Many old ages ago, many surveies in favour of globalisation have been committed due to its effects on concern direction. Nowadays, the influence of globalisation is increasing. Globalization has affects on many countries. In this paper, I will concentrate on three countries which is labour market, human resource direction, and service. Globalization influences the labour market somehow and someplace. Harmonizing to Gallin ( 2000 ) , the outgrowth and development of a planetary labor market is “ the most of import societal effect of globalisation. ” Furthermore, globalisation besides affects human resource direction. Adler and Ghader ( 1990 ) believe that international HRM has a close relation with the fact that a company enters into the international market ( exports, representation, joint venture, whole-owned company ) . Globalization has non merely positive effects but besides negative effects on service. On the positive side, globalisation forces down the monetary value of services in high cost venues, additions end product and improves service quality. On the negative side, there is the disruption from increased competition as uncompetitive houses lose market portion and their employees are laid off ( Hufbauer and Warren, 1999 ) .
Though this paper, I will supply informations to exam how globalisation affect the labor market, human resource direction, and service. Identifying what are the positive effects and negative effects. Finding out what challenges we are confronting and what strategic should we utilize.
My survey is about what is the impact of globalisation between leading and concern public presentation. The globalisation will convey some impact and influence the leader when the leader is pull offing or taking the organisation. Therefore those impacts will impact the concern public presentation will be better or worse. First, globalisation ever makes the organisation ‘s direction public presentation go better if the direction manage the organisation in the right manner. Many organisations choose to globalisation must hold their grounds and those grounds are more advantages so disadvantages. So, it means that the globalisation ever will act upon the direction public presentation. Second, the leading is besides a key that will impact the direction public presentation excessively. The leading is taking the organisation and it is a factor that decides the organisation will be managed better or non. Third, the consequence of the globalisation will be moderated by leader and it will ensue in direction public presentation. It is because the leader will get the better of all the job that brought by globalisation and it besides the duty of the leader.
Introductions to Globalization
Nowadays, many of houses choose to globalisation because by globalisation they can spread out their concern and gain more net income. At first, what is globalisation? Globalization is a multi-dimensional and multi-directional procedure particularly in work organisation, ecology, communications engineering, civilization and all implicated in the transmutation of autonomous states by planetary histrions with changing degrees of power, individualities, webs and orientations ( Beck, 2000 ) .Globalization is the engine that is presently forcing many industries and organisation to travel planetary so as to accomplish competitory advantages. ( Philip R. , 2002 ) Besides that, Food and Agriculture Organisation ( 2003 ) besides define that globalisation is “ on-going procedure of rapid planetary economic integrating facilitated by lower dealing costs and lower barriers to motion in capital and goods ” .
Globalization is basically an result of the physique up of tremendous force per unit area on the portion of the corporations and Bankss and their international bureaus to acquire rid of these barriers so that they can derive better entree to the many Fieldss of activity antecedently blocked to them. It is likely that globalization is uncluttering the manner to another roar in the following few old ages, because it is acquiring rid of much of the ordinance antecedently curtailing corporate entree to profitable concern chances. If so the possibility that limits issues will be attended to will stay low for some clip ( Ted Trainer, 1993 ) .
Globalisation as a theoretical account of to the full integrated international markets was defined by Henderson ( 1999 ) as those run intoing two conditions: ( 1 ) free motion of goods, services, labor and capital: therefore a individual market of inputs and end products ; and ( 2 ) full national intervention for foreign investors i.e. there are no aliens.
Challenges of Globalization
Globalization of Western states can do more jobs and crisis for the development states, if these states are non able to vie or collaborate with developed states. The bing economic axis in Europe and USA, Asia etc… create a more imbalanced economic state of affairs which may increase the tenseness between the South and the North. These axis would hold an highly outstanding and powerful place as ushers and advisors in Arab states ( Mosad Zineldin, 2002 )
A client connexion is besides one of the rivals in globalisation. In the globalisation, directors will hold to really good in the full array of client connexions owned and managed by the house. There activities are including gross revenues, service, solutions, stigmatization, and other countries that touching clients. Due to the globalisation, there will be more client connexions. This is because globalisation leads to a broad country growing in income and redistribution in emerging economic systems ( Slywotzky A, Baumgartner P, Alberts L & A ; Moukanas H, 2006 ) .
