This survey investigates English linguistic communication instructors ‘ beliefs and beliefs about learning grammar and explores differences in instructor ‘s beliefs about grammar and learning grammar. I will look into their beliefs based on their cognition, experience as scholars and instructors. The survey therefore examines the relationship between instructor ‘s cognition and beliefs and ways of instruction. The reappraisal of the literature will discourse antecedently published work that is relevant to the present work.
Teachers ‘ Beliefs
1.1.1. The Nature of the Teachers ‘ Beliefs.
“ How instructors make sense of their professional universe, the cognition and the beliefs they bring with them to the undertaking, and how instructors ‘ apprehension of instruction, acquisition, kids and, the capable affair informs they everyday pattern are of import inquiry that necessitate an probe of the cognitive and affectional facets of instructors ‘ professional lives. ” ( Calderhead 1996:709 ) At nowadays, there is more understanding of instructors ‘ beliefs as really influential and permeant factor on instructors determinations made in the schoolroom ( Bandura 1986 ) . Jakubowski and Tobin ( 1991 ) advocator that instructors ‘ beliefs may alter the whole lesson content.
Beliefs are considered as the most influential part to instructors ‘ work and the manner of learning but highly hard to specify. Harmonizing to Pajeras ( 1992:2 ) beliefs are a “ mussy concept [ that ] travels in camouflage and frequently under assumed names. ” These assumed names are besides known as “ images ” ( Golombek 1988 ) , “ unseasoned premises ” ( Kagan 1992, Calderhead 1996 ) , “ axioms ” ( Richards 1996 ) , “ perceptual experiences ” ( Kagan 1992 ) “ personal theories ” ( Borg 1998 ) , or “ personal pedagogical system ” ( Borg 1998 ) . Pajeras ( 1992 ) and Richardson ( 1996 ) looked at them as a manner of understanding instructors ‘ determinations and their patterns.
The manner how the beliefs are held deliberately or accidentally is due to persons and “ imbedded with affectional committedness ” ( Borg 2001:186 ) and they are the foundations of all ideas and behaviors. Everyone forms their beliefs from the really get downing of their lives, they are the result of the instruction gained at school or based on personal experiences ( Johnson 1994 ) , they are to the full formed by the terminal of instruction, earlier experiences either as a scholar or as a instructor have chief influence in organizing beliefs. LeLup ( 1995:137 ) provinces that instructors ‘ beliefs are based on “ how they [ instructors ] were taught and their perceptual experiences of how they learned. ” What is more, they may be developed on the footing of pupils demands ( Eisenstein-Ebsworth and Shweers 1997 ) . Richards, Gallo and Renandya ( 2001 ) argue that instructor ‘s chief beliefs derive from educational rules, school patterns and instructors personalities. Calderhead ( 1996 ) states that, instructors held their beliefs about scholar, acquisition, nature of instruction, course of study, and the manner of larning how to learn. Richards ( 1996 ) maintains that instructors ‘ beliefs have influence on the manner of fixing and be aftering the lesson, keeping the subject in the schoolroom, promoting and actuating the scholar. Richards ( 1996 ) claims that beliefs are the merchandise of instructors ‘ development. Richards ( 1996:293 ) maintains that beliefs “ reflect instructors ‘ single doctrines of instruction, developed from their experience of instruction and acquisition, their teacher instruction experiences, and from their ain personal beliefs and value systems. ”
The definition of instructors beliefs can non be simplified or standardized, they are amalgamated and have many characteristics, as Pajeras ( 1992:324 ) asserts that beliefs “ redefines, distorts, or reshapes subsequent thought and information processing. ” Clark Peterson ( 1986 ) coincide that beliefs are compound and they besides province that beliefs vary among all the instructors who follow likewise if non the same patterns. Abelson ( 1979, cited in Woods 1996 ) states that beliefs vary from weak to strong. Some of them are really strong and immune to alterations, although alternate belief sing similar issue may be acknowledged, even after taking portion in teaching-training programmes. Their boundaries are fuzzy, they overlapping with each other, although they can be as single units.
