe a perceived barrier to advancement in employment based on discrimination, especially sex discrimination. Social Class

The term social class refers to a system of social stratification which is based on individual achievements, resulting from the unequal distribution of wealth, power and prestige. A hierarchical distinction is made between individuals or groups of people within the society. Social stratification is regarded as structured inequality based on the characteristics of the society and usually persists over a long period of time. It is usually universal and often occurs on the basis of access to the scarce factors of production: it also occurs on the basis of other factors, such as race, gender, age, religion and caste.

Social stratification is usually prevalent in most societies. Usually a person’s status is either ascribed or achieved. An ascribed status is usually fixed at birth and depicted by ones sex or race. An achieved status is depicted by ones achievements throughout their lifetime, usually occupational. An open society usually fosters social mobility between the different social classes. Social mobility is the movement of individuals between, or up or down the different class structures over time owing to improvements in their fortunes. Social mobility is usually achieved through the following avenues: 1.

Education, the attainment of higher tertiary education leads to more expertise and usually higher income paying jobs. 2. Hard work 3. Marriage, an individual marries into a rich family 4. Family status, the name of a rich family member usually opens doors for that individual 5. Talents and skills 6. Physical attributes, e. g. Miss World, usually marries into a powerful or rich family 7. Luck A closed system does not foster social mobility. Social positions are ascribed at birth and the system is very rigid with clearly defined structures.

The caste system in India is a very good example of a closed system of stratification. In this system an individual is born in caste and this determines their occupation, education, social interaction and power. No amount of hard work and achievement can change their status or caste over time. The best example of the open system is the class system. This is found in most modern industrial societies around the world. One’s class in this system is largely determined by ones occupation, education, income, wealth and power. There are four classes in this system.

They are the upper-class, the middle class, the service class and the underclass. The upper class is usually made up of the top ten percent (10%) of the wealthy people in the society. This class is also broken down into two classes: the upper and the lower class. ?The upper- upper class is made up of people who normally have “old money” and are set apart by their wealth and power. These persons have been born and raised with wealth; mostly consists of old “noble” or prestigious families. The Royal Family of England would be a prime example of the upper – upper class. The lower- upper class is made up of people who have extraordinary large income, which is achieved through occupational means. These people are usually referred to as having “new money”. These individuals have become rich within their own lifetimes. This class consists of people who own large companies or are CEO’s of large companies. It also consists of entrepreneurs, movie stars, top athletes, as well as some prominent professionals). The middle class is divided into three different groups. They are the upper -middle class, the service- class and the lower- middle class. The upper middle class is usually made up of people who have prestigious occupations, such as doctors, lawyers, politicians and entertainers. These people usually earn very high incomes and live in prominent neighborhoods and are able to send their off springs to colleges and universities abroad. These people usually accumulate lots of wealth overtime. ?The service- class is made up of highly trained people who are usually managers at their place of work. These people usually have secured careers and earn very good incomes on the job.

Business consultants, teachers, and small business operators are good examples of persons who fall within this class. ?The lower- middle class is reserved for people who earn an average income and enjoy a decent standard of living. These people work in mainly less prestigious white collar jobs and include Sales Representatives, Supervisors, Bank clerks and Office clerks. Most of these people have not acquired a tertiary level education. The working class is usually those people who live from paycheck to paycheck and are called blue collar workers.

These people usually earn what is known as “minimum wage” and are normally the first set of workers to be affected in times of recession. The underclass is those people who fall below the poverty line. They are usually temporarily employed or unemployed and are usually dependent on the state for survival. Conclusion As our motto rightly states “Out of Many One People”, we are diverse in race, ethnicity, and socialization. Based on our research which included a questionnaire (Appendices), we can clearly state that Social Inequality exists worldwide and Jamaica is no exception.

The questionnaire was issued to twenty persons which included two Rastafarians, Two Chinese, three Mixed race individuals, one Caucasian and the rest were Negros. Half were male and the other half females. The results were as follows:- Age discrimination was felt by one young man (22 years old) who was a bus driver by profession. He expressed that persons were not willing to take his bus when they saw that he was the driver. The Rastafarians who were ironically from the lower class said they faced discrimination from every aspect (class, beliefs). Most of the females stated that men are preferred for jobs in the corporate world.