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Globalization
Apart from the challenges of globalisation, globalisation itself besides brings some advantages and disadvantages. Globalization will be given to do strong concern designs stronger ( through planetary sourcing, merchandising, and scientific discipline ) . It will do weak concern designs weaker ( through more competition, reduced distinction, and a greater gulf from clients ) . And it will make more no-profit zones for companies and even full industries ( Slywotzky A, Baumgartner P, Alberts L & A ; Moukanas H, 2006 ) .
There are three primary factors that affected the procedure of economic globalisation and they are likely to go on driving it in the hereafter.
Improvements in the engineering of transit and communicating have reduced the costs of transporting goods, services, and factors of production and of pass oning cost-effectively utile cognition and engineering.
The gustatory sensations of persons and societies have by and large, but non universally, favoured taking advantage of the chances provided by worsening costs of transit and communicating through increasing economic integrating.
Public policies have significantly influenced the character and gait of economic integrating, although non ever in the way of increasing economic integrating.
Globalization is by and large defined as the “ denationalisation of bunchs of political, economic, and societal activities ” that destabilize the ability of the autonomous State to command activities on its district, due to the lifting demand to happen so lutions for cosmopolitan jobs, like the pollution of the environment, on an international degree. Globalization is a complex, forceful legal and societal procedure that take topographic point within an incorporate whole without respect to geographical boundaries. Globalisation therefore differs from international activities, which arise between and among States, and it differs from transnational activities that occur in more than one nation-State. This does non intend that states are non involved in the socio legal kineticss that those trans boundary procedure trigger. In a sense, the motions triggered by planetary procedures promote greater economic mutuality among states. Globalization can be traced back to the depression predating World War II and globalisation at that clip included spreading of the capitalist economic system as a agency of acquiring entree to extended markets. The first measure was to make sufficient export excess to keep full employment in the capitalist universe and secondly set uping a globalized economic system where the planet would be united in peace and wealth. The thought of mutuality among quite separate and distinguishable states is a really of import portion of negotiations on globalisation and a important side of today ‘s planetary political economic system. Globalization, nevertheless, is by and large used descriptively but with the clear deduction that since no force can alter it, all had better get on board. Globalization, boosted by the credence of market oriented economic policies in developing states and passage economic systems, is being ac companied by extended fiscal volatility characterized by currency crisis of high frequence and strength, upsetting big developing and passage economic systems. Is globalisation a farther measure of capitalist economy and its new signifier worldwide? Globalization affects economic systems include expanded trade in ware and services, merchandise and engineering licensing, greater international portfolio investing, and FDI. & lt ; jurisprudence and finance & gt ;
Globalization and Leadership
A directors and executive with good planetary accomplishment will cognize about the of import if following six statements. They must hold confident to pull off the cultural differences and spread out the accomplishments that to run into the planetary environment:
Group individuality is the typical civilization of Japan. Foreigners ever pull a incorrect decision upon the Nipponese visual aspects due to the unconscious cultural procedure which is making ambiguity.
When first meeting in Saudi Arabia, people normally does non carry on concern, on the contrary spend sometimes to acquire familiar and constructing the trust.
In instance of enlisting and choice, Asiatic directors normally will prefer interview and take their sure friends or household while Western directors will prefer employ people more impersonal.
In Indonesia, it is acceptable if shaking manus with the opposite sex, but it is non acceptable if taking nutrient or giving a gift to other by utilizing left manus. In some of the civilizations, they are avoiding handshakings and some of them prefer bow.
In Los Angeles, cultural sensitiveness has the greatest influence make up one’s mind a merchandise or service whether is success or failure. It was because it had a diverse multicultural and multilingual population. The 2nd largest foreign-language group is Spanish and the 3rd is Korean.
The Business Council for International Understanding estimates that international forces who go abroad without cross-cultural readying have a failure rate much higher than those who had the benefit of such preparation.
( European leading in Globalization, Philip R. Harris and Robert T. Moran, 1996 )
In the book, The Global Challenge: Constructing the New Worldwide Enterprise, Moran and Riesenberger place and depict 12 environmental forces impacting on organisations and act uponing alteration.
The proactive environmental forces are:
( 1 ) Global sourcing – organisations are seeking non-domestic beginnings of natural stuffs because of cost and quality.
