Singapore instruction systems have developed rapidly over the past two decennaries. The focal points of the instruction reform have been researched to derive the overall quality of instruction. It created more picks for parents and pupils. Furthermore, the new instruction systems gave schools more liberty and established a more diversified instruction system. The Singapore authorities has had a batch of policies such as, the independent and autonomy schools, school ranking system, and the quality school awards between the late eightiess and early 1990s. Education in Singapore is managed by the Ministry of Education ( MOE ) and Ministry of Education ( MOE ) controls the development and disposal of province schools. Besides, Ministry of Education besides controls province schools receive financess from the authorities and they have an reappraisal and decision-making function in private schools. For both private and province schools, there are fluctuations in liberty in their course of study, range of authorities support, and admittance policy.
There are in entire four subdivisions. The first subdivision is overview of development of private instruction system in Singapore and the grounds cause the development of private instruction organisations in Singapore It so turns to the 3rd subdivision which authorities policies, societal demands and globalisation. The 2nd subdivision includes the old literature and bound of old literature. The 3rd subdivision reviews the advantages and disadvantage of development of private instruction organisations and development of private instruction organisations scheme to acquire competitory advantages with public schools. Finally, do a brief drumhead sing the development of private instruction organisations in Singapore in relation to Singapore instruction policies
OVERVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT OF PRIVATE EDUCATION ORGANIZATIONS IN SINGAPORE
Definition Of Private Education Organizations
In this paper, we will restrict of definition of private instruction organisations as those integrated schools, many of which are companies limited by warrant with all the assets owned by single, companies or spiritual establishments. The private schools in Singapore cater to both local and international pupils every bit good as working grownups ( Victor Yo, S.O. , 2009 )
1.2 The Background the Development of Private Education Organizations
This subdivision reviews the development of private instruction in Singapore. A brief description of the historical background of private instruction in Singapore is given.
The population of Singapore is comprised of Chinese, Malay, Indian, and European immigrants and was a British settlement for more than 140 old ages from 1819. In 1959, Singapore attained a self-government position with the People ‘s Action Party ( PAP ) and was under the leading and premiership of Lee Kuan Yew. It improves power to govern. Following a biennial amalgamation with Malaysia from 1963, Singapore finally became an independent state on 9 August 1965. Over the 50 old ages, Singapore has developed rapidly and significantly about societal and economic. Now, Singapore becomes one of the most developed states in Asia. For a bantam multi-people and little island-state without any natural resources, the instruction becomes really of import to continue racial and societal harmoniousness. Furthermore, instruction is besides to supply to the state quality human resources to cover with the demands of societal and economic developments. The authorities of Singapore was built up a batch of schools and allowed many private instruction organisations set up private schools, with a intent to guarantee all kids in state get chance to be educated and developed with an accent located on mathematics and scientific discipline instruction. In fact, instruction is ever a precedence of the Singapore authorities and spends more than 20 per cent of the one-year state budget ( Ministry of Finance, 2004 ) . What ‘s more, we said that the Singapore instruction system is controlled by the authorities in both footings of ordinance and finance. Harmonizing to Singapore Department of Statistics 2002, is given
TABLE1: Private EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS BY LENGTH OF OPERATION,2002
Length of Operation
Less than 5 Old ages
5 – 9 Old ages
10 – 19 Old ages
20 – 29 Old ages
30 – 39 Old ages
40 – 49 Old ages
50 Years & A ; Above
Beginnings: Singapore Department of Statistics 2002
In the last 20 old ages, it has 36 new private instruction establishments offer classs at the certification, sheepskin, unmarried man grade, graduate student and professional have been set up to supply this demand. In 2002, the entire figure of private instruction establishments is 148 and offer similar types of classs. There are some establishments really good and these establishments have been operation for more than 50 old ages such as Nanyang Academy of Fine Arts, the Singapore Institute of Commerce, etc. A batch of private instruction organisations operate in cardinal concern territory ( CBD ) get 83 and more than those outside get 65.
