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Storage Production Water Treatment Engineering Essay

The object of this subdivision is to supply the Topside Utility installations as a sub-component of the overall processing unit of the EWT with the needed capacity to adequately fulfill its undertaking of its field of deployment ( GS-29 Field of Indian and the aˆ¦.. field of the Middle East ) . The subdivision will supply an estimated position of the needed public-service corporation equipment and the footing of their choice. This equipment are designed, installed and maintained at the Topside of the jackup design.

Utilities: Introduction

Utilities is an built-in portion of the Topside architecture that must be designed, installed and operated in a mode that it reliably maps during the full estimated service period and beyond. The importance of this subdivision can non be over emphatic, as other units relies on the efficient running its service handiness and bringing. It comprises of the undermentioned sub-units:

Summary of topside Utilities

COOLING MEDIUM SYSTEM

HEATING MEDIUM SYSTEM

FUEL GAS SYSTEM

FLARE AND VENT SYSTEM

DIESEL SYSTEM

DRAINS SYSTEM

CHEMICAL INJECTION SYSTEM

COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

POTABLE / FRESH WATER SYSTEM

INERT GAS SYSTEM

Firewater SYSTEM

VOC RECOVERY SYSTEM

Detailed EXAMPLE FROM A NEW BUILD FPSO

The functional combination of the above installations provides the topside with heat, waste direction, potable H2O power and safety. Power particularly is needed to guarantee the smooth operations of the full equipment aboard this vas, therefore the design, installing and dependability of this subdivision is critical to the overall smooth and efficient running of the production Jackup. The design features and factors impacting pick of equipment are discussed in the undermentioned subdivisions.

Topside installations

Facilities

Description

Function

Crude separation/stabilisation train

Four phases of stabilization provide enhanced oil recovery, with two high force per unit area ( HP ) centrifuges for increased flexibility/availability

Separation of petroleum from emulsified H2O, seawater and solids ( chiefly sand ) and remotion of dissolved natural gas.

Power Generation unit

Diesel driven electrical generators

An electrically driven centralized power coevals strategy will be employed to drive chief revolving equipment and power consumers. Electricity would be produced by Diesel generators.

Produced H2O handling system

Produced H2O handling system including hydro-cyclones

Produced H2O is treated to take particulates, oil and H2O from the produced H2O.

Chemical injection system

Chemical injection armored combat vehicles with pumps

Facilities for chemical injection are required in order to expeditiously handle the hydrocarbons before export, maintain flow confidence, maintain corrosion suppression and enable intervention of saltwater.

Service H2O system.

Utilised for chilling and H2O injection, includes lift pumps, suction coffers, harsh strainers and distribution system

Desalination system of saltwater to bring forth fresh H2O for domestic usage on the Jackup.

Procedure chilling medium system

Closed-loop ( service H2O to chilling H2O ) procedure chilling medium system, with two circulation pumps and one enlargement armored combat vehicle

For chilling the production prior to traveling to storage.

Sea Water Injection System

Multi-media and cartridge filters, vacuity pumps and three high force per unit area pumps

Sea H2O is filtered for chilling, warming and other public-service corporation intents.

Flare/vent system

Flare/vent system with HP and LP flare smasher membranophones

The flare/vent system will roll up and safely dispose of high force per unit area hydrocarbons in the event of an exigency or other closure.

Heating medium system

Closed-loop warming medium system, with two circulation pumps and one enlargement armored combat vehicle

Circulation system to let warming of the gross production downstream of the HP centrifuges

Drain systems

Closed drainage system and oily H2O intervention

Drain system for oily H2O that does non run out straight to sea but is required to be contained for intervention and clean up.

HEATING – Cooling System

Heating and chilling is required at different units to execute assorted operations within a Jackup. Separation of the liquid and gas stages of drosss at the topside requires the right temperatures and force per unit area for it to take topographic point. Keeping these stages in the coveted province could necessitate and increase or diminish in force per unit area or merely heating or chilling and sometimes a combination of both. Particularly, force per unit area ordinance is achieved by the usage of force per unit area alleviation valves or utilizing a compressor device.

Frequently than non, any fluctuation in force per unit area that occurs brings about a corresponding alterations in the accompanying temperatures. Having the full system to be stabilized requires that the addition and lessening of these force per unit areas and temperatures be expeditiously managed by deploying a robust warming and chilling systems.

Heat preservation and retrieving lost heat in the system is besides imperative to steer against loss of energy with a immense benefit of non holding to overwork the power coevals systems with inordinate burden demand. This cured ( un-used energy ) can be re-directed into the system for transporting out heating operations.

Cooling System: BY SEAWATER

Background:

Type of chilling system to be usedaˆ¦.. direct

Define volume of H2O needed at the topsideaˆ¦..

Build all parametric quantities to this specification ( pump, armored combat vehicles, pipings etc ) — —

Pumps to be used: Caisson pumps take up less volume. The length of the heading runs is shorter as they are closer to the chief terminal users. They are besides more accessible for operations and care, and as they do non necessitate a seachest, they avoid the jobs associated with seachests and their reviews. They cut down shrieking congestion in the machinery infinite and cut down the hazards of saltwater implosion therapy in the lower degrees because of the significantly decreased Numberss of valves and rims.

Material of building: The stuff of building of the piping and the heat exchange shells and tubings in the circuit is carbon steel ( define class ) . The chief saltwater / chilling medium money changer will be of Ti or superduplex metal ( happen which 1 is costlier ) .

Seawater is used as beginning of H2O for chilling intents. It is obtained at a deepness of 5 – 10m below the H2O surface, so as to avoid taking H2O with high organic stuffs and sea pollutants that are normally on the sea surface. During operation phase, a diving saltwater pump takes the chilling saltwater to a Centre saltwater armored combat vehicle located at the topside through the chief saltwater pipe. In the instance of an exigency, the chilling saltwater from the Centre armored combat vehicle can be temporarily deployed to collar critical jeopardies like fire.

A maximal fluid chilling temperature of between 12oC – 20oC is designed for the topside processing side. A close-loop system has been adopted for this chilling system for its benefits of suiting a mixture of working fluid and the ability to go around fluid while scattering and absorbing heat along the intentional system. The captive heat is transferred to the waste heat recovery unit where it is comingled and cooled by new-intake saltwater.