One lady in particular related an experience of being in an interview and was told that she did well but they want to hire a male, as too many women were in the office. The only white man that did the questionnaire expressed that he felt discriminated just because of his colour; he was not comfortable going out alone because some people thought that he had something to offer them and were constantly begging. Therefore the question is answered Social Inequality does lead to people forming prejudices which may influence their actions toward person of a particular group or groups.

Posted on

Service Blueprint of Airlines

University of Nicosia T h e B r i t i s h A i r w a y s s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y p r o c e s s God save the Queen! Photo by Bachir MKTG-380 Services Marketing Lecturer: Alkis Thrassou Section 01 May, 12 2008 Zehra Fattah Anastasia Kondratenko Federico Lovat 2 1. 3 2. 3 3. 7 4. 8 5. 10 6. 15 7. 19 CONTENTS Corporate overview The augmented service Breaking down the process Flowchart Blueprint Improvement of service delivery Bibliography Can I get you anything? Photo by caribb 4 THE PRE FLIGHT A lot of customers don? t consciously realize that there is much more to a flight than ooking and attending it. The price we pay for when purchasing a ticket includes all the supplementary ser- vices we are going to mention in the next chapters. The Core product is the transportation from airport A to airport B. but everything else which accompanies it is called supplementary service, and even if a lot of these services are expected by the customer, he/she doesn? t consciously pay for it. The following are the necessary steps in the process of delivering the service before the customer gets into the plane. In the following chapter we are going to describe in detail what happens during the flight.

INFORMATION The process starts off with the information gathering before attending the flight. It is very important for the airline to advertise effectively in order to differentiate from the competitors so that the customer can decide which airline brand to chose. When advertising it is recommended to underline the features, services and com- petitive advantages of a brand, as nowadays, being the airline industry in its matur- ity, a lot of brands seem to be similar in the eyes of the customer. In recent years, more and more people are searching for information and prices over he internet, so it is crucial to have a well-designed website that allows potential cus- tomer to get a feeling of what experience the company is offering and not only to compare prices and routes. CONSULTATION When booking through a travel agent, it is important whether the agent knows about the subject and is able to give the customer the information he/she needs. Prices in travel agencies are higher than online so the customer expects the service which he/ she is additionally paying for. Even if the internet is a low-contact channel people may expect some form of consultation maybe via email or through a specialized online chat.

The same applies to the call center, even though people might already know what they want, the operator needs to be prepared to answer any specific question about the flight or the before and after flight. ORDER TAKING 5 tions. The flower of services © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz An online booking procedure, which is pretty common in these days, is a convenient way for the customer to make a reservation. It saves time and money. By the way older or uneducated people still have some problem in booking through the internet, in fact, from our interviews panel it appears that most of the “online bookers” are oung or middle aged and above average educated. (However the number of customers booking online increased significantly in the last years and the numbers are growing each day. ) In case a problem appears while making an online booking or if the customer has a problem, the effectiveness of the call centre staff is crucial. The availability of the customer service can be an important factor when a situation like that appears. The customer service should be well informed about the products of the company and also well trained in order to react properly in different situa- HOSPITALITY

If there are any delays before the flight it is very important for the airline to provide hospitality to the customer. For shorter delays, B. A. gives the customers vouchers, so they can use these during the waiting times to eat or drink in the restaurants/bars at the airport. Furthermore if there are longer delays and the customer has an overnight stay, the 6 ment. airline usually has to provide for a suitable accommodation for the customer in a ho- tel near the airport. Even if there aren? t delays we must remember that the customer probably has to wait about one hour at the airport so it is important that the servicescape is comfort- ble in order to minimize the impact of the waiting time. SAFE KEEPING Travelling by plane is made inconvenient for the customer by the several safety pro- cedures that people have to attend to before and after the flight. Moreover, with recent years? concern about terrorism the security procedures have become even more strict. This has an effect on the waiting times and customers, es- pecially if frequent flyers, may be annoyed by this lengthy process. It is important that the ground staff is friendly and patient both with experienced and unexperienced customers. It is interesting to notice that for the company this tage is untouchable since it is imposed by law it gives very few room for improve- EXCEPTIONS The airline has to be prepared in case there are customers which constitute an ex- ception. Exceptions may be handicapped customers, elderly people and babies who need spe- cial accommodation. Exceptions can be made with food. Individual references may be considered. I. e. Vegetarian food has to be provided for vegetarian customers. Furthermore there are exceptions which can be made with luggage. BILLING The billing procedure should be as clear but at the same time as easy as possible. The Online purchase of flights is very common lately.

