Access Bank PLC is a good known Bank in Nigeria whose license was issued on December 19, 1988, and incorporated in February 8, 1989 and became a populace limited company in March 24, 1998 ( Access Bank PLC Online, 2011 ) . In 2001 it obtained a cosmopolitan Banking licenses from the Central Bank of Nigeria ( Access Bank PLC Online, 2011 ) . The transmutation of this bank was enormous from little vague Nigerian Bank now into an African fiscal establishment of note, with the wings stretching off the shores of the Atlantic.
Access Bank Plc is the Bank of best pattern with consistent growing in all cardinal public presentation indexs over the past 7 old ages. They have over two million clients from 130 subdivisions positioned in all chief commercial Centres and metropoliss across Nigeria, eight other African states ( Burundi, Cote D’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, Zambia ) and the United Kingdom, and three non-banking subordinates – United Securities Limited, Access Homes and Mortgages Limited, and Access Investment and Securities ( Access Bank PLC Online, 2011 ) .
As an emerging leader in Africa ; Access Bank non merely seeks to rank amongst the top 3 Nigerian Banking Groups by 2012 but besides to go a major accelerator for growing across the African continent ( Access Bank PLC Online, 2011 ) . Access bank values are based on trust, teamwork, passion for clients, uninterrupted acquisition, moralss and excellence this is what drives them to carry on their concern of uncompromising ethical rules.
This paper discusses Human Resource Management of Access bank plc, this will include the written and psychological contract, difficult and soft HRM and the integrative attack to HRM.
The Written Contract:
The written contract stands as a legal binding between an employee and the employer, it is a papers detailing the nature of work and wage and sometimes includes the figure of old ages expected to retire. The written contract is compulsory in most work topographic points. This is true and of import, as it tells the employee his or occupation description although at times it is normally non elaborate plenty but it is still necessary to hold a written certification on credence of work.
The written contract does non by and large intend that an employee has occupation security ; it is merely a cogent evidence demoing that an employee plants for such an administration.
Other chief characteristics of the contract are the general conditions of service in footings of wage, pension strategy, wellness installations available and so on.
The Psychological Contract:
The psychological contract refers to “ single beliefs, shaped by the organisation sing footings of an exchange understanding between the person and the organisation ” , ( Conway and Briner, 2005 ; Rousseau, 1995 ; Armstrong, 2003 ) .
An organisation ‘s concern scheme will find the type of HRM patterns it adopts and this has an impact on the nature of the psychological contract ( Grant, 1999 ) . Harmonizing to Henderson ( 2008 ) , psychological contract will ne’er in any manner be mistaken to be a legal contract of employment or any documented statement of footings and contract of employment. He farther stressed that it exist strictly in the heads of the employer and his employees and so it ne’er existed or written and ne’er articulated.
Types of Psychological Contract:
There are two types of psychological contract ; that is, the transactional which is related to the economic or pecuniary base with clear outlooks that a company will reasonably counterbalance the public presentation delivered and penalize the unequal Acts of the Apostless and the relational contract which is related to the societal emotional base that underlies bases of shared values, regard and support in interpersonal accomplishments.
Transactional psychological contract can be seen in Access bank, were employees are given marks. The marks are meant to be reached as the minimal public presentation demand of the bank from the employee, neglecting to, puts the employees continued stay on the occupation, in hazard. This is true because the bank is supposed to profit from the employee as the employee besides gets rewarded at the terminal of the twenty-four hours. It is non written, but it is in the head of the employee to be productive. This applies entirely to the selling section.
It is worthy of note that this pattern has been independently criticised by people as being illegal and encouraging immorality on the portion of the employee, who is made to make whatever it takes to run into the needed marks, despite the fact that there is no written contract in this respect.
The relational contract trades with the working conditions shared values and common regard between an employee and the employer. In Access Bank PLC, the staffs are expected to hold a sense of belonging and this helps to ease the tenseness at work. One of the employee ‘s outlooks from their employers is the proviso of a safe working environment.
A important characteristic of psychological contract is the consciousness of mutualness that there is a common and agreed apprehension of promise and duty between the employer and the employee about work, wage, trueness, in footings of fidelity and trustiness, committedness and devotedness to responsibility, adaptability to alter which is changeless in life, security and calling promotion.
Harmonizing to the Norm of Reciprocity ( Gouldner, 1960 ) , ”when employers do non carry through their promises and duties, the employee reciprocates by changing his or her parts to the organisation ” ; for illustration, by cut downing their attempts and public presentation. Thus, psychological contract breach is negatively related to employee occupation public presentation.