Description: Degree centigrade: UsersGOLDDesktopwatertreatment2.jpg

De-oiling hydrocyclones

Discharge capacity:

Customizable intervention demand

Powdered filtration

Sulphate remotion capableness

India

& A ;

Middle East

Sellers: Global Process System

Beginning: GPS ( 2011 ) .

These saltwater chilling operations is frequently required to make the followers:

The Power Generator system: pumps are attached to the generator to provide Fresh H2O to the home bases of the heat money changers, thermostat valves ( oil/water ) , etc. This H2O provides the generator with its independent and self-cooling system.

Air compressor chilling system: The air compressor system relies on the supplied saltwater for self-cooling. The air compressor is connected to the saltwater chief through its chilling pipe.

Air Conditioning and infrigidation chilling system: The cardinal air conditioning hair-raisers every bit good as the nutrient infrigidation hair-raisers are supplied with cooled by the usage of saltwater. The saltwater chief pipe supplies the needful chilling saltwater to air conditioning and refrigerating hair-raisers systems severally.

Brake chilling pipe: The cooled saltwater is pumped to the armored combat vehicle inspiration, through pipe and received at the dish type of the winch brake ( for brake and pressing circumstance merely ) and the hydraulic power up device ( HPU ) transfers the chilling to the brake and the hydraulic oil at the same time. This system is designed independently to use minimal force per unit area at the windlass to use the brakes.

VFD chilling pipe: Used to command the cabinet chilling of the indoor artesian well of variable Frequency devices ( VFD )

HEATING MEDIUM SYSTEM

Topside processes requires the usage of some estimated heat at certain units such as the ethanediol recovery system, processed fluids ( e.g. oil ) , processed H2O, etc. The warming system is a “ closed system ” where the heat transportation medium is constantly non different from the chilling medium. In this instance, a water-glycol mixture will be used as the heat transportation medium because of its high heat soaking up capablenesss, with ethanediol being the stabilizer additives. This mixture is channelled through the Waste Heat Recovery Unit ( WHRU ) . Three ( 3 ) WHRUs are present and are located on compressors and of each of the designed turbine fumes systems. The heat transportation medium circulates through the WHRUs, the heat that arises from the compressors and turbine fumes system ( heat that could hold been wasted ) are channelled through heat money changers ( made of shells and tubings ) and so absorbed by the heat transportation medium and later transferred this heat to units where it will be utilized. The H2O mixture becomes energy-depleted once the captive heat energy has been adequately transferred to the users. The H2O so goes back to a H2O recovery storage armored combat vehicle where it is channelled once more to the exhaust systems and compressors for a uninterrupted rhythm.

Schematic of the warming system

Heat conveyed to aim mediums

Gas Turbines and compressors ( waste heat )

Water Recovery

REVIEW OF EWT/EPS JACKUPS

Abstraction

The increasing demand and ingestion of crude oil merchandises has in recent old ages extended the bounds of seaward Oil and Gas development from shallow Waterss into the deep and ultra-deep Waterss. This cleavage, comes with a immense fiscal investing on the portion of all the industry participants from field operators that will hold to pay to a great extent to develop such Fieldss to the hardware makers that will hold to bring forth hardwares that will hold to put to a great extent on new engineerings to bring forth equipment that can reliably and expeditiously harnessed reservoirs in shallow H2O deepnesss ( ) , deep H2O deepness ( ) and ultra-deep H2O deepness ( ) .

The immense fiscal deductions of researching Oil and Gas frequently arouse the pursuit by the industry participants to seek and research possible options that will:

Supply a speedy entree to fiscal returns on field development

Reduce the hazard of uncertainness about the profitableness of certain reservoirs

Supply the least possible cost of oil and gas in such Fieldss

The above grounds have brought about the outgrowth of new systems called the Extended Well Testing ( EWT ) and the Early Production System ( EPS ) severally in both Offshore and Onshore field developments.

The application of this EWT/EPS solutions in the seaward part becomes less economically feasible as H2O deepness additions, due to increased cost incurred in the development of risers and berthing lines for production on impermanent footing. This has made this solution extremely limited to the shallow Waterss over the old ages since it evolved.

The EWT/EPS solutions are much easier to deploy in certain parts of the universe than others. Regions with mild metocean features doubtless favours this sort of offshore solutions than anyplace else. While an EWT are frequently based on a continuance of few hebdomads to a twelvemonth, an EPS can be in a field for 1 to 3 old ages or more if deemed necessary.

The focal point of this presentation is based on the Mumbai high of India and the Persian Gulf of the Middle East. These parts are chiefly characterized by oil and gas development in the shallow Waterss, therefore the proposition of an EWT/EPS are really well-founded.

This survey includes a holistic reappraisal of the EWT/EPS strategies, the description of the systems, factors act uponing their pick, the benefits of the systems and the associated challenges with their application. This will be followed by a proposed offshore production Jackup, built with the EWT/EPS engineerings for the two parts mentioned above, detailing the structural design, topside processing and merchandise storage installations. The design and alterations carried out bing jackup platform is besides embodied.

Early Production SYSTEM

Definition: In general position, an EPS is designed and installed chiefly for the intent of garnering more reservoir information about a field and bring forthing some hard currency flow, while the larger capacity and lasting production platform is under design, building and awaited for bringing to the field.

The procedure and the period of planing, deploying, installing, set-up and commissioning is normally a long one, that frequently times the operator has to wait for the completion of these full procedures before existent production can get down. In the quest to perchance shorten this long-waiting period, operators in the offshore environment evolve the system of an Early Production System ( EPS ) . The EPS begins production early at the field while the complete field development is being planned and the lasting production installations are being constructed. With this attack, the EPS deployment can assist operators to rush up the geographic expedition of their new field fast. This has now made the EPS a common pattern in the offshore industry.

The historical background of the Early Production System on Jackup platforms sterns from the Ekofisk field in the Norse sea where an EPS running on a Jackup was foremost installed, and the field began production in 1971. The installing comprised of four ( 4 ) subsea Wellss that were tied back to the jackup platform. Currently, Survey shows that there about 40 production jackups that are presently in operation across the Earth. Of this figure, there exist aboutaˆ¦aˆ¦ , as an early production or extended good test systems.