1.1.2. The Sources of Teachers ‘ Beliefs
System of instructors ‘ beliefs is based on attitudes, information, theories, premises about instruction and acquisition, experience. Some of the beliefs are really precise, others are blurred and obscure. As said by Johnson ( 1994 ) beliefs influence instructors ‘ judgement and point of position, but what are the chief beginnings of peculiar beliefs?
Richards and Lockhart ( 2007 ) divided the beginnings of instructors ‘ beliefs in the chief countries of: instructors experience as a linguistic communication scholar. All of the instructors were scholars and had to larn the linguistic communication. The bulk of scholars obtain the cognition in different manner ; all of them have their ain effectual ( sometimes less effectual ) methods of geting vocabulary or grammar ( repeat, drills, visual image ) . Other beginning of beliefs mentioned by Richards and Lockhart ( 2007 ) is based on the experience of learning foreign linguistic communication which may be leading one. Teacher through old ages of work is able to detect which learning schemes are the most efficient. Teachers can witness what work best for peculiar types of the pupils. Richards and Lockhart ( 2007 ) enumerate pattern as one of the beginnings. They maintain that “ within a school, an establishment, or a school territory, certain learning manner may be preferred ( Richards and Lockhart 2007:31 ) . ” In some schools teacher are obliged to learn in little groups, in others they have to work with persons scholars or huge groups of pupils. Furthermore, type of personality was besides suggested as one of the beginnings of instructors ‘ beliefs. Everyone is dissimilar, we all have different penchants. Language instructors have different instruction forms, use different activities or arrange schoolroom in assorted ways. Another beginning of instructors ‘ beliefs is educationally based or research-based rules. As Richards and Lockhart ( 2007:31 ) say “ Teachers may pull on their apprehension of larning rule in psychological science, 2nd linguistic communication acquisition, or instruction and seek to use it in the schoolroom. ” This may besides mention to instructors ‘ cognition which is frequently used synonymously to word belief ( Kagan 1990, Alexander, Schallert & A ; Hare 1991 ) . Another beginning of instructors ‘ beliefs proposed by Richards and Lockhart ( 2007 ) are the rules based on attack or method applied by the instructor in the schoolroom. Each instructor beliefs that some of the techniques are better than others, methodological analysis they use while conveying the cognition differs, they implement different instruction schemes. It may be based on their experience or cognition.
Eisentein-Ebsworth and Schweers ( 1997 ) province that instructors beliefs are formed non merely by the instruction environment but besides by pupils, their demands, outlooks, experience gained through old ages of learning foreign linguistic communication, and course of study established by Ministry of Education. Richards and Lockhart ( 2007 ) expanded this list by adding English linguistic communication, general instruction and learning English linguistic communication. Williams and Burden ( 1997 ) add up the scholar to this list.
1.1.3. Teachers ‘ Beliefs about English.
The term English has different intending for everyone. Some would state that this is the linguistic communication spoken all over the universe, for others it is the linguistic communication of concern, literature or cardinal to knowledge due to the fact that most of the scientific articles are written in English. The manner English is perceived varies among the instructors and scholars and grounds of larning it and the nature of the linguistic communication ( as English linguistic communication is known as one of the most evolving linguistic communications ) ( Richards and Lockhart 2007 ) .
. In the context of instruction, teacher is the 1 who presents the linguistic communication and the manner it is done varies among the coachs. All of the English linguistic communication pedagogues should inquire themselves of import inquiries: what English means to them? Why is it so valuable? What difficulties instructors and scholars can come across while learning and larning English linguistic communication? What are the possible solutions to those troubles? How to actuate linguistic communication scholars? Etc. Answers to all these inquiries will be influenced harmonizing to instructors ‘ beliefs ( Richards and Lockhart 2007 ) .
