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Teachers attitudes affecting integration of graphing calculators

In today ‘s universe, engineering has been developing really quickly and impacting life in all countries. As a consequence of this, concern universe needs originative persons who are capable of believing analytically and successful at job work outing. Therefore, mathematics instruction becomes important about raising pupils who give value to mathematics, who can believe mathematically and work out jobs by concluding. At this point, a merchandise of developing engineering, “ charting reckoners ” ( GC ) , are thought to be a mean that can supply these ends of mathematics instruction.

Since 1986, charting reckoners have been used in mathematics instruction and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics ( NCTM ) recommended in the Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics ( 1989 ) that charting reckoners must be available to all high school pupils at all degrees and they should be integrated into the instruction and the appraisal of mathematics. However, in 2011 there is still non a consensus between mathematics instructors about utilizing reckoners and in Turkey ; they are used in merely some private schools. Besides, even in these schools, instructors have non reached a consensus on incorporating it into lessons.

The intent of this survey is to look into how attitudes of mathematics instructors affect utilizing charting reckoners ( GC ) in learning and proving pupils ‘ acquisition. New inexperient mathematics instructors and student-teachers, who will work in private schools in Turkey or work abroad, will profit from this research by seeing treatments about some research in other states and in Turkey. This undertaking includes all classs of high school mathematics learning and in the given one semester clip bound, it can be executable to look into and understand instructors ‘ general attitudes.

This undertaking will turn to the job that “ how do instructors ‘ attitudes affect incorporating charting reckoner into mathematics lessons? ” There are multiple positions of instructors, parents, decision makers and pupils on the use of reckoner in classes.A In Turkey, although it has been altering in private schools, most parents and administratorsA have normally beenA against utilizing reckoners, while pupils are unable to understand this state of affairs. Parents and decision makers more likely tend to traditional methods in learning because they can see use of GCs as clip devouring and as non following the course of study. On the other manus, pupils may see GCs as helpful devices heightening their acquisition and motives. This difference of positions certainly has an consequence on the positions of the instructors about this job.

This job relates to bettering learning pattern in maths because utilizing charting reckoners provides a broad scope of activities including group/individualA working and find acquisition. It may alsoA be used forA visual image of mathematical cognition while learning. Therefore, once more instructors ‘ perceptual experiences are of import on make up one’s minding whether to develop mathematics course of study and schoolroom kineticss by the manner of utilizing reckoner or non.

Therefore, to reply the overall job, “ how do instructors ‘ attitudes affect incorporating charting reckoner into mathematics lessons? “ , these specific research inquiries will be addressed:

What are instructors ‘ attitudes sing advantages and disadvantages of utilizing GC?

How instructors ‘ beliefs about schoolroom kineticss affect GC use?

What do instructors believe about howA the usage of GC interacts with course of study?

Literature Review

Most research was done about how preparation on in writing reckoners affects instructors ‘ attitudes on incorporating them into lessons. One of these surveies was done by Baki and Celik in 2005, in Trabzon, a metropolis of Turkey, with 14 mathematics instructors, who had non been cognizant of charting reckoners before, about utilizing TI-92 charting reckoners in geometry categories. After go toing a class of developing activities utilizing charting reckoners, they were interviewed for uncovering if any alterations occurred in their positions about charting reckoners or non. Baki & A ; Celik ( 2005 ) stated that all of the instructors had believed that it can be harmful for pupils ‘ procedural abilities and merely four instructors ‘ positions had non been changed after the class. However, others thought that it can be good for taking pupils involvements and supplying effectual and profoundly learning by promoting probe ( p.146 ) . Similar to this decision, another elaborate research done by Chang ( 2000 ) on the mathematics instructors of 243 high schools in New Zealand, indicated that:

The trained and not-trained respondents showed opposite attitude to the function of artworks reckoners in secondary mathematics instruction: the trained 1s have ever had a higher per centum of positive understanding to every descriptive statement about the function of this engineering in secondary mathematics instruction. This seems to propose that adequate preparation for every mathematics instructor is indispensable for incorporating this engineering into secondary mathematics instruction. ( p.92 )

Besides, Yoder indicated that instructors who had attended at least one workshop about how to utilize GC believed that they can be used for find activities while the others believed that their pupils become dependent on reckoners and their basic computational accomplishments are damaged ( 2000, p.29 ) .

Besides geometry categories, there are besides other surveies look intoing its integrating into algebra or concretion categories. For illustration, consequences of a study done on 48 algebra instructors in Ohio about charting reckoners use and positions of larning algebra showed that instructors were presently utilizing reckoners at least several times a hebdomad for in-class activities, preps, quizzes and tests in algebra categories ( Yoder, 2000, p.i ) .