However a high number of customers are still skeptical with reveling their bank de- tails online, so it is very important to design the billing procedures as clear and easy understandable as possible. As for the brick and mortar agencies the bill should be standardized in order to impose consistency among the different independent agen- cies. Being B. A. a traditional carrier the price of the ticket include almost all the ex- tra like inboard food and entertainment while low-cost companies base their strat- 7 for. egy on the separate bills where customers have to pay for each extra service they ask

PAYMENT The payment for the ticket is usually done at the time of the reservation either via credit card or, if done in agency, through cash or check. Payment may be asked from the customer also after the ticket has been issued, for example when the luggage exceeds the allowance the customer has to pay a certain amount because of maintenance reasons. Every airline has restrictions when it comes to the luggage allowance. Furthermore there are certain items which can be purchased during the flight, such as duty free products. The customers also have the opportunity to purchase addi- ional drinks such as alcoholic beverages which are not included the meal. For all these in-flight payment it is important to give customers many options. Being the plane a „non-place? (thanks to the theory by Marc Auge) customers may expect to be able to pay with different currencies, as well as with major credit cards. BREAKING DOWN THE PROCESS We are going to look now in detail at all the actions that are necessary to complete the process from the very beginning to the very end. Here, to simplify a bit we imag- ine a customer buying a ticket online. Time Dimension in Augmented Product Adapted from Lovelock and Wirtz 2007 Information see- king over the internet Information see- king through a- gency Information see- king by phone Enhancing Facilitating Booking Transfer to airport Electronic payment through CC via internet or phone Payment by cash or cheque through travel agent parking Transfer to airport Last minute desk boo- king and payment parking Check in baggage Use of airport facilities (business lounge, shops, restaurants, toilet…) Security check Transfer to the plane On-board welcome and Security demonstration Passport control 9 meal toilet Meal preparation and loading Flight starts Movies, music and newspapers are elected, bought and loaded into the plane Movie/music/ newspapers Informations co- ming from airport Phone/fax call Radio bridge to the earth, call is routed, payment through CC Plane is cleaned, checked and filled with petrol Informations about the con- necting flight, the weather… Plane lands Control tower gi- ves permission to land, alert the land crew, bus and stairs come. Baggages are transfered to the belt Transfer from plane to airport Baggage claim Lost baggage desk Use of business room/airport facilities Transfer from airport to town After sale-Complaint management Frequent flyer program 10 The

Front stage Physical evidence | | | | | side Back stage Contact person (visibile) | | The company side Front stage—Back stage Support processes Contact person (invisible) | | Information seeking on the internet | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | into Crew makes sure frastructure, IT, with the control tower Co-pilot manages the music, air condi- Bus and stairs driv- airport plane with food, tioning, … — tem to customer Maintain IT system Booking Mechanics Check the plane Shuttle to airport drive to airport Maintain and organ- ize shuttles clean and refill the Check in baggage, take boarding pass Take baggage, give boarding pass Maintain drink, newspaper, petrol Security check Wait in the boarding area Check passport, hand-baggage and person Maintain it sys- facilities, toilets, bars, shops…

Pilots and crew get into plane and start proce- Load baggage plane dures Give boarding pass Get into bus check boarding pass Drive bus to plane Maintain support vehicles ers are alerted Get into plane Find seat, put hand baggage and seat down Fasten seat belts and enjoy take-off Crew welcomes pas- senger and help finding seat Crew shows security procedures Maintain airport infrastructure, IT, radio, radar… Drive stairs to plane Pilots and control tower arrange for take off Pilots drive plane to runway and take off Sleep, read, eat… enjoy flight Crew offers food, drink, newspapers… and collect garbage afterwards

Pilots fly the plane through Put the seat in the upright position, fas- ten seat belt, close table that everything is ready for landing Maintain airport in- radio, radar… the route Pilots communicate at the destination air- port Maintain airport facilities and sup- port vehicles Control tower alerts land crew and support vehicles Plane lands and gets its parking position | The Physical evidence | | | | | | | | | side Back stage Contact person (visibile) | | | | The Support processes | | side Back stage Contact | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | First net. tem that the credit At this When at desk to use. airport. is to seek informations about the flight over the inter- implies that somebody has put together an IT sys- -based applications with the internal booking system When the customer has decided which flight to buy he can pay with This is made possible by the interactions of of the airline company and the banks managing the transaction. After some days the customer by private car, public transport, or shuttle service. In this to organize, maintain and inform about this supple- normally is a stand-alone service itself. the customer goes to the monitors to check out which check in course there must be an informative system to allow that.