Table 2: Private EDUCATION INSITUTIONS BY LOCATION, 2002
In Shopping Malls
Outside Shopping Malls
In Shopping Malls
Outside Shopping Malls
Beginnings: Singapore Department of Statistics 2002
Table 3: Performance OF PRIVATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND OVERALL PRIVATE EDUCATION SERVICES INDUSTRY, 2001/2002
( No. )
Average Operating Grosss
( $ ‘000 )
( % )
Proportion of Profitable Firms
( % )
( % )
Private Institutions, 2002
& lt ; 10 Workers ( Small )
10 – 99 Workers ( Medium )
a‰? 100 Workers ( Large )
Overall Private Education Industry, 2001
Beginnings: Singapore Department of Statistics 2002
The private instruction organisation offer a batch of classs operated on a larger graduated table than an norm in the whole private instruction industry. In 2002, the mean employment is 31 workers per organisation and the mean operating grosss collected about $ 2.7 million. The private establishments ‘ profitableness ratio is 11.7 per cent and earning-expenditure ratio is 12.5 per cent were below in 2002 comparison to those of the overall private instruction industry in 2001.
In 2002, private instruction organisations had a entire 114,500 pupil ‘s registration and had 40,600 pupils graduated. The most popular classs that pupils enrolled in private instruction organisations were Business & A ; Administration, Information Technology and Fine & A ; Applied Arts and acquire a proportion about 81 per cent of the entire pupil registration
Table 4: Student ENROLMENT BY FIELD OF STUDY, 2002
Field of Study
Total ( No. )
Per Cent Distribution
Architecture & A ; Building
Business & A ; Administration
Fine & A ; Applied Humanistic disciplines
Humanities & A ; Social Sciences
Mass Communication & A ; Information Science
Other William claude dukenfields
Beginnings: Singapore Department of Statistics 2002
Table 5: Alumnuss FROM Private INSTITUTIONS OFFERING CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA, DEGREE, HIGHER DEGREE OR PROFESSIONAL COURSES, 2002
Beginnings: Singapore Department of Statistics 2002
The Ministry of Education ( MOE ) classifies them under the followers:
– Commercial Schools
– Foreign System School
– Islamic Religious Schools
– Private Kindergarten
– Private Regular Schools
– Privately Funded Schools
– Particular Education Schools
1.3 The ground do the development of Private Education organisations
1.3.1 From Government policy
Education is to supply to the state quality human resources to cover with the demands of societal and economic developments. Furthermore, instruction enhances a strong sense of population. In order to make a diversified instruction system, the authorities have a batch of policies to promote the development of Private Education. Singapore is one of the best growing states in ASIA, and is a member of World Trading Organizations ( WTO ) . Therefore, Singapore attracted many organisations to put about a batch of Fieldss such as finance, instruction, industry, etc. Besides, instruction was used as a societal technology tool such as: To make worker who work in machines industries, in the sixtiess, all male pupil have to analyze proficient topic, or in 1966, bilingual policy was applied including English as the first linguistic communication and female parent lingua as the 2nd. The authorities aligns instruction with other sectors such as the economic system, national defence, community support and the economic system. To heighten human resources accomplishments, Singapore instruction tend to new instruction alterations and big investing in educational resources and substructures. In fact, authorities policies concentrate on instruction system and private instruction organisations have many chances to develop and derive their concern in Singapore. Furthermore, the private instruction organisation can non merely pull local pupil but besides international pupil. Private instruction organisations take portion in increasing GDP ( Gross Domestic Product ) through revenue enhancement, and make diversified and competed in instruction system. In following few old ages, Singapore leads to one of the states with a vivacious economic system and high educated population. Singapore authorities is viewed instruction as an engine of economic growing. Based on the Department of Statistics Data ( 2000 ) , the instruction services sector contributes 1.9 per cent of Singapore ‘s Gross Domestic Product. With an invested long-run attack in deriving the instruction in Singapore, the instruction industry hopes to lend 3 to 5 per cent of the Gross Domestic Product. This growing comes from the additions in passing full-fee paying international pupils. Besides, Singapore authorities scheme is to go a planetary schoolhouse and develop capableness through instruction. Singapore attracts top endowment from around the universe through scholarship and incorporation to a batch of celebrated universities. As a consequence, a important figure of international endowment pupils supplement Singapore work force demands and a batch of the alumnuss of these establishments are international pupils and are working in Singapore.