( 2 ) New and germinating markets are supplying new chances for turning concern.
( 3 ) Economies of graduated table – today ‘s market place requires new attacks ensuing in competitory advantages in monetary value and quality.
( 4 ) Motion towards homogenous demand – globalisation is ensuing in similar merchandises being required worldwide.
( 5 ) Lowered conveyance costs – the planetary conveyance costs of many merchandises have fallen significantly since the 1960s.
( 6 ) Government duties and revenue enhancements – the protectionist inclinations of many authoritiess is worsening as evidenced by the North America Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) and the European Union ( EU ) .
( 7 ) Telecommunications – falling monetary values as a consequence of denationalization and new engineerings are impacting on globalisation.
( 8 ) Homogeneous proficient criterions – the International Organization for Standardization ( ISO ) has been successful in developing planetary criterions known as ISO 9000.
The reactive forces are:
( 9 ) Competition for non-domestic organisations – new competitory menaces are experienced by organisations on a regular basis.
( 10 ) Hazard of volatile exchange rates – the changeless fluctuation of exchange rates in many states impacts on net incomes.
( 11 ) Customers are going more planetary consumers – globalisation is impacting on clients in ways that “ local content ” in subordinate produced goods is increasing.
( 12 ) Global technological alteration – technological betterments coming from many countries of the universe are necessitating organisations to set their schemes to last.
How do companies foster and make effectual planetary directors? What is a planetary director? Many companies set uping world-wide operations are chew overing these inquiries, plus many others and happening that the human resource component is more modification at times than the capital investing in globalising. Bartlett and Ghoshal province [ 11 ] :
Clearly, there is no individual theoretical account for the planetary director. Neither the oldline international specializer nor the more recent planetary Renaissance man can get by with the complexnesss of cross-border schemes. Indeed, the dynamism of today ‘s market place calls for directors with diverse accomplishments. Duty for world-wide operations belongs to senior concern, state, and functional executives who focus on the intense interchanges and elusive dialogues required. In contrast, those in in-between direction and front-line occupations need chiseled duties, a clear apprehension of their organisation ‘s multinational mission, and a sense of answerability.
Percy Barnevik, president and CEO of Asea Brown Boveri ( ABB ) , responded when asked if there is such a thing as a planetary director [ 12 ] :
Global directors are made, non born. This is non a natural procedure. We are herd animate beings. We like people who are like us. But there are many things you can make. Obviously, you rotate people around the universe. There is no replacement for line experience in three or four states to make a planetary position. You besides encourage people to work in assorted nationality squads. You force them to make personal confederations across boundary lines, which means that sometimes you interfere in engaging determinations. You besides have to admit cultural differences without going paralyzed by them.
We ‘ve done some studies, as have tonss of other companies, and we find interesting differences in perceptual experience. For illustration, a Swede may believe a Swiss is non wholly blunt and unfastened, that he does n’t cognize precisely where he stands. That is a cultural phenomenon. Swiss civilization shuns dissension. A Swiss might state, “ Let ‘s come back to that point subsequently, allow me reexamine it with my co-workers. ” A Swede would prefer to face the issue straight. How do we undo 100s of old ages of upbringing and instruction? We do n’t, and we should n’t seek to. But we do need to broaden apprehension.
( European leading in Globalization, Philip R. Harris and Robert T. Moran, 1996 )
3.0 Globalization and human resource direction
Human resource direction and globalisation means that there is demand for more ‘flexible organisations ‘ and employees. Globalization has led to planetary separation of labour. So far, the globalisation had a large consequence on human resource direction. As a consequence, international human resource direction occurred. Besides, globalisation had non merely brought the challenges but besides the chances to human resource direction particularly the HR leaders.
3.1 International Human resource direction
Many old ages ago, Fayerweather ( 1960 ) and Bormann ( 1968 ) wrote about the troubles of exiles in different civilizations. It was really of import for the globalisation of companies who is involve in foreign trade, investing and selling facets. Until now the most influential theory of international human resource direction was published by Perlmutter in 1969. He states that the IHRM pattern of assorted transnational companies is mostly depending on how their local human resource direction pattern ( ethnocentric ) is followed abroad, or how they adapt to the local ( polycentric ) , regional ( regiocentric ) and planetary ( geocentric ) conditions.