At the the luggage onto the scale while the employee checks out This is a lot of different people from the airline and from the checked in it is transported to a sorting area where spe- trucks to be driven to the proper plane | | Maintain and or- checked, Plane is been left in that noth- Crew makes sure 11 person (invisible) are belt town vice Of customer Front stage— company Front stage— Passengers get their hand baggage Crew helps passen- gers Support vehicles come to the plane Passengers get to the bus Maintain Support vehicles Baggage Passengers get to the airport Drive bus to airport ing has the plane trans- ferred to he truck go to passport con- trol Get baggage Control passport Maintain airport facilities, It and se- curity system… Baggage are trans- ferred to the running go to shuttle stop cleaned, ganize shuttle ser- refilled… Drive shuttle to step from the consumer From the company side this can integrate the web of the company. card directly from the internet. the IT systems point there? s usually a time gap in the process. will go to the airport either last case the company needs mentary service that the airport, check in desk he/she puts the documents, prints the boarding pass and the barcode tag for the luggage. ade possible by the work of When the luggage is cialized employee load the baggage on small 12 where the baggage are finally loaded. After check-in, the customer can go through the security control. Here the security personnel checks the hand-baggage, the person and the documents of the traveller. Previously these procedures have been formalized in order to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. Even at this stage it is crucial the contribution of the IT systems. After the security check the passenger can go to the gate where the airline employees check the boarding passes and lead passengers to a bus that is already waiting to get hem to the actual plane. Until now the customer has already experienced a wide va- riety of locations, employees and servicescapes. We didn? t focus on the airport sup- plementary services, although important to improve the overall customer experi- ence. Imagine how it would be to travel from an airport without shops, bars and toi- lets. These are all extremely important but describing all of them would make this paper endless and by the way they are not strictly part of the airline experience. When the passenger get off the bus, the mobile stairs are already in place in front of the plane’s door.

People get on the plane while the last baggages are being loaded. From now on, it? s almost all about hospitality. The passengers enter the plane and the crew is ready to welcome them and to help them find their place. In the business class, the crew take care about the safekeeping of passengers? coats and hand – baggage. At any time the cabin crew must be ready to answer any question about the flight, the plane, the usage of cabin devices, etc. At this moment the audio system plays a soft classical track, the lights are on and the monitors are off so passengers can easily spot their place without being distracted.

While people seat down, the pilot communicate with the control tower. The host- esses inform the passengers about the security procedures. The pilot starts the en- gines, when the control tower gives permission to take off the pilot drives the plane to the runway, alert the flight assistants and takes off. After takeoff the monitors are turned on and start to display information about the flight. The flight assistants start to offer newspapers, headphones, food and drinks that were previously loaded into the plane. During the flight, the flight assistants start the movie and the music so the passenger can enjoy them.

The lights may be turned off according to the time of the day. In the business class somebody may ask to make a phone call or to send a fax. This is an enhancing service that requires a lot of steps to be completed. The customer might need to be informed on how to operate the on-board phone. On the backstage, 13 place. the IT and radio systems of the plane work to create a connection to the Earth in or- der to transmit the actual voice but also to connect to the credit card circuit. When the call is over, the billing and electronic payment procedures take place. During the flight the crew offers food and drinks.

In the first class passengers are al- lowed to chose from a menu (that involves order-taking by the flight attendants) while in the economy class the meal is the same for each customer but still, people are allowed to chose what to drink. In the B. A. case this process doesn? t involve bill- ing and payment while low-cost carriers charge for this. When it comes to food, the flight assistants need to be able to answer questions about the ingredients or to give advices about specific alimentary needs expressed by customers. Exception manage- ment is also important at this stage as some people may have special requirements bout food and drinks. Especially in the first class, people expect to have the right to be picky because of the premium price. When the people are finished eating the flight assistants collect all the garbage while some passengers may ask for the toilet. When approaching the destination, the pilot gets information from the control tower about the weather, the estimated time of landing and the connecting flights and tells them to the passenger either via loudspeaker or on the monitors. When the control tower gives permission to land the pilot turns on the fasten seat belts signal, turns off the monitors and starts approaching the airport.