Another point that research done on charting reckoners largely dealt with is that what sort of beliefs of instructors affect integrating of reckoners into lessons. Elaine Simmt discussed a research survey done by detecting six mathematics instructors in Canada during lessons on instruction of a specific subject, quadratic maps utilizing charting reckoners ( 1997 ) and by questioning them. The interviews were focused on instructors ‘ grounds for utilizing charting reckoners, instructors ‘ doctrines of mathematics instruction and in what ways the handiness and usage of charting reckoners affect instructors ‘ beliefs on mathematics. Harmonizing to consequences, the assortment of instructors ‘ doctrines was evidenced, non so much in taking activities with charting reckoners, but in how the instructors use oppugning or lecture notes while following up the activities. Besides, it shows that although all of the instructors had the same engineering and the same curricular restraints, each of them developed the mathematics course of study within the context of his or her personal doctrine of mathematics and mathematics instruction ( Simmt, 1997, p.269 ) .

Similar to Simmt ‘s decision, Yoder indicated that, harmonizing to Reys, research has shown that instructors are loath or enthusiastic about utilizing reckoners due to “ their beliefs about what mathematics is and what their function as a mathematics instructor includes ” ( 2000, p.2 ) . For illustration, consequences of Chang ‘s research revealed that ‘rule-based ‘ and ‘non-rule-based ‘ instructors responded otherwise to this engineering. He defined ‘rule-based ‘ instructors as instructors who believe that larning mathematics is largely memorizing and knowing of regulations and defined ‘non-rule-based ‘ instructors as instructors who “ believe that the nucleus of mathematics larning is researching jobs to detect forms and do generalisations ” ( 2000, p.50 ) . Consequences of this research showed that instructors who hold a more rule-based position of mathematics are more likely to keep the position that the graphing reckoners do non heighten direction and may even impede it ( Chang, 2000, p.86-87 ) .

However, Yoder ( 2000 ) refused Chang ‘s positions harmonizing to his research done in Ohio such that the instructors ‘ positions of larning algebra were non found to be a important factor in utilizing charting reckoners because both instructors who had “ rule-based ” and “ non-rule-base ” position of larning algebra integrated charting reckoners in their lessons ( p.27 ) by depending on participants ‘ , who do non utilize reckoners, tonss on the position of larning algebra complexs were non any higher than participants ‘ who use reckoners. Therefore, he assumed that the ground can non be related to instructors ‘ positions of larning algebra.

In add-on to these, Baki and Celik stated that before the workshop, most of the instructors joined to the workshop in Trabzon had believed that charting reckoners lead pupils to ready-made cognition and memorisation since most of the instructors thought learning mathematics as bettering pupils ‘ computational accomplishments. And, the mathematics course of study and university entryway exam support instructors ‘ this sort of positions. After the class, most instructors, except four of them, agreed that it can be utile for doing some hard and abstract subjects ocular and dynamic. Furthermore, at the terminal of the workshop, whether they are favour of incorporating charting reckoner into lessons or non, all of the instructors admire the graphical and symbolical potency of the engineering of charting reckoners ( 2005, p.158 ) .

Research Methodology

After reexamining some related questionnaires such as Fleener ‘s ( 1995, p.484-485 ) Attitude Instrument for Mathematics and Applied Technology ( AIM-AT ) Survey questionnaire and after analyzing Questionnaires ( Cohen, Manion, & A ; Morrison, 2007, p.317-324 ) ; a questionnaire was developed ( Appendix A ) . It consists of 28 points ; 27 of them are with a four point graduated table such that 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= agree, 4= strongly agree. These are focused on the attitudes and experience of instructors about utilizing charting reckoners and effects of GCs on pupils and schoolroom kineticss. An introductory point supplying background information to happen out how many classs they have taught with GC was besides inserted to the questionnaire. There are 4 types of inquiries and the classs are:

Category 1: Beliefs about appropriate usage of GCs

Items: 5-10, 15-17, 27

Category 2: Experience with usage of GCs

Items: Introductory point, 19-22

Category 3: Beliefs about effects of utilizing GC in schoolrooms

Items: 3, 4, 11-14, 18, 23-26

Category 4: Teaching doctrine

Items: 1, 2

In this research undertaking, in order to steer the research inquiries, the study was conducted on 8 mathematics student-teachers who had experience by making internship in some of the Turkey ‘s most of import colleges during their biennial teacher instruction plan at Bilkent University. All of the instructors had the same degree of cognition about TI charting reckoners as a consequence of one-term class of engineering in the first twelvemonth of the plan. In add-on to the course of study and the educational doctrine of the schools that internships done, instructors ‘ personal attitudes toward charting reckoners, schoolroom kineticss and course of study affected their integrating into the categories that they taught and by this research methodological analysis it is aimed to make the positions of mathematics instructors with varied calling experiences in schoolrooms toward utilizing charting reckoner.

Data was collected instantly after the instructors completed their internships by directing them the links of the questionnaires ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.surveymonkey.com/s/PQXTG6S, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.surveymonkey.com/s/RH2CXMF, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.surveymonkey.com/s/RHCXQQH ) prepared on the cyberspace site, Survey Monkey via electronic mail and the responses were collected once more on Survey Monkey.

While the fact that they were about at the same degree of cognition about charting reckoner had a positive consequence on the study, the figure of the participants was the most of import restriction of the survey. Since it was conducted on merely 8 instructors, it was impossible to generalise it to all state. The other restriction was the fact that the participants had been motivated to incorporate engineering in mathematics lessons during their instruction and this might act upon the objectiveness of the responses.