In the earlier province of IHRM surveies, Laurent ( 1986 ) was provinces that: “ If HRM is in its babyhood, so IHRM is still a newborn babe. ”
In 1980 ‘s, Dowling ( 1986 ) , Morgan ( 1986 ) , Ackermann ( 1991 ) and Domsch-Lichtenberg ( 1991 ) were clearly expressed the demand for an independent international human resource direction.
In their latest book the writers Dowling-Welch ( 2004 ) province that the theoretical account of IHRM can be described along three dimensions. First was the broader class of the typical activities of HRM ( enlisting, exile and farther employment ) . Second was those larger classs of states, where the IHRM activities are carried out ( parent state, mark and host state, other states ) . For the last one was state classs and beginnings of larger groups of employees ( parent, mark or host, 3rd state subjects ) .
Adler and Ghaner were believe that if a company enters into the international market ( exports, representation, joint venture, whole-owned company ) , the company will has a close relation with the international human resource direction. Besides that, international human resource direction can lend to the development of international companies with the development of competences ( Taylor et al, 1996 & A ; Lado-Wilson, 1994 ) .Moreover, loosely defined IHRM is the procedure of procuring, apportioning, and efficaciously utilizing human resources in a transnational corporation.
In add-on, Dowling argues that the complexness of international HR can be attributed to six factors:
More HR activities.
The demand for a broader position.
More engagement in employees ‘ personal lives.
Changes in accent as the work force mix of exiles and locals varies.
Broader external influences
3.2 Human resource direction challenges and schemes
Globalizations makes civilization “ an progressively strategic issue that has to be faced and decently managed ” ( Granell, 2000, p. 90 ) . However, what are the schemes that HRM used? HR schemes are so designed to arouse coveted behavioural repertories.
Within this competitory organisational context, human resource direction patterns have gained increased significance. More specifically, HR has been linked to increased productiveness ( Ichniowski et al. , 1997 ; Fox et al. , 1999 ) , good client service ( Fox et al. , 1999 ) , greater profitableness ( Delery and Doty, 1996 ; Fox et al. , 1999 ) and overall organisational endurance ( Welbourne and Andrews, 1995 ) . To accomplish such nexus, direction must non merely face current issues of human resource direction but besides trade with future challenges related to human resource direction efficaciously.
Functions of planetary HR such as operations, gross revenues, and selling have by and large made great advancement in accommodating to the planetary market place. However, the HR map has typically lagged behind in developing policies and constructions that support globalisation. Making a truly planetary HR map can be rather disputing when covering with legion international locations. The HR map faces in the globalisation procedure. The top challenges confronting the HR map duringthe globalisation procedure include:
Organizing activities in many different locations.
Understanding the continual alteration of the globally competitory environment.
Constructing a planetary consciousness in all HR departments/divisions.
Making a multicultural HR squad.
However, as a HR director, the most challenge thing is to confront the challenges of workplace diverseness, how to actuate employees through gain-sharing and executive information system through proper planning, forming, taking and commanding their human resources. Two hereafters surveies of tendencies determining the universe and the work force confirm the above and more. Among turning tendencies cited by Coates et Al. ( 1991 ) are:
increasing diverseness in the work force within the USA – more aged workers, more Spanish americans and high-achieving Asians, more black and adult females educational and professional promotion ;
new focal point on workers as an plus and greater investing in preparation and instruction of forces ;
demands of the emerging planetary society are diverging from the cognition base of the US population – more cognition and instruction is demanded than is being provided in this state.
The deductions of these observations are the HR leaders must non merely retrain forces to get by with such new worlds, but they must take in the transmutation of organisational civilization, an issue we have analyzed antecedently ( Harris and Moran, 1993, ch. 6 ) .
Harris ( 2000 ) pointed out that the HR leader who transforms organisational civilization in the way of globalisation, authorization, and orchestration of engineering helps the corporation, bureau, or association to map in a 21st century work environment. His or her human resource development plans are centered on constructs, the rational maulers around which thoughts and informations are organized. The GEO Group offers the undermentioned suggestions: With globalisation, with authorization and with orchestration.