The Early Production System are preponderantly of the Mobile Offshore Production Units ( MOPU ) viz. Semi-submersibles, Jackups and the FPSOs types. By and large, the Semi-submersible type of EPS are preferred to other type due to their handiness, easiness of installing and decommissioning, larger adorn country and work-over capablenesss. It is believed by some operators that these advantages possessed by Semi-submersibles far compensate for the fact that they are more expensive to get than Jackups. The major restrictions to the usage of Jackup platforms are the smaller deck country for put ining production installations and of class the restriction by H2O deepness ( achieving a recent deepness of 575 foot or 175m ) .

MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF EPS

Operating Doctrine: The doctrine of an EPS focal points on cut downing CAPEX, though OPEX can sometimes be prohibitively high. One of the major aim is to aim and develop the Wellss with easiest cost deductions, i.e. Wellss with simplified completion and one that conventional installations can be deployed on.

As mentioned, portion of the decrease in CAPEX after parts from:

Short clip on its design, reduced safety steps, reduced steps of extenuating against corrosion and usage of stuffs that are cost effectual.

The reduced installation size and capacity handling. Normally, the system is designed to manage between 3 to 4 Wellss.

Decrease in needful redundancy in countries such as power coevals system, pump for lading armored combat vehicle, flowlines, risers and multiplex systems.

Decrease every bit good as simplification of the control systems.

The downside to the above CAPEX decrease is the high chance of decrease in production due to important clip lost in production downtime, normally with a high fix and care work.

The major maim of an EPS is to bring forth oil on a impermanent footing at a defined capacity of normally non more that 3 to 4 production Wellss. The produced petroleum oil is processed at the topside of the production platform and the merchandise exported to a storage installation ( normally a storage vas of the FSO type ) , and later transported to market for gross revenues.

An EPS deployment has a powerful economic benefits and better reservoir direction by supplying:

Enhanced reservoir informations

Early cash-flow coevals for the field operator

Provides robust information for a complete field development, and

Overall optimized net income maximization for the investors

A combination of the elaborate information obtained from the Wellss, the public presentation of the reservoir over a span of period, the features of the obtained petroleum oil, all combine together to steer the operator in doing Quantitative and Qualitative determinations about the development of a field with greater assurance. Hence, this system provides operators with a low cost option of fast-tracking oil field development undertakings.

Investing in field development must warrant the incurred capital outgo ( CAPEX ) and the awaited operating outgo ( OPEX ) . With an EPS, there is less investing hazard and more certainty in doing determinations about field development.

The nomadic nature of an EPS jackup offers a immense benefit of decreased cost in alterations, installing, operation and decommissioning in comparing with a jacket, submergible or an FPSO constructions for the same intent. Besides, the cost of modifying and change overing an bing jackup is nil compared to the cost of geting a new one, with an added advantage of being able to relocation them and re-use them at less cost, favours it as an ideal campaigner of pick by operators.

Over the old ages, Jackup platforms has proven to be an first-class pick for early production application preponderantly in the shallow H2O environment, offering a good cost-effective solution majorly for offshore Fieldss planned for a short life continuance. Particularly, EPS Jackups are really prevailing in the Campos Basin of Brazil, South-East Asia and the Arabian-persian Gulf of Middle East. These parts are where fringy field development, with short life Fieldss are of premier consideration in the shallow H2O deepness countries.

MARGINAL FIELD DEVELOPEMT: Turning uncertainness into commercial success

Prior to recent times, the development of fringy Fieldss were considered wasteful because of their locations or lower rough oil volume when compared to the larger reservoirs which are normally the gold mine. The evolvement of EPS has made it possible for field operators to tackle these Fieldss productively by manner of supplying justification for such investing.

With a minimal hard currency outgo, an EPS can assist operators to fast-track field development agendas. The production informations obtained is used to judge how good a reservoir will execute before the installment of the long term installations. Since the outgrowth of EPS, developing little fringy Fieldss or militias that were regarded to be financially wasteful with lasting production equipment has become possible

EXTENDED WELL TESTING

Definition: EWT measures the productiveness of a well and the reservoir fluid belongingss. This understanding reduces investing hazard on the portion of the operators.

The general aim of an EWT system is to bring forth informations that will help in finding the economic viability of a reservoir and supply ways that such Fieldss can be commercially exploited. The focal point is chiefly on acquiring accurate reservoir informations, and merely a individual well is normally involved.

The common aims of the system are:

To derive cognition of the volume ( s ) of the reservoirs for field development

To determine if there exist a connectivity between reservoirs

To the feasibleness of good and long deliverability of the reservoirs

Provide information that will help the design of installations for full production

To garner other production related informations, e.g. presence of sand, H2O cut, etc.

Additionally, an EWT provides information about temperature, flow rates, force per unit area and unstable sample of the reservoir.

EXISTING SCHEMES OF EWT/EPS

Field

EWT/EPS

Facility

Year Established

Capacity

Location

Operator

Roncador

EWT

FPSO

1999

20,000

Brazil

Petrobeass

Birch

EWT

Jackup

1988

12,500

UKCS

Occidental

Wandoo

EWT

Jackup

1993

16,000

Western Australia

Ampolex

Ekofisk

EPS

Jackup

1971

10,000

Norway

Prince philips

Oseberge

EWT/EPS

FPSO

1986

30,000

Norway

Statoil

Nemba

EPS

FPSO

1995

17,000

Angola

Chevron

Zafiro

EPS

FPSO

1996

40,000

Equitorial Quinea

Exxon Mobil

Garoupa

EPS

Jackup

1984

10,000

Brazil

Petrobrass

Enchova

EPS

Semi-submersible

1977

10,000

Brazil

Petrobrass

Feasibility of Extended Well Trials

The well trial analysis obtained from EWT vastly complements and validates other information that are gathered from geological and geophysical informations obtained from studies and seismal activities. It does verify and invaluably complements reservoir blaming gathered during seismal activities Limitation encountered in EWT is chiefly the short length of clip available to garner all the required informations from low- permeableness reservoir formations.