With developing globalisation, instruction is really of import and relates advanced scientific cognition and information communicating engineering. Education provides basic information and technique to develop engineering in many distinction countries such as conveyance, communicating, industry, etc. Therefore, the pupils get more chances to analyze in environment good associate to the school plan, learning, research and service maps. With the internationalisation, the instruction can lend to a more democratic, just and equal universe. When people, thought, capital, civilization, traditional and media images can catch and marks around the universe more rapidly and expeditiously through cyberspace and communicating. Globalization has caused alterations to maps of instruction system in most states in the universe and creates high force per unit areas for instruction system to accommodate for outlooks and demands of society and has a competition in the planetary market place. A batch of people begin to concern about quality, support, certification, direction related to instruction system. The Singapore Government has a batch of alterations in instruction system to accommodate for globalisation. Therefore, a batch of private organisations and establishments invest on instruction in Singapore. These organisations and establishments bring to engineering, school course of study, organisation and direction, etc to pull population in states investing. The private instruction organisations incorporate both international and local elements to make competitory advantages
From Social demand
In Singapore, instruction is really of import to better societal and economic. Therefore, the demand for instruction is high and if authorities can non fulfill demand and investing all the instruction, the parents will happen private provider and their kids will acquire an instruction different from in public schools. For illustration, as the workers get a high instruction, they will acquire high-paying occupation ; other worker will acquire low paying occupation if they are non from university. Therefore, as instruction rose rapidly, a batch of people go to school. Government instruction systems are unable to get by with these additions in a batch of people registration and instruction system can develop in response to turn demand. In some instance, some parents are non disgruntled and see an option of instruction system. Some parents said that the public schools offer education really standardised or unvarying. Furthermore, the other ground may be that some parent thought economic systems and societies have become more specialised. When the trades and businesss alterations, instruction system have to alterations to these. What ‘s more, with developing population quickly, the public schools become overcrowded. Furthermore, in order to acquire competitory advantages, the work force have to derive their accomplishments and expertness through classs offered by private schools. Therefore, private schools suppliers are really necessary.
2.1.1 Summary of old researches
Research paper 1
Title: “ Compare SCHOOL-LEVEL TO PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION: Using the Dominican Republic as a Pioneer Study ”
Publish: Plan for Research on Private Higher Education, Vol. 8
Writer: Ancell Scheker Mendoza ( 2007 )
Drumhead: This working paper non merely reviews constructs and classs developed in private higher instruction research, but besides analysing their pertinence to lower degrees of instruction. In the Dominican Republic, in order to analyse the development private in primary and secondary school, we need to see three sector such as Catholic, elite, and demand-absorbing and classs of finance, administration and map
Research paper 2
Title: “ Education denationalization: causes, effects and be aftering deductions ”
Writer: Clive R. Belfield and Henry M. Levin
Drumhead: The paper research two types of clients: those engaged in educational planning and disposal non merely in developing but besides developed states. Furthermore, in developed states, instruction denationalization needs to acquire planning and disposal. The authorities officers and policy-maker have a general apprehension about instruction planning and disposal in relation to development overall national instruction.
Research paper 3
Title: “ Asiatic Higher Education and the Challenges of Globalization ”
Publish: Global Institute for Asian Regional Integration, ( 2009 ) , Vol. 2008-E-20
Writer: Piniti Ratananukul,
Drumhead: This research said that we have to construct and concern a vision Asiatic regional instruction and integrating. Besides, it need to heighten and beef up trust and a construct of people ‘s Asia, the fight of Asiatic human resources in the universe. This research suggests that we need to acquire varied positions through discussing and collaborating. We should non establish on a individual theoretical account or ideal, we need to construct an instruction model in Asia regional in order that we can lend significantly to the formation of an Asian Community, and to peace and prosperity in the part.
Research paper 4
Title: “ The Development of Private Education in Hong Kong and Singapore: A Comparative Survey ”
Publish: Education & A ; Society ; ( 2006 ) , Vol. 24 ( 2 ) , pp. 25-48
Writer: Lee, M. H.
Drumhead: this research reviews both Hong Kong and Singapore Government examine and compare the development of private instruction in two states.