Furthermore, when the organisation fulfils its promised duties, employees may be motivated and prosecute in discretional behaviors, including increased attempt and organisational citizenship ( Coyle-Shapiro, 2002 )
Although psychological contract as we have seen prevarications in the heads of the employer and employees, the employees still perceive calling patterned advance and occupation security as an duty due to them for figure of dedicated old ages of trueness and committedness. Modern organisations are larning to populate without such basicss in psychological contract
Talking about security gives concern to associate to Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs and a few theories which will been looked into as respects Access Bank PLC.
CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
As respects the Content Theories of Motivation, Maslow explains the Hierarchy of Needs in a manner that it relates to the psychological contract. Harmonizing to Ashley-Jones and Maxwell-Harrison ( 2011 ) , this theory seeks to find what is it that motivates employees at work ; what are the demands and how can they be prioritised? They farther consider the inducements that motivate people ‘s public presentation. This is true as it relates really good to the above bank in all branchings.
Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs, this is a theory in psychological science proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1943 he termed it to be a theory of motive ( Maslow, 1943 ) . He explains assorted degrees of life in one and it is in a trigon or measure formation. The degrees are ;
Love and belonging
These stairss apply to employees in Access Bank PLC, it runs through their lives in the organisation and more particularly we could see the assorted stairss in our lives as persons.
From Another content theory of motive is that of Herzberg Hygiene 2 factor theory.
Herzberg Hygiene 2 factor theory explains the drive factor that motivates employees in workplace and in bend gives them occupation satisfaction. Concerned with placing the need/drives that people have and how these are prioritised, it besides involves the inducements or ends that people strive to achieve in order to be satisfied and productive ( Ashley-Jones & A ; Maxwell-Harrison, 2011 ) .
On the other manus, Herzberg Hygiene 2 factor theory besides talks about dissatisfaction in the workplace, for illustration, the salary non conforming to the degree of input being put in topographic point, supervising on the occupation even when no supervising is needed, and relationships with higher-ups, unfavorable working conditions, security and, non burying company policy. All these are true in the above mentioned organisation, and it is frowned at.
SOFT AND HARD HRM
There are fundamentally two types of HRM theoretical accounts, well-known early in academic treatments of HRM: “ Hard HRM ” with illustrations on the strategic, quantitative facets of pull offing human resource as a profitable factor in production, and “ Soft HRM ” , embedded in the Human Relations School and critically emphasizing on motive, communicating and leading ( Storey, 1989 ) .
All theoretical accounts of HRM are discerning with strategic issues, but ‘hard ‘ theoretical accounts are literally said to hold a stronger focal point on guaranting that the HRM scheme ‘fits ‘ and is driven by the general corporate scheme ( Keenan, 2005 ) .
Soft Human Resource Management is related with the human dealingss advancement, the deployment of single ability and Mc Gregor ‘s Theory point of view on persons ( developmental-humanism ) . These have been measured to the construct of ‘high committedness of work system ‘ ( Walton, 1985 ) . Soft HRM is concerned chiefly with ends of flexibleness and adaptability and these we will see if it is good in entirety in the above mentioned bank.
Harmonizing to the scientific direction, workers should be left to execute those simple and everyday occupations for which they are far better suited go forthing all the encephalon work to direction. This can be evidenced from the operations and client service sections. More so, the client service country is managed and purely supervised since it is the first topographic point a client comes in contact with in the bank. The bank is said to hold a scientific direction in cheque for the client services employees, this is due to the fact that employees are made to sit at their desk at all times go toing to clients ‘ demands and services during clip of concern minutess. Were employees are left to execute simple undertakings. However the HRM practises are seen in the selling, legal and IT sections were employees take part in the determinations made and they become committed to the administration therefore implement determinations whole heartedly and rapidly.
Harmonizing to Hughes et Al ( Appleby and Mavin, 2000 ) Companies can achieve competitory advantage by developing a immensely committed, competent and motivated work force. This can be achieved by making a extremely sure civilization. Regardless of the size or concern scheme, organisations should accommodate the so called best patterns of HRM. Hughes et Al ( Bamberger and Meshoulam, 2000 ) accent is put on the aggregation of human resources or human capital base ( accomplishments, cognition, potency ) which the administration has to work with. The enlisting, choice, preparation, acknowledgment, wages and development procedures straight affect motive.