Differences Between An EWT And EPS

Extended Well Testing

Early Production System

1

The focal point is to obtain accurate information about the reservoir and the available petroleum oil

Besides supplying informations about the reservoir, the primary aim is to bring forth early cashflow for the operator

2

It normally involve a individual well

It normally involves between 1 to 4 Wellss

3

It has a short continuance of few hebdomads to a twelvemonth

It can be between 1 to 3 old ages

4

Major topside installation is the Well measuring Equipment

Well measuring is incorporated as portion of production installations

Environmental And Regulatory Permitting

One cardinal issue when sing the usage of EPS on a undertaking is the regulative environment. Geting licenses to put in and run an EPS can be the most ambitious portion of the undertaking. Likewise in some parts the revenue enhancement and royalty construction are different for an EPS or as they are sometimes called Pilot Production Systems. While the puting up of the economic theoretical account is of import a cardinal portion of EPS is a elaborate Permitting Plan and finding the right revenue enhancement and royalty construction to use.

As a general regulation once a determination has been made to execute explorative boring a duologue should be started with the relevant governments sing the demands for early production. Some inquiries to be asked early or regulative governments include:

What permits are required to put in and run a impermanent installation and what are their lead times?

How long can a installation operate under Early/Pilot Production commissariats?

What are the accounting ordinances, revenue enhancement rates, royalties, or other signifiers of rent that apply to an EPS?

If the possibility of utilizing an EPS on a given block is being considered proviso covering the usage of an EPS should be included in any PSA or partnering understandings.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND SCHEDULE

Typically, the continuance of bing undertakings on Early Production Systems is in the interval of 12 to 18 months. The criticalness of clip to first oil in Early Production System Projects can non be overemphasised. It stand to ground that the overall clip agenda direction for EPS undertakings is cardinal to accomplishing success.

Adopting an Early Production System implies a better attack to project executing every bit good as a shorter undertaking executing clip. Alternatively of disbursement clip to transport out Extended good proving ( normally takes few hebdomads to several months ) , 3-D seismic, farther boring, etc. with the position to understating hazards associated with the reservoir, Early Production Systems provide a platform for pull offing reservoir hazards and make gross while collating auxiliary reservoir informations.

To increase the velocity of undertaking executing, the undermentioned rules are normally adopted:

Map out a simple field constellation capable of being designed, constructed and installed quickly, with equal flexibleness to set to late alterations in footing of design.

Implement most installing work ( completion, flowlines, berthing lines, risers and boring ) before remotion of surface unit.

Manage overlapping operations such as good boring and completion and field installing work.

Build an integrated squad which includes installations, reservoir, boring, contractors every bit good as operations applied scientists so as to rush up the design stage and come out with a field development that satisfies all the necessary demand

The last undertaking executing standard is apparently the best option to guaranting that the aims of the undertaking are invariably shared and that members understand these aims.

The chief function of contractors in this type of undertaking has to make with beginning of design and agenda troubles.

Typical illustrations are on the Nemba field ( where the EPS has fast-tracked first oil production from the field by over 24months comparable to conventional development ) and the Zafiro field ( where a agenda of one and half old ages from initial find was attained merely as a consequence of installing of flowlines earlier good boring completion. Expro Swire Production ‘s work on ESP for the Soroosh and Nowrooz oil Fieldss is besides a typical illustration. By following this standard and scheme, Expro ‘s fast-track, marine-based, turnkey ESP 1 production MOPU resulted in a high production earlier than would otherwise hold been possible.

ECONOMIC BENEFITS

In rule, an Early Production System Scheme makes room for developing Fieldss in relatively safer economic scene. The first benefit of an EPS system is that it allows for drastic decrease in hard currency exposure accordingly ensuing in decrease in overall fiscal hazard. The 2nd benefit is that it normally makes room for significant betterment in Net Present Value ( NPV ) and Internal Rate of Return ( IRR ) , despite their dependences on the revenue enhancement jurisprudence of the field. ( Mastrangelo et.al, 2003 )

Cash Exposure

Two degrees of the undertaking executing phases experience decrease in Maximum Cash Exposure ( MCE ) . These are the period in front of first oil and the period before operation of lasting installations.

The needed capital outgo for an EPS designed to run temporarily is much higher than the CAPEX of a lasting EPS installation. Besides, in most undertakings, EPS systems are centered on the usage of rented installations which finally shifts some of the CAPEX to the Contractor. Consequently, the MCE before first oil is reduced astronomically, about six times lower.

Compared to a impermanent EPS installation, the Maximum Cash Exposure during building of lasting EPS is reduced to about 60 % since portion of the CAPEX is self-financed by the field production. However, it must be noted that this per centum decrease depends on the revenue enhancement jurisprudence of the field and the cost of barrel. The lower the hard currency exposure the lower the fiscal hazard associated with the development of the field. EPS production installations preclude operators from prosecuting in non-economic field developments which is a attendant consequence of late reservoir informations analysis while runing the lasting installation.

NPV and IRR

EPS use positively affects Net Present Value ( NPV ) and Internal Rate of Return ( IRR ) , even though “ CAPEX / barrel ” standard usually rises somewhat by 5 % . This is as a consequence of two chief scenarios. The first 1 has to make with proper apprehension of reservoir features connoting a better economical field development strategy as compared to a installation without an EPS. In consequence, the combined “ CAPEX / barrel ” cost of both lasting installation and Early Production System is non much affected. The 2nd scenario has to make with minimization of hard currency exposure and hence encourages realization of hard currency flow. It is of import to observe here that the consequence of hard currency exposure is contingent on the revenue enhancement jurisprudence of the field. Nevertheless, contractual strategies may besides lend to betterment in the overall economic sciences. These strategies are between Contractors and Companies.

Fig. 1. – Maximal capital exposure prior to first oil

Beginning: ( Valenchon et. Al, 2000 )

Fig.2. – EPS: A manner to heighten undertaking economic sciences

Beginning: ( Valenchon et. Al, 2000 )

Present CHALLENGES ( EPS/EWT )

EPS/EWT installations in high sulfur parts by and large ( for both shallow and deep Waterss ) have challenges in sulfur intervention. This therefore requires excess equipment like the H2S scavenger unit. Corrosion peculiarly due to H2S is besides a major challenge and appropriate stuff choice is cardinal to get the better ofing this challenge. Another challenge had to make with the direction of chloride degrees in produced H2O.