Research paper 5
Title: “ Independent schools and independent schools in Singapore: A survey of two school denationalization enterprises aimed at advancing school invention ”
Publish: United states: Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1996
Writer: Tan, E. T.
Drumhead: This is a depth research to analyze and measure the function and invention in independent and private schools in Singapore The research besides has six-teen interviews in school caputs, Minister of State and the manager of instruction.
Research paper 6
Title: “ Chief Leadership for Private Schools Improvement: The Singapore Perspective ”
Publish: European Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 1 ( 2009 )
Writer: Victor Yu S.O
Drumhead: This paper examines leading qualities among private school principals in Singapore. In the private schools, the leading qualities are really of import. It pointed out that effectual leading may be set up trust and promote principal-teachers communicating and keep a high degree of ethical values. Furthermore, it has roll up the consequence from 10 private schools in Singapore. The functions of the principals in schools and the community has examined and evaluated through incorporate a treatment and inquiry of survey. Furthermore, as a consequences, the private school industry has brought a reconciliation sector to the traditional school sector every bit good as a profit-making industry. Therefore, we are really serious about the “ profit-making ” aims. From the net incomes, a batch of school principals have non been honesty every bit good as academic values
Research paper 7
Title: “ Independent schools in Singapore: Deductions for societal and educational inequalities ”
Publish: International Journal of Educational Development Vol. 13 No.3, 1993, pp 239-251
Writer: Jason Tan
Drumhead: this research reexamine the independent schools scheme that it was introduced in Singapore in 1987, the authorities did non command all schools and has allowed a batch of schools can turn independent. While the authorities is go oning to acquire pleasance from fiscal support, these schools do non command in finance, staff deployment, direction, wages, and course of study. This research built a background model to analyze and measure the independent schools and their organisational. The intent of this is able to reenforce societal and educational inequalities. Besides, it besides said about the function of authorities in promoting instruction denationalization policies in relation to private schools, societal and instruction inequalities
Education operation market is founded on the interactions between parents as consumers and schools as service suppliers. While parents choose high quality schools for their kids, both public and private schools try to derive competitory advantages in the instruction market and more significantly, the growing of disposal sector in competition is really of import to retain resources and pupils ( Goral, 1997 ) . The function of authorities in instruction system is really of import to command and oversee instruction expeditiously in the market place. The research of Levin ( 1987 ) said that when the school sector is applied as market-oriented attack to react to societal demands and heighten their operation. In Singapore, a batch of private schools are established by private instruction organisations. Therefore, in the private schools, the leading qualities are really of import. It pointed out that effectual leading may be set up trust and promote principal-teachers communicating and keep a high degree of ethical values ( Victor Yu S.O, 2009 ) . Besides, many sector need to see to develop private school. For illustration, in the Dominican Republic, in order to analyse the development private in primary and secondary school, we need to see three sector such as Catholic, elite, and demand-absorbing and classs of finance, administration and map ( Mendoza, 2007 ) . Furthermore, in developed states, instruction denationalization needs to acquire planning and disposal. The authorities officers and policy-maker have a general apprehension about instruction planning and disposal in relation to development overall national instruction ( Belfield & A ; Levin, 2002 ) . Therefore, Singapore has developed the diversified instruction system. The outgrowth of private instructions has led to more competitory environments in the instruction systems ( Foskett, 2002 ) . In 1987, the Singapore authorities has non control of all schools so that it creates instruction inequalities. The authorities corrects private school policies in relation to private schools, societal and instruction ( Tan, 1993 ) . The private schools are established to diversified instruction system and stimulate market instruction in order to be able to increase competition between the public schools and the private schools ( Adnett & A ; Davies, 2002 ) . The intent of nucleus competition in instruction is non merely to heighten their instruction and acquisition environment, but besides to derive the instruction quality to suit for the demand of societal, parent, etc every bit good as client can choose and pay for instruction services ( Smith & A ; Meier, 1995 ) . In some development states, the authorities can non be invest all