However, the Strategic Human Resource Management challenges the universalistic attack that there is no 1 best patterns. This builds on the work of Chandler ( 1962 ; 463 ) who coined on the phrase “ construction follows scheme. ” HRM patterns should therefore alter over clip depending on the phase in which the administration is in that is the growing, adulthood, or diminution phase. Therefore harmonizing to the strategic or contingent attack to direction there is no 1 best patterns. Controling and taking in administrations has to be tailored to peculiar fortunes that are confronting the administration. Certain facets have to be considered, for illustration, the environmental alterations and work uncertainness, engineering alterations and the size of the company in which it is runing, and most significantly the cultural values of the people should be considered. For illustration the operation of Acess bank plc in other states such as Rwanda, Ghana United Kingdom among others takes in to consideration the civilization when taking which direction manner to utilize.
This attack holds the premise that that there is no best tantrum or cosmopolitan pattern of Human Resource Management because administrations, people and resources change over clip. Lawrence et Al ( 1967 ) , suggests that organisations that operate units in the same environment happen that each unit develops different internal unit features. Woodward ( 1965 ) found that administrations that were financially successful had different types of work engineerings that varied in the figure of direction degrees, and the high grade of direction specialization. The organisation should therefore differ from the houses ‘ public presentation and as such certain organisational signifiers are appropriate for certain types of work direction. Blau and Schoenherr ( 1971 ) looked into the size of the organisations. Organizational size is one of the variables thought to impact the efficiency of the administrations.
Relatively little administrations should act informal while large organisations must act more officially. Large administrations can use more staff, have more entities, occupations, and therefore a divisional construction is more suited for this signifier of administrations
The eventuality attack therefore suggests that there is no 1 best pattern but instead depends on the mix and lucifer.
The integrative theoretical account on the other manus is concerned with direction control, with wages and attempt exchange which in bend focal points on acquisition and development, venue of control ( Ashley-Jones and Maxwell-Harrison 2011 ) .The theoretical account concerns itself with four dominant type of HR scheme which are:
Workers in the selling, legal, and IT subdivisions are said to be committed to their work, they are knowing and at such less supervising is been in topographic point and more discretion to their occupations. They tend to get down from the cradle of the occupation what is being called in Access Bank as executive trainee ( ET ) and turn to exceed managerial places in the organisation and that is referred to as executive managers ( ED ) . There is a continual acquisition and preparation in topographic point for workers in these subdivisions that is on-the-job-training.
Access Bank plc believes strictly on squad work, non pretermiting single attempts. They have this expression: “ together we stand and divided we fall ” . Employees are join forcesing in all sections to accomplish a common end which is the vision, mission and ends of the organisations seting their forces involvement and ego aside in other to be productive. Extensive outsourcing, low supervising and flexible in the manner and manner their work are been done.
The paternalistic theoretical account runs through the whole organisation but dominant in some more than others. For case, in the client service and operations section, it can be confidently stated that they have these theoretical account which is sort of a taylorist manner of making things ; one manner, the employer ‘s manner, bureaucratic in nature, mature and worsening, slow changing environment. But there is wages for conformity and human dealingss hence it is seen that they grow their ain as respect human dealingss. There is besides a spot of paternalistic theoretical account in the other section but non as the taylorist manner, here they grow their ain and there is wages for conformity every bit good without rigorous supervising on their work patterns.
This is typical in the client ‘s services, operations, drivers and cleaners subdivisions. The later was non mention earlier now, the traditional is more of taylorist attack, ‘here to work and non to believe ‘ , the human component is systematised out of the procedure by the direction. It involvement on how this work efficaciously in the drivers and cleaners subdivision were they are been told what to make and their sentiment is in no manner needed at all. They are required to purely adhere to put down directives.
Having talked about this few theoretical accounts as respects Access Bank PLC, it is of note that the issue of psychological contract can non be left out, because of its vital and delicate nature in organisations.
There are much more theoretical accounts and theories in Human Resource Management, but this paper dwells on the few talked about, looking at the organisation that was chosen and seeking to associate these theoretical accounts to them.
Clearly it was observed that there is no 1 best theoretical account suited to the organisation and that there was a mixture of theoretical accounts in between the system, Soft HRM and Hard HRM
It was noticed that workers in the operations and client service subdivision had slower growing in footings of publicities as comparison to their opposite number in the selling, legal and IT subdivisions, these in bends causes clash within employees working in same bank. This is due to the different theoretical accounts applied in each subdivision. Although the theoretical accounts tends to be productive for the organisation but working environment is non healthy.
Would be nice if there is a set of theoretical account that run through any organisation covering all sections every bit and turn to the issues of Witten and psychological contract
In this epoch of asceticism, were organisations are seeking so hard to cut cost and maximise net income they should non bury to connote good direction patterns in topographic point. This is because of alteration which is a changeless factor. A Failure to germinate leads to extinction, ( Ashley-Jones and Maxwell-Harrison, 2011 ) .