As EPS installations move into deeper and ultra-deeper Waterss, flow confidence issues evolve. This is critical to the success of the undertaking both from a proficient and an economical point of view. Problems associated with design every bit good as cost of work outing these jobs escalate. Wax and hydrate formation at lower ocean floor temperatures ( 4oC ) disrupts uniformity of flow every bit good as flow rate. For a Heavy Crude Oil, the flow rate lessenings because the unstable viscousness additions which consequences in a higher fluid clash and force per unit area bead.

Another cardinal challenge normally encountered has to make with the H2O deepness derived function between the Wellhead and the Production Unit which enhances the formation of hydrates.

Sluging can besides be exacerbated to the instance where operating ranges in riser systems are virtually incredibly narrowed.

Mooring systems, Subsea equipment, Riser system, reservoir and boring engineering are the cardinal challenges encountered in Early Production Systems in ultra-deep Waterss ( greater than 1500m ) .

( condensate Wellss )

Reservoir and Drilling

Majority of deep and ultra-deep H2O reservoirs, specifically in West Africa, are thin and shallow and sometimes with big horizontal scope. The temperature of the reservoir beads due to low seabed temperature and a shorter distance between reservoir and ocean floor. The attendant consequence is high oil denseness, high resistant to fluid flow and finally the paraffin deposition hazards in flowlines subsea. The location of reservoirs in unstratified sandstone could perchance take to jobs due to sand production, high wadding of crushed rocks which lead to decrease in good productiveness. These features associated with the reservoir convey new challenges for boring many-sided and drawn-out range Wellss.

Risers

The challenges to EPS riser systems are:

Fluid column force per unit area bead, bead in temperature due to hydrate formation every bit good as jobs due to sloging

Low temperature of saltwater every bit good as paraffin deposition hazards and thermic insularity demand.

For shoal to medium deepness of H2O, flexible riser systems are normally employed. However, application to ultra-deep Waterss is constrained by planetary stableness, high cost, riser/mudline interaction and riser/riser clearance.

Vertical top tensioned risers and SCR ( Steel Catenary Risers ) are typical illustrations of Conventional steel stiff riser solutions.

The employment of Steel Catenary Risers in ultra-deep H2O leads to dynamic jobs and weariness which may do weariness failures.

To work out jobs associated with deep H2O, Hybrid risers are employed. The chief challenges in utilizing intercrossed risers encompass perkiness agreement, stuffs for thermic insularity and pipe. The cardinal considerations in optimizing cost include offshore deployment, onshore pre-assembly and care from Vessels or platforms in deep Waterss.

Mooring

The mild climatic status in West Africa directs us to three possible solutions for an Early Production System in ultra-deep Waterss: a Dynamic Positioning System, a polyester taut leg or a steel overseas telegram taut leg system.

For deep and ultra-deep Waterss, the design for the moorage system besides depends on the riser design. Beyond H2O deepness of 2000m, the principal challenge has to make with handling and deployment of large-scale steel overseas telegram or polyester rope subdivisions without loss or harm.

Mooring hardware, line constellation choice and equipment design ( e.g. overseas telegram and ground tackle ) besides poses a great challenge to the undertaking executing success. For Petrojarl 1, which has an FPSO together with a Dynamic Positioning System, this job is adequately solved. However this attack may non work efficaciously for production Jack-ups.

Future OUTLOOK

Extended Well Testing Systems

There has been an astronomical alteration in the country of good proving over the old ages right from 1920 and work is still ongoing as respects new measuring and trying methods. There is a gradual alteration go oning in the country of dynamic reservoir rating due to the debut of really accurate multiphase good proving engineering in the monitoring devices of multiphase well production. These alterations affect good proving significantly through lessening in clean-up periods and better wastewater and separation processing. This Vx engineering will evidently widen the scope of applications of Multiphase Flowmeters. In visible radiation of this new development, changing proving processs and package for informations reading will be brought to the bow. As engineering improves, the signifier and range of good proving will besides go on to better to run into new proving marks which will finally take to proper reservoir word picture.

EWT systems provide equal informations to authenticate reservoir descriptions without holding to bore extra Wellss. The usage of EWT may non be applicable to all types of reservoir ; nevertheless as the figure of findings shrink and complexnesss escalates ; EWT systems provide a cost-efficient option to prospect appraisal and uncertainness decrease in future public presentation of the field. Advancement in geting informations and analyzing informations will give benefits such as seismal processs, better quality and truth of good test informations.

Early Production Systems

The path followed from the installing of the first Early Production System to the freshly installed EPS has been characterised by successes and challenges. For ultra-deeper Waterss, the attack of working closely with Research and Development every bit good as developing existent lab-scale elaborate engineerings has proven to be really effectual in get the better ofing these challenges in the hereafter. Nevertheless, other issues must besides be addressed to assist better EPS systems. Apart from the technological promotion, the duty to present methods and designs to ease safety so as to finally understate the consequence on the environment is besides increasing. The purpose of oil and gas operators in the hereafter as respects EPS systems is to concentrate on design betterment every bit good as sharing information and experiences with the full Petroleum Industry.

Planing and put ining early production units for treating high volumes of reservoir fluid every bit good as managing syrupy and heavy fluids is the following attack to be adopted. PETROBRAS is a typical illustration of oil companies following this scheme. The key to going successful in the hereafter is to guarantee safety and better on care and operability.

The chances of Jack-ups as production units seem to be really good. Jack-ups are now able to work in rough environments to every bit deep as 110m H2O deepness although their initial designs were for shallow H2O environments. This type of production units has the advantage of supplying a production solution for shallow H2O Fieldss even those with short field life. The characteristic characteristic of these units is their mobility every bit good as their flexibleness.

One chief country for growing in the close hereafter is the employment of purpose-made production jack-ups for long life gas Fieldss in shallow Waterss alternatively of drifting or jacket Mobile Offshore Production Units specifically in parts where derrick flatboat mobilization may be a dearly-won option. Due to the fact that cost is really critical in seaward operations, oil and gas operators are developing comparatively cheaper units which are besides easy to build with cheaper lockup and jacking systems.

Mentions

Schlumberger Website, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.slb.com/services/characterization/testing/surface_testing/extended_well_tests.aspx, accessed 5 March 2013.

Jay Stratton ( 16 Feb 2006 ) , Well Testing, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.spe.org/jpt/print/archives/2006/02/JPT2006_02_WT_focus.pdf.