1.1.4. Teachers ‘ Beliefs about Teaching and Learning.
Teaching is based on instructors ‘ beliefs and premises about effectual instruction. As Pajeras ( 1992 ) states instructors ‘ beliefs are established by instructors ‘ attitude, value and experience non merely as a instructor but besides as a scholar. Teachers may refer to the clip when they were scholars and inquire themselves inquiries what they understand by the term acquisition, how scholars get cognition, what are the most effectual ways of accomplishing it, what larning manners teacher would wish to advance and why? Teacher should see its function in the schoolroom, what are the most appropriate methods and how the instructor can turn from a instructor to a good instructor ( Richards and Lockhart 2007 ) ? Johnson ( 1992:101 ) provinces that “ instructors teach in conformity with their theoretical beliefs and that differences in theoretical beliefs may ensue in differences in the nature of… instructions ‘ . ” Johnson ( 1992 ) maintains that there are three chief attacks shared among English linguistic communication instructors: a skills-based attack ( instructors pay attending to developing chief accomplishments of reading, composing, listening and talking ) , rule-based attack ( instructors pay a batch of attending to grammatical regulations and accurate usage of the linguistic communication ) , and a function-based attack ( instructors believe that interaction is the key to successful acquisition ) . Furthermore, Kennedy and Kennedy ( 1998 ) suggest that sharing the same or different values and beliefs of the same civilization may impact the procedure of instruction and acquisition. In some states teacher dramas chief function in the schoolroom and to the full command the schoolroom whereas in others learner is in the Centre of involvements.
1.1.5. Teachers ‘ Beliefs about Learners.
Teachers assert assortment of beliefs about linguistic communication scholars and the assortment of them ; their beliefs frequently derive from the environment and the society they reside. Meighan and Meighan ( 1990, cited in Williams and Burden 1997 ) made a differentiation among the scholars and separate them into five chief classs: obstructionists ( they treat teacher as a punisher and learn because they are forced to ) , receptacles ( scholar is treated as an object, teacher do non pay attending to scholars feelings or demands, instructor is merely conveying cognition ) , natural stuffs ( scholars is believed to be easy controlled by the instructor ) , spouse ( instructors treat scholars on equal rights, they believe that non merely learner get cognition but they learn at the same clip ) , clients ( instructors pay attending to scholars educational demands ) .
1.1.6 Teachers ‘ Beliefs about Teaching Program and the Curriculum.
“ Any linguistic communication learning plan reflects both civilization of the establishment ( i.e. , peculiar ways of thought and of making things that are valued in the establishment ) every bit good as corporate determinations and beliefs of single instructors ” ( Richards and Lockhart 2007:38 ) . Each state has different course of study and instructors are expected to learn in a distinguishable manner. Teachers may besides hold different beliefs about the establishment or school they are learning at. Dissimilar type of appraisal, assorted stuffs, and text editions are used in different schools what may take teacher to different schoolroom patterns and develop varied beliefs about learning foreign linguistic communication. Each instructor has single beliefs of how to implement course of study predications. Additionally, instructors have their ain beliefs about jobs with the plan they may meet while working ( e.g. , is the plan good designed to run into scholars demands, what elements of the instruction plan are important and should be followed, what is teachers place towards the appraisal or what alterations should be made in the plan etc. )
1.1.7. Teachers ‘ Beliefs about being a Professional ( English ) Language Teacher.
Bing a professional linguistic communication instructor is non merely about holding the specialisation in this field but besides holding specific accomplishments required to execute this business. “ Professional work seems to affect a scope of sorts of expertness, including formal, organized cognition and identifiable processs and accomplishments ” ( Squires 1999:5 ) .The manner the linguistic communication instructors see their profession depends on the state and civilization they are learning at. Additionally it depends on the conditions of their work, their attitude towards learning itself and what they want to accomplish in their lives ( Richards and Lockhart 2007 ) . Squires ( 1999:6 ) sees learning as an art, “ Teacher-as-artist does what he or she is ” . Although, in some states, instruction is non seen as a profession but as a life manner and/or chance to go. For illustration, in England to go an English linguistic communication instructor campaigner has to complete short class ( TEFL, CELTA ) which is adequate and takes merely twosome of months, on the contrary to go a professional linguistic communication instructor in Poland the campaigner has to derive at least Bachelor of Arts grade which takes three old ages. The criterions of the instruction as a profession are frequently established by the society, its demand and chase of the specific cognition like in this instance cognition of the English linguistic communication. Teachers have to analyze themselves and determine what it means for them being professional, what the chief features of a professional instructor are, what preparation should be provided and what they would wish to derive in the hereafter. All the linguistic communication instructors ought to reply one chief inquiry: what is the chief ground to go an English linguistic communication instructor?
