The development of human resource plays a really of import function in guaranting the growing of each state in the universe, Societies and states require ongoing development of human resources. Education plays a critical function in supplying a skilled work force ( UNESCO, 2006 ) . Cambodia has been badly affected by Pol Pot government ( 1975-1979 ) . Under the Khmer Rouge, 75 per centum of instructors, 96 per centum of higher instruction pupils, and 67 per centum of primary and secondary school-aged students were killed ( Ayres, 2000, p.126 ) . The terrible loss of human resources may take Cambodia decennaries to retrace. Harmonizing to Ayres ( 2000 ) instruction was set to zero during that period. The past course of study was irrelevant ; it did non function the pupils ‘ demand to last in their society ( p.150 ) . Aligned with this is a statement made by Hun Sen “ there is a acknowledgment of the demand to do pressing reform of the course of study of general instruction at all degrees ” . ( Ayres, 2000, p.147 )
The current course of study was developed by larning from the experiences of the 1954 and 1967 course of studies ( Sangkum Reas Niyum government ) , the 1980 and 1986 course of studies ( People ‘s Republic of Kampuchea ) , and from the course of studies of developing and developed states within and outside the Asiatic part. “ The course of study is now compatible with humanistic rules ” . ( HURIGHTS, 2003 )
“ When the first reforms were initiated in 1980, after the Khmer Rouge period of race murder, the state lacked the expertness to implement alterations in the system. On the occupation, nevertheless, expertness developed quickly and this helped the execution of the 1994 reforms. More external experts later helped develop text editions and instructor ushers by proposing an update of content for different capable countries ” . ( HURIGHTS, 2003 ) . This research aims to place the current development issues of the national course of study for primary schools in Cambodia and the undermentioned inquiries will be focused.
What is the function of the course of study within Kampuchean schools?
What is the purpose of the course of study?
What does the current course of study for primary schools in Cambodia expression like?
Should the course of study for primary school in Cambodia be altering?
Who is responsible for course of study development in Cambodia?
II. Literature Review
1. Role of Curriculum
The function of course of study is to develop cognition, accomplishments, attitudes, and values, personality, life experience with accent on linguistic communication and calculation accomplishments, information, problem-solving accomplishments, independency, cooperation, physical instruction, larning and working, to the scholars so that they can take active portion in national development in the spirit of national integrity and broad pluralistic democracy. ( HURIGHTS, 2003 )
2. The purpose of the course of study
“ The purpose of course of study is to guarantee that every kid has a strong foundation in literacy and mathematics and that they develop their wellness, physical visual aspect, moral apprehension, larning accomplishments and life accomplishments. Furthermore, it aims to spread out and consolidate pupils ‘ cognition and personal development that will enable them to prosecute life-long acquisition and to present pupils to content in the countries of Science and Social Studies ” ( MoEYS, 2004 ) .
Students finishing the primary degree should be able to make the followers:
Develop their personalities and adapt to societal alterations.
Use the Khmer linguistic communication suitably and larn the basic elements of a foreign linguistic communication.
Use basic accomplishments in mathematics, scientific discipline, and engineering.
Practice sanitation and wellness protection.
Analyze and work out personal and familial jobs.
Exhibit good behavior and desirable attitudes, and follow a humanistic spirit and a tradition of esteeming human rights.
Appreciate work and labour, work hand in glove with others, and work good.
Be cognizant of societal conditions and responsibilities.
Know how to continue the environment, humanistic disciplines, and civilization.
3. The national course of study for primary school
The national course of study for primary school comprises several topics such as Khmer, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies and Physical and Health Education and LLSP. The allocated clip is 40 proceedingss per period. Art instruction ( vocals, pulling, dance, music, … ) is included in Science and Social Studies. In grade 5-6, foreign linguistic communication will be introduced to pupils harmonizing to the handiness of local resources. For the first phase ( 2005-2009 ) , the MoEYS will promote schools to offer foreign linguistic communication utilizing non -MoEYS resources in the LLSP clip. In entire there are 27-30 hours per hebdomad. ( MoEYS, 2004 )
4. The course of study for primary schools should be altering
With limited production of larning stuffs, the course of study should be implemented twelvemonth by twelvemonth continuously from classs 1 to 6, supplying utile lessons for planing text editions and instructor ushers, and the chance to point manageable Numberss of instructors each twelvemonth on how to implement the course of study. In making so, pupils can have good instruction which relate to their mundane life. ( USAID, 2006 )
5. Who is responsible for course of study development?
MoEYS, the Department of Pedagogical Research, is responsible for developing the course of study and criterion for each topic in the National Curriculum ( NC ) and has the duty to supervise and modulate the publication or production of nucleus text edition, extra reading papers and auxiliary instruction stuffs that serve the intent of acquisition and instruction in schools. ( UNESCO, 2006 )
Define key footings
National course of study: refers to a set of topics offers at public schools.
Current development issues: refers to the issues which are dealt or develop late.
Human resource: A anyA personA andA theirA particularA abilitiesA andA accomplishments ; theA conceptA ofA peopleA andA their potentialA asA a resource ( on-line lexicon ) .
“ Cambodia has suffered drawn-out wars that ruined its societal economic system. To reconstruct the state, the instruction system has to work hard to do kids larn in the thick of poorness. After free and cosmopolitan elections under United Nations supervising, the state achieved national rapprochement and political, societal, and economic stableness, and opted for economic liberalisation and engagement in the international free market. Foreign investing is now fluxing into Cambodia, which needs a labour force with proficient accomplishments at all degrees. The Ministry of Education Youth and Sport ( MoEYS ) has to run into this demand every bit shortly as possible ” . ( HURIGHTS, 2003 )
To react to the demands of labour force, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports is working really difficult to do certain that the course of study provides good instruction to the pupils at all degrees. With USAID ‘s support, a revised and improved course of study for classs one through six was written and introduced to schools and communities. ( USAID, 2006 )
“ To guarantee a permanent impact for the new course of study, USAID will assist teacher preparation centres adapt a preparation plan on the new course of study. This will guarantee that all freshly accredited instructors in Cambodia larn how to implement the new course of study before they begin their instruction callings. Education functionaries in all 24 territory instruction offices and 18 instructor preparation centres will be trained to implement the new course of study. Fifty per centum of all instructors already learning at 288 primary schools in eight remote states will besides be taught to implement the new course of study through self-guided acquisition faculties ” . ( USAID, 2006 )
The course of study itself is besides being implemented every twelvemonth and the policy for course of study development is besides created to back up the course of study developers. ( MoEYS, 2004 ) . Furthermore, in 2004 the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports ( MoEYS ) accepted a new plan which is called “ Child Friendly Schools plan ” focused on primary degree. This educational theory might hold been affected by the American educational reformist Dewey because the students are motivated to larn new things through their ain freedom and experience in his instruction methods and the function of the instructor is to ease them. ( UNESCO, 2006 )