RPC, ( 13 April, 20110, Early Reservoir Appraisal Using a Well Testing System, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/publications/EPact/08121-2501-02_FinalReport-04-14-2011.pdf.

Z. Machado, ( 1983 ) , PD 5 ( 5 ) Petrobras Experience in Offshore Early Production Systems, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview? id=WPC-20205, accessed 9 March 2013.

Offshore Magazine Website ( 2013 ) , available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.offshore-mag.com/articles/print/volume-60/issue-2/news/production/mopus-evolving-to-meet-greater-depth-flexibility-challenges.html, accessed 7 March 2013.

Z. Machado, ( 1983 ) , PD 5 ( 5 ) Petrobras Experience in Offshore Early Production Systems, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview? id=WPC-20205, accessed 9 March 2013.

Le Tirant, P. ( 1993 ) , Stability and Operation of Jackups, accessed 5 March 9, 2013.

Lovett & A ; Crager ( 2013 ) , Analyzing Mobile Offshore Production Systems and Marginal Field Development, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gaselectricpartnership.com/HMobile % 20Production % 20SysteMS.pdf, accessed 10 March 2013.

Fraga et Al. ( 1998 ) , Campos Basin – 25 Old ages of Production and its Contribution to the Oil Industry, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //e-book.lib.sjtu.edu.cn/otc-03/pdffiles/papers/otc15219.pdf, accessed 11 March 11, 2013.

Valenchon et Al. ( 2000 ) , Early Production Systems ( EPS ) in Ultra Deep Water, a Way to Improve Reservoir, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.onepetro.org/mslib/app/pdfpurchase.do? itemChronicleId=0901476280089743 & A ; itemSocietyCode=SPE, accessed 6 March 11, 2013.

Ef: RPC, ( 13 April, 20110 ) Early on Reservoir Appraisal Using a Well Testing System, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/publications/EPact/08121-2501-02_FinalReport-04-14-2011.pdf.

Region OF Interest

MUMBAI HIGH

The Mumbai high Offshore Basin is a pericratonic rift basin located in the western seashore of India in the Arabian Sea. It spans an approximative country of 148,000km2 from the seashore to an isobath of 200m. This basin has been sectioned into six different tectonic blocks, viz. :

Bombay high-Deep Continental Shelf [ DCS ]

Tapti-Daman,

Diu,

Heera-Panna-Bassein

Ratnagiri and

Shelf Margin

The Basin is bounded by the West border cellar arch in the West, western seashore in the E, , by Vengurla arch in the South, and by Saurashtra arch in the North.

The overall country covered by the sedimentary fill is estimated to be in the scope of 1100-5000m. Within this part, legion big reservoirs of oil and gas Fieldss have been discovered, bearing Hydrocarbons in the multiple pay-zones belonging of Miocene age ( merely in Mumbai high ) , early Oligocene ( Mukta ) , in-between Eocene ( Bassein ) , Paleocene to early Eocene ( Panna ) , early Miocene-late Oligocene ( Daman ) and early Oligocene formations in Tapti Daman block ( Mahuva ) .

This part ( Mumbai offshore Basin ) has been the most highest manufacturer amongst other basins of India district, lending two-third to the overall one-year petroleum oil and associated crude oil merchandises of India. The full-blown petroleum oil beginning stones are fundamentally present in the lower Eocene-Paleocene of the Panna country. The ascertained Hydrocarbons are in present in many reservoirs of this basin, with a lay-out from cellar to middle Miocene. Details of the mukta field are available in the Offshore Technology Website ( 2012 ) .

Offshore Mumbai High William claude dukenfields

( As on 01.04.2010 )

IOIP, MMt 1659

Accumulative Oil, MMt 411

Recovered, % 25

Oil Rate, bopd 225,000

Water Injection, bwpd 9,00,000

Water-cut, % 69

Platforms 113

Producing strings 727

Gas manufacturers 36

Water Injection strings 196

Figure 1. Location of the Mukta Field, offshore Western India.

Adapted from: ( Showcasing Indian Fieldss – Offshore by Verma S. K, PETROFED, 15th April 2010 )

Fig 1: Location Map of Panna-Mukta Fields in Western Offshore Basin

Fig 2: Generalised Stratigraphy of Panna-Mukta Area

Adapted from ( fig 1 & A ; 2 ) : ( Integration of Laboratory Measurements and Well Log Data for Reservoir Characterization of Carbonate Field by Kumar et al. , 6th May 2011 )

Western Offshore Challenges – Bharat

Matured Fileds

Complex Reservoirs

Large country, shallow reservoirs

Heterogeneous

Multilayered

Gas cap

Thin Sweet zones

Drilling complications

Water cut increasing

Aging installations

Fig 4: Reservoir challenges in offshore Mumbai

Adapted from: ( Showcasing Indian Fieldss – Offshore by Verma S. K, PETROFED, 15th April 2010 )

Year

Lig. Rate

Oil Rate

Qg

Water inj.

GOR

WC

Annual oil

Cum. oil

Annually gas

Cum. gas

Rec

Imperativeness

Wells

Blpd

Bopd

MMm3/d

Bwpd

v/v

%

MMtPA

MMt

BCM

BCM

%

Parallel barss

OP

INJ

2013-14

2970

2938

0.017

37

1

0.023

0.023

0.001

0.001

0.0

2

2014-15

10011

9522

0.055

36

5

0.455

0.478

0.020

0.021

0.9

6

2015-16

10717

9566

0.054

1829

35

11

0.0457

0.935

0.020

0.41

1.8

6

1

2016-17

16081

14105

0.082

4377

37

12

0.674

1.608

0.030

0.071

3.2

9

3

2017-18

19348

16342

0.096

10064

37

16

0.780

2.389

0.035

0.106

4.7

9

3

2018-19

19348

15116

0.089

10064

37

22

0.722

3.111

0.033

0.138

6.1

9

3

2019-20

36312

29279

0.137

10092

30

19

0.970

4.080

0.041

0.179

8.0

12

3

2020-21

45991

35934

0.178

10064

31

22

1.721

5.801

0.065

0.244

11.4

23

3

2021-22

45696

30802

0.147

10064

30

33

1.476

7.277

0.054

0.298

14.3

22

3

2022-23

44611

26198

0.123

10064

29

41

1.256

8.533

0.045

0.342

16.7

22

3

2023-24

44646

21649

0.101

10092

29

52

1.038

9.571

0.037

0.379

18.8

22

3

2024-25

44582

18194

0.085

10064

29

59

0.872

10.443

0.031

0.410

20.5

22

3

2025-26

44604

15558

0.073

10064

29

65

0.746

11.189

0.027

0.436

21.9

22

3

2026-27

43832

12166

0.061

10064

29

70

0.631

11.820

0.022

0.459

23.2

21

3

2027-28

43581

11340

0.053

10092

29

74

0.544

12.363

0.019

0.478

24.2

21

3

Reservoir Performance Prediction

Adapted from: ( Notice Inviting “ Expression Of Interest ” For Hiring Of FPSO, by ONGC, 2008 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //tenders.ongc.co.in/EOI/22 % 20Oct % 2009/386/Expression % 20of % 20Interest091022555913.pdf,