1.1.8. Teachers ‘ Beliefs about Teaching Grammar.
Teachers ‘ beliefs about grammar and grammar instruction are more precise and elaborate portion of their beliefs about general linguistic communication instruction. Borg ( 2003 ) in his reappraisal about instructors ‘ beliefs about grammar instruction came to decision that: instructors refer to their ain experience with grammar as scholars and the instructor ‘s outlooks are different to linguistic communication scholars what may act upon the apprehension of instructors ‘ instructions. Therefore there should non be any generalisation made as the instructors ‘ beliefs may differ due to instructors ‘ age, old ages of experience as linguistic communication instructors, their ain experience as linguistic communication scholars, instructors ‘ lingual ability, instructors ‘ involvements ( literature, cultural surveies ) , whether they planned to learn grammar or literature ( English literature ) , schools they are learning at, their pupils ( degree of linguistic communication and scholars ‘ demands ) ( Katz and Watzinger-Tharp 2008 ) . Teachers, when it comes to learning grammar should see what they understand by grammar, what points of the grammar are of import, what portion of the lesson should be devoted to grammar, how to set up grammar lesson, what types of the activities are more suited? Teaching grammar ever increases uncertainness in English linguistic communication instructors non merely from the curricular position but besides from pedagogical and lingual affair.
Teachers ‘ Knowledge.
Teaching foreign linguistic communication like any other professional field is based on proper background, practical cognition and proper professional instruction. To be a sufficient linguistic communication instructor, one has to derive exceeding apprehension of the topic. To be capable of showing the cognition in a comprehendible manner, linguistic communication instructors have posses non merely knowledge about the topic itself but besides have to cognize how to show it, what stuffs use, when and why ( Borg 2006 ) . Griffin ( 1983 ) states that definition of cognition is a affair of judgement non a affair of scientific discipline. Harmonizing to Cornbleth ( 1986 ) , cognition is besides all what instructors represent, from political and moral to personal facets. Briscoe ( 1991:186 ) suggests in her findings that cognition “ is unambiguously constructed by persons ” and “ all knew cognition is filtered through the model of beliefs which the instructor already possesses and is adapted to suit ( … ) bing models, merely giving the instructor new course of study or proposing alterations in pattern may non ensue in the desire results. ” She advocates that, if the instructor is expected to alter his/her pattern he/she should take an active portion in “ making the cognition ” to accommodate to alterations. As maintained by Woods ( 1996:195 ) term cognition is used for “ conventionally recognized facts ” , he besides made a differentiation between ‘content ‘ and instructional ‘ cognition. Elbaz ( 1983:5 ) believes that ‘practical cognition ‘ is one of the most of import elements in instructors ‘ work because it is based on instructor ‘s experience, cognition about the scholar, instruction and acquisition schemes, scholars ‘ “ demands, strengths and troubles, and a repertory of instructional techniques and schoolroom directions accomplishments. ” Wilson, Shulman and Richert ( 1987 ) place several ‘domains of cognition ‘ which are major component in effectual instruction:
Knowledge about the topic: theoretical cognition, instructors ‘ proficiency, cognition about the civilization, and the linguistic communication belongingss, apprehension of the course of study development.
General Pedagogical Knowledge: cognition about learning schemes and learning methods, schoolroom direction and keeping subject.
Pedagogical Content Knowledge: is a cognition required to learn specific country of the linguistic communication like vocabulary or grammar.
