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Self Healing From Power Interruption Events Engineering Essay

In the 2nd half of the 1990s, more than 50,000 consumers in US were affected by the 41 addition in outages than in the first half of the decennary. The economic cost of these outages is $ 150 billion yearly which is tantamount to $ 500 for each one of abodes in US [ 1 ] . In add-on, 49 % of coevals beginnings in US depend on coal and the oil monetary values maintain fluctuating [ 2 ] . Therefore, go forthing the grid in its current sate is non a good thought, particularly, when we know that the demand on electricity is expected to turn 30 % by 2030 [ 1 ] . All of these challenges lead to the demand to do the current grid smart.

The smart grid implements the information, communicating, and control engineerings to better the efficiency, dependability, economic sciences, environment, and sustainability of production, transmittal, and distribution of power [ 3 ] [ 4 ] . The chief maps of the smart grid are [ 5 ] :

Supplying enhanced cyber security

Supplying a bipartisan communicating between public-service corporations and their clients to enable them to command certain facets from each other

Self-healing from power break events

Supplying enhanced power quality

Managing all coevals and storage options

Enabling new markets and services

Optimizing assets and operational efficiency

As mentioned antecedently, managing all coevals and storage options is a map of the smart grid. One of the storage options that can be integrated into the grid is the Vehicle to Grid ( V2G ) vehicle.

The V2G vehicle is an Electric Vehicle ( EV ) that has the V2G engineering which enables it to move as a burden and generator based on grid operator & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s signal [ 6 ] . It acts as a burden by bear downing its battery when there is high coevals in the grid and it acts as a generator by bear downing its battery when there is high burden on the grid [ 6 ] . This vehicle plays a important function in change overing the current grid to a smarter one by supplying accessory services, diminishing the dodo fuel usage, and increasing the incursion degree of intermittent renewable resources such as air current and solar [ 7 ] .

The storage capableness of the V2G vehicle makes it economically more efficient than EV [ 7 ] . This can be realized when we know that the US autos are parked, in norm, 23 hours per twenty-four hours [ 6 ] . Therefore, the V2G vehicle proprietor can gain grosss by supplying services to the grid during the 23 hours period [ 7 ] . There are many EVs that can be converted to V2G vehicles such as Battery EV ( BEV ) , Plug-in Hybrid EV ( PHEV ) , Hybrid EV ( HEV ) , Fuel Cell EV, and Extended-Range EV. The BEV and PHEV have already the electrical connexion with the grid. However, the electrical connexion must be added to the HEV, Fuel Cell EV, and Extended-Range EV in order to implement the V2G rule on these vehicles [ 7 ] .

The substructure is important to hold a V2G vehicle on route. This substructure consists of V2G engineering, residential charging Stationss, and public charging Stationss [ 7 ] . The V2G engineering enables the V2G vehicle to pass on with the grid [ 7 ] . Automobile makers, public-service corporations, and V2G vehicle proprietors have to put in the V2G engineering in the EV to bring forth a V2G vehicle [ 7 ] . The V2G engineering constituents are [ 7 ] :

Drive system which is the power electronic unit that enables the bi-directional power flow between the V2G vehicle and the grid.

Software and communicating system that enables the bi-directional communicating between the V2G vehicle and the grid.

Equipment which allow the processing, direction, executing, and describing the V2G vehicle undertakings.

Current V2G Executions

There are three stages required to follow and establish the V2G vehicle in market. These stages are the presentation stage, market entry stage, and market development stage. The presentation stage is of import to prove the V2G engineering and make up one’s mind when the V2G vehicle will be able to come in the market entry stage [ 7 ] . The concern theoretical account is created in the market entry stage and developed in the market development stage. There are several achievements done in the presentation stage and market entry stage toward doing the V2G vehicle existent. Some of these achievements are as follows:

In 2004, University of Delaware proposed several concern theoretical accounts for the V2G vehicle [ 8 ] .