Reservoir Characteristics of Mumbai High William claude dukenfields

Oil Analysis

Value

Flow rate, bopd

25000

RVP, psia

10

BS & A ; W, % v/v

0.2

Pour point, deg C

12

Salt content, ptb

& lt ; 8

Wax content, % wt

12.5

Asphaltenes, % wt

0.77

Resin, % wt

4.98

Entire Sulphur content, % wt

0.25

Arrival Pressure, saloon

10

Arrival Temperature, oC

60

Density at 15oC, g/cm3

82.8

INDIA ( Gas Analysis )

Composition of Reservoir

Name

Component

Mole %

Methane

C1

54.22

Ethane

C2

8.46

Propane

C3

11.98

Butane

i-C4

5.470

n-C4

5.66

Pentane

i-C5

1.94

n-C5

1.55

Hexane

C6

0.380

Heptane+

C7+

0.01

Carbon-dioxide

Carbon dioxide

10.33

Nitrogen

N2

Hydrogen Sulphide

H2S

12ppm

Gas gravitation ( Air =1 )

Gas gravitation

1.052

Basic Reservoir Data

Reservoir Pressure

157 kg/cm2

Reservoir Temperature

115oC

Molecular Weight

160

GOR ( m3/m3 )

37

API gravitation

39.52

Adapted from: ( Notice Inviting “ Expression Of Interest ” For Hiring Of FPSO, by ONGC, 2008 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //tenders.ongc.co.in/EOI/22 % 20Oct % 2009/386/Expression % 20of % 20Interest091022555913.pdf.

General Weather Conditions Mumbai High

Environmental & A ; Metocean Data

Tropical climatic status dominates the Mumbai High part, with the Indian ocean being the warmest in the universe. The twelvemonth is divided into four major seasons with a reoccurring air current and beckon systems that are controlled by the monsoons and the conditions passages that do happen between them. These passage periods which occurs between May to April and besides between October to November are normally accompanied with Cyclonic storms, with October to November being the more active period of its happening. The monsoon comes in two signifiers:

South-West Monsoon: This occurs in May to October and it is normally characterised by a strong air current that is relentless and consequences in bring forthing high sea moving ridges.

North-East Monsoon: This occurs around the month of October to April that produces a light air current that is rather variable and the sea is by and large unagitated.

Fig 5: ocular image of a mature “ Onset Vortex ” nearing the western seashore of Mumbai.

Beginning: ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nrlmry.navy.mil/forecaster_handbooks/EastArabianSea/Forecasters % 20Handbook % 20for % 20the % 20Middle % 20East-Arabian % 20Sea.3.pdf, 18th June 1979 ) .

Marine life

Due to the high temperature of the part, the production of phytoplankton is really low, with the exclusion of the Northern periphery. The attendant consequence of this is low marine life. Though adjacent states depends on the Indian Ocean for fishes, fishing activities are restricted to local ingestion merely so that marine growing can increase.

Some of the endangered Marine species are: Giants, Sealing waxs, polo-necks and Dugong dugon.

There are two weather monitoring centres for the western Mumbai which are located at the Santacruz Airport and the other one at the Navy Nagar near Colaba at southern Mumbai.

Maximum recorded temperature is at 42.2 A°C ( 108.0 A°F ) and the lowest temperature being 7.4 A°C ( 45.3 A°F ) .

Environmental Parameter

Minimum

oC

Maximum

oC

Surface Air Temperature ( A°C )

19 ( January )

33 ( May )

Relative Humidity ( % )

85 ( July & A ; August )

67 ( February & A ; Dec. )

Average monthly rainfall ( millimeter )

2099 millimeter yearly and 175 millimeter monthly. July is the wettest period with 710mm of rain, sleet, hail or snow in 29 yearss.

Visibility ( kilometer )

1

20

Salinity ( A°/OO )

30

35

Wind

North-east monsoon Wind speeds greater than 30kmph is for 22 % of the clip.

Maximum air current velocity is during South-west monsoon at 30kmph and is for 44 % of the clip.

Beckon

Maximal moving ridge tallness is greater than 2.0m, happening during North-east monsoon for 14 % of the clip, and occurs during South-west monsoon for 40 % of the. Wave way is same as air current waies. Beckon height up to 2.0m has a period of between 4-11sec, and between 6.5-14sec for moving ridge highs higher than 2.0m.

Table 3: General environmental parametric quantities

Adapted from: ( Notice Inviting “ Expression Of Interest ” For Hiring Of FPSO, by ONGC, 2008 ) .

Overall Climatic Data – Mumbai High

Climate informations for Mumbai high

Calendar month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

Record high A°C ( A°F )

35.6

( 96.1 )

36.9

( 98.4 )

40.2

( 104.4 )

39.4

( 102.9 )

39.5

( 103.1 )

35.4

( 95.7 )

32.4

( 90.3 )

33.6

( 92.5 )

34.0

( 93.2 )

37.5

( 99.5 )

38.2

( 100.8 )

35.7

( 96.3 )

40.2

( 104.4 )

Average high A°C ( A°F )

30.6

( 87.1 )

31.3

( 88.3 )

32.7

( 90.9 )

33.1

( 91.6 )

33.3

( 91.9 )

31.9

( 89.4 )

29.8

( 85.6 )

29.3

( 84.7 )

30.1

( 86.2 )

32.9

( 91.2 )

33.4

( 92.1 )

32.0

( 89.6 )

31.7

( 89.1 )

Daily mean A°C ( A°F )