Datas Analysis

Consequences and treatments are organized by the classs of the points below and the consensus points were defined by over 70 % understanding or dissension responses on the study point.

Category 1: Beliefs about appropriate usage of GCs

There was consensus on several points of this cognitive class. There was 100 % understanding that if graphing reckoner is used, more interesting jobs can be dealt with during lessons ( point 16 ) and 87.5 % understanding that

maths is easier if a GC is used to work out a job ( point 5 )

GCs can be used in learning concretion ( item 8 )

Students should be allowed to utilize reckoners after they have mastered the construct or process ( item 17 )

Besides, there were consensus understandings that

GCs can be used in algebra subjects ( point 7 )

GCs are utile for learning geometry ( item 9 )

On the other manus, there were 100 % dissensions that GCs should be used on prep ( item 15 ) and when pupils work with reckoners, they do n’t necessitate to demo their work on paper ( item 27 ) .

Category 2: Experience with usage of GCs

The instructors agreed that they have used charting reckoners in their schoolrooms before ( point 20 ) . Beside this, 62.5 % of the instructors responded that they have taught 1-10 lessons, 25 % of them taught 11-30 lessons and merely one of them stated that she did non learn any lessons with charting reckoners.

Besides, there were a consensus understanding that they know ways of how they can incorporate GCs into lessons efficaciously ( item 22 ) . However, 62.5 % of them indicated that they were non adept at utilizing GCs ( point 21 ) . In add-on to that, there was a consensus dissension that they felt confused while utilizing GCs ( point 19 ) .

Category 3: Beliefs about effects of utilizing GC in schoolrooms

In this class, there were consensuses on about all of the points. There were 100 % understandings on four points:

GCs make mathematics merriment ( item 3 ) .

GCs addition motives of pupils ( item 4 ) .

It is helpful for ocular scholars ( point 23 ) .

It allows pupils to detect the experimental nature of mathematics ( point 25 ) .

The other consensus understandings were that:

GCs aid pupils visualise the cognition ( item 11 ) .

It allows much student-centered lesson programs ( item 14 ) .

I can derive clip by utilizing GC ( point 18 ) .

The consensus dissensions were that utilizing GC makes teacher less effectual ( item 12 ) and it does non hold an consequence on developing logical-mathematical intelligence. Besides, there was non a consensus on the points about how it affects pupils ‘ basic computational ( item 13 ) and appraisal accomplishments ( point 26 ) .

Category 4: Teaching doctrine

In this class, all of the instructors agreed that learning mathematics means leting pupils to research jobs to detect forms and do generalisations ( point 2 ) while there was a consensus understanding on learning mathematics is largely demoing the manner of memorising a set of facts and regulations ( point 1 ) .

Decision

Findingss

The information showed that most of the respondents were non-rule-based and similar to Chang ‘s consequences ( 2000, p.87 ) , it showed that most rule-based instructors agreed that learning mathematics besides means leting pupils to research jobs to detect forms and do generalisations, nevertheless non-rule-based instructors strongly disagreed that it is demoing the manner of memorising a set of facts and regulations. This consequence is seemingly seen in the graph below:

On the other manus, it was seen that doctrine of learning mathematics had non impact the usage of GCs such that 87.5 % of the respondents used it in their lessons. However, it is besides seen that it can impact the ways of its integrating to lessons, i.e. schoolroom kineticss, and in which subjects of mathematics course of studies such as graphing, concretion, algebra or geometry. Furthermore, the type of course of study ( National Curriculum, IGCSE, IB or AP ) of the schools where the respondents taught their lessons was a possible consequence on whether to utilize it since merely 25 % of them worked with National Curriculum. The consequences showed that charting reckoners were integrated with course of study as extension tools for subjects because all of the respondents agreed that pupils should be allowed to utilize reckoners after they have mastered the construct or process Besides, it is noteworthy that all respondents, both rule-based and non-rule-based instructors thought that GCs make mathematics merriment, addition pupils ‘ motives and take more student-centered lessons.

Last, it can be said that assurance about proficiency at utilizing GC is besides another of import consequence on incorporating GCs into lessons and the graph shows assurance of the respondents about utilizing GC below.

Significance of the research

Teachers are the most effectual factor on developing such course of study or schoolroom kineticss that integrate engineering into lessons and by this manner, they are the most of import agencies of steering pupils for creativeness, critical thought and continuously developing engineering in Turkey. At this point, incorporating charting reckoners into mathematics lessons is an of import issue for linking these two and instructors ‘ positions about advantages and disadvantages of GCs, their experiences with it, their beliefs about its effects on schoolroom kineticss are some points to be discussed in order to supply effectual usage of charting reckoners.

Further research

A farther research with a wider sample of instructors that includes different scope of experient instructors from different schools in order to do some more dependable and valid generalisations harmonizing to the consequences.

In add-on to that, some findings need to be justified. Particularly, observations lessons of instructors with GCs about some specific subjects can be utile for discoursing how instructors ‘ doctrines of learning mathematics affect the ways of incorporating reckoners.

Besides, a farther research should be done on pupils and school decision makers to look into their positions about charting reckoners.

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