the instruction demand because this authorities do non hold adequate fiscal and disposal abilities. As the public school is deficient instruction services, the private schools is set up and the development of private schools are quickly. In instruction system, the instruction quality and societal prestigiousness in private schools are ever less than the public schools. However, in developed states, for illustration Singapore, Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States, the public instruction services are sufficient. These states applied cosmopolitan or mandatory instruction policy. In Singapore, the private schools do non have authorities financess and have competitions from public schools such as National Technological University, National Universities of Singapore, etc. Therefore, the private schools need to hold a good scheme, it include: diverseness of classs, competition among instruction suppliers and demand-driven support. Schools runing in competitory environments are used to integrate many selling schemes to enroll pupils in the hereafter ( Foskett, 2002 ; Oplatka & A ; Hemsley-Brown, 2004 ) . Furthermore, the private schools have to acquire selling scheme good such as to heighten the school image, enlisting and keeping pupils ( Levin, 1997 ) . The endurance of many private schools depends on their ability to enroll new pupil, to do plan attractive, diversified of resources. In some develop states, for illustration, United States and United Kingdom, alternatively of executing a compulsory instruction, the parents ‘ attending is chances available so that their kids can have the best instruction quality. Therefore, the private schools are more welcomed than public school. The private schools can derive the quality of instruction quickly and acquire more societal prestigiousness. As a consequence, the private schools may acquire more competitory advantages as compared with public schools in those developed states ( Bray, 1995 ) . From the public school competition sector, private schools have to better the quality of instruction and acquisition and academic accomplishments to pull international and local pupils. However, the instruction verifier system still has its negative impacts. The high income parent will acquire a batch of picks to choose schools with good academic accomplishment and high societal prestigiousness for their kids. Private schools quality is really of import and it is measured in footings of educational inputs and instruction end products. Educational inputs are pupil and other material resources such as instructor making, teacher-student ratio, etc. Educational end products are the figure and type of pupils graduated and figure of achievement trials of pupils ( Tsang, 2002 ) . Teacher quality is really of import impact on pupil ‘s academic public presentation. Private schools have a higher operation cost to acquire score better such as they employ more instructors per pupil, the instructor acquire good qualified and pass more clip per pupil. Private schools can fulfill the demand of their client with a strong academic. The pupils and their parents frequently consider when pupils graduate with academic topic ; they will acquire more chances to work or following a non-manual calling. The pupils and their parents have a batch of picks through the fees they pay, and they concern academic capable affair and they obtained what they want ( Bashir, 1997 and Prsachropoulos, 1987 ) . With effectivity of private schools plans, and command disposal and policies expeditiously, the private school will pull good pupil, gain school plan easy and pull good quality instructor. Private schools view to derive chances to educate kids from background and have to have unfairness and inequality in the proviso of instruction. In Singapore, the public schools have a higher quality than the private schools because they have limited registration capacity and limited pupil through entryway trials. In Singapore, from the yesteryear to 2002, there are 148 private instruction organisations is set up. It include four private instruction organisations have operated for a long clip ( 50 old ages and over ) such as Nanyang Academy of Fine Arts, the Singapore Institute of Commerce, etc. Besides, Singapore besides has 38 organisations operation less than five twelvemonth, 33 organisations operation from five to nine old ages, 41 organisations operation from ten to 19 old ages, 18 organisations operation from 20 to 29 old ages, 12 organisations operation from 30 to 39 old ages and 2 organisations operation from 40 to 49 old ages. In other the manus, the pupil graduates from private schools offering certification, sheepskin, grade, higher grade and professional in 2002 were entire 40,600 pupils including 7,141certificate, 5,900 professional, 16,938 sheepskin, 7,994 grades and 2,594 higher grades ( Lin, 2002 ) . The pupils graduated from private schools besides contribute a big figure of employ work force into Singapore work force and associated with transnational corporations. The development of private instruction organisations help to construct an of import urban-development map. The authorities will see many urban-development tools and revenue enhancement inducements to heighten quality private schools.