24.5

( 76.1 )

24.8

( 76.6 )

26.9

( 80.4 )

28.7

( 83.7 )

30.2

( 86.4 )

29.2

( 84.6 )

27.7

( 81.9 )

27.3

( 81.1 )

27.7

( 81.9 )

28.7

( 83.7 )

28.0

( 82.4 )

26.3

( 79.3 )

27.5

( 81.51 )

Average low A°C ( A°F )

16.4

( 61.5 )

17.3

( 63.1 )

20.6

( 69.1 )

23.7

( 74.7 )

26.1

( 79 )

25.8

( 78.4 )

24.8

( 76.6 )

24.5

( 76.1 )

24.0

( 75.2 )

23.1

( 73.6 )

20.5

( 68.9 )

18.2

( 64.8 )

22.1

( 71.8 )

Record low A°C ( A°F )

13.5

( 56.3 )

14.6

( 58.3 )

16.1

( 61 )

21.1

( 70 )

23.3

( 73.9 )

22.2

( 72 )

22.2

( 72 )

22.6

( 72.7 )

19.9

( 67.8 )

21.4

( 70.5 )

17.9

( 64.2 )

13.7

( 56.7 )

13.5

( 56.3 )

Rainfall millimeter ( inches )

0.6

( 0.024 )

1.5

( 0.059 )

0.1

( 0.004 )

0.6

( 0.024 )

13.2

( 0.52 )

574.1

( 22.602 )

868.3

( 34.185 )

553.0

( 21.772 )

306.4

( 12.063 )

62.9

( 2.476 )

14.9

( 0.587 )

5.6

( 0.22 )

2,401.2

( 94.536 )

Avg.A rainy yearss

0.1

0.1

0

0.1

1.0

14.9

24.0

22.0

13.7

3.2

1.1

0.4

80.6

A % A humidness

69

67

69

71

70

80

86

86

83

78

71

69

74.9

Mean monthly sunlight hours

269.7

259.9

272.8

285.0

297.6

150.0

74.4

74.4

165.0

238.7

246.0

254.2

2,587.7

Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_of_Mumbai

Fig 6: Climograph of Mumbai high.

Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mumbai.climatemps.com

Astronomic Tide Characteristics

Tidal Level

Height ( m )

Highest Astronomical Tide ( HAT )

+2.56

Lowest Astronomical Tide ( LAT )

-0.05

Mean High Water Springs ( MHWS )

+1.60

Mean Low Water Springs ( MLWS )

+0.10

Mean High Water Neaps ( MHWN )

+1.10

Mean Low Water Neaps ( MLWN )

+0.52

Maximal Range

2.56

Average Spring Scope

1.50

Mean Neap Range

0.58

Adapted from: ( Notice Inviting “ Expression Of Interest ” For Hiring Of FPSO, by ONGC, 2008 ) .

Extreme Datas: Current, Wind, Wave and Storm Surge

The undermentioned information represents the current, air current and storm rush related to 1 twelvemonth and 100 twelvemonth storms for Mumbai offshore installations.

100 Year Strom

1 Year Storm

1-Hour norm air current

55 m/sec

17.5 m/sec

1-Minute norm air current

73 m/sec

23.3 m/sec

3-Second Gust

86 m/sec

27.5 m/sec

Storm Rush

4.04m

0.95m

Max. Wave Height

14.0m

( breaking/spilling type )

7.5m

( non-breaking )

Significant Wave Period

13.5sec

9.2sec

current

Near Surface

3.25sec

1.82 m/sec

Near Bottom

0.59 m/sec

0.33 m/sec

Table: Extreme Current, Wind, Wave and Storm Surge.

Adapted from: ( Notice Inviting “ Expression Of Interest ” For Hiring Of FPSO, by ONGC, 2008 ) .

Depth measuring from sea surface ( m )

Current Speed ( m/sec )

Minimum

Maximum

Average

5

0.14

1.38

0.82

50

0.04

0.90

0.50

100

0.01

0.62

0.21

200

0.01

0.45

0.18

280

0.01

0.45

0.18

Table: Maxi, Mini, and Average Values Of Current Speed for Mumbai high.

Adapted from: ( Notice Inviting “ Expression Of Interest ” For Hiring Of FPSO, by ONGC, 2008 ) .

Environmental Installation

Tide ( m )

Beckon

Height ( m )

Time period

( Second )

Current ( m/sec )

Wind ( Km/h )

Surface

Bottom

1 Min Sustained

3.66

1.829

8.3

0.701

0.426

48.27

Notes: Beckon kinematics factor is taken to be 1.0 and current obstruction factor 1.0 shall use for all installing scenarios.

Figure: Wave, current and air current values for installings.

Adapted from: ( Notice Inviting “ Expression Of Interest ” For Hiring Of FPSO, by ONGC, 2008 ) .

Environmental Parameters For Fatigue Analysis

Wave Height

Period ( Sec )

Second

Southwest

Tungsten

0 – 1.523

8.7

9.6

8.3

1.524 – 3.047

9.2

10.1

8.7

3.048 – 4.571

9.5

10.3

9.2

4.572 – 6.095

9.7

10.4

9.6

6.096 – 7.619

9.9

10.5

10.0

7.620 – 9.143

10.6

10.3

9.144 – 10.667

10.8

10.6

10.668 – 12.192

11.0

10.9

Figure: weariness demands for design and installing considerations

Adapted from: ( Notice Inviting “ Expression Of Interest ” For Hiring Of FPSO, by ONGC, 2008 ) .

Wave Excedence Data

Wave Height ( M )

Number Of Waves Exceeding Specified Height In 1 twelvemonth

Direction

Accumulative

Second

Southwest

Tungsten

Northwest

0

1,276,045

770,535

1,015,713

1,220,511

4,282,804

1.524

61,704

219,347

220,985

69,788

571,824

3.048

3,132

37,929

31,902

3,764

76,727

4.572

167

5,878

4,073

177

10,295

6.096

11

869

493

8

1,381

7.620

0

126

59

0

185

9.144

18

7

25

10.668

2

1

3

12.192

0

0

0

Figure: moving ridge informations demoing way of air current towards installings.

Adapted from: ( Notice Inviting “ Expression Of Interest ” For Hiring Of FPSO, by ONGC, 2008 ) .

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