In 2007, University of Delaware established the Middle atlantic Grid Interactive Car Consortium ( MAGICC ) runing under real-time despatch by PJM. The MAGICC proves that V2G vehicle is capable of supplying accessory services and storage [ 6 ] .

In 2009, Delaware passed a jurisprudence necessitating public-service corporations to do the payments for bear downing and dispatching battery at the same rate [ 7 ] .

In 2009 and 2010, car makers such as Ford, Toyota, and Nissan announced EV theoretical accounts and considered EVs as a key to their future growing [ 7 ] .

The Independent System Operators ( ISOs ) and Transmission System Operators ( TSOs ) have been pushed by federal regulators to put duties for V2G energy. One ISO survey showed that proprietors of V2G autos with a certain minimal battery capacity would gain between $ 10,000 and $ 25,000 each over a 10 twelvemonth period from V2G contracts [ 7 ] .

Future V2G Expectations

Based on analyzing the expected development in EV market and the decrease in V2G engineering cost, the strong growing period in the V2G market will be between 2015 and 2020 [ 7 ] . During this period, the V2G one-year growing rate will be 58.9 % in substructure market, 53.1 % in vehicle market, 46.8 % in engineering market, and the one-year growing rate in the entire gross will be 63.5 % [ 7 ] .

Due to the authorities financess for the Smart Grid, EVs, and EV substructure, the US will take the V2G market in 2020. The expected V2G values in 2020 United states market are as follows [ 7 ] :

296 1000s V2G units

US $ 8.1 billion V2G vehicle market value

US $ 1.8 billion V2G substructure market value

US $ 2.8 billion V2G engineering market value

US $ 654 billion V2G entire gross

In the following five old ages, the substructure market will supply higher chance for residential bear downing Stationss than public bear downing Stationss [ 7 ] . In the vehicle market, the chance will be higher for EVs that have scheduled usage times because it is easier for public-service corporations to incorporate EVs which have extremely predictable bear downing times [ 7 ] .

However, before anticipating all the old accomplishments in the V2G market, several processs have to be accomplished, these processs are as follows:

The V2G vehicle has to run into the consumers & A ; acirc ; ˆ™ needs [ 7 ] . It is expected that the V2G vehicle will be purchased by consumers who are interested in economic sciences, environment, and manner [ 7 ] .

The charging Stationss and V2G engineering have to turn at the same rate [ 7 ] .

The rechargeable battery makers have to diminish the battery cost and increase its quality [ 7 ] . They besides have to increase their fabrication capacity in analogue with the increasing figure of V2G vehicles.

Develop the concern theoretical account of the V2G vehicle. This will assist in look intoing the ability of the market to back up the turning figure of V2G vehicles.

Educate car makers, substructure makers, public-service corporations, and consumers about the V2G vehicle [ 7 ] .

Government has to put more regulations about everything related to V2G vehicle [ 7 ] .

Several attempts are pushed toward carry throughing the old processs, these attempts are as follows [ 7 ] :

The rechargeable battery makers in US will raise their fabrication capacity from 2 % to 40 % by 2015.

Large financess were allocated by the US authorities for advanced battery fabrication, V2G substructure, and presentation undertakings.

Plug In America initiated to educate car makers, charging-station companies, public-service corporations, and consumers about V2G vehicle.

More than 4.7 million bear downing Stationss will be installed by 2015.

The expected bead in the PHEV purchase cost will be 49.34 % by 2030.


Presents, Smart Grid attracts the attending due its important function in increasing the dependability and efficiency of the current electric grid by diminishing the spread between production and ingestion of electricity. One of the tools that the Smart Grid uses to fulfill its ends is the V2G vehicle. There are several V2G presentation undertakings and concern theoretical accounts are done to come in the V2G vehicle on the market in the close hereafter. The future outlooks of the V2G market growing in the following few old ages are high ; nevertheless, the substructure and meeting consumers & A ; acirc ; ˆ™ demands are the most of import challenges that the V2G vehicle has to go through before anticipating fleets of this vehicle on route.

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