Restriction of old researches
The major old researches are conducted the qualities of instruction and policies that are non analyze the registration determinations of appliers to choose public schools or private schools. Singapore is recognized as a develop state with a vivacious economic system and high instruction system. However, there is small analysis shows that the pupil have to impact include race and fiscal assistance every bit good as many effects are non good from private instruction systems. Besides, a batch of old researches do non analysis about a model for measuring the private instruction organisations and superior factors systems to increase more competitory advantages in private instruction systems in Singapore. In the hereafter, the research can concentrate on the interview pupils and parents about the development of private instruction organisations to acquire more penetration and rating expeditiously.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIVATE EDUCATION ORGANIZATIONS IN SINGAPORE
The advantages of private instruction organisations
First, the private instruction organisations are invention and flexibleness. When they do non have any support, they have more flexibleness to better plans and patterns expeditiously to accommodate for their pupils. Besides, most private schools design little schoolroom sizes so that the pupil can have more single attendings from instructor. It will assist pupil can analyze and inquire teacher easy. Normally, pupils come from different states so that they bring along with them the civilization and traditional of their states. The pupil can analyze and better a batch of accomplishments, experience and communications from international pupil. Further, private school position pupil as clients. Therefore, they ever concern to pupil demands and have a batch of actives to run into pupil demands and concern. In add-on, private schools offer a category with assorted in age groups. The younger pupils have the opportunity to catch the experience of older pupil. Private schools are where womb-to-tomb acquisition procedure. Working grownups or old pupil happen private schools to analyze what they need their occupation. Private schools offer a batch of different classs with the certification, sheepskin, unmarried man and graduate student degrees and through co-operation with international universities in the universe, the pupil have a batch of chance to acquire international enfranchisement from private schools.
The disadvantages of Private Education organisations in Singapore
In Singapore, private schools have to confront a batch of disadvantages low image with local pupils, deficiency of support, regulative environment and policy is really rigorous. Besides, parents are more assurance to direct their kids to public schools than private schools because they are credible in the instructors, course of study and installations of public school. Therefore, they do non hold a batch of values, for illustration, they do non hold equality of chance to give all kids to a high-quality instruction every bit good as regard of local population. In Singapore, merely the authorities universities have the licence to publish grades and the authorities does non let private schools to publish their ain grades. Furthermore, it is non similar Australia or Canada states, private schools do non have any Singapore authorities support. In Singapore, the authorities encourages a batch of international universities to put up operations in the state but the authorities has non change policies and it is non besides let local private schools to publish their ain grades. The Singapore authorities is much concern that if they allow private school to publish their ain grades, many private schools and organisations may be run for high net income and offer bad instruction. This affect and damage the authorities mission to set the state place as a hub of planetary instruction.
3.3 The development of private instruction organisations scheme
In Singapore, there are more than 300 private schools and these private schools offer a diversified plans including information engineering, concern, linguistic communication, etc to accommodate for strong demand from international and local pupils. Besides, private schools offer many classs with the certification, sheepskin, unmarried man and station alumnus degree through incorporation with big foreign universities from United Kingdom, United State, Australia, Japan, etc. Furthermore, private schools helps pupils the opportunity to give international enfranchisement in a comfy and efficient environment. To heighten competitory advantages, private schools should derive classs offered, integrate with a batch of popular foreign universities to give acknowledgment of enfranchisement, better school installations such as schoolroom, library beginnings, computing machine, equipment, etc to make a comfy environment, and supply international pupil services expeditiously such as adjustment and visa facilitation, insurance, pupil guidance, pupil orientation, etc. Besides, private school in Singapore should acquire two enfranchisements such as CaseTrust for Education and Singapore Quality Class for Private Education Organizations ( SQC-PEO ) to guarantee high quality, regulative criterions and good concern policies
In order to travel caput in economic system and instruction, Singapore focal point on developing human resource. It is really necessary to make high value for state image and heighten the state accomplishments profile through life scientific discipline, engineering, etc. Therefore, Singapore has been bettering the instruction system. Singapore has changed a batch of schemes and policies to make a diversified instruction system to acquire competitory advantages and suit for globalisation. Furthermore, in following few old ages, Singapore would wish go a planetary schoolhouse, so the private instruction organisations have a batch of chance to develop and lend into Singapore instruction system. Besides, in globalisation, the private instruction organisations have to confront a batch of troubles such as rivals, financess, human resources, installations, course of studies, etc to acquire more prestigiousness to international and local pupils. Particularly, in multi-culture multi-region state such as Singapore, the private instruction organisations get non merely a batch of challenges, but besides many chances. The private instruction organisations need to construct a clear scheme to suit for developing Singapore instruction scheme.