Knowledge of Learners: instructors should be cognizant of the scholars ‘ failings and strengths, their single differences and ought to be familiar with scholars ‘ jobs and demands in acquisition.
Knowledge of Learning: instructors should posses the cognition about larning schemes and scholars ‘ aptitude ( cognitive development ) , types of their personalities and should be cognizant of their societal background what may impact their attitude towards larning foreign linguistic communications.
Knowledge of Educational Goals: instructors should cognize what motivates scholars, what outlooks they have and what they want to accomplish.
Knowledge of Self: instructors should cognize how to actuate themselves, what was the ground of going an ‘English linguistic communication instructor ‘ , they should cognize their ain strengths and failings and work on their ain effectivity.
Teachers ‘ cognition of grammar.
Borg ( 2003:99 ) in his article: “ Teacher knowledge in linguistic communication instruction: a reappraisal of research on what linguistic communication instructors think, believe, know and do ” illustrates several surveies on instructors cognition of grammar. He reveals that “ surveies ( aˆ¦ ) in the UK have highlighted insufficiencies in the cognition of grammar and general apprehension of linguistic communication of prospective and practicing linguistic communication instructors. ” He exposes that in the study made in 1994 over 50 % of trainees have deficient cognition of grammar regulations. Another study made in 1999 shows that non-native talker of English posses ‘ better cognition of grammar and grammatical regulations than native talker pupils analyzing English. Hinkel ( 2005 ) states that within last decennary instruction of grammar at schools has been rejected by many instructors. History of learning grammar at schools shows how the accent on grammar constructions has changed within old ages. From audio-lingual attack ( huge force per unit area on grammar constructions ) thorough cognitive codification theory, non-contrastive Approach, lingua franca, to communicative and eventually lexical attack ( emphasizes eloquence non accuracy, grammar is no longer of import ) . Is the rejection of learning grammar at schools a merchandise and effect of new attacks or maybe it is a deficiency of equal cognition in this field? Hinkel ( 2005 ) states that learning grammar may be a existent challenge for English linguistic communication instructors non merely because of figure facets of instructors beliefs, deficiency of occupation stableness, outsize categories but besides because of non holding sufficient cognition. Hinkel ( 2005:555 ) maintains that many instructors “ have ne’er taken a class in English grammar or because they were minimally interested in that class when they were in their degree plans. ” She besides affirms that many instructors still see grammar as a set of regulations but do non tie in them with communicating agreements. Teachers with limited cognition of grammar regulations find grammar lessons tiring or excessively demanding and extinguish them or cut down those lessons to minimum.
The Importance of Grammar in English Language Teaching.
Dykes ( 2007:3 ) maintains that both linguistic communication instructors and linguistic communication scholars carry dyslogistic intensions towards grammar learning or larning. Many instructors during the old ages of their work faced different attacks refering the importance of grammar in the schoolroom. At first deficiency of cognition about grammar and grammatical constructions was believed to act upon scholars ‘ literacy abilities what was unacceptable. This system was known as a ‘functional grammar ‘ . Grammar was seen as a set of regulations, with exclusion of address ( communicative ) facets. As Crystal ( Crystal, D. , cited in Dykes 2007:4 ) said “ In the popular head grammar has become hard and distant, removed from existent life and practiced chiefly by a race of shady people ( syntacticians ) whose proficient setup and nomenclature require a drawn-out noviciate before it can be mastered… It is a shame because the cardinal point about grammar is so really of import and so really simple. ” This phase was followed by the “ period of uncertainness ” ( Dykes 2007:3 ) no one knew whether grammar should be taught or non.
1.4. Research into Teachers ‘ Beliefs about Teaching Grammar.
It has been comparatively non long clip ago when research workers realized the impact of instructors ‘ beliefs, their attitude and importance of instructors ‘ cognition of grammar on their manner of learning. There have been a figure of research workers made instructors ‘ beliefs about grammar and grammar instruction.
Richards, Gallo and Renandya ( 2001 )