SHRM was designed to name steadfast strategic demands and planned endowment development which is required to implement a competitory scheme and achieve operational ends ( Huselid et al. , 1997 ) . The universe has undergone a dramatic alteration over the last few decennaries, the forces of globalisation ; technological alterations have greatly changed the concern environment. Organizations were required to react in a strategic mode to the alterations taking topographic point in order to last and come on. Strategic Human Resource Management ( SHRM ) involves a set of internally consistent policies and patterns designed and implemented to guarantee that a house ‘s human capital contribute to the accomplishment of its concern aims. Strategic human resources direction is mostly about integrating and version. Its concern is to guarantee that: ( 1 ) human resources ( HR ) direction is to the full integrated with the scheme and the strategic demands of the house ; ( 2 ) HR policies cohere both across policy countries and across hierarchies ; and ( 3 ) HR patterns are adjusted, accepted, and used by line directors and employees as portion of their mundane work. SHRM patterns are macro-oriented, proactive and long term focused in nature ; positions human resources as assets or investings non disbursals ; execution of SHRM patterns bears linkage to organisational public presentation ; and concentrating on the alliance of human resources with house scheme as a agency of deriving competitory advantage ( Bawa,1999 ) .
4.0 globalisation and service
4.1 Strategic challenges for the selling of services internationally
What are the deductions of increased globalisation of service industries for states around the universe? Basically the costs and benefits of globalisation are a map of the increased competition brought by greater exposure to international markets. On the positive side, globalisation forces down the monetary value of services in high cost venues, additions end product and improves service quality. On the negative side, there is the disruption from increased competition as uncompetitive houses lose market portion and their employees are laid off ( Hufbauer and Warren, 1999 ) . So what should we make to get the better of the barriers?
Before we overcome the barriers, we should cognize what the barriers of service internationally are. In this literature we merely discourse two barriers.
4.1.1 Get the better ofing barriers to merchandise in services
With the increasing importance of the selling of services internationally, a assortment of jobs have beset the service sector ( Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2002 ) . While the attempts and accomplishments ensuing from the Uruguay Round and the constitution of the General Agreement on Trade in Services ( GATS ) in 1994 were commendable, advancement, nevertheless, has been far more limited ( Clark and Rajaratnam, 1999 ; Samiee, 1999 ) . Whereas duty barriers have perceptibly declined, non-tariff barriers ( NTBs ) against services have increased. Harmonizing to UNCTAD, it is estimated that 20 per centum of universe trade brushs NTBs, and the World Bank noted an addition of over 2,500 NTBs from 1986 to 1988 alone ( Zimmerman, 1999 ) . In the insurance ( referred to as pure services ) industry, for illustration, there are 26 barriers to merchandise globally that are prejudiced against foreign insurance companies ( Zimmerman, 1999 ) . Barriers to the international selling of services are legion and cumbrous, inhibiting hereafter growing and chances.
A figure of surveies suggest that exporting is a less attractive option to derive entree to foreign markets, particularly for those houses that offer pure services, necessitating some type of foreign direct investing to set up local presence rapidly ( Vandermerwe and Chadwick, 1989 ; Boddewyn et al. , 1986 ; Zimmerman, 1999 ) . Analyzing the insurance industry, Zimmerman ( 1999 ) classified barriers into two classs: entry restraints and operational barriers. While the former includes such restraints as local ownership demands and labour limitations, the latter type includes prejudiced revenue enhancement, currency controls, local investing demands, etc.
To get the better of these barriers, directors need to invent sound schemes that include ways to negociate with the WTO/GATS to ease and/or eliminate barriers that hinder entree to markets. Those service houses that skilfully negotiate and work with a host state authorities can get the better of barriers. Research workers besides suggest direction actions as a redress to get the better of hurdlings ( Dahringer, 1991 ; Zimmerman, 1999 ) . Dahringer ( 1991 ) , for illustration, suggested direction actions such as concentrating on developing superior service quality and superior direction capablenesss to battle barriers to market entree. Furthermore, forbearance and doggedness are recommended when trying to get the better of NTBs ( Zimmerman, 1999 ) .
4.1.2 Standardization versus local adaptation/customization
Harvey et Al. ( 1997, p. 43 ) suggest that “ some really successful companies are supplying services utilizing procedures that would be considered stiff by any standard ” . The presence of the client in the procedure, the peculiar function of contact employees and the intangibleness of services, make the undertaking of reacting to environmental alterations rather different in service companies ( Harvey et al. , 1997 ) . Therefore, standardisation is of import.