In the mean- time the land crew is ready with a car to guide the plane to its parking position. After parking the plane, a mobile stair and bus come to take the passengers to the airport, meanwhile, the baggage are transferred to a small truck and then to the belt at the airport. After flight experience that consumer receives should be well thought-out by British Airways as at this stage, evaluation of service performance and future intentions are considered as the Post purchase behavior of a customer is very significant. If the customer is satisfied with the service a positive WOF (word of mouth) will take

WOF is the most significant advertising tool and it shouldn? t be underestimated. A bad worth of mouth can cause bad damages to the reputation of the company. Once the flight is completed the passengers is about to leave the plane. The customer should be satisfied with the service at this point. 14 This can be achieved by providing a service which was expected by the customer or even better than expected. Since i. e. business class travelers are very sensitive and elective, the standards of on- board treatment and after all experience of traveling should fulfill their expectations or benefit of the company. It is important that the service experience the consumer gets differentiates from its competitors. The customer will know if he/she is satisfied for the most of the most part once the plane is landed. The after flight evaluation which we will talk about in the next chapter will complete his/her judgment. After the plane lands, the stairs are placed and ready, the travelers leave the plane the stewardesses makes sure that all passengers are organized and not bothering each other. Flight attendants and pilots biding passengers farewell, always smiling nicely and eing polite, which also leaves an impression on the flight experience of the cus- tomer. It is important that the on board staff is well trained to react appropriate even though customers may be impolite. There are different reasons why customers may react in an unconventional way. The dissatisfaction of a passenger could lead to an unreasonable behavior. A lot of customers might know that there are complaint hot- lines which they can contact after their traveling, so in some situations they try and relief their anger on the on board staff, as in the eye of many customers every em- ployee represents the company.

The bus is usually waiting downstairs when the passengers arrive, in case the plane didn? t arrive at a gate which is accessible by food. There should be enough space for all of the customers and if not another bus must be provided shortly or even be there already. After passengers have left the plane, the plane is being cleaned, refilled and checked if anything was forgotten by the travelers and if so, reported and returned to the owner shortly. Security procedures take place. The plane is refilled with gas and maintenance work by engineers takes place. The plane is being prepared for its next flight.

When passengers arrive at the arrival gate of the airport they usually face the pass- 15 port control queues leading to the passport control. If they are not well organized it takes a lot of time to pass through. An effective queue management is very important as customers can get irritated when they have to face long waiting times after their flight. When passport control is passed its important that the baggage is transferred to the belt fast enough and safely. In case there is a loss of baggage customer service is available and willing to help. How fast and how efficient this service will be, proportionally will affect the image of he company. Usually there are customer service assistants which can be contact right away in case of lost baggage. In case there is no one around, there are BA offices which deal with lost luggage. Usually after reported at the airport the luggage is delivered to the address which is left at the office by the customer. This may take up to 2 days, depending on where the final destination of the passenger is. When filling out the form, the customer has to describe the content of the luggage, and also tick boxed to describe the bags, so they can be recognized, the right luggage will be delivered and further delays will be voided. This case would fall into the failure recovery process. In theory this means that if the recovery is well managed, the customer may be more satisfied, and at the end he/she doesn? t mind the failure of a service provided. Furthermore BA offers frequent fliers program. Every customer has the opportunity to sign up for this program. It is voluntarily, and if the customer decides to sign up, he/she receives monthly account statements and additional information concerning the program. The account statements include the archived miles, depending on the amount of miles the customer flies.

These miles are collected and can be used to re- ceive free gifts/ flights once achieved the required amount. The miles and more program builds customer loyalty and at the same time it gives the airline the opportunity to use their customer data for research purposes. IMPROVEMENT OF SERVICE DELIVERY As we can see from the blueprint there is much more than the actual flying that must be done in order to offer the transport service that? s the reason why people are pay- 16 ing. Before and after the flight people have to go through a lot of procedures and to move across many locations.

