Delay Centres around detaining activities in the supply concatenation until existent information about the markets are available. ( Yang and Burns, 2003 ) Another definition about delay is late customization or delayed merchandise distinction. In other words, it means detain the point of distinction processed in a supply concatenation every bit much as possible until the supply concatenation is cost effectual ( Grag and Lee, 1998 ) . Bowersox & A ; Closs ( 1990 ) have classified delaies into three signifiers: clip delay, location delay and signifier delay. Time and location delay belong to logistics delay. From the logistics point of position, the delay has five constituents, which involve labelling, wadding, assembly, fabricating and clip. ( Zinn and Bowersox, 1988 )
In recent old ages, with the acceleration of the globalisation procedure, the figure of types of goods and individualized service of client demand progressively, the delay scheme of supply concatenation direction has been paid more attending. Postponement scheme is successful in a broad scope of supply concatenation sectors such as automotive, nutrient and manner, which require high distinction. ( Li et al. , 2007 ) For illustration, many nutrient makers change their label or hallmarks to closer to demands of their clients. Thereby, this scheme greatly reduced costs and increased the market portion.
2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Postponement
Product value and clip are the most of import variables that influence the delay scheme. ( Sanchez-Rodrigues, 2006 ) Sing to provide concatenation scheme there are three major determiners affect it, such as merchandise, market demand and fabrication and logistics. ( Pagh and Cooper, 1998 ) Postponement scheme followed the customization portion of the “ Just-in-Time ” ( JIT ) production methods. It will be deferred to when to roll up more information about the demands and unsure demand has been decrease in the minimal clip to be customized, therefore cut downing the finished merchandises stock list ( Brown et al. , 2000 ) , forecast earlier ( Christopher, 2000 ) , cut downing the demand variableness ( Ernst et al. , 2000 ) and hazard variegation ( Grag and Tang, 1997 ) . From the green logistics point of position, though the scheme has a negative consequence on the CO2 emanations, it can cut down the conveyance flows in outward countries and extenuate the environmental impact of conveyance. ( Sanchez-Rodrigues, 2006 ) The chief drawback of the scheme is the higher cost of usage design and cosmopolitan parts stock list. ( Ma et al. , 2002 ) The execution of the scheme depends on the endeavor market features and production of merchandise type ; therefore it is non suited for any state of affairs. Many qualitative and quantitative theoretical accounts analyse postponement scheme in different background, such as the Ma ( 2002 ) and Su ( 2005 ) , they evaluate the costs and benefits of the execution of delay scheme.
3. Execution of the Postponement Strategy – Automotive
As it is mentioned above, delay can be divided into two sorts, one called signifier delay, which avoids the seller based on a prognosis of production of the concluding merchandise signifier different types of merchandises. Another is clip delay or logistics delay. It avoids the seller conveyance merchandise when the prognosis demand does non bring forth really, thereby cut downing the environmental impact of CO2 emanations. Form delay focuses on merchandise. In the logistics system upstream operations are standardized every bit much as possible. With specific demands of client orders for merchandise, the distinction may happen at different phases of the procedure such as fabrication, assembly, packaging and labelling. Time postponement focal points on clip. At the cardinal distribution Centres, hive awaying different merchandises in order to cut down decentalisation stock list in all gross revenues market that consequence in high stock list distributed, when receive client orders have a speedy response. This sort of hold distinction takes every bit long as possible.
3.1 Example of Automotive Industry
Postponement scheme can besides be seen as an attack of the supply concatenation to unite pull systems and push systems ( Figure 1 ) . This is portion of the uniform merchandises produce and transport as the same as prognosis, while the differences in response based on market demand. Therefore, the distinction of the supply concatenation alterations into a pull-type supply concatenation. In a push-type, the automotive company bases on prognosis the demand of the client to production, so merchandises are sold through distributers to the market measure by measure. The drawback is that distributers and retail merchants in a inactive place, vehicle endeavors have small information communicating, less coordination, long lead clip, large stock list sum and weak ability of fast response to market. The advantage is to do usage of the fabrication and transit in the supply concatenation to supply economic systems benefits for automotive endeavors, but besides the usage of stocks to equilibrate the instability between supply and demand. In the push phase, the auto makers predicted the semi-finished of mass production or the assorted faculties of generalisation, in order to entree the same effects as mass production. During the pull phase, the merchandise was able to accomplish distinction, under the demand of the orders to unite assorted faculties efficaciously, or harmonizing to the demand to farther procedure semi-finished merchandises in order to accomplish customization service.