Harmonizing to Taylor, S. ( 1999 ) , standardized end products must be produced by standardised procedures. We take standardisation to mention to the state of affairs where uniformity is achieved either through end products ( merchandises and services ) and or in the procedures that produce such end products. The AMA ( Bennett, 1988, p. 86 ) defines standardisation as: “ A system of identificationaˆ¦ [ and ] Grade labelingaˆ¦ ” , which it would look refers to the classification of merchandises. Webster ‘s Dictionary ( 1973, p. 1133 ) defines standardising as “ to compare with a standardaˆ¦to bring into conformance with a standard – ‘something established by authorization, usage, or general consent as a theoretical account or illustration ‘ . ” This last definition suggests that the term standardisation can be applied to two different state of affairss:
when a criterion has been “ efficaciously applied ” ; or
when a criterion has been “ achieved. ” ( Medina, 1998 ) .
Furthermore, the thought of merchandise customization was foremost brought to the academicians ‘ attending by Terpstra ( 1981 ) . He argued that the thought of merchandise “ appropriateness ” was a legitimate one, in visible radiation of the fact that many developing economic systems were eventual receivers of engineering and inventions from a smattering of states in the developed universe. Furthermore, low economic differences between these states rendered merchandise offerings from flush markets inappropriate for developing market consumers ( Terpstra, 1981 ) . Beyond the virtues of the economic disparity issue, it subsequently became apparent that marked differences in beliefs and traditions would play an of import function in the credence of many merchandises ( Samli et al. , 1993 ) .
The term customization is discussed but non defined by Porter ( 1986 ) , Onkvisit and Shaw ( 1987 ) , Krubasik ( 1988 ) , Jain ( 1989 ) , and Yavas et Al. ( 1993 ) . Other similar footings that have been used include “ individuality ” ( Kanso, 1992 ) and “ specificity ” ( Onkvisit and Shaw, 1987 ) . Neither of these footings, nevertheless, appears to be normally present in the literature. The AMA ‘s definition of customization is: “ Tailoring the merchandise to the particular and alone demands of the client. Each purchaser is potentially a alone section ” ( Bennett, 1988, p. 51 ) . Webster ( 1973, p. 281 ) defines customize as: “ to construct, suit, or alter harmonizing to single specifications ” .
While it is possible to market services internationally, offering a extremely standardised service may be debatable. The cardinal accent on stigmatization and mensurable quality specifications in comodification services raises major inquiries over the on-going importance of relationships in the selling of such services ( Laing, Lewis, Foxall, Hogg, 2002 ) . Since services are public presentations and inherently affect some degree of the human component, they can non be standardized in the manner that goods can. The heterogeneousness facet of service is hence capable to some fluctuation in public presentation, no affair how meticulously that service is performed. Similar to inseparability, heterogeneousness pertains to the issue of standard bringing of the service offering ( Edgett et al. , 1993 ) . Noteworthy features of heterogeneousness that make standardisation less executable include: service quality fluctuation on dimensions such as the supplier, the consumer, and clip ( Zeithaml et al. , 1985 ) ; standardisation and quality control ( Berry, 1980 ) ; and the labour strength of the service ( Zeithaml et al. , 1985 ) .
Consistent with Zeithaml et al. , ( 1985 ) , Nicoulaud ( 1989 ) besides notes that services are more prone to fluctuation when they are more people-based than machine-based, when the perceptual experience of public presentation ( or production procedure ) varies from client to client, and when the service public presentation varies from the same single from twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours ( i.e. situational ) . As a consequence, services are much less “ prone to standardisation ” as compared to touchable goods. Previous research workers warn of the demand to custom-make some facets of the service offerings to reflect local or regional gustatory sensations and penchants ( Mathe and Perras, 1994 ; Gaedeke, 1973 ) .
In add-on to the above factors, authorities ordinances in legion service sectors make standardisation hard ( Samiee, 1999 ) . Therefore, it is likely that when internationalising services comparatively more services must necessitate to be adapted to the host state environment. However, it may be more hard for international service houses to standardise services to the extent that goods can be standardized and marketed globally ( Samiee, 1999 ; McLaughlin and Fitzsimmons, 1996 ; Lovelock and Yip, 1996 ) .