These are all time-consuming tasks that take away value from the flying experience. Even if we like to think that flying is already part of our daily life, travelling by plane is not really as immediate as getting into the metro or the bus in our town. The impact of all these procedures is so big that on the short distances (up to 600 KM) travelling by plane may result in taking only a little less time than by train. ( D o n ? t f o r g e t t h e t i m e n e e d e d t o g e t t o a n d f r o m t h e a i r p o r t s ) . We suggest using many small airports instead of a few big ones. Get the service de- livery closer to the customer) In this way we can reduce the amount of time that? s required to get to and from the airport. Odds are that if there are more airports available, probably the customers won? t have to spend so much time going to and from the airport. To improve the flying experience on the short distances it would be necessary to streamline the entire process but unfortunately this is easier said than done. For ex- ample, people could go directly to the plane without the need to check in the bag- gage but this may slow down the boarding procedure and for some people it may be ifficult to carry the baggage up the stairs to the plane. Also, a lot of time gaps are due to the security procedures that are necessary when flying but not when travelling on the earth. One of the tasks that carriers are struggling to improve is the boarding of passen- gers. This takes a lot of time because people don? t know exactly where their seat is and they don? t know which entrance to use. And even when they know which en- trance they should use they not always collaborate. There is a psychological effect. People who waited to be served are less likely to collaborate. It? s like if they internal- ze the pace at which the service is being offered. When they have the control of the pace they rather move slow even if five minutes before they were pushing to get into the plane. If the boarding procedures are slow with many controls and queues it? s likely that people will move slowly also when they could speed up the entire process at their advantage. Our suggestion is to arrange the flights on the time when there is not many other flights, so it could be easier to pass and avoid stress resulted by waiting. Or else, pro- vide a service that will allow travelers that have arrived even on the peak time to 7 avoid all the formal interactions that has to do with passport control. This includes escorting the passenger after arrival straight to the lounge where the client is resting and could have a drink while the service group is dealing with all necessary migra- tion tasks. Then the passenger is guided to the place of receiving the luggage, later to the luggage check and lastly to the meeting room. This service is already in use within some airports but not promoted by any specific airlines. Therefore, as first provider of these services it will create a better image for he company, add some extra financial benefits and, which is most important, create the value to the customer. If adopted it could be used for individual passengers, tourist groups and important clients. It should be available in the short time before flight which will be an extra benefit for last minute bookings for people who value the time. As an additional service, British airways can also provide a taxi or limousine booking before the flight or when the clients have arrived already. The airline company must ensure that the driver will meet the client and take to important meeting or hotel on time.

This kind of feature will definitely extend the variety of services from just fly- ing from one airport to another to taking care of the passenger after the flight which is also be a good opportunity for airlines to build loyal strength of their clients. BA is a one of the most prestigious airlines worldwide and its services are very high standard. However they have to keep being innovative in developing new services in order to use the competitive adnantage productively. Here an article written by Woody Harford, the senior vice president for North American commercial operations of British Airways, talking about a new and en- anced service developement. In the article of the daily International Herald Tribune newspaper online was mentioned that “all the airlines offer a range of discounts and promotions off top business-class fares. Some high-volume companies negotiate discounts of 40 percent or more. For others, buying a ticket well in advance brings the fare down considerably. British Airways, which is counting on its brand recognition as it takes on smaller rivals, has not yet announced details, but Harford said that the cabins on the new route would be comparable to the airline’s Club World service be- 18 ween New York and London – meaning flatbed seats and service at the top end of the scale. The service will also promote 15-minute check-in at London City and at whichever New York-area airport is used. British Airways also plans to start a separate small all-business-class airline called Open Skies in the spring, flying between New York and cities in Europe other than London. Last week, British Airways reported a 28. 5 percent jump in operating profit for the last nine months, “mainly due to more premium pas- sengers traveling. ” Woody Harford, the senior vice president for North American commercial opera- ions of British Airways. Overall we think that for such a sucessful company like British Airways it is impor- tant to being able to continously adapting to the changing environment in order to keep up with developments in the industry. Firm, 4 uct Innovation Management th 19 BIBLIOGRAPHY Storey, Chris; Easingwood, Christopher J. 1998 „The augmented service offering: a conceptualization and study of its impact on new service success?. Journal of Prod- , Volume 15, Number 4, pp. 335-351 Zeithaml et al. 2006, Services Marketing – Integrating Customer Focus Across the (International) Edition. McGraw Hill, New York