Figure 1: Supply Chain Schemes
Beginning: ( Naylor et al. , 1999 )
Chan et Al. ( 2004 ) described that delay scheme in automotive supply concatenation can take to shorten process lead times and maximal flexibleness. Figure 2 show that the flexibleness plays an of import function in specifying concern procedure topologies. ( Wadhwa and Rao, 2000 ) The uncertainness of demands for any given merchandise is a important factor of clip delay ( Zinn and Bowersox, 1988 ) , which influenced by the assortment environment. There is a important benefit by utilizing postponement scheme traveling from make-to-stock, to the assemble-to-order scenarios. ( Figure 2 ) Delay can allow the concluding assembly have a possible benefits for merchandise and volume flexibleness to convey it closer to existent client demand. The point between pull and push phase is called Customer Order Decoupling Point ( CODP ) . CODP is an of import policy for the execution of the delay scheme in supply concatenation. aa‚¬E?All activities in the supply concatenation performed after the CODP are customized and targeted at the specific customized and targeted at the specific client order, while all activities in the supply concatenation before the CODP are standardizedaa‚¬a„? . ( Van Hoek, 2001 ) Figure 2 shows that the location of CODP affects the supply concatenation scheme, through the analysis of uncoupling point of the transition of clip that can be combined to do different supply concatenation scheme. Figure 1 shows when the uncoupling point in upstream, the demand is more stable and less fluctuation, while the downstream demand is less stable because of the alterations of the merchandise. The decoupling point is divided the supply concatenation into two parts which base on client demands. Its chief intent is to allow the distinction point of the merchandises ( in uncoupling point ) every bit near as the terminal user, cut downing the hazard of deficits and extra stock list. ( Mason et al. , 2000 )
Figure 2: Topology and Postponement Options
Beginning: ( Wadhwa and Rao, 2000 )
3.1.1 Manufacturing Delay
Harmonizing to the different clip and location, the procedure can be divided into two phases. If the concluding industry has less impact on value of the merchandises there is no demand to detain the concluding incorporate fabrication procedure. Second, if the volume and the weight of the goods increased excessively much, so take to detain their label or hallmarks or detain the bundle that can cut down transit costs and warehousing costs. Third, if the volume and the size of the merchandise hold a small alteration, it can utilize clip delay to accomplish the demand of clients. When the concluding industry of the merchandises have a high added value, it is necessary to detain the concluding fabrication procedure. If the weight and size increased excessively much, in order to ease the conveyance and storage that should utilize assembly hold. If the size or weight increased marginally, because they can be separated production therefore this can utilize postponement fabrication. Because the standardisation design, the automotive company usage fewer parts and constituents together to run into the client needs merchandises. They use lower cost to heightening client satisfaction to cut down the loss of gross revenues of inconsistent supply and demand.
3.1.2 Labelling and Packing Postponement
The engineering of bring forthing basic merchandises can be applied in mass production of the planetary automotive industry. Second, the merchandise must be designed to module oriented, that is, it can through production faculties and subsidiary equipment to run into the client requirementsA?A?A’otherwise the concluding assembly or concluding fabrication will be excessively much. In add-on, the engineering has a nexus with the type of the delay activity.The concluding fabrication has high engineering that may be lead to more complex processing type, therefore it will utilize fabrication delay. By and large, higher uncertainness such as the increased distribution of links and in a comparatively tight progress period, they need for a higher degree of delay. There normally have more distribution Centres in clip delay, labelling and packing delay. Sing the demand of the client, the length of the beforehand period can impact the type of the delay.
To sum up, delay is a utile scheme in supply concatenation. It through traveling the distinction point to backward and concentrate the uncertainness resources to better the legerity and flexibleness of the supply concatenation. This scheme can cut down the stock list and prediction hazard costs. More significantly, the “ customization ” and “ standardisation ” non merely run into the demand of the clients and cut down stock list costs and hazard but besides create more market value for the company.
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